Water Pollution

Water pollution, or water pollution, refers to the loss of purity by human activities such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. Water pollution is caused by changes in the physical, chemical, and biological properties of water. This affects the animals and plants that live in those water bodies.

Natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions, alkaloids, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and its ecological conditions. However, water pollution is the state in which the water is polluted by human activities and becomes unfit for human use and life. There are many causes for water pollution and it is of many natures.

The main causes of water pollution can be divided into two categories depending on the source of the pollution. The first is called point-source pollution. The other is non-point source pollution. The first type includes contaminants formed by mixing pollutants with water from a single source.

The second type of pollution does not originate from a single site. It is formed by pollutants that accumulate little by little over a wide area. So there is a high level of vulnerability to humans and animals.The Government of Tamil Nadu Water Resources Authority has released a map showing the effects of polluted water on the human body. This map gives the effects on each part of the human body. Water is polluted due to excessive discharge of essential human wastes.

Microbial contaminants


Infectious diseases in humans (eg bacteria, viruses and worms), Aquatic organisms die.

Oxygen deficient pollutants.

Water is polluted due to the depletion of oxygen in the water due to the effect of heat. Generally, the oxygen level in the water should be 8 to 15 mg / liter.


Freshwater bacteria, which are microorganisms in the water, can die due to lack of oxygen.Thus destroying aquatic organisms such as fish. (E.g .: Sewage, Animal Residue & Sewage, Mixing of Paper Factory Sewage with Freshwater)

Inorganic chemical pollutants

Water is polluted by the mixing of industrial effluents.


Cannot be used for drinking water and agriculture,Skin cancers occur, affecting the nervous system, liver, kidneys;Iron rusts.Yields are declining in agriculture.

Organic chemical pollutants

Water is polluted due to mixing of industrial effluents, household sewage and urine stagnation.


Affects the nervous system, causes cancer, Fish and creatures are affected. E.g .: oil, petrol, plastic, laundry detergent, pesticides

Contaminants caused by input

Landslides and sand erosion cause changes in water quality.


Changes occur in the food chain. The water capacity decreases due to the deposition of sediments and sand particles in the lake and reservoirs. Ocean acidification, Ocean temperature variation Nutrition & Biodiversity Reduction

Methods of preventing water pollution

  • Reducing the amount of sewage water
  • Complete cessation of deforestation
  • Liquids such as oil and gasoline should be
  • prevented from mixing with water
  • Reducing mercury excretion
  • Termination of mining rehearsal
  • Chemical & Chemical Cleaning of the Environment
  • Fighting global warming / global warming