Sphinx, a mythological creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion. It is a prominent figure in Egyptian, Greek and Asian mythology.

1.Sphinx of Egyptian Mythology

Ancient Egyptian culture has introduced the sphinx first. Egyptian built sphinx as a defender to guard crucial areas such as temples and tombs. Then Greek and Asian cultures adopted the concept of sphinx to enhance their mythology. The Sphinx represents the king’s intelligence and lion’s strength.

The Great Sphinx of Giza

The Great Sphinx of Giza located in Giza, near Cairo, Egypt. The most famous and the oldest statue in the world. Lion’s body and a human head of Great Sphinx represents Ra- Horakhty , powerful sun god and it built as a protector for the doors of the temples. It was called Horus of the Necropolis and Horus of the Horizon, god of sun that stands above the horizon. According to archaeologist , it was built in 2500 BC and 4500 years old . And it would have taken the time of 3 years for 100 workers. The Sphinx , made from a massive piece of limestone with 240 feet long and 66 feet high.

Some believe, Khafre , fourth king of the dynasty of Egypt built the great sphinx. Some believe , Redjedef (Khafre’s older brother)built the great sphinx to commemorate their father, Khufu (who built the second great Pyramid). According to some theorists, the sphinx face resembles closely with the Khufu’s face than Khafre.

Alec Derwent Hope, in his poem, Australia, mentioned about Sphinx. He symbolises Sphinx for intelligence and power.

Those endless, outstretched paws

Of sphinx demolished or stone lion worn away (4).

2. Sphinx of Greek Mythology

Sphinx in greek mythology has the haunches of a lion and head of a woman with wings of a bird . She is considered merciless, cruel creature. It is believed that the Greek sphinx killed many passers-by if they failed to answer for the riddle of the sphinx.

Death of the Sphinx

The Sphinx killed herself after Oedipus , the King of Thebes , correctly answered for her riddle. Travelling towards Thebes , he encountered that Thebes plagued by tha Sphinx . When Oedipus solved the riddle , the Sphinx killed herself.

Sphinx’s Riddle:

Question: What goes on four feet in the morning, two feet at noon, and three feet in the evening ?

Answer : a person , a person as a baby in the morning of their life crawls on four feet (hands and knees). As an in the noon of their life, they walk on two feet. But when they are old, in the evening of their life, they walk with a cane , on three feet.

3. Sphinx of Asian mythology

Asian sphinx has its influenced on Egyptian sphinx but with some difference. The Sphinx of Asian mythology appeared with wings in the leonine body.

The Sphinx is known as Purushamriga or Purushamirukam (human beast) in South India. It is found in temples and palaces in sculptural art form. It is believed that Sphinx ward off evil and take away sins of the devotees.

The Sphinx is known as narasimha or man- lion in Sri Lanka and considered as the fourth reincarnation of Mahavishnu (deity).

Some archaeologist believe that there are chambers underneath the Sphinx. Zahi Hawass , Egyptian archaeologist affirmed the presence of tunnels in the Sphinx.

Therefore, the Sphinx has its many unsolved mysteries that evokes the curiosity of archaeologists to do research on Sphinx.


Nebula, a cloud of dust and gas inside a galaxy. If the gas glows, Nebulae become visible, or if the cloud reflects starlight or obscures light from more distant objects.

Nebula, the term refers exclusively to interstellar medium. All nebulae that appeared in the Milky way galaxy are forms of interstellar matter. Solid grains of cosmic dust accompanied with gas between the stars. Depending on the spatial situation, temperature and density of the material appearance differs.

Fairy uniform chemical composition that corresponds to the composition of universal atoms, 90 percent hydrogen, and remaining are nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, neon and other elements.

Nebulae are divided into two broad classes : Dark Nebulae and bright nebulae.

Dark Nebulae

Nebulae that appear with irregular shape of dark patches in the sky , known as dark Nebulae. Dark Nebulae are high in density and with cold molecular clouds. Edward Emerson Barnard , the American Astronomer was the first one who record dark nebulae systematically by using long exposure photography. Barnard categorised 370 dark nebulae all over the sky.

Dark Horse Nebula

From Earth’s perspective, dark horse nebula is a large dark nebula. It is also known as Great dark horse. Region of dark nebulae is dark horse that appear as silhouettes because they block out light from shining nebulae or stars behind them.

Bright Nebulae

Dense clouds of gas when compared to dark nebulae within the interstellar medium. Bright Nebulae also called as Galactic or diffuse nebulae. Several subclasses of bright nebulae are

  1. Reflection nebulae
  2. Planetary nebulae
  3. Supernova remnants

Reflection nebula :

It shines due to the reflection of nearby stars. It does not create its own light. Because of the dispersion of blue light efficiently than the red colour, reflection nebulae mostly appears in blue colour. It corresponds to the effect, responsible for the blue colour of the sky.

Planetary Nebula :

Planetary Nebula is the beautiful nebula in the universe. It consists plasma and glowing gas shell . A planetary nebula forms when a stellar core dies. Core of the low madd stars becomes a ” white dwarf ” and also called a ” degenerate dwarf ” and the outer envelope of the star is ejected and the ejected envelop expands away from the central star and creates the nebula. Elements such as oxygen, carbon, helium are present in the planetary nebula.

Supernova remnants :

A Supernova remnants (SNR) is born as the result of violent disruptions of stars and it consists ejected material of the stars. Major source of galactic cosmic rays is supernova remnants. Walter Baade and Fritz Zwicky, suggested the connection between cosmic rays and supernovas.

Nebulae play s crucial role in the chemical evolution of the galaxy. Studying Nebulae helps to understand how a star evolves during its lifetime.

Dukan Diet For Weight loss

Are you aware of Dukan diet ? Easy way to reduce your weight.

Dukan Diet is intaking rich protein and low carbohydrate food in order to get rid from obesity and lose weight by breaking diet into four phases. Dr.Pierre Dukan who created the dukan diet in 1970 was a French Physician,Nutritionist and Specialized in weight management. Dukan created this diet to meet the needs of his patients.After getting successful result from this diet,he published the book ” The Dukan Diet ” in 2000. The Dukan Diet attained world- wide popularity. And the book released in 32 countries ,translated into more than 14 languages.

Consult with your doctor

A person must consult with his doctor before taking the dukan diet whether his body condition is appropriate for the diet. And should start the diet with proper planning and continuing with the advise of best dietist. One should ready for the diet both mentally and physically.

Four Phases Of Dukan Diet
1) Attack phase
2) Cruise phase
3) Consolidation phase
4) Stabilisation phase
The diet phases includes 100 food items. Most of the foods are high protein and vegetables with some amount of carbohydrates. There are 68 pure proteins and 32 vegetables.

  1. Attack Phase (1-7 days)

Intake of pure protein food is the primary step in the attack phase with 1.5 tablespoon of oat bran for fibre content and minimal calories. And you can take unlimited quantities of pure protein. You have to drink 7-9 cups of water daily. Regular physical activities and exercise for 20 mins per day helps mostly. These phase helps for instant weight loss. The duration for attack phase depends on the weight of the person.

What To Consume

68 pure proteins

Lean meat : Beef tenderloin, lamp,venison, steak, filet mignon, buffalo, extra lean ham, extra lean kosher beef, lean slices of roast beef, flank, sirloin, London broilveal chops, veal scaloppini, pork tenderloin, hot dogs, reduced fat bacon.

Poultry : chicken, chicken liver, cornish hen, ostrich steak, wild duck, turkey, fat fee turkey, chicken sausages, low fat deli slices of chicken.

Fish : catfish, shark, mackerel, salmon, swordfish, redsnapper, haddock, arctic char, cod, flounder, halibut and smoked halibut, herring, mahi mahi, mink fish, orange roughy, perch, surmi, tilapia, trout, tuna, fresh or canned in water.

Shellfish : clams, crab, crawfish, crayfish, lobster, mussels, octopus, oysters, scallops, shrimp, squid.

Vegetarian Proteins : seitan, soy foods and veggie burgers, tempeh,tofu.

Fat-free dairy products : Fat-free milk, Fat-free sour cream, fat-free ricotta, fat-free cottage cheese, fat-free plain greek style yogurt.

Eggs : chicken,quail, duck.

What To Avoid

Sugars, fats, carbohydrates.

2. Cruise Phase (1-12 months)
In this phase,you have to take 100 food items including 68 pure protein and 32 Vegetables in alternative days. No limitation for intaking those pure protein and less fat vegetables. Oat bran increased to 2 tablespoon. 30-60 minutes of physical activities like exercise or walking is compulsory. The duration for cruise phase also depends on the weight that the person wants to lose.

What To Consume
32 Vegetables : Egg plant, okra, onions, mushrooms, carrot, broccoli,Watercress, turnip, tomato, pumpkin, bean sprouts, cucumber, leeks, shallots,Zucchini, artichoke, asparagus.

What To Avoid
Starchy vegetables like potatoes and corn

3.Consolidation Phase (1-5 days)

It helps to prevent from regaining the weight. In this phase,the person can take unlimited foods under 100 items without any restrictions and also allowed to take a glass of wine , desert as a celebration meals each week. You can take oat bran of 2.5 tablespoon. You can add some carbohydrates during this consolidation fees and also 25 minutes of exercise.

What To Consume

Wholegrain bread, Fruit, Cheese,Entree, A glass of wine .

What To Avoid


4.Sabilization Phase

The final phase allows to eat carbohydrates more than other 3 phases. But 1 day in a week should take complete lean protein. You can take 3 tablespoon of oat bran. During this phase try to use stairs instead of an elevator. And take a brisk walk for 20 minutes.

Disadvantages Of Dukan Diet

1) Intake of less carbohydrates leads to bad breath, nausea, weakness and headaches.

2) People become so tired during the attack phase. So Dr. Dukan advises people to avoid lift heavy weights.

3) Less consumption of carbohydrates can lead to constipation.

4) It may leads to nutritional deficiency because of lack of whole grains,fruits.

5) Nutritional deficiency may leads to various problems such as cancer and heart attack to premature aging.

6) Pure protein intake may cause kidney problems and bone related diseases.

Advantages Of Dukan Diet

1) Instant weight loss makes people feel good.

2) Calories are burned easily by consumption of low carbohydrate foods.

3) It is possible to reduce weight without heavy workout.

4) Calorie-counting is not involved.

The Dukan diet has both pros and cons equally. So,people with blood pressure, sugar complaints and with other diseases practicing this diet is highly risky and may cause serious health issue.