Law

In ordinary parlance law means the rules which guide human action. In every community there is a body of customary ways for carrying social activities.

These are clear-cut and definite. Otherwise, a good deal of time would have been wasted to meet the friction.These are a kind of unwritten code enforced by religious authorities or by the pressure of public opinion. These social standards sometimes assume greater significance for the purpose of the general welfare that some penalty is necessary for those who violate these customary laws.

Then these customs cease to be purely social customs and assume political nature and become the laws of the land. These laws then virtually become the commands of the society. Their violations are met with penalty. In modern states law is an enactment made by the state. It is backed by coercion or force. Its violation is punishable by the courts. It stands for the will of the state. It exists to realise the purpose of the state.

It regulates the rights and duties of the citizens towards one another and also towards the state.It is the medium of the state to fulfill its promises to the people.

It represents the sociological needs of the society. It reflects the political, social and economic relationship in the state.

Relation between Law and Morality:

Here we shall discuss the similarity between law and morality and then point out the difference between law and morality.

Similarity between Law and Morality:

There is a close relation between law and morality. Law is by and large based on the moral ethos of society.They act and react upon each other.

The ideal of law is to project general welfare and to promote the moral perfection of the individual.The state must endeavour to make such laws that will heighten the moral standard of the people. So the laws of the state are rather the standard of morality of that time.

Thus Plato’s Republic which is a book on politics is at the same time a good treatise on morality. In ancient India Dharma would stand for both law and morality. Thus law is not only the command of the sovereign but a code of moral conduct also.Without the moral support of the people a law cannot be enforced.

So we find that law against the dowry has not been successful because a vast majority of the people in India does not morally support it.In this context Thomas Hill Green pointed out “In attempting to enforce an unpopular law, a government may be doing more harm than good by creating and spreading the habit of disobedience to law. The total cost of such an attempt may well be greater than the total gain.”

Difference between Law and Morality:

Law :

1. Law is concerned with the external human conduct and does not regulate with the inner motives. Law does not take notice of the inner motives of a man notice of the inner motives of a man notice of the inner motives of a man.

2. Law is uniform for all and it does not vary from man to man.

3. Law is precise and definite. Every state has a common forum of law.

4. There is a definite organ in every state for making law. The violator of law is punished by the state.

5. Law belongs to the subject of jurisprudence.

Morality :

1. Morality is concerned with both the inner motives and external actions of a man. So the scope of morality is wider than that of law.

2. Every man has a different moral obligation. It varies from man to man, age to age and circumstances to circumstances.

3. Morality is vague and indefinite. There is no authority to enforce morality.

4. Morality is never made by any organ. There is no force to punish the breaker of morality. There is no element of compulsion in morality.

5. The branch of knowledge that deals with morality is called ethics.

Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States

The Indian system of governance is described as federal with a unitary bias. While in essence, our nation is a federation of states, with the state governments coming together under the leadership of the union government at the centre, but retaining their liberty in policy making for the state’s internal affairs; multiple factors point to the Unitarianism that is being followed in the democracy.

This type of governing mechanism makes Indian governance system unique as compared to those of other nations across the globe.

The Indian Constitution is a well-defined archive of the guidelines that help govern our country. Part V and Part VI of the constitution describes multiple aspects of the Union as a whole and the states respectively.

To maintain its status as a federation as well as implement the unitary nature, the seventh schedule of the constitution allocates the powers and functions on various subjects between the centre and the states.

This gave rise to three lists of subjects namely- the Union List, which covers 97 subjects under the jurisdiction of the Union, the State List, with 66 subjects to look after and the Concurrent List, pertaining to 47 subjects in which both the Union and the State have authority to look into.

With such a variety of subjects to tend to, both the centre and the state government are tasked with huge responsibility to maintain the stability and ensure welfare and development of the citizens.

In the following passages, we will cover the features and responsibilities of Union and State governments in India, and then explore the centre-state relationship that exists in our country.

These factors are crucial in understanding the functioning of these governments. Finally we will also take a brief look at the current problems our country is facing and what possible measures responsible Union and State governments can take to overcome these issues.

Relation between union and state governments :

While both the governments at their level of jurisdiction exercise powers similar to each other, it is important to understand the fields that each government can get involved in to make decisions and enforce them. As per the seventh schedule of the Indian Constitution, 210 subjects of national and regional interests were identified and distributed amongst the state and the union.

Being a federal nation, administration is primarily under the supervision of the state. The agencies of administrations hire individuals through separate commissions- the state public service commissions hire administrative employees for the state government, while the union public service commission does the same for union government.

Yet we see no overlapping in the fields of services. The state deals with the subjects as listed in the state list of the 7th schedule of the Indian Constitution, whereas the Centre limits its interest to the union list. The concurrent list is a separate list which consists all the subjects that the Union as well as state can look into.

The successful implementations of the schemes of the Union government require cooperation with the state. It is the state which is responsible for the programmes to take effect. The existing multi-party system has contributed to the decentralisation as in the current scenario; many states are being governed by regional political parties as compared to national parties.

Hence, mode of the administration is under their wing. This gives a heavy electoral edge to the regional parties and forces the national parties to rethink their strategies and make much more personalised schemes to suit the specific regions.

Enacting schemes and programmes that are against the regional parties might not sit well with them and can form a big gap between the union and the state.

Yet if there is a political tug-of-war between the Union and the state, the former is bound to get the advantage. The division of powers highly favours the centre. There are more subjects under the union list than the state list. Additionally, the overriding power that the Centre exercises on the concurrent list, makes them more powerful than the state.

Furthermore, the states are not indestructible. There borders, area and names can be altered by the centre if necessary. This slightly differs from the original ideology of federalism, giving it the famous ‘unitary bias’.

Major functions of the Union and the State :

The functions and responsibilities of the Union can be summarised into six major classes. First one concerns the formulation, execution, evaluation and revision of public policy in various spheres which the party in power seeks to progress and practice. Secondly, they are responsible for coordination among various ministries and other organs of the government which might indulge in conflicts and wastefulness.

The third duty is to prepare and monitor the legislative agenda which translated the policies of the government in action through statutory enactments. Fourth responsibility is the executive control over administration through appointments, rule-making powers and handling of crises and disasters, natural as well as political.

They are also involved in financial management through fiscal control and operation of funds like Consolidated Fund and Contingency Funds of India. And lastly, they can review the work of the planning commission.

State government have a separate jurisdiction limited to the boundary of their state. They have separate departments for efficient functioning of the state like education, agriculture, transport, water supply, public health, sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries and others.

They are also responsible to ensure the internal security of the state and maintain the law and order. Hence state police forces come under the state’s jurisdiction.

The state legislature also covers the finances of the state which includes authorisation of all expenditure, taxation and borrowing by the state government. It has the power to originate money bills. It has control over taxes on entertainment and wealth, and sales tax.

Conclusion :

To summarize, the Structure of Indian constitution deals with Union and State executive distinctly but the provisions follow a common pattern for the Union and the States. The system of distribution of administrative powers between union and states followed in the Constitution of India in various administrative fields.The Union Government is reliant on the States to give effect to its programmes.

The system of distribution of administrative powers has two objectives. It enables the union government with powers to control over administration of the state and at the same time it espouses several advice’s for intergovernmental cooperation and coordination.

Role of women’s and women organization

Traditionally, an Indian woman had four fold status-role sequences. These were her role as a daughter, wife, housewife (homemaker), and mother.Today Indian women work in demanding settings with long work hours, tight deadlines and professional pressures in competitive environments.

The natural tendency for anyone dealing with a busy day would be to turn home to relax. But for women, parenting duties and household work make it difficult to find this space at home.

The woman in modern times is entering into certain new fields that were unknown to the woman’s sphere of role-sets. They are activating participating in social, economic, and political activities.

Besides the lack of time faced by women after care giving activities to pursue income generating skills and active careers, they also find themselves often subjected to a family imposed ideal of priority skill sets to work on which in turn shapes them to cater to the requirements of a chauvinistic marriage market rather than a job market.

Role of Women in the Freedom Movement :

For the period of freedom struggle in the motherland, women were not staying at the back. The role of women in the freedom struggle is extremely significant and they also participated in the Indian struggle for Independence. There is a large list of great women whose names have gone down in history for their dedication and undying devotion to the service of India’s freedom struggle.

Bhima Bai Holkar fought against the British Colonel Malcolm, and defeated him in guerrilla warfare.

The Rani of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmi Bai whose heroism was an outstanding example for all. Begum Hazrat Mahal was a great Indian freedom fighter who played a major role during India’s First War of Independence. Arun Asaf Ali played an outstanding role in the Quit India Movement.

Annie Besant was the first Women President of the Congress and gave a powerful lead to women’s movements in India. Sarojani Naidu was elected as a president of Indian National Congress.

She campaigned for the Montague Chelmsford Reforms, the Khilafat issue, the draconian Rowlett Act and the Satyagraha. Kasturba Gandhi was a leader of women’s Satyagrah. Madam Cama unfolded the first National flag at International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart(Germany) in 1907. She declared “the Flag is of India”.

Factors affecting women’s work participation:

1)Education is one of the most important factors influencing female labour force participation. Human capital theories underline the importance of education in employment outcomes.

2)In the static labour supply model, the effect of education on female labour force participation is dependent on the relative strength of the substitution effect and the income effect. First, education increases the potential earnings and, therefore, the opportunity cost of not working also rises. Second, as a result of higher income, an individual prefers leisure to work and reduces his/her working hours. The net effect depends on which force prevails.

3) A number of studies have shown higher returns to education for women than for men. It is well established in literature that higher levels of human capital lead to higher wages, thereby increasing women’s participation in market work. However, the relationship between educational attainment and female labour force participation is by no means straightforward.

Women’s labour force participation in rural India is negatively influenced by the number of young children (below 5 years) in households. Recent analysis also reported the negative impact of the number of young children on women’s participation in both rural and urban India. In general, and especially in South Asia, it is believed that cultural and societal norms have a significant influence on women’s decision to participate in the labour market and choice of work and on their mobility.These norms operate at multiple levels of society, for example, religion, caste and region. It has been widely recognized that these norms discourage women to take up paid employment and that they confine women to the role of caregivers.Cultural factors limit women’s rights in the workplace and their engagement in work. Religion still has a key role to play in determining gender norms in many countries.

Women’s Organizations :

Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), meaning “service” in several Indian languages, is a trade union based in Ahmedabad, India that promotes the rights of low-income, independently-employed female workers. With over 2 million participating women, SEWA is the largest organization of informal workers in the world and largest non-profit in India . Self-employed women are defined as those who do not receive a salary like that of formally-employed workers and therefore have a more precarious income and life.

SEWA is framed around the goal of full employment in which a women secures for her family: income, food, health care, child care, and shelter. The principles behind accomplishing these goals are struggle and development, meaning negotiating with stakeholders and providing services, respectively.

Liberalizing the economy to foreign trade in 1991 caused a huge migration of rural inhabitants to Indian cities that then forced urban dwellers into informal occupations. Since the financial crisis of 2008, over 90% of India’s working population is in the informal sector(Shakuntala 2015); yet 94% of working women in 2009 worked in the informal sector. India’s history and modern culture of female subjugation also contributes to this disparity because traditional gender roles exclude women from regular, secure work.

Working women Hostel :

The objective of the scheme is to promote availability of safe and conveniently located accommodation for working women, with day care facility for their children, wherever possible, in urban, semi urban, or even rural areas where employment opportunity for women exist.

To achieve this objective, the scheme will assist projects for construction of new hostel buildings, expansion of existing hostel buildings and hostel buildings in rented premises.

The working women’s hostel projects being assisted under this scheme shall be made available to all working women without any distinction with respect to caste, religion, marital status etc., subject to norms prescribed under the scheme.

While the projects assisted under this scheme are meant for working women, women under training for job may also be accommodated in such hostels subject to the condition that taken together, such trainees should not occupy more than 30% of the total capacity the hostel and they may be accommodated in the hostels only when adequate numbers of working women are not available. Children of working women, up to the age of 18 years for girls and up to the age of 5 years for boys may be accommodated in such hostel with their mothers.

Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation

There are various core environmental issues which are taking a heavy toll on human lives. Ranging from overpopulation, hydrological issues, ozone depletion, global warming to deforestation, desertification and pollution, all these issues pose a severe threat to the existence of humankind. The environmental conservation is a practice that paves the way for protecting the environment and natural resources on the individual, organisational as well as governmental levels. Unless environmental conservation is becoming an effective mass movement, it is futile to expect positive growth especially in the age of digital media which holds the potential to bring a revolution to save our planet from destruction.

Importance of Environmental Conservation :

It has become inherently important to work towards environmental conservation in contemporary times. The following pointers elucidate this crucial need to save the environment from further degradation:

–To reduce air, water and land pollution

–To facilitate the conservation of natural resources for our future generations

–To ensure the protection of biodiversity

–To implement sustainable development

–To restore the ecological balance

–To save our planet from harmful repercussions

What are the Methods of Environmental Conservation?

Now that you are familiar with the meaning and importance of Environmental Conservation, let’s understand the core methods through which it can be effectively facilitated:

Forest conversation :

We know that plants and trees are the essential sources of air, food as well as other day-to-day products we use. Forests are the dwelling place of different living creatures and a single disturbance in the ecosystem can cause disruption in the water cycle as well as the food chain. Thus, afforestation is amongst the core Environmental conservation and aims to plant more trees as well as save the existing ones from cutting down as trees play a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance.

Soil conservation :

As one of the prominent methods for environmental conservation, the need for soil conservation has arisen to tackle the harmful effects of soil pollution. On earth, the soil is the main element that plays a pivotal role in soil erosion, land degradation and floods. Soil is filled with rich nutrients for plant production. Soil conservation can be carried out by ensuring minimal use of fertilizers and venomous chemicals as well as abolishing the disposal of harmful industrial waste in the soil.

Waste management :

Especially in developing countries and congested places, on a daily basis, a large amount of waste is thrown away recklessly on the streets and roads. The improper disposal of waste segregation can lead to various dreadful diseases as well as soil pollution.Waste Segregation Waste Segregation

To ensure minimal wastage as well as facilitate waste disposal, we can opt for various techniques like the 3R’s, i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle, dry and wet waste segregation, amongst others.

Public awareness :

With the boom of information technology and the advent of digital media, public awareness pertaining to environmental conservation can potentially yield promising results. There is a dire need to aware the masses about the consequences of environmental pollution and degradation. Further, every individual should be made conscious of how they are polluting the environment and what steps can be taken to implement environment conservation, be it through using greener energy sources to following the 3Rs of Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

Pollution control :

As the increase in temperature is concerning, there is a need to keep a watch on the toxic compounds we ingest that pollute the atmosphere. We need to adopt environmentally sustainable methods to minimise multiple forms of emissions, such as eliminating waste, saving electricity, limiting the unnecessary usage of fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides, and using energy-efficient appliances, among others.

Measures to Conserve Environment :

Here are some measures to save the environment:

Deforestation must be stopped

Natural non-renewable resources must be utilized properly

Every year, we lose a huge number of forest life due to forest fire. We must find a solution to this

.Afforestation is the best way to conserve the environment

Create public awareness

Control pollution and population

Recycle goods

Adopt an environment-friendly lifestyle

Adopt waste management techniques

Species on the verge of extension should be save

Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities

Emotional intelligence is defined as “one’s ability to know, feel and judge emotions in cooperation with a person’s thinking process for behaving in a proper way, with ultimate realisation of happiness in him and in others”.

Like general intelligence, emotional intelligence is also developed in a person by birth. Normal development of emotion leads to healthy life, but too much variation in emotional level damages the individual’s life.

The level of emotion in a person is called Emotional Quotient (EQ). This can be obtained by using emotional intelligence tests, same way as we assess the IQ of a person.The success of a person in his job or profession depends not only on his IQ, but also on his EQ. The nurse with high emotional quotient can identify and perceive her emotions and of others like patients easily through face reading, bodily language, voice tone, etc.

She can have a proper understanding of the nature, intensity and outcomes of her emotions. High EQ also helps the nurse to exercise proper control and regulation over the expression and use of emotions in dealing with her and others, so as to promote harmony and peace.

Hence, it is very important for nurses to develop a high level of emotional intelligence because; they come across many emotional situations in their duties. They see the suffering of patients from many serious diseases, death of patients, and the sorrowfulness of the relatives with patients.

Many times she will come across the situations which lead to a lot of anxiety, tension, anger, etc. To deal with such emotional situations effectively and to have proper control over her emotions, the nurse should have a high level of emotional intelligence.

If not, she can learn to manage her emotions by modifying, changing her existing level of emotions and to use them in an intelligent way.

Concept of Emotional intelligence:

Emotional intelligence has prominence in organizational effectiveness. It is defined by psychological theorists as the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations. The cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living. Other theorists stated that Emotional intelligence involves the “capabilities to perceive, appraise, and express emotion; to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).

Elements of EI:

Self-Awareness: It is the skill of being aware of and understanding one’s emotions as they occur and as they evolve.

Self-Regulation: It is about controlling one’s emotions i.e. instead of reacting quickly; one can reign in one’s emotions and thus will think before responding.

Internal Motivation: It includes one’s personal drive to improve and achieve commitment to one’s goals, initiative, or readiness to act on opportunities, and optimism and resilience.

Empathy: It is an awareness of the needs and feelings of others both individually and in groups, and being able to see things from the point of view of others.

Social Skills: It is applying empathy and balancing the wants and requirements of others with one’s. It includes building good rapport with others.

Improving Emotional Intelligence :

–By self-evaluating oneself, one can know one’s emotions and reactions to different situations.

–By observing others, one can comprehend feelings of others.

–By improving one’s expression, one can communicate better.

–By analyzing the impact of one’s action over others, one can fine tune the actions.

Now-a-days, organizations take initiative to improve Emotional Intelligence among its employees through different group activities, exercises, seminars and tests. However, EI also improves with age (maturity) due to one’s experiences in life.

Importance of government, transparency , accountability

We don’t have any commonly agreed definition of “governance”. Taking governance in its usual or most basic sense, we can define it as the action or manner of conducting the policy, actions, and affairs of a state, organization, or people with authority, where its course is reflected of control, influence, and regulation. Decision-making and the systems with their processes by which decisions are implemented are the crust, the mantle, the outer core, and the inner core of governance. These layers are separated by, crossed intricately together with, caused to blend dynamically into something else through the two most basic tenets of classical humanism called “transparency” and “accountability”. That authoritative conduct should be subject and open to public scrutiny where whoever is placed under this critical observation or examination shouldn’t be worried that something undesirable will happen, since whatever he or she did or has done can be only judged as the fact or condition of being accountable to be transparent.

The governance by means of accountability puts an end to the time, resources, and efforts spent on distracting activities and usual unproductive behavior, consequently, clears the way for transparency to take its natural course since when it makes people accountable for their actions, they have to value their work and get serious about its outcome.

Though governance, transparency, and accountability could have separate important aspects individually or respectively; they are indispensable aspects to each other. Their interdependence is an indissoluble and absolute relation that makes us experience governance as the superstructure built on transparency and accountability.

Accountability and transparency are treated as major building pillars for governing democratic nations in recent years. Before discussing about how they benefit, its needs, and its importance we shall see what exactly accountability and transparency is.

Accountability signifies the concern and duty of government institutional workers to perform their activities in the best interests of the public and that institutional officials should take responsibility for their activities performed. The mechanisms by which government officials can be held responsible for activities against formed principles and rules is called legal accountability. For understanding it well we shall have an example here, Government has accountability for laws and decisions affecting public; a citizen has accountability for his behavior and actions.

Need of Accountability and Transparency:

–Building of trust and impact of schemes can be enhanced with participative governance.

–Major changes can take place in work culture by adopting transparency and accountability in governance which leads to greater concern towards society.

–By adopting Accountability and transparency, it brings out a new way of providing real-time information in online dashboard.

–This not only solves the people’s problems but also service quality can be improved.

–The relationship between government and people can be enhanced and make citizens feel more connected.

–A two-way information channel will be created which helps to understand exactly what people want. By the concepts of “listen, ask, act, interact and inform”.

Some important steps to achieve transparency and accountability:

–Job functions and responsibilities shouldn’t be kept secret with people.

–Government, schemes and institutional outcomes should be shared with people, even if the results are not satisfactory.

–Transparency is about making sure everyone has the right to information to do their jobs effectively.

–People with appropriate principles and vision towards their organization must be hired or selected to maintain the culture of accountability and transparency in government and other institutions.

–Sharing of information, announcements and messages with people should be made easier with the help of open system of communication.

Democratic organizations and financial institutions must try to move away from the business of politics and concentrate more on moving towards accountability and transparency. This will help in building trust in the society. In social, industrial and government sectors its known that Indian democratic organizations are working, but to be better they should start building a good relationship with the public. Citizens who are paying their taxes would like to know exactly where their money is spent and all the developments that has happened in the country. “All government institutions and financial institutions should be re-positioned and redefined to focus on accountability and transparency, if you are a member of government or want to become a member of government, to be prepared to live in a glass house”. Higher the transparency and accountability better the stability of the country’s economy.

Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries

Introduction

The sources of Indian Constitution include the imaginative aspirations of the nationalist leaders, the actual working of the Government of India Act, 1935, and the experience gained from the actual working of some of the Constitutions of important countries of the world. Its sources thus include not only the sources upon which the founding fathers of our Constitution drew but also the developmental ones such as the judicial decisions, constitutional amendments, constitutional practices and so on. The following overview of the major constitutions of the world has been laid down below.

A constitution is a set of rules through which a country or state operates.Some countries have unwritten constitutions which means there is no formal constitution written in one particular document. Their constitutional rules are originated from a number of sources. Britain sources its constitution from a number of important statutes, or laws, as well as principles decided in legal cases and conventions. New Zealand and Israel are two other countries that do not have formal written constitutions.Other nations have formal written constitutions in which the structure of government is defined and the respective powers of the nation and the states are written in one single document. These systems may also include unwritten conventions and constitutional law which can inform how the constitution is interpreted. Australia, India and the United States are examples of countries with a written constitution.

Importance of constitution:

The role of a constitution is to make certain that the government operates efficiently and in a fair and responsible manner. It does this in three ways:-

–It holds the government to the law.

–It provides distinction of power so that no one part of the government is any more powerful than another.

— It provides a series of checks and balances so that when laws are made or amended, the government follows the correct procedure to pass a Bill.

Ingredients of the Preamble:

The Preamble reveals four ingredients or components:

Source of authority of the Constitution:

The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India.

Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be of a sovereign, socialist, secular democratic and republican polity.

Objectives of the Constitution: It postulates justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as the objectives.

Date of adoption of the Constitution: It stipulates November 26, 1949 as the date.

Striking Features of the Constitution:

The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government. It contains all the usual features of a federation, viz., two government, division of powers, written Constitution, supremacy of Constitution, rigidity of Constitution, independent judiciary, and bicameralism.

Though, the Indian Constitution also covershuge number of unitary or non-federal features, viz., a strong Centre, single Constitution, single citizenship, flexibility of Constitution, integrated judiciary, appointment of state governor by the Centre, all-India services, and emergency provisions.

Furthermore, the term ‘Federation’ has nowhere been used in the Constitution. Article 1, on the other hand, defines India as a ‘Union of States’ which implies two things: one, Indian Federation is not the result of an agreement by the states; and two, no state has the right to secede from the federation.

Parliamentary Form of Government:

The Constitution of India has chosen the British parliamentary System of Government instead of American Presidential System of Government. The parliamentary system is based on the principle of collaboration and coordination between the legislative and executive organs while the presidential system is based on the principle of separation of powers between the two organs.

The parliamentary system is also called the ‘Westminster’ model of government, responsible government and cabinet government. The Constitution establishes the parliamentary system not only at the Centre but also in the states. The basic attributes of parliamentary government in India are:

a)Presence of nominal and real executives

b)Majority party rule

c)Collective responsibility of the executive to the legislature

d) Membership of the ministers in the legislature

e) Leadership of the prime minister or the chief minister

f) Dissolution of the lower House (Lok Sabha or Assembly)

Though the Indian Parliamentary System is mainly based on the British system, there are some important differences between the two. For example, the Indian Parliament is not anindependent body like the British Parliament. Additionally, the Indian State has an elected head (republic) while the British State has hereditary head (monarchy).

Impact and comparison of various constitutions:

In order to compare Indian constitutional scheme with other countries, it is crucial to assess the impact of various constitution on India and the subsequent features borrowed.

The founding members of the Indian Constitution were intelligent to borrow from the experience gained in working of various other Constitutions. It is well recognized that the Constitution of India is borrowed from the various working Constitutions.

Comparison of Indian constitution vs British Constitution : The British Constitution had immense impact in many respects such as (i) Constitutional head of State (ii) Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) is more powerful than the Upper House; (iii) Responsibility of Council of Ministers towards Parliament; (iv) Parliamentary system of Government , and (v) Prevalence of Rule of Law. UK, US and India countries are labelled as democratic countries of the world. United States is the oldest democratic country of the world and its constitution was made in 1789. WhereasIndia was the Colonial state of the United Kingdom till 1947 and the Indian Constitution came into force in 1950. But constitution of United Kingdom is dissimilar.

Although, UK is the self-governing country but the head of the state is monarch. Besides this one of the uniqueness of theUK‘s constitution is that it‘s not codified one like the US and India having. The UK Parliament can make any law or amendment by simply passing it by majority and then send to the monarch for his assent, which just the formality part. Other dissimilarities among these three countries is that United State is a true federal country, where each state has its own constitution; India is quasi federal there only one constitution for whole country but area of operation is divided between the Union and the State governments. Whereas UK is not having the federal structure, it has the unitary setup of government. In Federal system of governance, state legislatures have asay in amending the constitution but in unitary setup it‘s only the Parliament which hassupremacy for amending the constitution.

US and Indian constitution : The Constitution of the United States had its impact in many ways such as

(i) Preamble of the Constitution
(ii) Provision of Fundamental Rights
(iii) Functions of the Vice-President
(iv) Amendment of the Constitution
(v) Nature andfunctions of the Supreme court

There are many differences between the Constitution of India, and United States of America. Major difference between the two constitutions is that India has a prime minister which is like the president but is actually the head of the legislative branch, whereas the U.S. Constitution has a president, who is the head of the government, and only works in the executive branch. Under the Indian Constitution, the head of state is the president while the actual head of the government is the prime minister. The prime minister and his cabinet has political power, while the president has more power in the name. Other major difference involves the number of terms a president can run. In America, a president can serve a maximum of two -four year terms, while in India a president and prime minister can serve an unlimited number of terms that each last five years.

Comparison of Indian and Australian Constitution: The Indian Constitution, like that of Australia, espoused the federal arrangement and the creation of a judicial branch wholly independent of the other branches of government. Judicial review, to keep all recipients of pubic power within the Constitution and other applicable laws was faithfully imitated. But the Indian Constitution went further. Australian Constitution gave long list of concurrent powers and the procedure for solving deadlock over concurrent subjects between the Centre and the States.Under the Australian Constitution, the subjects in the concurrent list are 39. In India, the Concurrent list had 37 subjects to begin with. They were increased to 52 subsequently. The technique of resolution of disputes between the centre and the states has also been taken from Australia (Article 251) by the Indian Constitution.

Comparison of Indian and Canadian Constitution : India borrowed the provisions of a strong nation, the name ofUnion of Indian and vesting residuary poers with the Union from Canada. India has opted for Federal structure of Government on Canadian pattern. Like Canada, India has made centre more powerful. Indian Federal structure is termed ‘Quasifederal’ i.e., Federal with unitary bias’. Canadian Centre is very influential, so is the case with Indian Union government. Special powers have been accorded to the Union government for meeting all possible eventualities.The division of subjects between the centre and the units and provision of lists is to a great extent on Canadian lines. The Canadian constitution provides for lists of legislative powers, central and provincial. The residuary powers have been given to the centre.

Literature of Manipuri

Manipuri literature is the literature written in the Manipuri language (i.e. Meeteilon). It is also known as Meetei Literature. The history of Manipuri literature can be traced back thousands of years with the flourishing of its civilisation.

But the Puya Meithaba (burning of ancient Manipuri scriptures) in 1729, during the reign of Meidingu Pamheiba (1709-1748), devastated the ancient Manipuri scriptures and cultural history. It began a new era of Manipuri literature.

The Meeteis had a long tradition of writing. It is not completely clear when the archaic Meetei Puyas (old scriptures) and Meetei Mayek (Manipuri scripts) first came into existence.However, the written constitution Loiyamba Shinyen (1110), during the regime of Meidingu Loiyamba (1074-1122), vividly connotes the practice of writing in this era. The Royal Chronicle, Chitharon Kumpaba, was kept meticulously and continued from the fifteenth century until the end of kingship (Meidingu Bodhchandra, 1941-1955).

The skill of writing was at first the prerogative of the professional scribes and scholars of the traditional Meetei culture, the Maichous. But later, as proliferation of religious, proto-scientific and astrological text suggests, writing was expanded beyond these professional scribal classes. However, most of the ancient Meetei puyas (scriptures) were anonymous and undated.

Early Manipuri literature consists of ritual hymn, cosmogony, history, or folktales in prose and poetry. A few of the notable works of ancient Meeteilon (i.e. Manipuri language) are: Numit Kappa, Ougri, Khencho, Sana Lamoak (6th or 7th century), Ahonglon (11th century), Khoiju Lamoak (12th century), Hijin Hirao, and Ningthauron (17th century).

One of the oldest literary works, Numit Kappa was written in archaic Meeteilon with Meetei Mayek (i.e. Manipuri script) in poetry verse. T.C. Hodson was the first to translate this archaic Meeteilon literary work into English in his book The Meitheis. Ougri (also Leiroi Ngongloi Eshei), is an anonymous and undated poetry written in archaic Meeteilon. But it is believed to have been written in the pre-Christian era.

A few notable works of ancient Manipuri literature in prose include Panthoibi Khongul, Nongshaba Laihui, Sakok Lairamlen, Poireiton Khunthokpa (3rd century), Kangla Haoba (5th century), Loyamba Shinyen (11th century), Naothingkhong Phambal Kaba (16th century), Khagemba Yumlep (16th century) and Cheitharon Kumbaba.

Modern poetry

Modern Manipuri poetry distinctly falls into two groups—the poetry of Lamabam Kamal and his contemporaries representing the early phase and poetry of more modern and younger poets representing the Zeitgeist of the contemporary world picture.

The approach of Minaketan is fresh and individualistic. Nilabir Sharma, Gourkishar, R.K. Elbangbam are famous lyrical poets. Surchand Sharma mainly deals with some aspects of the great Moirang Thoibi legend while R.K. Shitaljit is a poet of nature and humanity. R.K. Surendrajit blends the symbolic and the allegoric with lyricism, while in the poetry of Nadia, the narrative is blended with sonorous rhythm.

The poetry of younger poets—Samarendra, Nilakanta, Padmakumar, Shri Biren, Ibomcha, Ibohal, Ibopishak, Madhubir, Jyotirindra and Ibempishak—gives expression to the deep sense of the immense panorama of futility, anger, questioning of traditional values and absence of faith and integrity in the society.

In the field of translation, Nabadwipchandra is famous for his translation of Michael Madhusudhan’s Meghanad Badha Kavya into Manipuri. Tagore’s Gitanjali has been translated by A. Minaketan and Krishnamohan.

Drama:

The early dramatics and patriotic exploits of the heroes of Manipur, and the heroic and pathetic lives of legendary and mythological characters are the themes in drama. The early drama includes Sati Khongnag and Areppa Marup of Lalit, Nara Singh of Lairenmayum Ibungahal, Moirang Thoibi of Dorendrajit, Bir Tikendrajit of Bira Singh, Chingu Khongnag Thaba of Birmangol, Mainu Pemcha of Shymsundar, and Kege Lanja of Bormani.

The contemporary dramatists have come forward with plays new in theme and technique. They easily come across politics and socio-economic problems in their search. The foremost among these are G.C. Tongbra, Netrajit, M.K. Binodini Devi, Ramcharan, Kanhailal, A. Sumorendro, Tomchou and Sanajaoba. Ratan Thiyam founded ‘Chorus Repertory Theatre’ in Imphal, in 1976.

Novel:

Early in the 20th century, as stated, Lambam Kamal, Khwairakpam Chaoba and Hijam Anganghal attempted the first original novels in Manipur. Names of R.K. Shitaljit, H. Guno, Thoibi Devi, R.K. Elangbam, Ram Singh, Ibohal, Bhagya, Nodiachand, Ibomcha, Chitreshwar, M.K. Binodini and Pacha Meetei deserve mention besides those of many other contemporary novelists. Surchand Sarma, Shymsundar, Raghumani Sarma and Nishan Singh may be mentioned among the prominent translators.

Short stories :

The short stories also made their advent along with the novel. R.K. Shitaljit’s stories, racy and plain, are narrated in simple, direct and unadorned Manipuri. R.K. Elangbam portrays ordinary people moved by the ordinary concerns and passion of life. Nilbir Sharma expresses the concerns of the poor and the neglected in society. H. Gonu probes into the ailing Manipuri society.

Stories of Nongthombam Kunjamohan are famous for their sentimentalism which is one of the predominant strains of Manipuri literature. Shri Biren, M.K. Binodini, E. Dinamani and Biramani are popular writers.

Critical literature :

Critical literature in Manipuri is gaining popularity. Arabia Manipuri Sahityagi Itihas by Pandit Khelchandra and Manipuri Shatyagi Ashamba Itihas of Kalachand Shastri survey the early and medieval periods of Manipuri literature. Meitei Upanyasa (vol. 1) of Minaketan and Manipuri Sahitya Amasung Sahityakar of Dinamani are critical surveys of prominent Manipuri novels.

Sahityagi Neinaba Wareng of Chandramani, Sheireng Leiteng of Kalachand Shastri, Sahitya Mingshel of Gokul Shastri, Alangkar Kaumudi of Pandit Brajabihari Sharma and Alangkar Jyoti of Laurembam Iboyaima are also well-known critical writings.

Manipuri Kavitagi Chhanda of Nilakanta, Chhanda Veena of R.K. Surendrajit and Manipuri Kavya Kanglon by O. Ibo Chaoba makes a survey of the prosody of Manipuri poetry adopting a scientific approach.

Psychology

Psychology has become a very important and popular subject today. It deals with many problems of everyday life. Psychology helps us to understand the behaviour of people around us, to find out why they behave differently and what forces are responsible to make them so different from others.

It tries to explain wide array of factors involved in what we human beings do. The principles explained by psychology give us a rational basis of understanding of what we and others do. Psychology has been defined in many ways. In ancient days people were analysing the behavioural aspects on the basis of philosophy. They believed that there is a soul in every individual and this is responsible for all our activities.

This view led to the opinion that the subject matter of psychology must be the study of soul. But this definition could not answer the questions regarding the existence of soul and its accessibility for study. This condition led to a new definition by Greek philosophers who defined psychology as a ‘science of mind’. But this definition was also rejected on the same grounds as soul was rejected.Later, Wilhelm Wundt a psychologist who established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany defined psychology as the study of consciousness. EB Titchener the disciple of Wundt, proposed the method of Introspection to study consciousness. But because of its subjectivity and unscientific method of study, this definition was also rejected.

Gradually, as a result of the development of scientific outlook people started thinking on scientific basis and began to define psychology as a science of behaviour. Finally, it is JB Watson (1913) defined psychology as a science of behaviour of human as well as animal beings.

Scope of Psychology:

Psychology deals with the origins, development and change of behaviour. It deals with similarities and differences among people, with the occurrence of expected behaviour as well as unexpected behaviour. Equally so it is concerned with the non-occurrence of expected behaviour. It is concerned with behaviour which is observable and unobservable, conscious and unconscious, with the behaviour of individuals as well as groups and with the influence of individuals on the behaviour of one another.

It may also be said that psychologists are concerned not only with the actual day-to-day behaviour but also with the unique products of human activity like dreams, art, literature, mythology, folklore and all other products of human behaviour.

By analysing and studying these products, psychologists have tried to understand the motivational processes and other factors which might have influenced the production and creation of these activities. In recent years, psychologists have also extended their interest to studying political philosophies, ideologies and forms of government.

All this has naturally resulted in the expansion of the scope of psychology. Psychology is applied everywhere in the home, at the school, at the hospitals, in factories and offices, in the armed forces and in all imaginable situations involving the behaviour of human individuals alone or in a group.The subject of psychology which was mainly developed by philosophers from their armchairs, progressed to laboratories and is today studied and applied in all walks of life.

Methods of psychology :

The aim of science is to use scientific method to collect information in the form of verifiable data. Different sciences use different methods that are suitable for the investigation of their subject-matter. However, all of them have one thing in common, in the sense that, they aim at a very high objectivity in the collection of facts and precise description of the phenomena under investigation.

When discussing the methods used by psychology, we must be sure that they fulfill scientific requirements. The complexity of the subject-matter with which psychology deals is quite obvious. The behaviour of the individual is something that varies not only from person to person but also from time to time.

Such variations in behaviour, obviously, are less subject to accurate and objective observation and description than the subject-matter of many sciences like physics, chemistry, biology etc. In spite of these difficulties, psychologists, have tried to confine themselves to the requirements of objectivity, which characterize the methods of science. Like other sciences, psychology also uses several methods to study its problems.

Public administration

Public administration, the implementation of government policies. Today public administration is often regarded as including also some responsibility for determining the policies and programs of governments. Specifically, it is the planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of government operations.

Public administration is a feature of all nations, whatever their system of government. Within nations public administration is practiced at the central, intermediate, and local levels. Indeed, the relationships between different levels of government within a single nation constitute a growing problem of public administration.

In most of the world the establishment of highly trained administrative, executive, or directive classes has made public administration a distinct profession. The body of public administrators is usually called the civil service. In the United States, the elitist class connotations historically attached to the civil service were consciously abandoned or from the early 20th century, with the result that civil servants were recognized as professionals and valued for their expertise.

In most countries the civil service does not include local government or public corporations. In some countries, however—particularly those unitary states in which provincial administration is part of the central government—some provincial staffs are civil servants. In the United States, all levels of government have their own civil services—federal, state, and local—and a civil service is specifically that part of governmental service entered by examination and offering permanent tenure.

Let’s talk about some characteristics of public administration :

Commitment to the Mission:- Excitement trickles down from leadership to the employees on the ground. When the administrator is enthused about the organization or agency’s mission, the employees will mirror those feelings. In times of crisis, great administrators remind their staff of the purpose of their mission and the role their organization plays in the larger society.

Strategic Vision :- A public administrator must always remain focused on the strategic vision and the long-term mission of the agency or organization. Staff members can become narrowly obsessed with the day-to-day operations of the agency but count on their leaders to understand the five, 10 and 20-year plans. It is important to remember that the agency or organization was often around long before the public administrator arrived, and will remain in operation long after the administrator leave .

Delegation :- There is a fine line between delegating tasks to staff and shirking from responsibilities, knowing subordinates will take up the slack. Great public administrators navigate this distinction by assigning not just tasks, but clearly defined spheres of influence where staff members have the authority to make decisions. Delegating tasks and responsibilities in this manner empowers staff members to grow in their positions, preparing them for future leadership positions.

Grow Talent :- Internal promotions save companies and organizations thousands of dollars over adding outside hires. A public administrator must be able to take existing talent within the organization, nurture it, and place staff members in positions where they can be successful. Public administrators must be careful not to stifle staff growth by becoming overbearing or forcing staff members into positions for which they are ill-suited.

Creativity :- In most circumstances, public administrators work on shoestring budgets with short deadlines and difficult, seemingly impossible, objectives. Those drawn to public administration thrive on those unique challenges and use the restrictions as a way to showcase their creativity. Public administrators are able to come up with creative solutions to complex problems, usually by seeing an issue from a new perspective or by innovating a new approach to the solution.

Digital Communication Experience :- Social media and digital communication platforms, such as email and video, are cornerstones of modern communications. While leaders in for-profit organizations are responsible to shareholders, they have much more freedom to determine when and where they will communicate. Public administrators are beholden to the people and may be held accountable for their actions at any time. Successful administrators exhibit excellent digital communication skills, especially communication via social media.Public administrators choose their profession because of their love of service and their desire to make their communities a better place. These 10 traits can transform inexperienced administrators into tremendously successful ones.

Political science and International Relations

Political Science and International Relations are complementary and inter-related disciplines that explore power and politics in many different contexts. They provide concepts with which to explain, justify and critique the modern world. They examine ideologies such as colonisation and socialism. They explore systems of ideas like the new right, religious fundamentalism, and postmodernism. They analyse social movements that call for justice, development, gender equality or environmental protection. They help us to understand processes of electoral competition, government, and policy- making in New Zealand and a range of other countries across the world. They uncover the structures and motivations behind cooperation, conflict and war in the international system. They dig into issues of power, conflict, diplomacy, arms control, democracy, revolution, terrorism, developmental politics, civil society, human rights, foreign policy, humanitarian aid, and the international political economy.

Globalisation links people, cultures and countries much more closely than they have ever been. International Relations studies the relationships among countries and the roles of governmental and non-governmental organisations and multi-nationals. In an increasingly inter-connected world, people who understand and can work with these complex relationships have a significant advantage.

WHY STUDY POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS?

Studying these disciplines brings many benefits. There is the personal satisfaction and social confidence that comes from training your brain and raising your understanding of not only world events but also the events of daily life. Being able to step back and see a larger (political) process at work is very empowering at an individual level. It can take the sting out of tense or emotional situations and provide you with strategies that enable you to behave constructively and proactively. Being able to rise above difficulties and move on is enormously valuable in any work environment, particularly when professional issues or competing interests are involved. P

olitical Science and International Relations are embedded not only in social processes and group dynamics, but also different cultural realities. This raises your sensitivity to the taken-for-granted aspects of cultural experience, making you more open to different points of view and value systems. The ability to move comfortably within and between different cultures and political systems is fundamental to international business and trade activities, development support, humanitarian aid and peacekeeping missions. People with this kind of understanding are more likely to be successful in multi-national corporations and professional practices, non-government organisations (NGOs) such as aid agencies, and government agencies including diplomatic services and defence forces. They are also valuable ‘at home’ working in organisations where cultural or ethnic identity has a relationship with other social or political processes.

WHAT SKILLS DO POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS GRADUATES HAVE?

Political Science and International Relations graduates have a great toolkit of skills to take to work . These include :

Conceptual analysis : Graduates have learned to get their heads around the big issues, including models of government, cultural imperatives, false equivalents, the effects of war, historical intentions and complex current realities. Working productively with this range of information develops skills of abstract thinking and in-depth analysis, which transfer well to many jobs, especially those that deal in conceptual models and/or strategic planning. These include policy analysis, management roles, professional roles in law and economics, technical writing and promotion of the arts.

Consequential thinking: To a large extent Political Science and International Relations is about intentions, decisions and their various consequences. Graduates are adept at identifying the consequential effects of decisions and actions taken historically and in the present. They learn to make connections and formulate arguments. They learn to look for the hidden detail that changes everything. They become quite astute at predicting outcomes. Jobs that draw on these skills include all levels of management, particularly human resources, financial service roles, customer service positions, and any job that involves decision-making and problem solving.

Influencing and persuading skills: When it comes to getting what you want, graduates have an excellent understanding of what works and what doesn’t, having studied political agendas throughout the world and throughout history. It comes back to the element of power that underpins political business everywhere. Many job roles contain an expectation that you will be able to implement decisions, mobilise resources, or motivate others. These outcomes require influencing and persuading skills and are particularly relevant in supervisory roles, but also come into play in roles that involve interviewing for information, such as immigration officer or human resources consultant. Influencing skills make all the difference to sales, marketing and journalism roles, and work well for court lawyers and politicians.

Language skills: These skills encompass the biggies – written and verbal communication. Employers are always delighted to find people who write effectively and express their thoughts clearly. Graduates have these skills – partly from having to think big political ideas through to a logical conclusion, and partly because they are encouraged to write clear, lively well-argued assignments, and also argue their understanding of issues in tutorials with peers. Most work roles are enhanced by good language skills, and all positions of authority and leadership require them

Research skills: Graduates have studied their subject through its protocols of research design and methodology. This includes defining key research questions, tracking down and interpreting official documents, practising stringent internet research techniques, and for some, learning to write research proposals and make submissions to select committees. Many job roles, including policy analysts and advisors, journalists, managers, community liaison officers and social researchers, are highly dependent on superior research skills.

Role of civil services in a democracy

The greatness associated with “performing a public service utilizing public fund” reflects power, aspirations of achieving this power, and a consistent hope or ambition of achieving through this power!

The civil servants by virtue of their knowledge, experience, and understanding of public affairs assist the ministers in formulating policy and are responsible for implementing these policies wherein ministers are accountable to parliament and civil servants are accountable to ministers. Though we are a democracy and power is vested in the people, neither politicians nor civil servants are directly and meaningfully accountable to the public.

This lack of accountability has mirrored political and administrative passivity, non-intervention, and negligence. We call this image ‘the system’. This system prevents the poor from accessing basic necessities and resources, and a place giving permanent protection. This system characterizes many discreditable practices, habitual decisions for which accountability is not necessary, work culture where people sometimes habitually look uninterested and unorganized, overlapping of tasks and half-baked results, since the concept of ‘optimization’ has not found its place in this work culture yet.

Any system is a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network. In a democracy, the core things of a system are connected through legislation. A civil servant can change the official or accepted way of doing something, but he can’t change legislation-related input present in it. There are multiple parts in the system even if you better or replace one part, it distorts the working of other parts. In a country as diverse as India, these parts at different levels are uncountable, unless a major reformative decision at a parliamentary level is made, the current system will continue to work in a presentable manner. In this situation, a civil servant can control the work flow, but he can’t set that work to its optimization if it is a part of the interconnecting network.

We have seen various poverty alleviation programs, but some underperformed and their successes looked irregular and unpredictable. Some of them lacked economic rationale or another practical purpose. Had these programs been successful, we would have freed ourselves from poverty long back. Our bureaucratic mechanisms need to comprise holistic approaches and solutions. They monitored and moved to achieve short-term arbitrary outcomes whose consequences could be terrible and had long-term counter-productive effects.

One such consequence was that poverty in India was normalized through its credentials in various statistical projects. Normalizing here means we start taking something a standard condition or state. As we normalized poverty, it became a characteristic of the population, consequently, serious hardships from poverty were no longer seen as violations of law, justice, ethics, or the constitution, so it doesn’t matter if it continues to exist.

Now the legislators whom we call politicians to see their success in terms of improved public relations. A public relations exercise eats up a lot of time. Policymaking is the ultimate responsibility of a minister, but they hardly get time to study something in-depth. They don’t have real field work experience in device policies. In this case, a civil servant renders policy advice to the minister. Usually, politicians work on those combinations which are more beneficial to them than the public. But these policies do carry the inputs of civil servants despite this, these policies have failed to eradicate poverty.

A person becomes a civil servant after passing one of the toughest exams in the world. It is said so. But there is hardly any examination that can check a person’s commitment to work and his work potential. A person becomes a decision-maker after becoming a civil servant. This level of poverty can’t be eradicated through decision-making processes rather ‘individual’s originality related to work’ is a prerequisite that no exam can ensure. Is it possible or has it ever been thought of – that a bureaucrat himself/herself has earned at the grassroots level through inventing his/her original model, and under this model, he/she has devised schemes and implemented them, so that grassroots level people can practice them to earn their livelihoods and also get the scope to upgrade their skill levels? If schemes get formulated in this manner, they will definitely be successful and sustainable. We are heaven away from this kind of system. There is nothing great about “performing a public service utilizing public funds”, since earning according to what is morally right or fair is many times more difficult than spending.

The real work which can generate revenues, consequently employment and vice versa, has yet to see its dawn, the real commitment is unobserved, the real change looks near but it is more like a horizon. What should we do to experience real work, commitment, and change? One possible course of action can be the appointment of ‘village administrators’ through an entrance examination. There are more or less 638,000 villages in India. Every year the government could recruit 25,000 village administrators. A village administrator, after understanding the requirements of the village, will conceive a consolidated plan to address the problems related to livelihoods, education, society, infrastructure, drainage system, and so on.

The present system showcases conspicuous limitations. The limitations limit the scope of real development. In fact, a person who is working to bring real change at the grassroots level without being part of the government service is serving people in a better and sustainable manner. There is no need to become a civil servant to serve people. They can be served better by those who are not part of this system. People are not served through power, they are served through prowess, not that of decision making, but of the original exertions which have undeclared true potential for ‘the mass eradication and mass extinction of poverty’.

The world has failed to realize that poverty has become a species that adjusted long ago to survive on prosperity and by itself.

Disaster and disaster management

If we look at the disasters that have taken place earlier, we can easily say that nature is not merely responsible for them to happen. They happen due to other reasons too. This is why we have classified them in different categories. First comes the natural disasters which are caused by natural processes. They are the most dangerous disaster to happen which causes loss of life and damage to the earth. Some of the deadliest natural disasters are earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, and more.

Furthermore, we have man-made disasters. They are the results of technological hazards or man’s carelessness. Some of the man-made disasters include fires, nuclear explosions or radiations, oil spills, transport accidents, terrorist attacks and more. Nature has little or no role to play in these types of disasters.

As no country is spared from any kind of disasters, India also falls in the same category. In fact, the geographical location of India makes it a very disaster-prone country. Each year, India faces a number of disasters like floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides, cyclones, droughts and more. When we look at the man-made disasters, India suffered the Bhopal Gas Tragedy as well as the plague in Gujarat. To stop these incidents from happening again, we need to strengthen our disaster management techniques to prevent destructive damage .

Disaster management:

Disaster management refers to the efficient management of resources and responsibilities that will help in lessening the impact of the disaster. It involves a well-planned plan of action so we can make effective efforts to reduce the dangers caused by the disaster to a minimum.

Most importantly, one must understand that disaster management does not necessarily eliminate the threat completely but it decreases the impact of the disaster. It focuses on formulating specific plans to do so. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India is responsible for monitoring the disasters of the country. This organization runs a number of programs to mitigate the risks and increase the responsiveness.

Proper disaster management can be done when we make the citizens aware of the precautionary measures to take when they face emergency situations. For instance, everyone must know we should hide under a bed or table whenever there is an earthquake. Thus, the NDMA needs to take more organized efforts to decrease the damage that disasters are causing. If all the citizens learn the basic ways to save themselves and if the government takes more responsive measures, we can surely save a lot of life and vegetation.

Let’s look at some of the major natural disasters of recent years in India. These natural disasters were so severe that they affected thousands of people.

1999 – Orissa CycloneIn

1999, a super cyclone struck the coast of the Indian state of Orissa, killing several people and leaving thousands homeless. The loss of public and private properties was in millions.

2001 – Bhuj Earthquake in Gujarat

A trembling earth hit the serious condition of the West on India in Gujarat, which was the one of the main quake land registered on the richter scale in the history of the country.

2004 – Tsunami

The states of southern India have faced waves of high-intensity tsunami sweeping the entire coastal region. The tsunami has also severely affected other South Asian countries, leaving thousands of people dead and billions of dollars worth of public and private property damaged and lost.

The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was created by the Indian National Government to respond quickly to disasters caused by nature or otherwise. The National Disaster Management Academy has been equipped with all the tools and training needed to provide disaster relief.

For many years, the National Disaster Management Authority has dealt with natural disasters, but it needs to be regularly updated with modern equipment to handle disaster situations much more effectively.

Philosophy

Philosophy has been with the mankind for thousands of years. Every civilization has produced many philosophers who have changed the course of history. Those philosophies have dramatically changed not only the people around those philosophers but also the people who lived far away from them. These philosophies have refined the attitudes of the people. If at all there is any refined tendency in our attitude and thinking, that can be attributed to the exposure we are given to those philosophies. After all these attributes, the basic question, “What is Philosophy?” still remains unanswered.

Philosophies vary. Philosophers differ. No one could pinpoint where all these philosophies lead us to. Still Philosophers produce their thinking. Here we have produced few essays which give in-depth analysis of various philosophies. Although philosophies produce different thinking, sometimes totally contradictory thinking, it is ultimately left to the individuals to decide what is best for them. Our needs differ. We are in different environments. We are born with different abilities and mental set-ups. We differ by our visions and ambitions. Of course these differences bring beauty and colors to this mankind. Our uniqueness is in our difference. Similarities fail to add value always.

No two days are same. No two people are same. No two countries are same. So no two philosophies are same. These philosophies help us to understand ourselves in better terms. We are moved to attain self-fulfillment by these philosophies. These philosophies tell us squarely at our face that in spite of our differences we are unique. That strong statement is the backbone of the philosophies. Philosophies are here to accept the differenced among the races and nations. No one is superior to others.Now let us read all these essays on Philosophies listed below. This page “Essays on Philosophy” publishes philosophical papers of quality which the editors believe will make a contribution to the literature on a certain topic. This site holds to no specific school of thought, mode of philosophizing or style of writing. Each essay is devoted to a specific topic. Philosophy is the most beliefs about what is true or real according to individual values (Gutek – 2009). Philosophy is our beliefs that will determine what we do professionally and personally. Not having a philosophy set in place, it will be difficult to make decisions within the classroom, creating curriculum and evaluate progress. Philosophy is the study of examining and thinking about questionable ethical problems and/or generally accepted certainties. Philosophy aims at knowledge that combines a variety of academic fields as well as convictions, prejudices and beliefs.

Before we can consider some of the questions studied by philosophy it makes sense to ask what philosophy is in the first place, although this is itself subject to much debate. In this part of introducing philosophy and philosophical ideas, we begin by looking at the word and some of the historical answers given before moving on to more recent opinions.The word philosophy has meant different things at different times, often reflecting the culture of the day. Usually we understand the term to denote the love of wisdom, from the Greek. In this sense, as it was apparently used by the famous philosopher Socrates, it gives the impression of someone who is seeking wisdom, rather than having found it. We would only call someone a physicist, say, if he or she actually had some knowledge of physics, but we describe as a philosopher someone who is aiming at wisdom without necessarily achieving it. On the other hand, philosophy has also had the negative sense of a subject full of idle speculation, useless to the practical business of finding things out and consisting mostly in irrelevant theorizing.

Investment model

Before we begin to describe the various types of investment models in existence, one must understand the basic definition of investment and the factors that govern it.

In simpler terms investment means exchange of money for a profit yielding asset. The same profit earned is used to invest in other assets as well. As far as the economic well being of the country is concerned, investment is important as it contributes to growth and development.

When the government invests in business, agriculture, manufacturing or supporting industries it can generate employment opportunities for its population. But a robust investment scenario is when the government and the private sector join hands to create investment opportunities.

Also keep in mind that the following factors come into play when making an investment and by proxy, choosing an investment model:

— Savings Rate.

— Tax Rate in the country. (Net income available after tax).

— Inflation.

— Rate of Interest in Banks.

— Possible Rate of Return on Capital.

— Availability of other factors of production – cheap land, labour etc and supporting infrastructure – transport, energy and communication.

— Market size and stability.

Three major investment model:

Public investment model : For a government to invest, it needs revenue (mainly tax revenue), but the present tax revenues of India are not sufficient enough to meet the budgetary expenditure of India. So India cannot move ahead in the path of growth without private individuals; even for government to have a share in the investment, they need tax revenue from the private investors.

Private investment model : The private investment can come from India or abroad. If it’s from abroad – they can be as FDI or FPI. (Details will be discussed later.) As India’s Current Account Deficit is widening due to increased Oil Import, in this age of globalization, we cannot say NO to FDI or FPI. Why private investment in India: For a country to grow and increase its income, the production has to be increased. More goods and services has to be produced. Infrastructure to support production – transport, energy and communication – should also be developed. But how can a nation with near 30% of population below poverty line, invest in production or infrastructure? Who has money to invest? Government?

Public private partnership model : PPP means combining the best benefit from both public and private investments. Some of the Project Finance Schemes are as below:1. BOT (build–operate–transfer).2. BOOT (build–own–operate–transfer).3. BOO (build–own–operate).4. BLT (build–lease–transfer).5. DBFO (design–build–finance–operate).6. DBOT (design–build–operate–transfer).7. DCMF (design–construct–manage–finance).

Investment Models in Relation With India

Hope it’s clear by now that capital formation is necessary for any country to grow. But the process is not easy. The savings rate in India is now near 30%. Percapita Income of Indians is very low and hence the capital available for investing too is low. Investments should be studied from three angles – Households, Corporates and Government. Investments expect a return – be it from Government side or Private side. Though the return on investment in terms of profit or margin is the main motive behind investments, its effect on the welfare side and development should not be neglected.

Land reforms in India

Land reforms aim at redistributing ownership holding from the viewpoint of social justice, and reorganizing operational holdings from the view point of optimum utilisation of land. These aims at providing security of tenure, fixation of rents, conferment of ownership, etc..

The entire concept of land reforms aims at the abolition of intermediaries and bringing the actual cultivator in direct contact with the state. The scope of land reforms, therefore, includes: (i) abolition of intermediaries, (ii) tenancy reforms, i.e., regulation of rent, security of tenure for tenants and conferment of ownership on them; (iii) ceiling on land holdings and distribution of surplus land to landless agricultural labourers and small farmers; (iv) agrarian reorganisation including consolidation of holdings and prevention of sub-division and fragmentation; (v) organization of co-operative farms; and (vi) improvement in the system of record keeping.

Due to Zamindari Abolition, about 30 lakh tenants and share croppers acquired ownership rights over a total cultivated area of 25 lakh hectares throughout the country. Further, it led to the abolition of about 260,000 Zamindars and intermediaries and acquisition of large amount of forested, barren and waste land by the Government. It also led to the emergence of a middle class of peasantry which is playing a pivotal role in agricultural development.

Land reforms in India had envisaged that beyond a certain specified limit, all lands belonging to the landlords would be taken over by the State and allotted to small proprietors to make their holdings economic or to landless laborers to meet their demand for land. Ceiling on landholdings is, therefore, an effective measure for redistribution of land and achieving the goal of social justice.

Need of land reforms:

The land reforms were needed to change all the systems or institutional factors, which were responsible for the low productivity of agriculture and poverty among the rural poor. At the time of independence the agrarian society was divided into four classes landlords or big farmers, the intermediaries-cum- cultivating holders, the tenants the actual cultivators and agricultural labourers.

There was unjust and defective land tenure system which deprives a large number of cultivators the ownership rights and to make any decisions about the land they hold and cultivate. The system of land tenure is still oppressive.

Out of 100 people engaged in agriculture, only 10% are the big land owners who owns enough land, the rest 90% whether small cultivators, marginal cultivators or landless labourers have not all the facilities held by the big landowners and as a result they cannot do full just with the agricultural activities

Measures adopted under land reforms:

Under land reforms various institutional measures have been adopted to improve agricultural productivity and the status of the actual tillers by the central and state government from time to time. The government abolished the zamindari system. It was the curse of the Indian agriculture that those who cultivated land were not its owners. Land was owned by zamindars. They performed no economic activities but devoured large part of the production.

The tillers who cultivated the land were poorly paid. With the removal of zamindari system and intermediaries about 20 million tenants were given the occupancy rights. Tenancy reforms have provided security of the tenure to tenants, regulated rent and conferred ownership rights on tenants. This was the second steps taken by the government.

The third measure taken was the consolidation of scattered and small land holdings. Consolidation of holdings means allocation of compact plot of land in exchange for the several small plots held by the owner of the land to make them economically viable. The government of India has passed laws for compulsory consolidation of holdings. The step to solve the problem of fragmentation of land was co-operative farming.

Under this system, a large tract of land owned by different house-holds may be jointly cultivated by them. The constant updating and maintenance of land records was also undertaken. The chakbandi system was also one of the measures taken under land reforms.

Land ceiling was another steps taken under land reforms, ceiling on holding means a prescribed area of land left with the zamindars after the abolition of Zamindari System. The surplus land is taken from the zamindars and distributed among the tillers of land and weaker sections of society; Laws regarding ceiling limit which was 30 acres have been passed by the government and about 3 million hectare of land has been declared as surplus. But, it is not sufficient.

Success and failure of land reforms:

The objectives of land reforms were to bring about economic efficiency and social justice. Efforts have been made to improve the condition of labourers through the abolition of Zamindari system, ceiling acts, redistribution of land and minimum wages acts etc. still their condition is deplorable. The implementation of the land reforms programme in India failed in its endeavour.

A majority of the agricultural labourers continued to be confronted with socio-economic difficulties and could not benefit from the land reforms measures. The progress of consolidation of land holdings is not satisfactory only 1/4 of the land has been consolidated and this has been completed only in Punjab, Haryana and Western U.P. The distribution of surplus land is also not satisfactory.

Conclusion:

In some of the states like Keraia, political will and intervention has led to the success of land reforms. All states except Nagaland and Meghalaya have passed ceiling acts. The five-year plans propose to lessen the sufferings of the landless people. With the removal of intermediaries, the cultivators came in direct contact with the government. A considerable area of cultivable waste land and private forest-land which came under the hand of the government was distributed among the landless and agricultural labourers.

In the ninth-five-year plan, it had been pointed out that rural poverty is largely among the landless and the marginal farmers. The plan proposed redistribution of surplus land, tenancy reforms for recording rights of tenants, consolidation of holdings etc. The tenth five-year plan also carries further the reforms in the agricultural sector which were earlier neglected.

It can be said that if land reform measures are effectively and whole-heartedly implemented it would be successful in lessening the problems of rural people. With the Green Revolution land reforms have been also contributed in increasing agricultural production and somewhat improving the condition of the rural people.

Role of civil services in Indian democracy

India is a democratic country and in this system, power confers with the people. The power is exercised through its designated representatives who have the command to manage them for particular period. The civil services by quality of its knowledge, experience and understanding of public affairs support the chosen representatives to device effectual policy and have great responsibility to implement these policies for the welfare of society and enhancement of nation. Parliamentary democracies are generally pigeonholed by a permanent civil service which helps the political policymakers and political executives. India is a constitutional fairness and its operations are usually depends upon four supports that include Legislature, Executive, Judiciary, and Free Press. Each one of these has been assigned its role in democratic establishment. First pillar is associated with the governance of the State. Effective and efficient institutions form the strength of an efficacious development and governance process.

Democracy is an egalitarian principle in which the governed elect the people who govern over them. There are three pillars of modern democracy:

Legislature

Executive

Judiciary

The civil services form a part of the executive. While the ministers, who are part of the executive, are temporary and are reelected or replaced by the people by their will (through elections), the civil servants are the permanent part of the executive.

–The civil servants are accountable to the political executive, the ministers. The civil services are thus, a subdivision under the government.

— The officers in the civil services form the permanent staff of the various governmental departments.

— are basically expert administrators.

They are sometimes referred to as the bureaucracy or also the public service

Importance of the Civil Services

1. The civil service is present all over India and it thus has a strong binding character.

2. It plays a vital role in effective policy-making and regulation.

3. It offers non-partisan advice to the political leadership of the country, even in the midst of political instability.

4. The service gives effective coordination between the various institutions of governance, and also between different departments, bodies, etc.

5. It offers service delivery and leadership at different levels of administration.

Functions of Civil Services

Basis of Government: There can be no government without administrative machinery.

Implementing Laws & Policies: Civil services are responsible for implementing laws and executing policies framed by the government .

Policy Formulation: The civil service is chiefly responsible for policy formulation as well. The civil service officers advise ministers in this regard and also provides them with facts and ideas.

Stabilising Force: Amidst political instability, the civil service offers stability and permanence. While governments and ministers can come and go, the civil services is a permanent fixture giving the administrative set up a sense of stability and continuity.

Instruments of Social Change & Economic Development: Successful policy implementation will lead to positive changes in the lives of ordinary people. It is only when the promised goods and services reach the intended beneficiaries, a government can call any scheme successful. The task of actualising schemes and policies fall with the officers of the civil services.

Welfare Services: The services offer a variety of welfare schemes such as providing social security, the welfare of weaker and vulnerable sections of society, old-age pensions, poverty alleviation, etc.

Developmental Functions: The services perform a variety of developmental functions like promoting modern techniques in agriculture, promoting the industry, trade, banking functions, bridging the digital divide etc.

Administrative Adjudication: The civil services also perform quasi-judicial services by settling disputes between the State and the citizens, in the form of tribunals, etc.

Problems Affecting Civil Services Today

— Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building.

— An ineffective incentive system that does not reward the meritorious and upright civil servants .

— Rigid and outmoded rules and procedures that do not allow civil servants to exercise individual judgement and perform efficiently.

— Lack of accountability and transparency procedure, with no adequate protection for whistle-blowers.

— Political interference causing arbitrary transfers, and insecurity in tenures.

— An erosion in ethics and values, which has caused rampant corruption and nepotism.

— Patrimonialism (a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader).

— Resistance to change from the civil servants themselves.

Key Facts about Democracy in India:

— Democracy in India federal republic.

— Democracy in India is headed by the President as the head of the state and Prime Minister as the head of the government.

— There is a parliamentary form of government at the central level.

— There is a universal adult franchise.

India and its neighborhood relations

‘Neighbourhood First’ means improving the state of being connected or interconnected and lessening the gravity of identification with one’s own nation and support for its interests, particularly to the marginalization or detriment of the interests of other nations.

The outlook on ‘Neighbourhood First’ points out:

1) India’s inclination to give political and diplomatic precedence to its immediate neighbors and the Indian Ocean island states, including Central Asia.

2) Providing neighbors with support, as needed, in the form of resources, equipment, and training. For example Development Partnership Administration (DPA) can launch programs like the Indian Technical & Economic Cooperation Programme (ITEC), the Special Commonwealth Assistance for Africa Programme (SCAAP), and the Technical Cooperation Scheme (TCS) of the Colombo Plan schemes.

3) Seeking greater connectivity and integration for bettering the free flow of merchandises, services, human resources, energy means, capital, and information.

4) Promoting a model of India-led regionalism with which its neighbors are comfortable involving humanitarian cooperation, for example, i) counter-piracy mission off the coast of Somalia, ii) humanitarian assistance and disaster relief in cyclone-hit Mozambique and Madagascar (Operation Vanilla).

5) Active role in helping to create a regional security regime and in pushing stability outwards using impressive military and soft-power capabilities, for example, Doklam standoff.

6) Bridging diplomacy and development.

7) Acting East as China rises whether through its optic fiber connecting Nepal across the Himalayas which broke India’s internet monopoly there; 99-year lease of Sri Lanka’s Hambantota port where Sri Lanka faces a record foreign debt repayment of nearly USD 6 billion in 2019; or its shareholding in the Dhaka Stock Exchange by outbidding India.

8) Realizing success in multi-ethnic and religious engagement.

Now from generics to some specifics:

Afghanistan

As Afghanistan moves closer to multi transitions (NATO drawdown, Presidential elections, economic transition) and enters the phase of transformation decade, India’s focus on Afghanistan is becoming sharper in view of the stakes India has in Afghanistan from the perspectives of Its own security and strategic interests. India can ill-afford the return of Taliban. The emergence of a regime in Afghanistan which is a proxy of Pakistan and dominated by Islamic fundamentalists would not be in the interests of India. A stable and peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan is of no use to India if its territories are allowed to be used for the purposes which are inimical to the national interests of India.

Indian policy makers will have to pick up the right option as the security situation evolves; in the event there is no deterioration in the current security situation, India could continue with its policy of commitment to contribute substantially towards reconstruction of Afghanistan and capacity building including training of Afghan Security Forces. [India has invested over $2bn in Afghanistan as development assistance; under its strategic partnership agreement, India is providing training to Afghan Security forces]. It could also adhere to its commitments as Lead Country in Istanbul CBMs. In case Afghanistan returns to chaotic and bloody civil war posing physical threat to Indian personnel’s presence in Afghanistan, India may find it difficult to continue to operate in Afghanistan. At the same time, India’s military intervention in Afghanistan is more or less ruled out.

Sri Lanka:

India’s policy approach towards Sri Lanka is reflected In its response to a Question tabled in the Parliament (Lok Sabha Q. N. 1542 dated 14th August, 2013 ); the Government stated “India has long advocated the creation of an environment in Sri Lanka in which all communities, particularly the Sri Lankan Tamils, are masters of their own destiny within the framework of a united Sri Lanka. Our objective continues to remain the achievement of a future for the Tamil community in Sri Lanka that is marked by equality, dignity, justice and self-respect. In this context, India has been engaged with the Government of Sri Lanka at the highest levels on its stated commitment to implement the 13th amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution and to go beyond, so as to achieve meaningful devolution of powers.”

India has adopted a multi- pronged approach since the liquidation of the LTTE; this policy has several components: i) India misses no opportunity to impress upon the Sri Lankan Government to abide by its commitments towards Sri Lankan Tamils particularly meaningful devolution of powers and the implementation of the 13th Amendment and beyond in a time bound manner; ii) India reassure as often as possible the Sri Lankan Tamils that it will make every effort to ensure the 13th amendment is not diluted and the future for the community is marked by equality, justice and self-respect; (In June last year “Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was explicit in conveying to the visiting Tamil National Alliance (TNA) delegation from Sri Lanka that he was “dismayed by reports suggesting that the Government of Sri Lanka planned to dilute certain key provisions of the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution ahead of elections to the Northern Provincial Council” [Ministry of External Affairs official statement, New Delhi, June 18, 2013] ; iii) India continues to invest into the reconstruction of Northern Sri Lanka; iv) As far the Tamil leadership in India, the Central Government in New Delhi listen to their demands, accommodates them to the extent feasible but ultimately exercises the prerogative of the Centre in the formulation of foreign policy taking broader national interests into account rather than being pushed by narrow regional priorities; v) India is monitoring carefully the Chinese overtures in Sri Lanka and check the latter’s drift towards China.

China:

The two countries have a long history of civilisational links. Soon after its own independence and the Maoist revolution in China, India went an extra mile to reach out to the communist regime. India was quick in recognising China, and supported its entry into the United Nations; recognized Tibet as an autonomous region of China The 1962 border conflict therefore came as a political shock to India. While Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s landmark visit in 1988 began a phase of improvement in bilateral relations, it is the cumulative outcomes of seven key High Level visits in last 10years which have been transformational for India-China ties. [These were that of Prime Minister Vajpayee [2003], of Premier Wen Jiabao [2005 & 2010], of President Hu Jintao [2006], of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh [2008 and 2013] and of Premier Li Keqiang [2013]. It is noteworthy that more than 60% of the agreements between India and China have been signed during the last decade. As of today, both sides have established 36 dialogue mechanisms covering diverse sectors. Bilateral trade has registered enormous growth reaching $70bn in 2011 (and may touch $100bn by 2015). The year 2014 has been designated as the Year of Friendly Exchanges between India and China. The two sides have established a Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperity(2005) The leaders of India and China have also been meeting on the sidelines of regional, plurilateral and multilateral gatherings and conferences.

This is not to suggest that there are no irritants in relations between the two countries; there is always the other side of the coin: the border dispute between India and China remains unresolved; China’s plans to build dams on Brahamaputra or seek access to Indian ocean through Pakistan and Myanmar, “string of pearls” etc are matters of concern. In addition, the rapid economic rise of China and its military strength have given it the audacity to occasionally flex political and military muscles.

Pakistan:

Pakistan is and for foreseeable future will remain a permanent fixture on the agenda of India’s policy makers. The State Relations between India and Pakistan have remained less than normal ever since the partition of India and creation of Pakistan in 1947. Sporadic efforts made by the civilian authorities on the two sides of the divide to provide semblance of normalcy to bilateral relations have often been thwarted by the ISI and Army in Pakistan. History almost repeated itself in the recent past. Pakistani President Nawaz Sharrif made several conciliatory statements during and after his election in May 2013. He was reportedly advised by his Army Chief to go slow and exercise utmost caution while striving to improve relations with India; this was even before Nawaz Sharif was officially sworn in. As the prospects of a possible bilateral meeting between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in New York on the side-lines of the UNGA 2013 Session were looking bright and back-channel contacts had began, the ceasefire violations along the LOC accelerated, culminating in to the killing of five Indian soldiers(6th August 2013). India’s response was firm and strong. In a Statement, the Defence Minister of India A.K. Antony said that “It is now clear that the specialist troops of Pakistan Army were involved in this attack when a group from the Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) side crossed the LC and killed our brave jawans (soldiers) . We all know that nothing happens from Pakistan side of the Line of Control without support, assistance, facilitation and often, direct involvement of the Pakistan Army.”A chain of allegations and counter-allegations followed. In a resolution it adopted on 13th August, the National Assembly of Pakistan accused India of ‘unprovoked aggression by Indian military forces across the LoC”, promptly rejected and deplored by the Indian Parliament through identical resolutions in the two Houses of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) reflecting the unity of approach to this issue by the ruling coalition as well as Opposition. Besides refuting the allegation and asserting that “it was the Pakistan Army that was involved in the unprovoked attack on an Indian Army patrol”, it also added “our restraint should not be taken for granted nor should the capacity of our armed forces to ensure the territorial integrity of our nation.” To top it up the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in his address to the nation on the 67th Independence Day singled out Pakistan by name and said “for relations with Pakistan to improve, it is essential that they prevent the use of their territory and territory under their control for any anti-India activity”.

In my assessment the future of India-Pak dialogue would depend on i) whether or not Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is able to minimise Army’s influence and control over foreign and security policies ; ii) tangible deliveries from Pakistan on issues of India’s serious concerns particularly arising out of Pak-inspired/sponsored cross-border terrorism against India.

SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT, COMMUNALISM, REGIONALISM & SECULARISM

Social empowerment :

Social empowerment is a broad area of practice drawing upon social work and community development principles.

Social empowerment is understood as the process of developing a sense of autonomy and self-confidence, and acting individually and collectively to change social relationships and the institutions and discourses that exclude poor people and keep them in poverty.

Communalism :

Communalism is defined as a mechanism to energize people for or against by raising an appeal on communal lines. It is revealed in literature that Communalism is related with religious fundamentalism and intransigence. Studies have demonstrated that the communalisation was first began in nineteenth century. The British historian (James) categorized ancient period as Hindu period and medieval period as Muslim period and this ordering was further used by both the British and Indian historians. Social literature documented that in medieval period, Muslim people were underprivileged, they were also oppressed as then people of Hindu community and the ruling class included both the Muslims and Hindus. Abdul Ahmed explained that “Communalism is a social phenomenon characterized by the religion of two communities, often leading to acrimony, tension and even rioting between them”. Communalism is also described by few other eminent theorists. According to Prabha Dixit, “Communalism is a political doctrine which makes use of religious and cultural differences to achieve political ends”. It is a dominant force in Indian scenario. Many factors such as casteism, communalism and religious fundamentalism pose challenge in India that are the major threats to Secular state. They deteriorate the working and strength of democratic secular Federal state and influence against the fundamental beliefs of national life and provide means to new individuality. ‘Casteism’ and ‘Communalism’ are destroying the Indian cultural diversity.

Factors responsible for the growth of communalism in India:

— The stagnant economy of India during the British rule was an important factor for the growth of communalism in India.

–It was an expression of the interests and aspirations of the middle classes in a social set up in which opportunities for them were inadequate.

–The vested interests deliberately encouraged communalism because of its capacity to distort and divert popular struggle, to prevent the masses from understanding the real issues.

–The British rule which produced the divide and rule policy, separate electorate on the basis of religion strengthened the basis of communalism in India.

–British also favoured one community against the other in services and promotions.

–The territorial settlement of different religious groups and many contradictory variations in their mode of life, social standards and belief systems may cause communal tensions.

Regionalism :

In current global trade system, regionalism is spreading at great pace. The huge spread of regionalism is encouraged by the explosion of regional institutions that give rise to substantial academic interest in both their sources and consequences. In bulk of academic literature, Regions are described as groups of countries situated in the same geographic space but it is not clear where one region ends and the next begins. Regionalism has widely spread in Indian politics since the independence of India. It has the major basis of various regional political parties. In Indian scenario, regionalism has increased in close identification with the regions. After independence, it is a great force of conflicts as well as collaboration, which depends on the manner of accommodation. Regionalism is elaborated as situations in which different religious or ethnic groups with idiosyncratic identities exist within the same state borders, often concentrated within a particular region and share strong feelings of shared individuality.Regionalism is basically an intense feeling of a particular region or an area in preference to the nation or any other region. It often involves ethnic groups whose major objective is to get freedom from a national state and the development of their own political influence. In Indian perspective, regionalism denotes to proclamation of different ethnic, linguistic or economic interests by various groups within the nation. The second meaning of the term is regionalism at national level refers to a process in which sub-state actors become increasingly powerful, power devolves from central level to regional governments. These are the regions within country, distinguished in culture, language and other socio-cultural factors.

Causes for regional disparity :

Low rate of economic growth

Land reforms are not done properly and the feudal mentality still persists

Lower level of infrastructural facilities in backward states

Low level of social expenditure by states on education, health and sanitation

Political and administration failures which further given birth to sub-regional movements for separate states.

Secularism :

Secularism is contrasting phenomenon of communalism. It was adopted by Indian Constitution, which signifies respect for all religions and broad-mindedness of all faiths, no State religion and support or favour to any religion by the State. Secularism is a form of government process that enhance democracy and commitment to financial development.Secular India has undergone several tremors in many decades. Many professionals relate these convulsions to the nature of Indian civilization, to which they attribute centrality to religion in both personal and public matters. The Indian concept of secularism is based on respect for all religions by the state and separation of religion from public institutional practices. The obsession with the European experience supervises the historicity of the Indian phenomenon.

The process of secularisation is not alike in all societies. With technical progression, human culture has undergone the process of secularisation. In India, secularism is huge political and constitutional struggle and disagreement. The perception was promoted by Mahatma Gandhi and it has been the central model of secularism after Independence of India. Indian secularism is based on a more functional approach to the belief of equal respect and acceptance of all religions, which has allowed for the defence of religious minority rights principally through temporary special measures, which is similar to the positive action in the United States. But, the Hindu Right has progressively been trying to cast itself as main successors of India’s secular practise, that is, as promoters of new secularism.

Nature of Secularism:

–The separation of religion and state is the foundation of secularism.

–Secularism seeks to ensure and protect freedom of religious belief and practice for all citizens.

–Secularists want freedoms of thought and conscience to apply equally to all – believers and non-believers alike. They do not wish to curtail religious freedoms.

–Secularism ensures that the right of individuals to freedom of religion is always balanced by the right to be free from religion .

–In a secular democracy all citizens are equal before the law and parliament. No religious or political affiliation gives advantages or disadvantages and religious believers are citizens with the same rights and obligations as anyone else.

–Secularism champions universial human rights above religious demands. It upholds equality laws that protect women, LGBT people and minorities from religious discrimination.

Statutory, Regulatory and Various Quasi-judicial Bodies

Statutory bodies

Statutory bodies are established by acts of Parliament or State Legislatures concerned.Statutory bodies are non-constitutional bodies which make rules and regulations and take the decision on behalf of the government.As these bodies are established by the act, it derives its powers, functions, duties from the respective act.Statutory bodies are established to perform specific tasks. These are sector specific and lessen the burden on the government.Government may grant certain level of independence in its functioning, appointment of members. Though government may grant the independence and autonomy to these bodies, government needs to ensure financial prudence in its functioning.These bodies are subject to varying degrees of ministerial control which are identified in the statutory body’s enabling legislation. Ministers are accountable to Parliament for the operation of all government agencies within their ministry and are necessary to table their annual reports in Parliament.The meaning of a ‘statutory body’ may change depending upon the legislation. For example, a local council is not a statutory body for the purposes of the Financial Accountability Act, but it is for the purposes of the Statutory Bodies Financial Arrangements Act.All statutory bodies are established and operate under the provisions of their own enabling legislation, which sets out the purpose and specific powers of the agency.

Examples: National Human Rights Commission, National Green tribunal, Medical Council of India, University Grants Commission etc.

List of important statutory bodies

National Commission for Minorities

National Commission for Backward Classes

National Green Tribunal

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

National Law Commission

National Human Rights Commission

National Commission for Women

Armed Forces Tribunal

Regulatory bodies

The notion of the regulatory agency was initiated in the USA and it has been basically an American establishment. The first agency was Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), established by Congress in 1887 to control the railroads.A regulatory body also called a regulatory agency is a public authority or a government agency which is accountable for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.Regulatory agencies are generally a part of the executive branch of the government or they have statutory authority to execute their functions with oversight from the legislative branch.Their activities are generally scrutinized by the legislature. Regulatory authorities are usually established to implement standards and safety, or to oversee use of public goods and regulate business.Regulatory body, independent governmental body established by legislative act in order to set standards in a specific field of activity, or operations, in the private sector of the economy and then to enforce those standards.Regulatory agencies function outside direct executive supervision. Because the regulations that they adopt have the force of law, part of these agencies’ function is essentially legislative; but because they may also conduct hearings and pass judgments concerning adherence to their regulations, they also exercise a judicial function – often carried out before a quasi-judicial official called an administrative law judge, who is not part of the court system.Regulatory agencies became popular means of promoting fair trade and consumer protectionas problems of commerce and trade became more complex Several risks are involved in the absence of a regulatory system. The main risks of not regulating are:Excessive tariff. In adequate service level and quality Non-compliance of contractual obligations to users, government or other parties Low efficiency in production and in the provision of goods and services. In adequate level of investment in the sector Frequent discontent between the parties involved .

List of important regulatory bodies

Advertising Standards Council of India

Directorate General of Civil Aviation

Forward Markets Commission

Inland Waterways Authority of India

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority

Competition Commission of India

Biodiversity authority of India

press council of India

Reserve Bank of India

Securities and Exchange Board of India

Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

Medical Council of India

Pension fund regulatory and development authority

The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)

Quasi-military bodies

A Quasi-Judicial Body is an entity such as an arbitrator or a tribunal, generally of a Public Administrative Agency, which has powers and procedures resembling that of a Court of Law or Judge, and which is obliged to objectively determine facts and draw conclusions from them so as to provide the basis of an official action.A Quasi-Judicial Body has also been defined as “an organ of Government other than a Court or Legislature, which affects the rights of private parties either through adjudication or rulemaking”.It is not necessary that a Quasi-Judicial Body has to be a Court of Law, such as National Green Tribunal.For example, the Election Commission of India is also a Quasi-Judicial Body but does not have its core functions as a Court of Law. Finance Commission is also a quasi-judicial body but do not perform functions of court of law.Awards and judgements of quasi-judicial bodies often depend on a predetermined set of rules or punishment depending on the nature and gravity of the offence committed. Such punishment may be legally enforceable under the law of a country, it can be challenged in a court of law which is the final vital authority.

List of important Quasi judicial bodies

National Human Rights Commission

State Information Commission

State Human Rights Commission

Central Information Commission

Competition Commission of India

Appellate Tribunal for Electricity

State Electricity Regulatory Commission

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum

Banking Ombudsman

Insurance OmbudsmanIncome tax Ombudsman

Electricity Ombudsman

Railway Claims Tribunal

Income Tax Appellate Tribunal

Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal

Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

People are the supreme power in the democratic country. Accordingly the People of India solemnly resolved that India is a democratic country. As we know that the India is a largest democracy in the world. The term Democracy mentioned in the Preamble of the constitution of India in the broader sense embracing not only political democracy but also social, economic and inclusive democracy.The Indian constitution provides for the representative parliamentary democracy under which the Executive is responsible for legislature for all its policies and actions.

An Act to provide for the conduct of elections of the Houses of Parliament and to the House or Houses of the Legislature of each State, the qualifications and disqualifications for membership of those Houses, the corrupt practices and other offences at or in connection with such elections and the decision of doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with such elections.

The Representation of Peoples Act 1951 is an act enacted by the Indian provincial parliament before first general elections. The People’s Representation act provides for the actual conduct of elections in India. The act also deals with details like qualification and disqualification of members of both houses of Parliament (Loksabha and Rajyasabha) and the state legislatures (State Legislative Assembly and State Leg.

Salient features

Conducting of elections in the country.

Administrative machinery for conducting elections.

(Fixing time for poll)

Election offences.

Election disputes.

By-elections.

Registration of political parties.

Elector: It is a person whose name is on the electoral list.

Voter: who is eligible for voting but may not be on the electoral list.

The Representation of Peoples Act 1951: Section 8 deals with Disqualification of representatives on conviction for certain offences. This section states that:

A person convicted of an offence punishable under certain acts of Indian Penal Code, Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act 1967, Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, Prevention of Terrorism Act 2002 etc. shall be disqualified, where the convicted person is sentenced to — (i) only fine, for a period of six years from the date of such conviction; (ii) imprisonment, from the date of such conviction and shall continue to be disqualified for a further period of six years since his release.

A person convicted for the contravention of—(a) any law providing for the prevention of hoarding or profiteering; or (b) any law relating to the adulteration of food or drugs; or (c) any provisions of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.

A person convicted of any offence and sentenced to imprisonment for not less than two years [other than any offence referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2)] shall be disqualified from the date of such conviction and shall continue to be disqualified for a further period of six years since his release.

Notwithstanding anything 8[in sub-section (1), sub-section (2) or sub-section (3)] a disqualification under either subsection shall not, in the case of a person who on the date of the conviction is a member of Parliament or the Legislature of a State, take effect until three months have elapsed from that date or, if within that period an appeal or application for revision is brought in respect of the conviction or the sentence, until that appeal or application is disposed of by the court.

Amendments

Even if a person is prohibited from voting due to being in police custody or in jail, as long as his name is entered on the electoral roll he shall not cease to be an elector. This implies that he can file nomination for an election.

The definition of “disqualified” in the Act has been amended. Currently, the definition of disqualified means disqualified for either being chosen as or being a Member of Parliament or a State Legislature. The amendment adds a ground to the definition that the disqualification has to be due to conviction for certain specified offences and can be on no other ground. Conviction for one of these offences would result in the person’s name being removed from the electoral roll and he would cease to be an elector.

On July 10, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled that a person, who is in jail or in police custody, cannot contest elections to legislative bodies. The RPA, 1951 states that any contestant to an election to legislative bodies has to be an “elector”, i.e., his name should be on the electoral roll and he is not subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in Section 16 of the Representation of People Act, 1950. Among other things, that section disqualifies anyone from being on the electoral roll if he is disqualified from voting under the provisions of any law relating to corrupt practices and other offences in relation to elections. RPA, 1951 talks that anyone in prison or on the lawful custody of the police (other than preventive detention) is not entitled to vote.

The parliament (prevention of disqualification) amendment act, 2013 come into force on the 19th day of February, 2004. It has mentioned about the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes constituted under clause (1) of article 338 of the Constitution; the National Commission for the Scheduled Tribes constituted under clause (1) of article 338A of the Constitution

Decision making and problem solving

Introduction

It is known that good decision making and problem solving skills are essential for effective managers in today’s competitive environment. As managers make decisions every day, they are responsible for the successful achievement of the major organizational goals. Most managers believe that “to the extent their decisions are rational they contribute directly to the objectives of the organization.”Of course, all managers should take into consideration the fact that it is very important to know appropriate decision making and problem solving strategies which will help to find the right way out of this or that situation and to achieve positive outcomes.

Moreover, it is found that those managers who understand the importance of decision making is business will agree that decision making influences every aspect of business, including the employees’ retention, customers’ satisfaction, the reputation of the company in the market and managerial job security. Decision making process is closely connected with problem solving process; that is why it is the major task of any effective manager to develop good decision making and problem solving skills.

My goal in this paper is to discuss the importance of decision making and problem solving in management. In order to achieve this goal it is necessary to review the appropriate literature which will give an opportunity to analyze the above mentioned issues in a proper way. This topic is an interesting one as it gives an opportunity to understand that it is necessary to develop decision making and problem solving skills in today’s managers. Moreover, this topic is both personally and professionally rewarding and helps to find answers about the problems at work and to provide managers with a vehicle for professional advancement.

The importance of problem solving skills development

Today many managers are aware of the importance of development of problem solving skills to succeed in the competitive market. The development of these skills can be performed through learning process as well as through reflection of certain problems that occur in the development phases of business process. Moreover, problem solving skills can help to identify the most powerful influences on the managers’ perceptions of problems.

Problem solving skills should include intuition to solve some critical problems, learning, or the managers’ ability to improve past mistakes, and emotional response to problem solving. Giroux states that emotions play a significant role in “shaping how each person perceives, approaches and solves a problem.”In addition, it is found that luck and destiny also influence the managers’ ability to successfully deal with critical problems in business. Many respondents who took part in the survey used the words luck and destiny when they described the situations in which they tried to resolve critical problems. One more component of problem solving skills is self-efficacy and determination which can help managers to achieve positive outcomes in complex business situations.

Role of creativity in problem solving

It is known that creativity plays an important role in today’s management. The growth of creativity of human potential leads to successful development of our society and economy. Today companies face different problems including simple and complicated ones, absolutely new and routine ones. In most cases, they lead to “blind and automatic decisions.” The common problems most companies face in today’s business environment include development of new effective policies, implementation of changes in the workplace, creation of new products and services, and improvements of existing ones, development and implementation of more effective advertising concepts and so on. Creativity is one of the most important components in problem solving. According to the research conducted by the Institute of Prospective Technology, about 70-80% of competitiveness of business organizations are always based on new technologies and new knowledge.

Ways to speed decision making process

Today most managers understand the importance of speedy decisions in the workplace. It is known that in many cases, the organization’s decisions are moved through several organizational levels.

In order to speed decision making process, managers should eliminate the need to approve decisions by means of elimination of the layers of management. In many cases, it is very important to eliminate unnecessary paper work. Moreover, it is recommended to simplify decision making process in management because “simplification provides another route to speeding up decision making.”

Healthy decision making process involves not only creating the process and consensus building by means of inclusive discussion and critical thinking model, but also feedback from the staff members who can point out where “the successes and failures have occurred.”

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is necessary to say that decision making and problem solving are important components of managerial functions. I consider that intuitive decision making that is considered to be a bridge between unconscious and conscious decision making can help to see possible changes, identify current and future problems, manage information in a proper, and deal with conflict situations. That is why I recommend developing intuitive skills in management. It is necessary to learn to trust intuition. My personal experience proves the fact that good decision making and problem solving skills can help managers to find appropriate strategies for this or that business environment. Moreover, I am sure that in order to speed decision making process, it is necessary to eliminate unnecessary paper work and approvals, to simplify decision making process and to combine skills and knowledge of operational staff. Special attention should be paid to creativity in problem solving as creative managers are always ready to cope with any difficult situation and to achieve positive outcomes in today’s competitive business environment. I will use the information represented in this research project for both my personal and professional development.

Comprehension

Well, without proper comprehension skills, students lack the ability to understand what they read. The point of reading isn’t to make sounds in your brain or out loud, but rather, to understand important lessons, stories and arguments. Through the act of writing, our ancestors have recorded important knowledge that we can understand simply by reading. By understanding what we read, we pick up important information, understand scientific theories, past opinions and new frontiers.

Having excellent reading comprehension skills is crucial. It increases the enjoyment and effectiveness of reading and helps not only academically, but professionally, and in a person’s personal life. Imagine, for example, that your boss gives you a complicated document: you can read the words, but you cannot understand what the document is telling you. What then, is the point of being able to ‘read,’ if it can’t help you move forward?

Importance of comprehension

Comprehension is the goal of reading , however it can be considered as the most difficult skill to master, especially for English language learners. Reading comprehension can be defined as the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. An individual ‘s ability to comprehend text is influenced by their traits and skills, one of which is the ability to make inferences. If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read (Stanovich, 1986). There are a number of approaches to improve reading comprehension, including improving one ‘s vocabulary and reading strategies.

Building reading comprehension

Overwhelmed by the far-reaching implications of Reading Comprehension? Don’t be! Comprehension is actually quite simple to build. However, it will require daily, active involvement from a parent or guardian, where you guide your child through the thought processes that underly understanding any text.

Daily reading practice:

All children should spend at least half-hour daily, reading with a loved one. Not only does this foster a positive relationship with reading, but it also allows you to model the cognitive steps required to comprehend what is read.(Seriously, we can’t emphasize this enough. The research out there is endless — every child requires daily reading at home to succeed).

Make connections :

As you and your children read aloud, share experiences you have had that relate to the story and have them share theirs. Not only does this build an interest in reading, but it grounds them in the idea that there is something common and shared in the act of reading, and it invests them in the story.

Create a visual :

Sometimes children have a hard time visualizing what they just read. Help your children visualize by describing the scene, characters, and plot. You can even ask them what they are visualizing and have them draw in pencil, pen, markers, or colored pencils. They will be involved and creating their own story, which will help them get a clearer understanding of what is happening.

Check for understanding :

Whether you are reading, or your child is reading, ask key comprehension questions, periodically, while reading. Doing this not only helps you see if they are understanding what is being read, but it also teaches them what questions they should be asking themselves as they read.

Before Starting- Look at the Cover & Title! What do you think this book will be about?- Do you know anything about this topic?- What types of characters do you think will be in the story?

During Stop periodically (every paragraph or page) and ask:-. “Who?”- “What just happened?”- “Where?” At key points, you can also ask “How did it happen?” and “Why did it happen?

“As you progress through the story, make sure that your child is holding on to the story by asking “What has happened so far?

“Teach them to predict / imagine / hypothesize by asking “How do you think the character will handle the situation?

“Also, clear their doubts and give them a voice in your daily reading practice by asking “Is there anything you are wondering right now?”

After: Check to see if your child understood the text by asking- “What was the main message in the story/text?”- “Tell me the story in your own words” “What were the most important events in the story?”

Make inference and prediction :

Making inferences and predictions goes hand-and-hand with asking questions. Inferring is the ability to take clues and given knowledge from a text and conclude what will happen next. To help them infer, ask them to predict what might happen next in the story “What does the author want you to think about?” “Why do you think the character did ______?” “What do you think will happen next?” “If the story had a sequel, what do you think it would be about?”

Fix any type of confusion :

It is important to go back and re-read as soon as your child seems confused! Make sure you are tracking your child’s comprehension progress. The moment they can’t answer one of your questions, whether it’s at the first sentence or in the middle, or maybe even at the end, back up and re-read!

Remember, building Reading Comprehension will take time. Comprehension is built on phonetic awareness, reading fluency, vocabulary, and / or language arts. Stick to your daily reading practice (especially when you want to give up) and remind your child that it is important to understand every single word / sentence / paragraph / story they read.

Geology

Geology is the study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. It includes the study of organisms that have inhabited our planet. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth’s materials, structures, processes and organisms have changed over time.

The word was first used in 1778 in the work of Jean Andrea de Luc (a Swiss-born scientist who lived at Windsor for much of his life as adviser to Queen Charlotte) and at much the same time in the work of Swiss Chemist, S.B. Saucer.

Geology is a fascinating subject .

Geology feels the pulse of the earth.

Geologists contribute their part to the nation through the discovery of new deposits of rocks and minerals of economic value.A student should know what lies beneath the crust and how long back the earth came into existence.

Geology is a science of many facets and includes the study of:

1. Physical geology

It deals with the endogenous (internal) and exogenous (external) agencies and the processes that bring about changes on the earth’s surface. James Hutton is regarded as the father of physical geology.

2. Geo tectonic

It concerns with the movements of the earth’s crust and the deformations caused by them.

3. Structural geology

It deals with the configuration of the rocks in the earth’s crust produced due to a number of forces generated both exogenously and endogenously.

4. Gecmorphology

It deals with the study of landforms.

5. Crystallography

It is the study of the external forms and internal atomic structure of the crystalline minerals.

6. Mineralogy

It deals with the minerals, their composition, characteristics, modes of occurrence and origin.

7. Petrology

It deals with the origin, structure, texture, mineralogical composition etc. of the different types of rocks.

8. Stratigraphy

It deals with the strata of sedimentary rocks, their succession, thickness, age, variations and correlations, Thus it is the study of strata as a record of geological history.

9. Paleontology

(Greek-‘Palaios’ meaning ancient and ‘Ontos’ meaning being). It is the study of fossils of plants and animals that are found in the rocks of past geological periods. They indicate the climate, age and environment of deposition of the rock unit in which they are found.

10. Economic geology

It deals with the study of mineral deposits, their modes of formation, modes of occurrence, distribution etc.

Importance of Geology

i. Geology provides a systematic knowledge of construction materials, their structure and properties.

ii. The knowledge of Erosion, Transportation and Deposition (ETD) by surface water helps in soil conservation, river control, coastal and harbour works.

iii. The knowledge about the nature of the rocks is very necessary in tunneling, constructing roads and in determining the stability of cuts and slopes. Thus, geology helps in civil engineering.

iv. The foundation problems of dams, bridges and buildings are directly related with geology of the area where they are to be built.

v. The knowledge of ground water is necessary in connection with excavation works, water supply, irrigation and many other purposes.

vi. Geological maps and sections help considerably in planning many engineering projects.

vii. If the geological features like faults, joints, beds, folds, solution channels are found, they have to be suitably treated. Hence, the stability of the structure is greatly increased.

viii. Pre-geological survey of the area concerned reduces the cost of engineering.

Effects of Globalisation on Indian society

Globalization -A process of the “reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is no longer wholly mapped in terms of territorial places, territorial distances and territorial borders.”

Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, organizations, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.

It includes the creation of networks and pursuits transforming social, economical, and geographical barriers. Globalisation tries to build links in such a way that the events in India can be determined by the events happening distances away.To put it in other words, globalisation is the method of interaction and union among people, corporations, and governments universally.

Effects of Globalisation in India

India is one of the countries that succeeded significantly after the initiation and implementation of globalisation. The growth of foreign investment in the field of corporate, retail, and the scientific sector is enormous in the country.

It also had a tremendous impact on the social, monetary, cultural, and political areas. In recent years, globalisation has increased due to improvements in transportation and information technology. With the improved global synergies, comes the growth of global trade, doctrines, and culture.

Globalization in the Indian economy

Indian society is changing drastically after urbanisation and globalisation. The economic policies have had a direct influence in forming the basic framework of the economy.

Economic policies established and administered by the government also performed an essential role in planning levels of savings, employment, income, and investments in the society.

Cross country culture is one of the critical impacts of globalisation on Indian society. It has significantly changed several aspects of the country, including cultural, social, political, and economical.

However, economic unification is the main factor that contributes maximum to a country’s economy into an international economy.

What are the factors aiding globalization ?

1) TECHNOLOGY :- has reduced the speed of communication manifolds. The phenomenon of social media in the recent world has made distance insignificant.

The integration of technology in India has transformed jobs which required specialized skills and lacked decision-making skills to extensively-defined jobs with higher accountability that require new skills, such as numerical, analytical, communication and interactive skills. As a result of this, more job opportunities are created for people.

2) LPG REFORM :- The 1991 reforms in India have led to greater economic liberalisation which has in turn increased India’s interaction with the rest of the world.

3) FASTER TRANSPORTATION :- Improved transport, making global travel easier. For example, there has been a rapid growth in air-travel, enabling greater movement of people and goods across the globe.

4) RISE OF WTO :- The formation of WTO in 1994 led to reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers across the world. It also led to the increase in the free trade agreements among various countries.

5) IMPROVED MOBILITY OF CAPITAL:- In the past few decades there has been a general reduction in capital barriers, making it easier for capital to flow between different economies. This has increased the ability for firms to receive finance. It has also increased the global interconnectedness of global financial markets.

6) RISE OF MNCs: Multinational corporations operating in different geographies have led to a diffusion of best practices. MNCs source resources from around the globe and sell their products in global markets leading to greater local interaction.These factors have helped in economic liberalization and globalization and have facilitated the world in becoming a “global village”. Increasing interaction between people of different countries has led to internationalization of food habits, dress habits, lifestyle and views.

Impact of Globalisation

Outsourcing: This is one of the principal results of the globalisation method. In outsourcing, a company recruits regular service from the outside sources, often from other nations, that was earlier implemented internally or from within the nation (like computer service, legal advice, security, each presented by individual departments of the corporation, and advertisement).

As a kind of economic venture, outsourcing has increased, in recent times, because of the increase in quick methods of communication, especially the growth of information technology (IT).Many of the services such as voice-based business processes (commonly known as BPS, BPO, or call centres), accountancy, record keeping, music recording, banking services, book transcription, film editing, clinical advice, or teachers are being outsourced by the companies from the advanced countries to India.

Conclusion

At last we can conclude that Globalization and marginalization go hand in hand in India. With millions of poor farmers, rural laborers, urban unemployed, slum-dwellers, 3 million refugees, 100 million street children, and the millions displaced by ‘the development’ projects, poverty in this era of globalization has assumed new dimensions. The question of “are the poor getting poorer?” related to inequality both nationally and internationally. It is apparent that in order to ensure that the potential gains from globalization are shared among all groups (rich and poor countries and between groups within a country) major reforms may be needed. As Amartya Sen states, “Even if the poor were to get just a little richer, this would not necessarily imply that the poor were getting a fair share of the potentially vast benefits of global economic interrelations.”

Anthropology

For the past century, Anthropology has come to be known as a study of an infinite curiosity about humans. Not only concerned with an interest in human beings and their developements, Anthropology is much more broad in concept of trying to understand the relationships between human beings and all possible questions about them. Anthropology is trying to understand all aspects of human beings through the broad discovery, study, interpretation and inference of past and present cultural characteristics. In appling the knowledge aquired, one can gain an understanding of individuals in society, regardless of the resulting conclusion being right or wrong.

The scope of anthropology is much more broad than that of other disciplines ofscience.…show more content…Motivated by the will to eliminate error and inaccurate theory, Anthropology seeks to find consistent data for analysis of human exsistence. By removing skeptic ideals, Anthropologists can form a widley accepted explanation of human developement through time.

There are different branches of Anthropology and each of them enhances our understanding of us by recourse to theory and practical application of the theory to the questions concerning our human existence.

History of anthropology

The modern discourse of anthropology crystallized in the 1860s, fired by advances in biology, philology, and prehistoric archaeology. In The Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin affirmed that all forms of life share a common ancestry. Fossils began to be reliably associated with particular geologic strata, and fossils of recent human ancestors were discovered, most famously the first Neanderthal specimen, unearthed in 1856. In 1871 Darwin published The Descent of Man, which argued that human beings shared a recent common ancestor with the great African apes. He identified the defining characteristic of the human species as their relatively large brain size and deduced that the evolutionary advantage of the human species was intelligence, which yielded language and technology.

Branches of anthropology

Anthropology is the study of evolution of culture and societal origins of humankind. The subject of Anthropology concerns itself with the study of all aspects of human existence.

Compared to other subjects like Economics and the Social Sciences, Anthropology covers a wide gamut of fields and sub-topics that range from cultural studies to evolution to organization of societies. Hence, there are different branches of Anthropology within the main grouping and we discuss some of them here. Among the branches of Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology refers to that field of study that concerns itself with studying the logic behind cultural norms. During the course of studying cultures, cultural anthropologists live with the cultures that they are studying and observe the norms and rituals that these cultures follow and research the underlying reasons for them. For instance, we in the US might find scarring of the bodies to be bizarre. However, there are tribes in Africa where this is the accepted norm and hence this branch of Anthropology brings us insights into different cultures around the world.

Importance of anthropology

If you ask people about the importance of Anthropology, you would different answers depending on whom you ask.

The fact that Anthropology is important as a discipline is universally recognized and acknowledged by experts in the field. As humans, we are inquisitive and curious by nature. We want to know where we came from, why we are the way we are. We turn to different explanations offered by different subjects like economics, biology and history. And, Anthropology is the one field that can provide comprehensive answers that tie in the different strands of thought from all these fields. Hence, Anthropology and its study are indeed important from the perspective of knowing more about us.

Anthropology has different branches and each of the branches provides for a certain aspect of the inquiry into our origins and evolution as a species. For instance, the study of language is the domain of linguistic anthropology. We all know that there are different languages spoken around the world and dialects among these languages as well. To know more about the linkages between these different languages and the differences that exist in the use of words is something that Anthropologists explain.

What is cultural anthropology ?

Cultural anthropologists study the similarities and differences among living societies and cultural groups. Through immersive fieldwork, living and working with the people one is studying, cultural anthropologists suspend their own sense of what is “normal” in order to understand other people’s perspectives. Beyond describing another way of life, anthropologists ask broader questions about humankind: Are human emotions universal or culturally specific? Does globalization make us all the same, or do people maintain cultural differences? For cultural anthropologists, no aspect of human life is outside their purview. They study art, religion, healing, natural disasters, and even pet cemeteries. While many anthropologists are at first intrigued by human diversity, they come to realize that people around the world share much in common.

While cultural anthropologists traditionally conduct fieldwork in faraway places, they are increasingly turning their gaze inward to observe their own societies or subgroups within them. For instance, in the 1980s, American anthropologist Philippe Bourgois sought to understand why pockets of extreme poverty persist amid the wealth and overall high quality of life in the United States. To answer this question, he lived with Puerto Rican crack dealers in East Harlem, New York. He contextualized their experiences both historically in terms of their Puerto Rican roots and migration to the U.S. and in the present as they experienced social marginalization and institutional racism. Rather than blame the crack dealers for their poor choices or blame our society for perpetuating inequality, he argued that both individual choices and social structures can trap people in the overlapping worlds of drugs and poverty (Bourgois 2003). For more about Bourgois, please see the interview with him in the learning resources, Anthropology in Our Moment in History .

Summary

Social anthropology can and should be part of the interdisciplinary study of human origins. Anthropological theory and ethnographic comparison can easily be brought into the frameworks of both primary research and intellectual debate on the subject. I would go further: the study of human origins can and should be a legitimate subdiscipline within social anthropology. I hope I have demonstrated that its inclusion among the sciences dealing with this issue is warranted and that its contribution could be considerable.From within social anthropology the contribution of the discipline might at first seem more speculative than that of some other disciplines, but social anthropology is a qualitative social science by nature. It need not be any more speculative than, say, archaeology or human genetics – disciplines in which plausibility and likelihood are often sufficient for the construction of hypotheses and even for longstanding and widely accepted theories. No modern scientist has ever seen the origin of tool-making, the development of language, a symbolic revolution or a migration which has led to the colonization of an empty continent. In this, social anthropology is on exactly the same footing as archaeology or human genetics. The only difference is that genetics and archaeology rely on ‘hard data’, which are almost invariably either material (in the case of archaeology) or quantitative, or at least involving careful sampling (in the case of genetics). After that, the rest (for archaeologists and geneticists) is pure inference and deduction.

Interpersonal skills including communication skills

Strong interpersonal skills are important for employers because most jobs require you to effectively interact with other people. These skills are now vital for success in the workplace.

Interpersonal communication is the process of sharing ideas and emotions verbally and nonverbally with another person. It allows us to interact with and understand others in our personal and professional lives. In the workplace, hiring managers often look for employees with strong interpersonal skills who will collaborate and communicate well with their colleagues. In this article, we will describe the importance of interpersonal skills in your career.

In this article, we discuss different types of interpersonal communication skills.

What are interpersonal skills ?

Interpersonal skills—also known as people skills—are the soft skills you use to communicate with and understand others. You use these skills daily when interacting with people face-to-face .

Key interpersonal communication skills?

Effective interpersonal communication skills are required to form connections and establish relationships. There are many different types – we have described eleven of the most important skills:

Active listening

Active listening is listening beyond the words being spoken – understanding the message being communicated. During conversations, a lot of the time the “listener” is thinking about how they’re going to respond rather than concentrating on what the speaker is saying.By really listening you can provide a more thoughtful answer that takes the speaker’s thoughts and opinions into account. This will help people around you understand that you value and appreciate them.

Body language

Your posture, expression and gestures can say just as much as your words. When communicating with coworkers and managers, practice open body language to encourage trust and positivity. Open body language includes nodding, maintaining eye contact, smiling and being relaxed. Avoid closed body language such as crossed arms, restless behavior and shifting your eyes.

Conflict resolution

It’s likely that you’ll need to resolve a conflict at some point. Active listening and problem-solving are useful for this as you’ll need to hear from all sides objectively and you’ll need to come to a positive resolution.Resolving conflict is not always a negative experience – it can be very constructive and provide you with an understanding of underlying problems, for example, perhaps a team member is having difficulties at home which is making them more irritable.By forming a plan with those involved, you can help them move forward and manage their difficulties. They may have never experienced this constructive help before your mediation.

Collaborate

Working collaboratively allows teams to work productively and deliver positive outcomes for clients and the business.Successful collaboration requires the ability to cooperate and respect each other.Employers often seek applicants who have a proven track record working successfully within a team and candidates who are willing to compromise and cooperate to deliver exceptional work.

Team work

For a business to function effectively people must work well together in order to achieve a common goal. Some people struggle with teamwork because they believe that they know how to do the job better than anyone else and they do not trust others to do their roles. This can create conflict and hurt the overall effectiveness of the team.If this is something you find difficult assist your colleagues whenever you can and ask your colleagues for their opinions and ideas – be enthusiastic when colleagues offer their own ideas.

Positive attitude

People want to be around others that are friendly and have a positive outlook even when the company may be in a difficult situation. You don’t have to be incredibly sociable but you must develop some type of positive rapport with your team so that the workplace is pleasant for everybody.

Empathy

To be empathetic means that you are able to identify and understand others’ emotions i.e. imagining yourself in someone else’s position. Being empathetic shows your team that you care. For example, if a manager reacts angrily after finding out that an employee has been arriving to work late because their child is unwell, the team is likely to react negatively towards the manager.

It would be more favourable for the manager to be understanding and agree on a plan of action with the employee, such as, the employee starting work earlier and finishing later. Employees and colleagues will respect and trust you more if you empathise with them and express compassion.

Also, understanding how people feel will help you communicate your thoughts and ideas in a way that makes sense to others and it helps you understand others when they communicate.

Why interpersonal skills are important ?

Interpersonal skills are important for communicating and working with groups and individuals in your personal and professional life. People with strong interpersonal skills tend to build good relationships and can work well with others. They understand family, friends, coworkers and clients well. People often enjoy working with colleagues who have good interpersonal skills.

Other benefits of interpersonal skills include the ability to solve problems and make good decisions. You can use interpersonal communication skills and the ability to understand others to come to the best solution or make the best decision for everyone involved.

Many employers try to hire staff with strong interpersonal skills because these individuals often work well on teams and collaborate with their colleagues effectively. People with interpersonal skills also tend to make good leaders because of their ability to communicate with and motivate those around them.

In summary

Your job performance will improve if you develop your interpersonal skills because you will be more of a cohesive member of the company. It’s also likely that your job satisfaction will increase because you will form stronger relationships with your colleagues.By becoming more aware of how you interact with others and by practicing you can improve your interpersonal communication skills.

Self Improvement / personal development

Are you also looking for self Improvement tips ? Well you’re not alone .

Everyone tries their best to get ahead in life with the best version of themselves. But how many are successful in doing so, well not many people. It is essential to have a good relationship with your inner self; only then we can achieve overall growth.

In this article, we talk about proven self-improvement ideas to change your life. The reason it is advised to have a clear vision of your goals, and if you stay connected to yourself, you are more likely to succeed.

Ever since we were young, we were told to excel in academics, focus on getting good grades and ace our exams. In schools and colleges, the learning has always been more directed towards academic courses but what about aspects like self-improvement and personal development that play an equally important role in people’s lives?

Self Improvement Skills You Should Start Using Today:

Improve your sleep patterns

Today, many sleep disorders like insomnia are having negative implications for people’s health. Insomnia, in turn, is associated with many life-threatening diseases such as cancer, chronic pain, hypertension, arthritis, fibromyalgia, and depression. Sleep is also very important for resetting your body and brain functions. There are many animals that go into hibernation in order to reset their bodies. For example, Grizzly bears and polar bears go for six months in hibernation; or snails can hibernate for as many as three years! Clearly, sleep is important for every living being as much as it is for humans. Maybe we should learn a little bit from nature.

Be Grateful-

Being grateful makes you understand the importance of what you have. The people around you, the place you are at, is what everyone should be thankful for. Only then will we appreciate the little things in life when we start giving them the deserved value. It will help you lift your spirit and also allow you to learn gratitude.

“Start your every day with a positive thought and a grateful heart”

As a personal development tip, one should learn to be grateful for everyone around them. Begin your day with gratitude, and you will start to see the difference between the attitude towards your life.

Love yourself-

This is the main key to self-development. We have heard it many times, but to apply this in our lives is very important. When we learn to love ourselves, we gain more than just confidence. It gives us the ability to love others as well, embrace the changes life throws at us.

“Love yourself first and everything else falls into line . You really have to love yourself to get anything done in this world”

Never depend on others solely for your happiness; it can end up in heartache. But if you have a good relationship with yourself, you will respect yourself. Also, this will give you the courage to move out of your comfort zone.Complimenting yourself each day will help you and try to make it a practice because why wait for others to do it. As if you learn to love and respect yourself, then this is how you teach others to treat you.

Follow your passion

Often people complain about not doing what they are best at. But they are not successful or happy, are they? This is why one must learn to follow the passion in their life, be it as a professional or as an additional activity. But one must always spend time following their passion. This fills your heart with contentment, and it is important to be happy for self-improvement.

Passion is energy . Feel the power that comes from focusing on what excites you”

One must feel the kind of energy that comes from within when they are doing something they are passionate about. This is all about learning to do something with love as it gives you a purpose.

Being self-dependent

This way, you can help yourself get back together even when you fall. It’s much easier to pick yourself back up if you are not waiting on someone else to help you. It is essential to learn to become self-dependent. It not only gives you a sense of confidence but also builds self-reliance, which is good in ways to improve yourself every day.

Expect more from yourself than from others”

Our entire lives can not be relied on by other people, and it should be changed as we grow up. This is a necessary change for everyone as it gives you a chance to learn more about yourself.

Practice self care

What is self care ? Self-care encourages you to maintain a healthy relationship with yourself so that you can transmit the good feelings to others. You cannot give to others what you don’t have yourself. While some may misconstrue self-care as selfish, it’s far from that. When you pay adequate attention to your well-being, you’re not considering your needs alone. You’re reinvigorating yourself so that you can be the best version of yourself for the people around you. Everyone around you also benefits from the renewed energy and joy you exhibit.

“Self care is how you take your power back”

Rrapping up :

We hope these self-improvement tips will drive you to a change that leads to a happy life. Remember, no matter what people say, you know what’s best for you. These tips are only to help you improve yourself in case you are looking for some. We do not encourage you to self-sabotage or degrade yourself; each person is unique in its way.

General mental ability

General mental ability (GMA) tests are one of the most valid construct-based predictors of job performance and training success.

Thousands of validity studies and many meta-analyses have shown that they are excellent predictors of different organizational criteria, such as supervisory ratings, work sample tests, job knowledge acquisition, grades, production records, instructor ratings, promotions, sales, and wages, and that the correlation between GMA and performance appears to be similar across jobs that differ considerably in content (Schmidt and Hunter, 1998; Murphy, 2002; Ones et al., 2012; Schmitt, 2014; Salgado, 2017a; Berges et al., 2018; Rodríguez and López-Basterra, 2018).

Influences of mental ability

The influence of general mental ability, self-esteem and family socioeconomic status on leadership role occupancy and leader advancement as well as the moderating role of gender in these relationships.

The influence of general mental ability on the two leadership variables was not significant for either males or females, but the difference in its effect on the initial status of supervisory scope for males and females was significant. These results suggest that self-esteem plays an important role in leadership role occupancy and leader advancement and that the influence of family socioeconomic status on leader advancement is contingent on gender.

Let’s talk about the General mental ability in children

General mental ability in School Children has been a concern for researchers for a long time now. This is mainly because of its relationship with academic success in school. If a child has the right mental ability, then he or she can excel in academic subjects like History, Math, Science, Language Arts, and Mathematics.

The main purpose of the present research concerning general mental ability was to determine the various types of non-verbal problem-solving abilities among elementary school children. The test had two types-non-verbal, each having five subtests-parallel reasoning, naming the objects, pattern-building, association-making, and counting.

The number of children’s test will depend on the age of the children and the length of time they have been in school. For example, a sample of children from six months to eight years old and one sample of children from ten to twelve years old are given a test. The number of children who show average scores of about 60 percent and above in both kinds of tests is known as ‘average intelligence’. However, the results do not mean that all of them have the same intelligence level. This means that it is not possible for children to be classified as having average intelligence based on these general mental ability studies alone.

Generally, if a child has good results in these general mental ability tests, he or she will become successful in his or her life. The child will also have many friends who will listen to him or her talk about his or her experiences in school. and his or her school performance. He or she will be seen by many people as a bright and successful child.

Adolecense mental ability

Adolescence is a crucial period for developing and maintaining social and emotional habits important for mental well-being. These include adopting healthy sleep patterns; taking regular exercise; developing coping, problem-solving, and interpersonal skills; and learning to manage emotions. Supportive environments in the family, at school and in the wider community are also important. An estimated 10-20% of adolescents globally experience mental health conditions, yet these remain underdiagnosed and undertreated(1).

Some adolescents are at greater risk of mental health conditions due to their living conditions, stigma, discrimination or exclusion, or lack of access to quality support and services. These include adolescents living in humanitarian and fragile settings; adolescents with chronic illness, autism spectrum disorder, an intellectual disability or other neurological condition; pregnant adolescents, adolescent parents, or those in early and/or forced marriages; orphans; and adolescents from minority ethnic or sexual backgrounds or other discriminated groups.

Emotional disorders

Emotional disorders commonly emerge during adolescence. In addition to depression or anxiety, adolescents with emotional disorders can also experience excessive irritability, frustration or anger.

Suicide and self-harm

An estimated 62 000 adolescents died in 2016 as a result of self-harm. Suicide is the third leading cause of death in older adolescents (15-19 years). Nearly 90% of the world’s adolescents live in low-or middle-income countries and more than 90% of adolescent suicides are among adolescents living in those countries. Risk factors for suicide are multifaceted, including harmful use of alcohol, abuse in childhood, stigma against help-seeking, barriers to accessing care and access to means. Communication through digital media about suicidal behaviour is an emerging concern for this age group.

Risk-taking behaviour

Many risk-taking behaviours for health, such as substance use or sexual risk taking, start during adolescence.

Risk-taking behaviours can be both an unhelpful strategy to cope with poor mental health and can severely impact an adolescent’s mental and physical well-being.Worldwide, the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking among adolescents aged 15­-19 years was 13.6% in 2016, with males most at risk

Conclusion

The aims of this study were to identify and evaluate the types of mental health self-care support used by, and available to, CYP and their parents, and to establish how such support interfaces with statutory and non-statutory service provision. Through two inter-related systematic reviews, a mapping exercise and a case study, we are confident that we have achieved these aims. Moreover, in doing so, we have developed a model of self-care support that can help policy-makers and practitioners make decisions about the organisation and delivery of mental health self-care support for CYP and their families, and help researchers identify gaps in the knowledge base that might be resolved with future research in this area.

Issue related to poverty and Hunger

Introduction

Poverty has many faces , which have been changing from place to place and across time , and has been described in many ways. Most offen , poverty is a situation that people want to escape .

While addressing the constituent Assembly in 1947 , Jawaharlal Nehru had said, ” This achievement (Independence) is but a step , an opening of opportunity , to the great triumphs and achievements that awaits us… the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity .

Catergorizing Poverty :

For the purpose of defining poverty They divided people into two categories; the poor and the non-poor and the poverty line separates the two. However, there are many kinds of poor; the absolutely poor, the very poor and the poor.

Similarly there are various kinds of non-poor; the middle class, the upper middle class , the rich, the very rich and the absolutely rich . Think of this as a line or continue from the very poor to the absolutely rich with the poverty line dividing the poor from the non-poor.

“Overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity. It is an act of justice. It is the protection of a fundamental human right , the right to dignity and a decent life” ____ Nelson Mandela

Main causes of poverty in india:

Rapidly rising population: The population during the 45 years has increased at the rate of 2.2% per annum. On average 17 million people are added every year to its population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.

Low productivity in agriculture:- The level of productivity in agriculture is low due to subdivided and fragmented holding, lack of capital , use of traditional methods of cultivation , illiteracy etc. This is the main cause of poverty in india.

Under utilised resources :- The extences of under employment disguise unemployment of human resources has resulted in low production in agricultural sector . This brought a down fall in their standard of living.

Low rate of economic development:- The rate of economic development in india has been below the required level. Therefore , there persist a gap between level of availability and requirements of goods and services . The net result is poverty .

conclusion

Food insecurity and hunger have been constants throughout history. During times such as the Great Depression, the government has stepped up in an effort to help those suffering.

Today, there are still many in similar situations, although the problem of hunger has become invisible. The government is still making efforts to aid those in need, and thanks to research and media coverage, the issue of food insecurity is becoming more transparent. Communities and colleges are also battling social stigmas and lending a hand to those suffering from hunger.