Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. Geographers explore both the physical properties of Earth’s surface and the human societies spread across it.

There are 7 types of geography;

  • cultural geography.
  • economic geography.
  • health geography.
  • historical geography.
  • political geography.
  • population geography.
  • rural geography.
  • social geography.

Cultural geography:

In broad terms, cultural geography examines the cultural values, practices, discursive and material expressions and artefacts of people, the cultural diversity and plurality of society, and how cultures are distributed over space, how places and identities are produced, how people make sense of places and build senses 

Economic geography:

Economic Geography is the study of how people earn their living, how livelihood systems vary by area and how economic activities are spatially interrelated and linked.

Health geography;

Health geography  is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.

Historical geography;

Historical geography  is the branch of geography that studies the ways in which geographic phenomena have changed over time. It is a synthesizing discipline .

Political geography:

Political geography looks at a huge number of different elements in the relationship between politics and places

Population geography:

Population geography relates spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations to the terrain. Population geography involves demography in a geographical perspective. It focuses on the characteristics of population distributions that change in a spatial context

Rural geography:

A rural area is an open swath of land that has few homes or other buildings, and not very many people. A rural areas population density is very low. Many people live in a city, or urban area. Their homes and businesses are located very close to one another.

Social geography:

Social geography is the branch of human geography that is interested in the relationships between society and space, and is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components.


For something to exist in the realm of geography, it must be able to be described spatially. Thus, space is the most fundamental concept at the foundation of geography .The concept is so basic, that geographers often have difficulty defining exactly what it is.  Absolute space is the exact site, or spatial coordinates, of objects, persons, places, or phenomena under investigation. We exist in space.


Place is one of the most complex and important terms in geography. In human geography, place is the synthesis of the coordinates on the Earth’s surface, the activity and use that occurs, has occurred, and will occur at the coordinates, and the meaning ascribed to the space by human individuals and groups. This can be extraordinarily complex, as different spaces may have different uses at different times and mean different things to different people. In physical geography, a place includes all of the physical phenomena that occur in space, including the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.


Time is usually thought to be within the domain of history, however, it is of significant concern in the discipline of geography. In physics, space and time are not separated, and are combined into the concept of  space time. Geography is subject to the laws of physics, and in studying things that occur in space, time must be considered