10 Good communication skills

Being able to communicate effectively is an essential skill. Whether it’s in our business life or our personal relationships, effective communication is the key to our success.



Life coaching for effective communication is a fantastic way to learn and attain this skill. Through a number of communication models, I’ll show you how to get ahead and stay ahead.



Here are my top ten essential skills for effective communication. Master these skills now, and they’ll serve you well for a long time to come!



1. Listening



One of the most important aspects of effective communication is being a good listener.



People do not like communicating with others who are only interested in telling you what they want to tell you, and don’t listen to what you have to say. Effective communication requires active listening, so practice active listening until it becomes second nature to you.



So what is active listening? Active listening involves hearing and understanding what a person is saying to you. Unless you understand clearly what a person is telling you, you can’t respond appropriately. Gain clarification by asking questions or rephrase what you’re being told, so that you’re sure you fully understand the message that’s being conveyed to you. For example, you could say “So, what you’re saying is…”



2. Non-Verbal Communication



The words we choose make up just 7% of the message being conveyed, which makes non-verbal communication all the more important. Body language is an important communication tool. Your body language should help convey your words. Other factors you should consider are things like the tone of your voice, your hand gestures, and ensuring eye contact.



A person is going to be encouraged to speak openly with you if you are relaxed and have a friendly tone. Adopt an open stance position, with relaxed legs and open arms. It is important that you make eye contact with the person you are communicating with, but be careful that you do not stare at them, as this is just uncomfortable. It is just as important that you recognise the non-verbal signals being displayed by the other person. These signals will give you an insight into how that person is feeling.



3. Be Clear and Be Concise



Convey your message using as few words as possible. Whether in person, via telephone, or email, convey your message clearly, concise and direct. If you are excessive with your words, the listener will either lose focus or just be unsure as to what it is that you want. Before speaking give some thought as to the message you want to convey. This will prevent you rambling and causing confusion.



4. Be Personable



When communicating face to face with someone, use a friendly tone with a simple smile, and ask a personal question. These things encourage the other person to engage in honest, open communication. When using written communication (e.g. email), you can achieve this by adding a simple personal message, for example, “How was your weekend?”.



5. Be Confident



Confidence underpins all effective communication. Other people will believe you will do as you say if you sound confident. Making eye contact, using a firm but friendly tone (never aggressive), are all ways you can exude confidence. Remember to always be listening to the other person and looking out for those nonverbal clues.



6. Empathy



Empathy is the skill of being able to understand and share the feelings of another person.



Even if don’t agree with the person you’re communicating with, it’s very important that you understand and respect their view. Simply saying to that person “I understand what you’re saying”, will let them know that you have been listening to them, and that you respect their point of view.



7. Always Have An Open Mind



Being an effective communicator requires that every conversation is approached with a flexible, open mind. This isn’t always easy to achieve, but is very important to communicating effectively. Always engage in active listening, and be sure to demonstrate empathy by acknowledging you understand what the other person’s point of view is. Adopting this approach will always ensure honest, productive communication.



8. Convey Respect



Other people will be more likely to engage in communication with you if you respect them and their ideas. Simply addressing another person using their name, will make them feel appreciated. If communicating via telephone, always keep focused on the conversation and avoid being distracted in any way. When communicating through email, take time to construct and edit your message, taking care to address the recipient by name.



9. Give and Receive Feedback



Giving and receiving appropriate feedback is an essential communication skill, particularly for those of us whose roles include managing other people. Providing constructive feedback, as well as giving someone praise, can greatly increase motivation and build morale.



It is just as important that you accept and encourage feedback from others. Always listen to feedback and act positively on it. If you’re unsure about any aspect of the feedback, simply ask a question to gain clarification from the other person.



10. Consider The Best Medium for The Job!



The final item on my list is knowing what the best form of communication is to use. Being mindful of using the best form of communication will result in your response being a positive one. Consider things such as, who it is you’re trying to communicate with, how important the topic is, and how busy that person might be. For example, asking your boss for a raise is never going to be taken seriously if you do it by text – so consider what’s appropriate!

Covid -19 vaccine


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Equitable access to safe and effective vaccines is critical to ending the COVID-19 pandemic, so it is hugely encouraging to see so many vaccines proving and going into development. WHO is working tirelessly with partners to develop, manufacture and deploy safe and effective vaccines.

Safe and effective vaccines are a game-changing tool: but for the foreseeable future we must continue wearing masks, cleaning our hands, ensuring good ventilation indoors, physically distancing and avoiding crowds.

Being vaccinated does not mean that we can throw caution to the wind and put ourselves and others at risk, particularly because research is still ongoing into how much vaccines protect not only against disease but also against infection and transmission.

See WHO’s landscape of COVID-19 vaccine candidates for the latest information on vaccines in clinical and pre-clinical development, generally updated twice a week. WHO’s COVID-19 dashboard, updated daily, also features the number of vaccine doses administered globally.

But it’s not vaccines that will stop the pandemic, it’s vaccination. We must ensure fair and equitable access to vaccines, and ensure every country receives them and can roll them out to protect their people, starting with the most vulnerable.

Trigger on DDL statement

This trigger gets fired when DDL statement such as CREATE, ALTER, or DROP command is issued. DDL triggers canbe associated with the database or with a schema. Moreover depending on the time of firing of trigger, this tigger canbe classified into BEFORE and AFTER. Hence the triggers van DDL statements can be as follows: – BEFORE CREATE and AFTER CREATE triggers fire when a schema object is created in the database or schema. – BEFORE ALTER and AFTER ALTER triggers fire when a schema object is altered in the database or schema. – BEFORE DROP and AFTER DROP triggers fire when a schema object is dropped from the database or schema. Example : Let us create a trigger called “no_drop_pass” that fires before dropping any object on the schema of the user with username “jyo”.It checks whether the object type and name. If the object name is ” passenger_det”and object type is table, it raises an application error and presents dropping of the table. The syntax for creating the trigger is as follows. SQL> connect Enter user-name :system Enter password :******* Connected. SQL>CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER no_drop_pass 2 BEFORE DROP ON JYO. SCHEMA 3 DECLARE 4 MESSAGE VARCHAR2 (1000) := 5 ‘No drop allowed on’ 6 DICTIONARY_ OBJECT_OWNER || ‘-‘|| 7 DICTIONARY_OBJECT_NAME ||’from’|| LOGIN_USER; 8 BEGIN 9 IF DICTIONARY_OBJ_OWNER = ‘JYO’ AND 10 DICTIONARY_OBJ_NAME = ‘PASSENGER_DET’ AND 11 DICTIONARY_OBJ_TYPE = ‘TABLE’ 12 THEN 13 RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20905, MESSAGE) ; 14 END IF; 15 END; 16 / Trigger created. The trigger is executed as shown below. SQL>connect Enter user-name: JYO Enter password : ***** Connected. SQL> drop table passenger_det; drop table passenger_det * ERROR at line 1: ORA-00604 : error occurred at recursive SQL level 1 ORA-20905 : No drop allowed on JYO. PASSENGER_DET from JYO ORA-06512 : at line 11

The evolution of Database Management system

The main objective of the database is to ensure that data can be stored and retrieved easily and effectively. It is a compilation of data (records) in a structured way. In a database, the information is stored in a tabular form where data may or may not interlinked. Hence we cam say that basically database is a compilation of database files and each database file is further a collection of records.

The chronological order of the development of DBMS is as follows 1. Flat Files (1970s-1990s) 2. Hierarchical (1970s-1990s) 3. Network (1970s- 1990s) 4. Relational (1980s-present) 5. Object-Oriented (1990s- present) 6. Object-Relational (1990s-present) 7. Web enabled (1990s-present) 1.Flat Files (1970s-1990s) : Flat files database is a database that stores information in a single file or table. In text file, every line contains one record where fields either have fixed length or they are separated by commas, whitespaces, tabs or any records and they cannot contain multiple tables as well. 2.Hierarchical (1970s-1990s) : As the name indicates, hierarchical database contains data in a hierarchically-arranged data. More Perceptively it can parent can have many children but one child can only have one parent i. e.,; one-to-many relationship. Its hierarchical structure contains levels or segments which are equivalent to the file system’s record type. All attributes of a specific record are listed under the entity type. 3.Network database (1970s -1990s) : The inventor of network model is Charles Bachmann. Unlike hierarchical database model, network database allows multiple parent and child relationships i. e., it maintains many-to many relationship. Network database is basically a graph structure. The network database model was created to achieve three main objectives: . To represent complex data relationship more effectively. . To improve the performance of the database. . To improve a database standard. 4.Realationl database (1980s-present) : Relationship database model was proposed by E. F. Codd. After the hierarchical and network model the birth of this model was huge step ahead. It allows the entities to be related through a common attribute. In the table there are alternative keys. This property makes this model extremely flexible. 5.Object – oriented database (1990s -present) : Object-Oriented database management system is that database system in which the data or information is presented in the form of objects, much like in object-Oriented programming language. Furthermore, object oriented DBMS also facilitate the user by offering transportation support, language for various queries, and indexing options. Also, these database systems have the ability to handle data efficiently over multiple servers. Unlike relationship database object-oriented database works in the framework of real programming language like JAVA or C++. 6. Object- relationship database (1990s-present) : Defined in simple teams, an object relationship database management system displays a modified object- oriented user- display over the already implemented relationship database management system. When various software interact with this modified- database management system, they will customarily operate in a manner such that data is assumed to be saved as objects. The basic working of this database management system is that is translated the useful data into organized tables distributed in rows and columns, and from then onwards, it manages data thr same way done in s relational database system. Similarly, when the data is to be accessed by the user, it is again translated from processed to complex form.