Artificial Intelligence ( shortly abbreviated as AI) is the technique used to create machines or devices that work and behave like humans. AI is the science and intelligence of making intelligent machines. AI is a broad domain that encompasses many subdomains within it – computer vision, machine learning, neural networks, deep learning, natural language processing, image processing, etc.
AI will provide human-like interactions with software and offer decision support for specific tasks. The simple memorizing of individual items/procedures is known as rote learning and is relatively easy to implement on a computer. More challenging is the problem of implementing what is called generalization. Generalization involves applying past experience to analogous new situations.
Machine learning is where a computer system is fed large amounts of data, which it then uses to learn how to carry out a specific task, such as understanding speech, etc. A subset of machine learning is deep learning. The brain kind of neuron network structure is simulated and created to solve deep and complex problems using neural networks.
Computer vision relies on pattern recognition and deep learning to recognize what’s in a picture or video. When machines can process, analyze, and understand images, they can capture images or videos in real-time and interpret their surroundings. Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of computers to analyze, understand, and generate human language, including speech. Using these technologies, computers can be trained to accomplish specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns in the data.
Types of AI Systems
Based on the intelligence simulated in the machines, they can be classified as Artificial Narrow Intelligence(ANI), Artificial General Intelligence (AGN), and Artificial Super Intelligence.
Narrow AI is what we see all around us in computers today: intelligent systems that have been taught how to carry out specific tasks without being explicitly programmed how to do so. Interactive voice recognition is the most-widely used AI technology in the business today. Voice Assistants like Microsoft Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, Google Assistant, Microsoft Cortona belong to the first category (weak AI or ANI system).
Apple’s Siri is one of the most well known personal assistants that comes with the iPhone and iPad. The friendly female voice assistant can interact daily with the user. She assists us to get the needed information from the Internet by searching, get directions to local destinations, send messages, make voice calls, and add events to the calendar.
Tesla is one of the best automobiles available until now. The car has several fascinating features like self-driving, predictive capabilities, updation of its knowledge based on past experiences, and make future decisions smarter by continuously applying them. The vision-recognition systems on self-driving cars come under Narrow AI. And, it is powered by its deep learning algorithm and they are fully autonomous vehicles. In general, the vehicle would be pre-programmed with a map of the area being driven. This map would include data on the approximations of street light and curb heights in order for the vehicle to be aware of its surroundings.
The Amazon go shop is another example of this kind. There are a lot of sensors around the shop and only self-service facility is available for the shoppers. There are no workers in the shop ( except for arranging the items and stock them). After the purchase, the bill amount is directly debited from the customer’s card instantly before they check out from the shop.
IBM’s Watson software is used to recommend customized treatment options for the patients according to their health conditions.
Strong AI aims to build machines that think. A flexible form of intelligence capable of learning how to carry out vastly different tasks is the feature of Artificial General Intelligence(AGI).
Superintelligence can be defined “as any intellect that greatly exceeds the cognitive performance of humans in virtually all domains of interest” is expected some 30 years after the achievement of AGI.
Though, technology is a boon to specially challenged people in some circumstances. It may reduce job opportunities in some sectors. Since it has the ability to constantly update its knowledge, there is a risk that it surpasses human capabilities.
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