“ One hundred and fifty years ago, the monster began, this country had become a place of industry. Factories grew on the landscape like weeds. Trees fell, fields were up-ended, rivers blackened. The sky choked on smoke and ash, and the people did, too, spending their days coughing and itching, their eyes turned forever toward the ground. Villages grew into town, towns into cities. And people began to live on the earth rather than within it. ”
― Patrick Ness, A Monster Calls

In today’s world, pollution is quite a relevant topic. Pollution has existed since the creation of the earth, and still continues to exist to this day. Pollution is the contamination of the natural environment that causes negative effects and long-lasting damage. Several types of pollution exist. Some of these are:
• Air pollution – Air pollution is the pollution of air due to harmful substances present in it. The contributors of air pollution are vehicle emission, dust and dirt, poisonous gases etc. Ozone gas (O3) is a major contributor of air pollution. When it combines with air, it is known as “smog”. Air pollution is caused by the increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Frequent climatic changes can also cause air pollution.
• Water pollution – Water pollution is the contamination of water due to chemicals or microorganisms, often a body of water, degraded enough to render it toxic to humans consuming water from it. A few categories of this are groundwater, surface water, surface water, ocean water, point source, nonpoint source and transboundary. The effects of water pollution can be seen from the huge number of deaths that it has caused over the ages. Drinking contaminated water causes various illnesses in people every year. These diseases include cholera, giardia and typhoid. This type of pollution is prevalent even in well off nations.
• Soil pollution – Soil pollution is the degradation of a portion of land due to the presence of chemicals or other changes in natural soil. Such pollution is characteristically aused by industrial activity, improper use of fertilizers in agriculture and improper disposal of waste. Soil pollution has a plethora of effects. Short term effects include headaches, nausea, coughing, chest pain, irritation in eyes, fatigue and weakness. Long term effects due to prolonged exposure to soil pollution are permanent damage to nervous system, depression of CNS, damage to vital organs and a higher than average risk of developing cancer.

“Because, underneath all of this is the real truth we have been avoiding: climate change isn’t an “issue” to add to the list of things to worry about, next to health care and taxes. It is a civilizational wake-up call. A powerful message—spoken in the language of fires, floods, droughts, and extinctions—telling us that we need an entirely new economic model and a new way of sharing this planet. Telling us that we need to evolve.”
― Naomi Klein

Pollution can be reduced by raising awareness about it. This can be done by the Government. The Government can educate young children about pollution by including it as a compulsory part of school curriculum for them. Banners and hoardings can be put up on streets. Advertisements can be played on national television. The only way to fight pollution is to learn about its harmful effects and let everyone take steps to curb every kind of pollution. Use of plastic products should be used and replaced by sustainable and eco-friendly products. Ultimately, pollution only causes a negative effect on the environment and the life of man. Thus we must take action against pollution before it gets any worse.