Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash. They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water and land.
7 types of pollution
- Air pollution
- Water pollution
- Land pollution
- Radioactive pollution
- Thermal pollution
- Light pollution
- Sound pollution
Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust pollen and mold spores may be suspended as particles. Ozone, a gas is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution it’s also called smog. Some air pollutants are poisonous.
Air pollution can cause headaches, dizziness. Long term effects from air pollution include heart disease, lung cancer and respiratory diseases such as emphysema. Air pollution can also cause long-term damage to people’s nerves, brain, kidneys, liver and other organs.
9 best ways to reduce air pollution
- Using public transports
- Recycle and reuse
- No to plastic bags
- Reduction of forest fires and smoking
- Use of fans instead of air conditioner
- Use filters for chimneys
- Avoid usage of crackers
- avoid using provide with chemicals
- Implement Afforestation
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. The causes of water pollution vary and may be both natural and anthropogenic. However, the most common cause of water pollution are the anthropogenic ones, including Agricultural runoff carrying fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and other pollutants into water bodies such as lakes, river.
Effects of water pollution include
- Destruction of biodiversity
- Contamination of the food chain
- Lack of potable water
- Infant mortality
8 ways to reduce water pollution
- Reduce the use of chemicals when cleaning
- Practice water conservation
- Dispose of your medications properly
- Avoid use of pesticides and herbicides
- Avoid water-polluting recreational activities.
- Avoid disposing items into the toilet
- Maintain your vehicle
- Carryout these practices everywhere
Soil pollution or soil contamination is a part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics chemicals or other alternation in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. Soil erosion the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, deforestation and overgrazing is one of the main reasons for soil pollution. Water pollution-the toxic waste material and liquids that are discarded on land contaminate water through the sewage system and sludges.
Various causes of land pollution
- Deforestation and soil erosion
- Agricultural activities
- Mining activities
- Overcrowded landfills
- Construction activities
- Nuclear waste
- Sewage treatment
5 best ways to reduce land pollution
- Eat sustainable foodstuffs, properly recycle batteries, produce homemade compost and dispose of drugs in the places authorized for this purpose.
- Encourage a more eco-friendly model for industry, farming and stock breeding, among other economic activities.
- Improve urban planning and transport planning and waste water treatment.
- Improve the management of mining waste, restore the landscape and conserve topsoil.
- Involve local communities and indigenous peoples in the design, implementation and assessment of sustainable land and soil management.
The radioactive pollution is defined as the physical pollution of living organisms and their environment as a result of release of radioactive substances into the environment during nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapon production and decommissioning mining of radioactive ores and handling of radioactive waste, and accidents at nuclear power plants. Exposure of high level of radiation, such as being close to atomic blast, can cause acute health effects such as skin burns and acute radiation syndrome. It can also result in long-term health effects such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Causes of radioactive pollution
- The use of nuclear weapons as weapons of mass destruction
- Use of radioisotopes
- Spillage of radioactive chemicals
- Tests on radiation
Solution for radioactive pollution – The only options are either to contain the waste storing in tightly closed containers shielded with radiation-protective materials or dilute it. It can also be contained by storage in remote caves or abandoned salt mines
Thermal pollution is any deviation from the natural temperature in a habitat and can range from elevated temperature associated with industrial cooling activities to discharges of cold water into streams below large impoundments. The effects of thermal pollution include decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, which aquatic life requires, damage to larvae and eggs of fishes in rivers. Killing off some species of fish and macroinvertibrates that have a limited tolerance for temperature change, and migration of living entities.
Ways to prevent thermal pollution
- Heated water from the industries can treated before discharging directly to the water bodies.
- Industrial treated water can be recycled for domestic use or industrial heating.
- Heated water from the industries can be treated by the installation of cooling ponds and cooling towers.
Light pollution is excessive, misdirected or artificial light. Too much light pollution has consequences it washes out starlight in the night sky, interferes with astronomical research, disrupts ecosystems had adverse health effects and wastes energy.
Light pollution is mainly caused by misdirected excessive, inefficient and unnecessary lighting systems. New energy efficient and cost efficient light sources such as LED will only aggravate light pollution.
Prevention of light pollution
- Use LED
- Minimizing the use of lights
- Glare-free lighting for vehicles driven at night
- All outdoors lights with glare should be replaced with low-glare alternatives.
- Colored lights can be used as an option.
Sound pollution also known as environmental noise or sound pollution is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport and propagation system. It effects millions of people on a daily basis. The most common health problem it causes is Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NHL), can also cause high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep disturbances and stress. These health problems can affect all age group especially children.
Steps to reduce sound pollution
- Close the windows.
- Put on earplugs
- Improve your insulation
- Invest in noise-canceling headphones
- Do wall-to-wall carpeting
- Install a fence