Money Management

The rich get richer and the poor get poorer, this it the reason why the topic of money should not only be taught in school but also in each and every child’s house. Many people learn how to manage money by their parents. In a poor family, if a child asks what is money or how should we manage money, the only thing a parent can tell is “go to school and study nicely”. There are chances that the child might study hard and pass out with good marks but what about the economic program or mindset, it will be still be same as a poor persons mindset when it comes to money management.

Here are some tips to low income family on how to manage money

If you are trying to save money on a low income, it can feel like challenge. But don’t let a low income stand between you and your savings goals.

  • Build a budget that works for you-Budgeting might sound like more trouble than it’s worth, but it can help you to build your savings. Unless you have a plan for your money, it can be extremely easy to spend it. With a budget, you can include your savings goals. Instead aimlessly saving what’s left over each month, you can meet your savings goals through careful budgeting. Learning how to budget is essential when it comes to how to save money on a low income.
  • Lower your housing costs-Housing expenses can be one of the biggest expenses. Image if you could cut down your housing expenses by a few Rs.500 each month. That money could make a huge difference in the size of your savings and overall quality of life. There are few ways to cut your housing costs including: A.) Move to new location-Location is a key detail in real estate prices. B.) Rent your rooms-If you could have more space in your home, you could rent them out to offset your housing costs. This is a great way to house hack. Consider a long-term tenants or short-term rentals, we can earn money from it.
  • Eliminate your debt-Debt can hold back from achieving new financial goals. The constant financial strain on your budget can leave no room for savings at the end of the month. Make it priority to tackle your debt. It will take commitment to erase your debts, but it can lead to an easier life. You will be able to put the money you were using for debt repayment towards your savings.
  • Be more mindful about food spending-Food spending can wreak havoc on any budget. With the constant temptation to eat prepared food at a restaurant, sticking to a food budget can feel like an impossible challenge. However, this is a good area to really focus on when it comes to how to save money on low budget or income.
  • Automate your saving goals-Making the choice to save money can be difficult. Forcing yourself to make that same choice many times each month can be unrealistic. You are more likely to spend all of the money in your checking account. Unless you move your savings automatically, you risk spending your intended savings.
  • Find free or affordable entertainment-One area of your budget that is entirely variable is your entertainment budget. You have the power to overspend in a big way with entertainment. On the flip side, some frugal fun can allow you to pad your savings without feeling deprived.
  • Go to the library- The library can be a great source of free entertainment. But it offers so much more that it deserves its own mention. Of course, you can check out books, movies and CDs. But most librabries often have many more. There might be community events, free local attraction passes, seeds for your garden and more.
  • Take care of your health-Health care is expensive. Unfortunately, there are not too many ways to cut down on your health care insurance costs. However, a preventive attitude about medical problems cam help you save money and enjoy a higher quality of life. A few ways to practice preventive healthcare include exercise, eating right, quit smoking, sleep enough.

Unsung Heroes (COVID-19, Front-line Workers)

Despite the hardships and health risks, millions of essential front-line workers continue to do their jobs during the COVID-19 pandemic. These hardworking heroes are picking their up their trash, providing them life-saving medicine, delivering their groceries and packages, preparing their food, cleaning their hospitals, caring for those who are most vulnerable, and keeping us safe often while earning low wages and few benefits. Although doctors and nurses who earn a median wage of Rs.7875 per hour and Rs.2550 per hour, respectively receive the lion’s share of public recognition for their life-saving role in the fight against COVID-19, they represent less than 20% of all essential health workers. Millions of other health workers ear significantly lower wages while receiving less recognition for their roles, despite their sacrifices. Nearly 7 million essential workers are employed in low wages health jobs on the COVID-19 front-lines, including:

  • Health care support workers such as orderlies and phlebotomists.
  • Direct care workers such as home health and personal care aides
  • Health care service workers such as house-keepers and cooks

Median wages across these occupations were just Rs.1011 per hour in 2019 well short of a living wages. More than 80% of them are women, and they are also disproportionately workers of color.

Risk of infection

Shortage of PPEs-Shortage of personal protective equipment have been reported from several countries. The shortage of PPE has put many healthcare workers at risk for getting infected with COVID-19. Healthcare workers have recreated a solution to make up for the lack of PPE by using by using the resources they do to have in stock. They have used plastic bags has gowns and plastic water bottle cut-outs for eye protection.

The shortage of PPE is worst in low income hospitals. Items such as PPE has always been scare commodities in low income countries. UICEF reported that the organization was only able to acquire one tenth of 240 million masks requested by these communities.


Doctors and nurses death due to COVID-19 has reported in many countries. In May 2020 at-least 260 nurses have died due to COVID-19. In March at-least 50 doctors have died due to COVID-19 in Italy. The number of deaths in Italy continued to go up. Two of the deaths within those who were nurses were suicides due to un-sustainable pressure at work. The Indian Medical Association announced that 198 doctors have died in India due to COVID-19. By February 2021, the India Medical Association said the number of deaths of doctor in India due to COVID-19 had increased to 734, however the government of India said that only 162 doctors died due to COVID-19.

Psychological impact

A study from Singapore showed that healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 reported anxiety, depression and stress. Increasing work demands on healthcare professionals conflict with their duties to family and friends, which causes psychological stress. Healthcare professionals reported being anxious about having to self-isolate, quarantine or becoming ill. Healthcare workers like nurses, doctors and other medical staff that worked on the front-line in China experienced symptoms of anxiety, depression and difficulty in sleeping. Health care workers are at risk for developing trauma or other stress-related disorders due to fears of falling ill and no knowing what will happen in the future. Post-traumatic stress was common among health workers with nurses demonstrating a higher likelihood of developing or having anxiety among others in the medical field. An Italian committed suicide after being traumatized trying to save the lives of those with COVID-19. In Mexico, healthcare professional have also reported high levels of anxiety, because of the fear of being an asymptomatic patient, which could potentially lead to the unknowingly spread of the disease among their patients and their families.

Farmers Suicide Crisis in India

Thirty-five years ago, it was on 19 March 1986 that the first mass suicide by a farmers family in Yavatmal district was recorded. Sahebrao Karpe Patil, a farmer, a former panchayat member of Chil Gavhan village had committed suicide along with his wife and four children. The family had traveled from what was then a relatively remote village in Yavatmal to Pavanar in nearby district, where Vinoba Ashram is located. The farmer couple committed suicide by consuming pesticide, first feeding their children the poisonous food. On Delhi’s borders, over 250 farmers associated with the ongoing agitation are said to have lost their lives over the past few months. Quite a few of them are said to have committed suicide, others died due to exposure to harsh winter, illnesses and accident.

Farmers suicide in India refers to the national catastrophe of framers committing suicide since the 1970’s, often by drinking pesticides, due to their inability to repay loans mostly taken from private landlords and banks. The National Crime Records Bureau of India reported that a total 294,438 Indian farmers had committed suicide since 1995. Out of these 60,750 farmers suicides were in state of Maharashtra since 1995 and the remaining in Odisha, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Chattisgarh, all states with loose financial and entry regulations.

India is an agrarian country with around 70% of its people of depending directly or indirectly upon agriculture. Agriculture had 15.4% share in economy of India in year 2017. Around 41.49% of total labor are associated with agriculture in the year 2020. Farmer suicide account for 11.2% of all suicides in India. Activists and scholars have offered a number of conflicting reasons for framer suicides, such as anti farmer laws, high debt burdens, poor government policies, corruption in suicides, crop failure, mental health, personal issues and family problems.

Causes of farmers suicide

  • Indebtedness
  • Crop failure
  • Inability to sell the crops grown
  • Disappointing realization of prices
  • Family problems Sense of loss and depression

The indebtedness of farmers is one of the main reasons driving them to commit suicide. The problem starts with the availability of timely credit. The banking sector is not ready to provide credit or loan to agriculture for avoiding risk. From 1991 to 2001, the indebtedness of farmers has grown by two times. Agriculture credit became a low priority, with some committees suggesting withdrawal of credit support to farmers. Credit for housing and buying a car is available at a 9% to 11% rate of interest while a crop loans to the farmers are 17%. This shows the lack of government support for the farmers.

The impact on COVID-19 on farmers

The coronavirus disease has impacted not only physical health but also mental health and well-being globally. These impacts can be critically higher among marginalized individuals and populations like farmers in India. Suicidal behavior is not new among farmers in the middle of COVID-19 lockdown, who had debts and could find laborers during the lockdown leading to helpless situation of committing suicide. Every year, Indian farmers face risks such as low rainfall, price volatility and rising debts. But risks from the COVID-19 pandemic are putting new challenges in front of a sector that is already under threat. The nation wide lockdown came at an unfortunate time farmers, as it was the harvest season for the winter crop (rabi).


The government of India needs to take measures to prevent this issue. The government must provide proper institutional financial support to farmers, a good crop insurance scheme in cases of crop failure, and provide genuine relief to the affected farmers because, every farmer who commits suicide, the country is falling one step down. So, we need to save our farmers from this misery as they are the ones who feed us.


Online Shopping

Online buying and selling have become important parts of many people’s lives. Virtual stores allow people to shop from the comfort of their homes without the pressure of a salesperson. Online marketplaces provide a new and more convenient venue for exchanging virtually all types of goods and services.

Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the internet using a web browser or a mobile application. Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product’s availability and pricing at different e-retailers. As of 2020, customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers and smartphones. An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a regular “bricks and mortar retailer or shopping center, the process is called business-to-consumer (B2C) online shopping. When an online store is set up to enable businesses to buy from another businesses, the process is called business-to business (B2B) online shopping. A typical online store enables the customer to browser the firm’s range of products and services, view photos or images of the products, along with information about the product specification’s features and prices. Online stores usually enable shoppers to use “search” features to find specific models, brands or items. Online customers must have access to the internet and a valid method of payment i order to complete a transaction, such as a credit card, an interac-enabled debit card, or a service, such as PayPal.For physical products (for example paperback books or clothes), the e-trailer usually sends the file to the customers over the internet. The largest of these online online retailing corporations are Amazon, and eBay.

How does online buying work

Shopping online is just like heading out to the store. You can often but the same products online as available in a brick-and-mortar store and can sometimes score better sales.

  • Finding a product-When you shop online, you have to start by searching for a product. This can be done by visiting a store’s website, or of you are not aware of any store that has the particular item you are looking for, or you’d like to compare prices between stores, you can always search for the items with a search engine and compare the results. On major retail website, companies will have pictures, descriptions and prices. If a company or individual does not have the means to create a website, sometimes sites like Amazon and Etsy make it possible for them to display products or build their own online stores for a monthly fee. Many stores also have placed virtual customer service centers on their websites, so you can either call, email, or chat with a live customer service representative if you have questions.
  • Buying and receiving the product-After selecting product, the website usually has a “checkout” option. When you check out, you are often given a list o shipping and payments options. Shipping options include standard, expedited, or overnight shipping. Depending on the shipping company and your location, standard shipping usually takes seven to twenty one business days, and expedited shipping can take anywhere from two to six business days. There are typically various payments options available.
  • E-Check-This payment options is just like paying directly from your bank account. If you choose to pay by electronic check, you must enter your routing and account numbers. Once this is done, the amount is taken directly from your bank account.
  • Credit card-When you pay by credit card, instead of swiping your card as you would at a brick-and mortar store, you type the required credit card information into the provided fields. Required information includes your credit card number, expiration date, type of card and verification/security number, usually the last three digits on the back of the card above the signature.

Advantages of online trading

  • Convenience
  • Cost savings
  • Variety
  • No pressure
  • easy comparison

Disadvantages of online trading

  • Increased risk of identity theft
  • Vendor fund

Protecting yourself while shopping online

Overall, the advantages of shopping online out weight the disadvantages. That said, it is important to note that while they might be smaller in number,the disadvantages can be a major hardship. While shopping online, it is essential to protect yourself and your information.

  • Invest in technology
  • Be careful
  • Research
  • Shipping check
  • The bottom line

Also make sure that your computer is well protected before you begin any transactions that involves sensitive information. Many scams on the internet can negatively affect your credit score and cost you money, so be proactive in your research to get the most out of shopping online.

Causes of stress on Modern Generation

Stress is actually a normal part of life, at times of serves a useful purpose. Stress can motivate you to get that promotion at work, or run the last mile of a marathon. But if you don’t get a handle on your stress and it becomes long-term, it can seriously interfere with your job, family life, and health. More than half of Americans say they fight with friends and loved ones because of stress, and more than 70% say they experience real physical and emotional symptoms from it.

The present day youth are greatly stressed due to cut-throat competition and consumerist culture. Today, we are living in an age when people are more stressed than relaxed. Due to extreme competitiveness in every aspect of life, there is always a lack of time. This then leads to high level of anxiety, mental tension and of course, the feeling of dissatisfaction.

A cut-throat competition starts at school level with parents pressure-rising children to work extra hard and score high marks in all subjects. Students too feel the pressure of performing better than the rest. Therefore, they get stressed when they are unable to perform according to expectation. The stress builds on until it turns into health hazards, which stays on forever.

Then there is stress at work front, which is worse than scoring high. Students might acquire highest marks, but this does not guarantee that it would land their desired jobs. Even if they do, there are other reasons for one to feel the stress. Desired salary, timely promotion, material growth such as own house and car, marriage etc, often come along with anxiety, stress and lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is suffice to say that the present day youth are greatly stressed and to some extent, the consumerist culture is to be blamed for this.

With the advent of technology and social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram a lot of people get stressed about how they’re living their lives and compare themselves to others. For example, models ad actors/actresses who adhere to the societal perception of beauty, make many people wish to be like them, which cause stress and anxiety when they find it hard to do so. Due to increased use of technology the face to face conversation or meetings have decreased resulting in loneliness, depression and stress. Also, Insomnia caused bu overuse of technological gadgets has decreased the life expectancy of the modern generation. Insomnia also causes stress and fatigue. People’s eyesight has also weakened from a very young age due to expose of the naked eye to the screen of the gadgets. Over usage of gadgets results into stress as people forget to rip away their faces from the smartphones and enjoy nature and its breathtaking views.

Tips to control stress

Fortunately there’s a solution for to avoid stress at all times. Regular exercising or yoga and maintaining good health improves concentration and keeps the mind healthy. It decreases physical ailments reduces behavioral problems reduces depression and stress thus calming one’s mind. One should also spend some quality time with one’s family friends and loved ones, do charity/ community service adopt pets go for walks or pursue a hobby in order to reduce stress.

Evil of Corruption

Corruption is the abuse of public or private office for personal or political gain, and it is linked to fraud, tax evasion and money laundering.

Corruption in India is an issue which affects the economy of central, state and local government agencies in many ways. Corruption is blamed for stunting the economy of India. A study conducted by Transparency International in 2005 recorded that more than 62% of Indians had at some point or another paid a bribe to a public official to get a job done. In 2008, another report showed that about 50% of Indians ha first hand experience of paying bribes or using contacts to get services performed by public offices, however, in 2020 their Corruption Perceptions Index ranked the country 86th place out of 180, reflecting steady decline in perception of corruption among people.

The largest contributors to corruption are entitlement programs and social spending schemes enacted by the Indian Government. For Example include the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employments Guarantee Act and the National Rural Health Mission. Other areas of corruption include India’s trucking industry which focused to pay billions of rupees in bribes annually to numerous regulatory and police stops on interstate highways.


The causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations, complicated tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly of government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant variations in the level of corruption and in the government’s efforts to reduce corruption across India.

Black Money

Black money refers to money that is not fully or legitimately the property of the owner. A government white paper on black money in India suggest two possible sources of black money in India, the first includes activities not permitted by the law, such as crime, drug trade, terrorism and corruption, all of which are illegal in India and secondly, wealth that may have been generated through lawful activity but accumulated by failure to declare income and pay taxes. Some of this black money ends up in illicit, such as deposits in tax haven countries.

Domestic black money

India companies are have been reported to misuse public trusts for money laundering. India has no centralized repository like the registrar of companies for corporate’s of information on public trusts.

  • Gold purchases-In Gujarat, Delhi and many other major cities, sales of gold increased on 9 November, with an increased 20% to 30% premium surging the price as much as Rs.45,000 from the ruling price of Rs.31,900 per 10 grams.
  • Donations-Authorities of Sri Jalakanteshwarar temple at Vellore discovered cash worth Rs. 4.4 million from the temple.
  • Multiple bank transactions-There have also been reports of people circumventing the restrictions imposed on exchange transactions and attempting to convert black money into white by making multiple transactions at different bank branches. People were also getting rid of large amounts of banned currency by sending people in groups to exchange their money at banks. In response, the government announced that it would start making customers with indelible link. This was in addition to other measures proposed to ensure that the exchange transactions are carried out only once, by each person. On 17 November, the government reduced the exchange amount Rs.2,000 to discourage attempts to convert black money into legitimate money
  • Municipal and local tax payments-As the use of the demonetized notes had been allowed by the government for the payment of municipal and local body taxes, leading to people using the demonetized rs.500 and Rs.1000 notes to pay large amounts on outstanding and advance taxes. As a result, revenue collections of the local civic bodies jumped. the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation reported collecting about Rs.1.6 billion in cash payments of outstanding and advance taxes within 4 days.

Efforts on corruption

However, just as elsewhere in the word, the negative effects of corruption are the same, it reduces foreign direct and domestic investments, increases in-quality and poverty, raises the number of freeloaders in the economy, distorts and exploits public investments and reduce public revenues.

Mathematics- Ancient Mathematics History

Mathematics, the science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring and describing the shapes of objects. It deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculations, and its development has involved an increasing degree of idealization and abstraction of its subject matter. Since the 17th century, mathematics ha been an indispensable adjunct to the physical sciences and technology, and in more recent times it has assumed a similar role in the quantitative aspects of the life sciences.

In many cultures under the stimulus of the needs of practical pursuits, such as commerce and agriculture mathematics has developed far beyond basic counting. This growth has been greatest in societies complex enough to sustain these activities and to provide leisure for compensation and the opportunity to build on the achievements of earlier mathematics.

All mathematics systems (for example, Euclidean geometry) are combinations of sets of axioms and of theorems that can be logically deduced from the axioms. Inquiries into the logical and philosophical basis of mathematics reduce to questions of whether the axioms of a given system ensure its completeness and its consistency.

As a consequence of the exponential growth of science, most mathematics has developed since the 15th century, and it is a historical fact that, from the 15th century to the late 20th century, new developments in mathematics were largely concentrated in Europe and North America. For these reasons, the bulk of this article is devoted to European development since 1500. This does not mean, however, that development, that development elsewhere have been un-important. Indeed, to understand the history of mathematics in Europe, it is necessary to know its history at least in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, in ancient Greece, and in Islamic civilization from the 9th to the 15th century. The way in which these civilizations influenced one another and the important direct contributions Greece and Islam made to later developments.

India’s contributions to the development of contemporary mathematics were made through the considerable influence of Indian achievements on Islamic mathematics during its formative years. A separate article, South Asian Mathematics, focuses on the early history of mathematics in the Indian subcontinent and the development there of the modern decimal place-value numeral system. The article East Asian mathematics covers the mostly independent development of mathematics in China, Japan, Korea ad Vietnam. The substantive branches of mathematics are treated in several articles.

Ancient mathematical sources

It is important to be aware of the character of the sources for the study of the history of mathematics. The history of Mesopotamian and Egyptian mathematics is based on the extant original documents written by scribes. Although in the case of Egypt these documents are few, they are all of a type and leave little doubt that Egyptian mathematics was, on the whole, elementary and profoundly practical in its orientation. For Mesopotamian mathematics, on the other hand, there are a large number of clay tablets, which reveal mathematical achievements of a much higher order than those of the Egyptians. The tablets indicate that the Mesopotamian had a great deal of remarkable mathematical knowledge , although they offer no evidence that this knowledge was organized into a deductive system. Future research may reveal more about the early development of mathematics in Mesopotamian or about its influence on Greek mathematics.

In modern times the invention of printing has largely solved the problem of obtaining secure texts and has allowed historians of mathematics to concentrate their editorial efforts on the correspondence or the un-published works of mathematicians. However, the exponential growth of mathematics means that, for the period from 19th century on, historians are able to treat only the major figures in any detail. Mathematics like any other human activity has its own fashions, will look like a wave of the future.For this reason, the present article males no attempt to assess the most recent developments in the subjects.


Procrastination is the act of delaying or putting off tasks until the last minute, or past their deadline. Some researches define procrastination as a “form of self-regulation failure characterized by the irrational delay of tasks despite potentially negative consequences. No matter how well-organized and committed your are, chances are that you have found yourself frittering away hours on trivial pursuits (watching television, updating your Facebook status, shopping online) when you should have been spending that time on work or school-related projects. Whether you’re putting off finishing a project for work, avoiding homework assignments, or ignoring household chores, procrastination can have a major impact on your job, your grades and your life.

In most cases, procrastination is not a sign of a serious problem. It’s a common tendency that most people give in to at some point or another.


Remember that time that you thought you had a week left to finish a project that was really due the next day? How about the time you decided not to clean up your apartment because you “didn’t feel like doing it right now?’

We often assume that projects won’t take as long to finish as they really will, which can lead to a false sense of security when we believe that we have plenty of time to complete these tasks. One of the biggest factors contributing to procrastinating is the notion that we have to feel inspired or motivated to work on a tasks at a particular moment. The reality is that if you wait until you’re in the right frame of mind to do certain tasks (especially undesirable ones), you will probably find that the right time simply never comes along and the tasks never gets completed.

The following are the few factors that cause procrastination


Researchers suggest that procrastination can be particularly pronounced among students. A 2001 meta analysis published in the Psychological Bulletin found that a whopping 80% to 95% of college students procrastinated on the regular basis, particular when it came to completing assignments and course-work.

  • Overestimate how much time they have left to perform tasks
  • Overestimate how motivated they will be in the future
  • Underestimate how long certain activities will take to complete
  • Mistakenly assume that they need to be in the right frame of mind to work on a project


Procrastination can also be result of depression. Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, ad a lack of energy can make it difficult to start the simple tasks. Depression can also lead to self-doubt. When you can’t figure out how to tackle a project or feel insecure about your abilities, you might find it easier to put it off and working on other tasks.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Procrastination is also pretty common in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. One reason is that OCD is often linked with mal-adaptive, unhealthy perfectionism, which causes fears about making new mistakes, doubts about whether you are doing something correctly, and worry over other’s expectation ofyou.

People with OCD also often have a propensity toward in-decision, causing them to procrastinate rather than make a decision.


Many adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with procrastination. When you’re so distracted by outside stimuli, as well as internal thoughts, it can be hard to get started on a task, especially if that task is difficult or not interesting in you.

Negative impact on procrastination

It is only in cases where procrastination becomes chronic and begins to have a serious impact on a person’s daily life that it becomes a more serious issue. In such instances, it’s not just a matter of having poor time management skills, it’s a major part of their lifestyle. Perhaps they pay their bills late, don’t start work on big projects until the night before the deadline, delay gift shopping until the day before a birthday, and even file their income tax returns late. Unfortunately, this procrastination can have a serious impact on a number of life areas, including a person’s mental health and social, professional and financial well-being.

  • Higher level of stress and illness
  • Increased burden placed on social relationships
  • Resentment from friends, family, co-workers and fellow student
  • Consequences of delinquent bills and income tax returns

Tips for procrastination

Fortunately, there are a number of different things you can do the fight procrastination and start getting things done on time.

  • Make a to-do list: To help to keep you on track, ,consider placing a due date next to each item.
  • Take baby steps: Break down the items on your list into small, manageable steps so that your tasks don’t seem so overwhelming.
  • Recognize the warming signs: Pay attention to any thoughts of procrastination and do your best to resist the urge. If you begin to think about procrastinating, force yourself to spend a few minutes working on your tasks.
  • Eliminate distraction: Ask yourself what pulls your attention away the most-whether Instagram, Facebook updates, or the local news-and turn off those sources of distraction.
  • Pat yourself on the back: When you finish an item on your to-do list on time, congratulate yourself and reward yourself by indulging in something you find fun.

Save Trees

Trees are the backbone of all ecosystems on which mankind and other living and non-living being rely. Tress help in maintaining the ecological balance of the earth by emission of oxygen, absorption of carbon dioxide. Most important benefits of trees are, it helps the environment to provide an enormous amount of energy and reduce the toxic carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and pollutants by absorbing. Helps in improving water quality, prevent soil erosion, helps in saving energy. According to U.S Department of Agriculture, 1 acre of forest absorbs six tons of carbon dioxide which is enough to meet the annual needs of 18 people. Consumption and the demand of paper is the most important factor in the depletion of forest trees as to produce 3000 sheets of paper 1 tree ha to be cut.

Beneficial reasons to plant a tress in your yard

Trees are a vital part of our world, and our crucial to our survival. They provide us with the oxygen we need to breathe, shelter for wildlife, and food to eat. But, there’s so much more. Here are the reasons why trees should be a staple in your landscaping.

  • Trees increase property values-Everyone wants their home to have the highest possible property value. Landscaping with trees and plants can increase your property value by as much as 20 percent, according to some estimates. That is a great return on investment in terms of the small amount of upkeep they require.
  • Trees clean the air-A tree can absorb as much as 48 pounds of carbon dioxide each year and can sequester 1 tone of carbon dioxide by the time it reaches 40 years old. In addition, trees absorb odors and pollutant gases such as nitrogen oxides, ammonia, sulphur dioxide and ozone, and filter particulars out of the air by trapping them on their leaves and bark.
  • Trees slow water runoff-Flash flooding can be significantly reduced by plating tress. According to Colorado Blue Spruce, either planted or growing wild, can intercept more than 1000 gallons of water annually when fully grown, which helps recharge underground aquifers.
  • Trees prevent soil erosion-A trees root system binds the soil and its leaves provide a barrier to wind and rain thus preventing soil erosion.
  • Tress help buffer noise pollution-Trees that are planted at strategic points in a neighborhood or around your house can abate major noises. This is especially nice if you live near a freeway or airport.
  • Trees cool our homes, streets, and cities-Trees can cool a city by up to 10 Fahrenheit by shading homes and streets, breaking up urban “heat islands” and releasing water vapor into the sir through their leaves.
  • Trees can save you money on energy costs-Building off the previous point, strategically placed trees can save homeowners up to 25 percent on energy bills by provided shade in the summer and windbreaks in the winter.
  • Trees are beautiful-This is non-brainer. Trees are stunning parts of our natural landscape. From the first buds of spring to the colorful leaves in the fall, trees are gorgeous. They make a great decoration indoors or outdoors.
  • Trees are sacred-Trees were sacred to many ancient worlds, and still hold special meaning in many cultures today. The Druids believed a number of trees to be sacred, including the Ash tree from which healing wands were made. Today,many people in Madagascar worship them because they believe their ancestor’s spirits live in the forests.
  • Medicines are derived from trees-While many drugs that come from plants and tress have been replaced by synthetics, there is no denying how important they are when it comes to modern medicine and research.

Advantages of planting trees in reducing global warming. planting trees can cut air-conditioning or electricity costs up to 50 percent. Planting trees for the environment is good as they are renewable, bio-gradable and recyclable, if we plant 20 million trees, the earth will get with 260 million more tons of oxygen.

Climate change has caused an increase in wildfires all around the world. Planting trees incorrectly or even ignoring them during their first few years of growth, can aid in the spread of forests. This will burn down more tress and further contribute to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

A.J.P Abdul Kalam-The Missile Man of India

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in the pilgrimage center of Rameswaram on Pamban Island, then in the Madras Presidency and now in the state of Tamil Nadu. His father Jainulabdeen Marakayar was a boat owner and Imam of a local mosque. His mother Ashiamma was a home-maker. Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his family. In school years, Kalam had average grades but was described a s bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn. He spent hours on his studies, especially mathematics. After completing his education at the Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph’s College Thiruchirapalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from he graduated in physics in 1954. He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. While Kalam working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within next three days, Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him “I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline”. He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the IAF (Indian Air Force).\


After graduating from the Madras Institue of Technology in 1960. Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, as a scientist after becoming a member of the Defense Research and Development Service. He started his career by designing a small hovercraft, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation where he was the project director of India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III), which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980. Kalam project independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers. Kalam played a major part in developing many missile under the mission and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticized for mismanagement and cost and time overruns. Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played and intensive political and technological role. Kalam served as the Cheif Project Coordinator, along with Rajagopala Chidambaram, during the testing phase. Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country’s best known nuclear scientist. However, the director of the site test K.Santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a fizzle and criticized Kalam for issuing an incorrect report. Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the cliams.

This is my first stage in which I learnt leadership from three great teachers-Dr.Vikram Sarabhai, Prof Sathish Dhawan and Dr.Brahm Prakash. This was the time of learning and acquisition of knowledge for me.-A.P.J Abdul Kalam


Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K.R. Narayan. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote, surpassing the votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. His team lasted from July 25 2002 to July 25 2007. During his term as president, he was affectionately known as the People’s President saying that signing the Office of Profit Bill was the toughest decision he had taken during his tenure.


  • 1981-Padma Bhushan-Government of India
  • 1990-Padma Vibhushan-Government of India
  • 1997-Bharat Ratna-Government of India
  • 1997-Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration-Government of India
  • 1998-Veer Savarkar Award-Government of India
  • 2000-SASTRA Ramanujan Prize-Shanmugha Arts, Science, Technology and Research Academy, India
  • 2013-Von Braun Award-National Space Society.


On 27 July 2915, Kalam travelled to Shilliong to deliver a lecture on Creating a Livable Planet Earth at the Indian Institute of Management Shilliong. While climbling a flight of stairs, he experienced some discomfort, but was able to enter the auditorium after a brief rest. At around 6.35 p.m, only five minutes into his lectures, he collapsed. He was rushed to the nearly Bethany Hospital in a critical condition, upon arrival, he lacked a pulse or any other signs of life. Despite being placed in the intensive care unit, Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest at 7.45 p.m IST. His last words, to his aide Srijan Pal Singh, were reportedly ‘Funny guy” are you doing well.

Inspirational words

Don’t take rest after your victory because if you fail in second, more lips are waiting to say that your first victory was just luck.

Never give up your dreams no matter how old you are no matter where you are today. Do not give up dreaming for a better tomorrow.

Self Confidence

Confidence is something that can be tough thing to build up. Not every one is born with inbuilt sense of self-confidence. Sometime it can be hard to develop confidence, either because personal experiences, have caused you to lose confidence or because you suffer from low self-esteem.

A confident person does what the believe is right, even if it’s unpopular. If that person is willing to take risks then his/her confidence increase. They also admits their mistakes and learns from them. A confident person will be able to accept a compliment and is also optimistic.

Self confidence is very much important because self-confidence is a feeling of trust in one’s abilities, qualities and judgment. Children with a health sense of self-confidence are able to feel good about themselves and know that they deserve respect from others. For example-if a guitarist know how to play a particular song in front of the audience then that’s self-confidence. Confidence in oneself, one’s abilities etc. A measure of one’s belief in one’s own abilities is also termed a s self-confidence.

Confidence can help you take on the world with more energy and determination, resulting in better relationships, quality work and a feeling of being connected with your surroundings. Self-confident people usually can influence others more easily as well as control their own emotions and behaviors more responsibly.

On the other hand, low self-confidence might make you feel full of self-doubt, be passive or submissive, or have difficulty trusting others. You may feel inferior, unloved or be sensitive to criticism. Feeling confident in yourself might depend on the situation. For instance, you can feel very confident in some areas, such as academics, but lack confidence in others, like relationships. Having low or high self-confidence is rarely related to your actual abilities, and mostly based on your perceptions. Perceptions are the way you think about yourself and these thoughts can be flawed.

Low self-confidence might stem from different experiences, such as growing up in an un-supportive and critical environment, being separated from your friends or family for the first time, judging yourself too harshly, or being afraid of failure. People with low self-confidence often have errors in their thinking.

How to increase your self-confidence

  • Recognize and emphasize your strengths. Reward and praise yourself for your efforts and progress.
  • When you stumble on an obstacle,treat yourself with kindness and compassion. Don’t dwell on failure.
  • Set realistic and achievable goals. Do not expect perfection, it is impossible to be perfect in every aspect of life.
  • Slow down when you are feeling intense emotions and think logically about the situations.
  • Challenge making assumptions about yourself, people and situations.
  • Recognize that past negative life experiences do not dictate your future.
  • Express your feelings, beliefs and needs directly and respectful.
  • Learn t say no to unreasonable requests.
  • Individual counseling can also help increase your self-confidence if you need more help.

Still lack confidence

Sometimes the quick fixes don’t help in the long term. If you’re feeling bad and things just don’t seem to be improving, it’s worth talking to someone who knows how to help you. Professionals like psychologists can help you develop strategies to help you build up your confidence. They may also be able to help you understand any underlying problems that might be causing you to feel bad about yourself.

Mirabai Chanu-Biography

From lifting firewood as a kid to being elevated onto international podiums, weightlifter Mirabai Chanu’s story is one of a remarkable rise.

Saikom Mirabi Chanu was born on 8 August 1994 in Nongpok Kakching, Imphal, Manipur, to a Sanamahi Meitei family, is an Indian weightlifter. Ending India’s 21-year wait for a weightlifting medal at the grandest stages of them,star weightlifter Mirabai opened the nation’s medal account in the ongoing Tokyo Olympics 2020 on Saturday. She won Silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics in Women’s 49kg, helping to secure India its 1st medal of the games. The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi has also congratulated Mirabai for bringing her silver medal from this event. Saying that “India is full of happiness debut and great performance”.


Mirabai Cahnu sprung to International prominence at the age of 20, when she bagged the silver medal in the 48kg category at the 2014 Common Wealth Games in Scotland. Chanu qualified for the 2016 Rio Olympics in the women’s 48kg category. However, she failed to finish the event, owing to no successful lifts in any of her three attempts in the clean and jerk section. In 2017, she won the Gold medal in the women’s 48kg category by lifting a competition record 194kg in total (85kg snatch and 109kg clean and jerk) in the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships held at Anaheim, CA, United States. In 2021, Mirabai Chanu became the 1st and only women Indian weightlifter to qualify for the 2021 summer games by securing the 2nd position in the 49kg category. The 27 year old, lifted 86kg in snatch and then created the world record by lifting a massive 119 kg in the clean and the jerk, for a total of 250 kg, which won her Bronze medal and a ticket to Tokyo Olympics.

Chanu won the silver medal at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, becoming the 1st Indian weightlifter to win silver in Olympics, winning a silver medal in 49 kg weightlifting with a total of 202 kg. Chanu managed to lift a total of 202 kg in the women’s 49 kg category to become the second Indian weightlifter after Karnam Malleshwari to win an Olympic medal. A new Olympic record was registered by Mirabai Chanu with a successful lift of 115 kg in clean and jerk.

Awards and honor

  • Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, highest sporting honor of India. Chanu received this award in the year 2018.
  • Padma Shri, the fourth highest civilian award of India, Chanu received this award in 2018.

Rs.20 lakhs from the Government of Manipur for the gold medal in the 2017 World Weightlifting Champions.

For winning the silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Summer Olympics

  • Rs. 50 lakhs from the Government of India.
  • Rs. 1 crore from the Government of Manipu.

After Norman Pritchard, Rajyvardhan Rathore, Sushil Kumar, Vijay Kumar and P.V Sindhu, Chanu is India’s 6th individual silver medalist at the Olympics. “I am very happy, I have been dreaming of this for the past five years. I am very proud of myself right now, I did try for Gold but even silver is a great achievement for me,” Chanu told reporters after her sensational performance at the Tokyo Olympics.


Talent and hard work together can get any person to success, working hard can lead you to success and that success can be more durable because practice makes person perfect. Hard work is the only key to achieving it, it teaches us discipline, dedication and determination. Saikom Mirabai Chanu is the perfect example for hard work and determination.

Friendship-The prefect bond

Friendship is one of the greatest bonds anyone can ever wish for. Lucky are those who have friends they can thrust. Friendship is a devoted relationship between two individuals. They both feel immense care and love for each other. Usually, a friendship is shared by two people who have similar interests and feelings.

The definition of a true friendship is someone who has your back, no matter what. They watch out for you and ensure you are not in danger. They will never purposely lead you into making decisions that aren’t good for you. a true friendship will always have your best interest at heart.

Friendship, a state of enduring affection, esteem, intimacy, and trust between two or few more people. It is recognized by both members of the relationship and is characterized by a bond or tie of reciprocated affection. It is not obligatory, two or four individuals choose to form a friendship with each other.

Friendship means familiar and liking of each other’s mind. People who are friends talk to each other and spend time together. They trust one another and also help each other when they are in trouble or are hurt. Friends are people that can be looked up to and trusted. Usually friends have similar interests.

Being able to have and confidence in your friend is one of the most important requirements of a strong relationship because true friendship means you are able to count on one another. Part of caring for a friend is honoring what they tell you, no matter the significance, with confidentially and respect.

Good friends are loyal and accept you for who you are during the good and bad times. Good friends are also honest, honest enough tell you when you’re not being a good friend yourself. Along with good friends who are present, loyal, and honest, most people want friends who are trustworthy.

A recent Harvard study concluded that having solid friendships in our life even helps promote brain health. Friends choices that keep us strong and allow us to rebound from health issues and disease more quickly. Friendship is also important to our mental health.

Mental health

The lack of friendship has been found to play a role in increasing risk of suicidal ideation among female adolescents, including having more friends who were not themselves friends with one another. However, no similar effect was observed for males. Having few or no friends is a major indicator in the diagnosis of a range of mental disorders. Higher friendships quality directly contributes to self-esteem, self-confidence, and social development. A world Happiness Database study found that people with close friendship did not increase happiness. Other studies have suggested that children who have friendships of a highly quality may be protected against the development of certain disorder, such a s anxiety and depression. Conversely, having few friends is associated with dropping out of school as well as aggression and adult crime. Peer rejection is also associated with lower later aspiration in the work force, and participation in social activities, while higher levels of friendship was associated with higher adult self-esteem.

friendship is in many respects a comfortable love relationship. Friendships involve as little or as much intimacy as the partners are inclined to express at any given time. Friends are not normally obligated to exchange benefits, but do so in ways that are often so natural as to be unwitting.

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (Save the girl child, educate the girl child)

Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (Save the girl child, educate the girl child), Is a campaign of the government of India that aims to generate awareness and improve the efficiency of welfare services intended for girls in India. we can say that women were dis-empowered instead of being empowered. In order to empower women and give them their full rights,right from the birth the Government of India has launched this scheme. The scheme was launched with an initial funding of Rs.100 crore. It mainly targets the clusters in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarkhand, Punjab, Bihar and Delhi.

Reasons for this initiative

The reduction of in the female population of certain Indian states continues to worsen, as result of the 2011 national census have shown. After the birth of a girl child, she has to face another type of discrimination in terms of education, health, nutrition safety, rights and other needs of the girl child. It has been observed that the trends is most pronounced in relatively prosperous regions of India. The dowry system in India is often blamed, the expectation that a large dowry must be provided for daughters in order for them to marry is frequently cited as a major cause for the problem. Pressure for parents to provide large dowries for their daughters is most intense in prosperous states where high standards of living and modern consumerism, are more prevalent in Indian society. Rates of female foeticide in Madhya Pradesh are increasing, the rate of livebirths was 932 girls per 1000 boys in 2001, which dropped to 918 by 2011. It is expected that if this trend continues by 2021 the number of girls will drop below 900 per 1000 boys.


The Government of India has formed a National Executive Committee to promote Beti Bachao Beti Padao (BBBP) across the country. The committee is organizing a number of programs to promote “Save Girl Child” and “To Educate Girl Child” since January 2015. Dr.Rajendra Phadke is the National Convener of BBBP Abhiyan. The BBBP is also supported by the Indian Medical Association.


The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) reported that the scheme failed to meet its objectives. As per the CAG data, the sex ratio has deteriorated in many districts of Haryana and Punjab. According to the report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development only Rs.5 crore of a total of Rs.43 crore allotted for the scheme in the financial year 2016-2017 was properly used. As per the government data, more than 56% of funds were spent on publicity from 2014-2015 to 2018-19. Less than 25% of the funds were released to districts and states, and the government did not release more than 19 percent of the funds. Minister of state Ministry of Women and Child Development. Virendra Kumar Khatik, claimed that the sex ratio in 53 put of 161 districts under the scheme declined between 2014-15 and 2016-17. According to experts, the scheme’s minimal success is due to the government’s inability to release funds efficiently and its disproportionate focus on publicity rather than making initiatives in the health and education sectors.

Let’s all join our hands together and save a girl child and educate a girl child.


Technology, the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life, or as it is sometimes phrased, to change and manipulation of the human environment. Technology is the sum of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques processes and the like or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system’ use and then producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems.


The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of modern humans. Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of the fully modern language.

Is technology good or bad

These days it’s trendy to talk about technology as if it were purely a bad thing. After all, we’ve got companies violating our privacy and harvesting our data without being transparent about what they’re doing, tools like personal assistants recording us without our knowledge and regular breaches that put our personal information at risk. The same tools we’re concerned about can also makes our lives better from connecting doctors more quickly than ever to patient data to digital bus routes that make transport more efficient. Technology on it’s own isn’t bad or a good thing, it’s how it’s used that matters.

The evolution of technology is beneficial to humans for several reasons. At the medical level, technology can help treat more sick people and consequently save many lives and combat very harmful viruses and bacteria. Technology has also increased the productivity of almost every industry in the world.

Modern technology is used for many lifestyles conveniences from our smartphones to our vehicles, but it’s also saving lives every second by advancing our medical science. Technology allows the world’s most state-of-the-art hospitals to catch and treat diseases faster and more efficient than ever.

Technology reduces the cost of doing much of the work. The lower cost of production helps to increase the profit margin, which is essential in eradicating poverty. Technology opens up doors for new opportunities to do business or work. In turn, it increases the household incomes among the poor population.

Social media and mobile devices may lead to psychological and physical issues, such as eyestrain and difficulty focusing on important tasks. They may also contribute to more serious health conditions, such as depression. The overuse of technology may have a more significant impact on developing children and teenagers.

Technology addiction falls into a category of addiction termed behavioral addictions. Behavioral addictions are widely recognized by mental health and addiction professionals and include other behaviors such as gambling etc.


Technology has made our society make it to the point of ignorance to the fact that there might be a day when our technology does not work and they cannot at the moment live without it.We have grown to rely on our technology to make our lives easier.


Music is a pleasant sound which is a combination of melodies and harmony and which soothes you. Music may also refer to the art of composing such pleasant sounds with the help of the various musical instruments. A person who knows music is a musician. The music consists of Sargam, Ragas, Taals etc. The music is not only what is composed of men but also which exists in nature. Have you heard the sound of a waterfall or a flowering river? Could you hear music there? Thus, everything in harmony has music. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of the greatest musicians, quoted “The music is not in the notes, but in the silence between”.

Importance of music

Music has great qualities of healing a person emotionally and mentally. Music is a form of meditation. While composing or listening music one tends to forget all his/her worries, sorrows and pains. But, in order to appreciate good music, we need to cultivate our musical taste. It can be cited that in the Dwapar Yug, the Gopis would get mesmerized with the music that flowed from Lord Krishna’s flute. They would surrender themselves to Him. Also, the research has proved that the plants which hear the music grow at a faster rate in comparison to the others.

Magical powers of music

It has a power to cure diseases such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, etc. The power of music can be testified by the legends about Tansen of his bringing the rains by singing Raag Megh Malhar and lighting lamps by Raga Deepak. It also helps in improving the concentration and is thus of great help to the students.

Music and brain health

Music seems to find re-routed paths and that is why it is such a useful tool in terms of helping people with different kinds of brain damage because it can help find new pathways in terms of brain functioning. Th reward system of the brain is highly associated with music. One specific rain formation. known as the striatum discharges substance called Dopamine in reaction to pleasure-related stimulating elements. The processing of music in the brain is done differently, than any other stimulating elements making it important for researchers to understand the effects of music on the brain.

Music therapy

Music therapy an allied health profession, is the clinical and evidence-based use ofmusic interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. Music therapy is a broad field. Music therapists use music-based experiences to address client needs in one or more domains of human functioning cognitive, academic, emotional/physiological, spiritual aesthetics. Music experience are strategically designed to utilize the elements of music for therapeutic effects, including melody, harmony, key mode, meter, rhythm, pitch/range, duration, timbre form, texture and instrumentation.

Evidence suggests that music therapy is beneficial for all individuals both physically and mentally. Benefits of music therapy include improved heart rate, reduced anxiety, stimulation of the brain and improved learning. Music therapists use their techniques to help their patients in many areas, ranging from stress relief before and after surgeries to neuropathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease.One study found that children who listened to music while having an IV inserted into their arms showed less distress and felt less pain than the children who did not listen to music while having an IV inserted. Studies on patients diagnosed with mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression have shown a visible improvements in their mental health after music therapy.


Music may cause you feel joyful, sad, anger, hyped up, relaxed etc and sometimes you can feel more than one emotion during a song. As research shows music not only affects what kind of mood we may be in, but also seem to have a habit of choosing music based on the moods we are already feeling.


During the planning of upcoming summer vacation, we all realize how stressed we are with our work and personal life. Not knowing how we could possibly find the time to relax without worrying about everything else in the world that will be going on at home while we’re gone, I did some research to pull together some tips for relaxing vacation.

In order to be able to take a relaxing vacation, you will want to make sure that all your affairs are in order at home, and that your trip is planned out perfectly with no oversights. During your actual trip, you can plan peaceful activities and practice relaxation techniques to keep yourself on track. The main idea of a relaxing vacation is to take away all distractions that will remind you of any stress that you might have left behind. To achieve this, you will need to limit the use of electronic devices, and set the majority of your time to the side in order to find peace and relaxation by yourself during your trip.

For busy workaholics, it can be very difficult to even find the time to take a vacation all for yourself, or better yet being able to actually relax while you are there. With endless phone calls and emails to attend to, taking the time to enjoy your travels might seem like the least of your worries. If you are trying to plan the ultimate vacation where you can allow yourself to completely relax and distress, keep reading this quick guide for how you can achieve this on your next trip. In this article, lets see all the bases when it comes to vacations, from relaxation techniques to planning and even saving money.

How to relax on vacation

  • Take time off of work.
  • Get rid of your electronics.
  • Keep yourself focused on relaxing.
  • Leave some of your schedule open.
  • Occupy yourself with fun activities.
  • Plan lots of relaxing activities, too.
  • Bounce back to your normal schedule toward the end.

The first thing that you will need to do in order to have any hope of a relaxing vacation is to take time off of work. This will include notifying your workplace that you will not be there for a specified amount of time, with an advanced written notice if necessary. In doing this, you should be very clear with your supervisor or business partners that you will not be available to do any work during your vacation. Often times, other people will get the wrong idea about what you really mean when you tell them that you are taking time off of work. To avoid any confused calls from work while you are relaxing on the beach, it is best to let everyone know right away what your going on.

While your on a trip, it is wise to get rid of your electronics a s much as possible. Of course, you will need your smartphone throughout the day to be able to make calls and get directions, but you should not be using it when it is not absolutely necessary. If you have direct access to your text messages and emails at the tip of you fingers all day, you will be tempted to check business when you really shouldn’t be.

To distract yourself from wanting to check your electronics, you should put all your focus in to relaxing during your vacation. This means that if the thought of work or personal matters start to creep into your mind, you must keep yourself on the right track instead of entertaining these urges.

When it comes to what you will actually be doing on your vacation, you should leave some of your schedule open in order to give yourself time to relax. Sometimes when you are extremely stressed out, the only thing that you need is to lay on the beach or take a nap in your giant hotel bed.

For a period of time where you are not busy doing nothing, you can occupy yourself with a few fun activities in the city that you are travelling to. These activities can be anything from guided tours to hikes or sitting down at a restaurant. Basically anything that you plan to participate in can also help you relax at the same time that they are entertaining you. For instance, you can book a trip to the spa or get an in-room massage that might b offered by the hotel you are staying at.

When you are coming toward the end of your relaxing vacation, you will want to ease back into your normal schedule instead of abruptly ending the habits that you have established on your trip. After all, nobody wants to get used to sleeping in until noon every day for a week and then waking up the next day at 7 to jump out of bed and go right back to work. This is especially true when you are travelling outside of the country and have gotten used to any time difference between each location.

In order to slowly bounce back to your normal schedule, you can start to gradually wake up earlier as you get closer to your day of departure. This way, your body will be well rested and ready for anything once you return home.


Environment means anything that surround us. It can be living (biotic) or non-living (abiotic) things. It includes physical,chemical and other natural forces. Living things live in their environment. They constantly interact with it and adapt themselves to conditions in their environment. In the environment there are different interactions between animals, plants, soil, water and other living and non-living things.

Since everything is part of the environment of something else, the word environment is used to talk about many things. People in different fields of knowledge use the word environment differently. Electromagnetic environment is radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation and magnetic fields. The environment of galaxy refers to conditions of interstellar medium. In psychology and medicine, a person’s environment is the people, physical things and places that the person lives with. The environment affects the growth and development of the person. It affects the person’s , body, mind and heart. The living conditions of living organisms in an environment are affected by the weather or climate changes in the environment.

Importance of environment

we truly cannot understand the real worth of the environment. But we can estimate some of its importance. Environment plays an important role in healthy living and the existence of life on planet earth. Earth is a home for different living species and we all are dependent on the environment on the environment for food, air, water and other needs. Therefore, it is important for every individual to save and protect our environment. The entire life support of humans depends wholly on the environmental factors. It also helps in maintaining various life cycles on earth. Most importantly, our environment is the source of natural beauty and is necessary for maintaining physical and mental health.

Impact of human activities on the environment

In order to meet the basic needs of increases population, the present society has under taken a series of steps like rapid industrialization, unplanned urbanization, over-exploitation of natural sources, etc. There are different types of human activities which are directly attributed to the environmental disasters, which include acid rain, acidification of oceans, change in the climate, deforestation, depletion of an ozone layer, disposal of hazardous wastes, global warming, overpopulation, pollution etc.

Benefits of the environment

The environment gives us countless benefits that we can’t repay our entire life. As they are connected with the forest, tress, animals, water and air. The forests and tress filter the air and absorb harmful gases. Plants purify water, reduce the chances of flood maintain natural balance and many others. Moreover, the environment keeps a close check on the environment and its functioning, it regulates the vital systems that are essential for the ecosystem. Besides, it maintains the culture and quality of life on earth. The environment regulates various natural cycles that happen daily. These cycles help in maintaining the natural balance between living things and the environment.

Disturbance of these things can ultimately affect the life cycle of humans and other living beings. The environment that helped us and other living beings to flourish and grow from thousands of years. The environment provides u fertile land, water, air, livestock and many essential things for survival.


Amidst all the problems that exist in India, the unemployment crisis is at the topmost position. A report by Center for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) reveals India’s unexpected increased unemployment rate to 24% in April 2020, then decreasing to 9.1% in December 2020 and 6% in January 2021. Thus impacted as many as around 90 lakh people losing jobs during the worldwide COVID-19 lockdown. The number of unemployed people might have deceased over the period, but unemployment still remains an unsolved problem in India.

Problems caused due to unemployment

Unemployment and poverty goes side by side. The problem of unemployment gives rise to the problem of poverty. Young people after a long time of unemployment find the wrong way to earn money. To get rid from the unemployment stress, they accept alcohol or drugs. The personal and social costs of unemployment include severe financial hardship and poverty, debt, homeless and housing stress, family tensions and breakdown, boredom, alienation, shame and stigma, increased social isolation, crime, erosion of confidence an self-esteem, the atrophying of work skills and ill-health.

Haryana- The highest unemployment rate in India.

Haryana recorded the highest unemployment rate in India, as per the data released by the Center for Monitoring Indian Economy for February 2021. With a 26.4% unemployment rate. Haryana’s unemployment is nearly four times the national average. The spike in the unemployment rate comes after the state saw a considerable dip in the jobless figures in January 2021. In January, the unemployment came down to 17.7% from over 32% in December 2020. Economists and industries have attributed this to extreme volatility in the market.

Types of unemployment crisis in India:

  • Disguised unemployment: When organizations hire employees more than they need.
  • Structural unemployment: When employees skill set mismatch with their jobs roles due to the unavailability of jobs in the market.
  • Seasonal unemployment: When people do not have work during certain seasons of the year, like labourer in India rarely earn through daily wage jobs throughout the year.
  • Technological unemployment: It is when people lose their jobs due to technological advancements. Example- manual processes replaced by digital and automation.
  • Cyclical unemployment: When a massive number of employees are removed from the organization during recessions.
  • Frictional unemployment: When people are unemployed for a short period while searching for a new job or switching between jobs. The reason for this type of unemployment is not a shortage of jobs, instead the employees themselves quit their jobs in search of better job opportunities.

Major causes and impact of unemployment

  • Large population-India has crossed 1,389,456,823 population already with only $1,877 per capital income.
  • Low or no educational levels-As per NSO’s report, India’s average literacy rate is 77.7%. The sad part is, almost 2 million graduates and half a million postgraduates are still unemployed in India.
  • Low employment skills.Around 47% of graduates in India are not suitable for any kind of job role.
  • Job opportunity and skills mismatch-According to a report, 48% of urban youth face the problem of landing a suitable job, 38% of those who are employed are dissatisfied with their current job.
  • Societal responsibilities for women-Only 19.9% of educated women in India are employed, as many of them are graduates but have to get married right after their graduation, others quit jobs due to family responsibilities or pregnancy and maternity gap.

Solutions to unemployment

  • Education-For every problem in the world,education stands as the strongest solution. Education is the basic right of any citizen and it should be provided with minimum fees. Right from equal educational facilities, to skill-based and computer knowledge, the educational system can and should be improved.
  • Career guidance-Job seekers who are educated but could not figure the right career path should consult a career guidance expert. Every industry has numerous career opportunities but Indian workers lack complete awareness about the same. A career guidance expert can help job seekers understand the industry know-how, zero down on the best career option and choose the right career path for them.
  • Skill-based training-Every job role requires a specific skill set and every job seeker should get trained in those skills. Many EdTech startups provide career guidance with industry, job or company-specific training to hone organizational skills. These skills training sessions also include resume through mock interviews and everything that can help job seekers become employable.


Superstition refers to any belief or practice that is caused by supernatural causality, and which contradicts modern science. Superstition beliefs and practices often vary from one person to another or from one culture to another, ranging from harmless practices such as lemon-and-chili totems in order to ward off the evil eye to harmful acts like witch-burning. Superstitions have two main causes: cultural tradition and individual experiences. If you grew up steeped in the superstitions of a particular culture or religion, you may carry these beliefs forward, even subconsciously.

Psychologists who have investigated what role superstitions play have found that they derive from the assumption that a connection exists between co-occurring non-related events. For instance, the notion that charms promote good luck, or protect you from bad luck. Superstitions are usually attributed to lack of education. However, this has not always been the case in India, as there are many educated people with beliefs considered superstitions by the public. Being part of religion and tradition practices have been passed down from one generation to another for centuries. The Indian Government has tried to put new laws prohibiting such practices into effect. Due to the rich history of superstitions, these laws often face a lot of opposition from the general public.

Past supersitions

  • Sati system – Sati is the act or custom of a Hindu widow burning herself or being burned to death on the funeral pyre of her husband. After watching Sati of his own sister-in-law, Ram Mohan Roy began campaigning for abolition of the practice in 1811. The practice of Sati was abolished by Governor General Lord William Bentinck in British India. On October 1 1987, the legislative assembly of Rajasthan passed an ordinance against Sati which was later turned into an Act. On 3 January 1988, the Indian parliament passed a new law ( Commission Prevention of Sati Act 1987 )based on Rajasthan’s legislation of 1987.
  • Human sacrifice – Although human sacrifice are not prevalent in India, rare isolated incidents do happen, especially in rural areas. In some cases, human have bee replaced by animals and birds. This has caused backlash from animal rights groups, so in some places they have again been replaced by human affigies. The motives behind these sacrifices include inducing rainfall and helping childless women conceive. It is alleged that cases often go unreported or are covered up. Between 1999 and 2006, about 200 cases of child sacrifices were reported from Uttar Pradesh.

Common Superstitions

  • Itchy palm: Good luck – There are many variations on this superstition. But the idea of having an itchy palm generally refers to someone who is greedy or has an insatiable desire for money. Some believe that if the right palm itches you will meet someone new, while an itchy left palm means that money is coming. Others tell that an itchy right palm means money coming in and a left handed itch foretells money going out.
  • Breaking a mirror – Many superstitions people say that breaking a mirror sets you up for 7 years of bad luck. That may be because 7 years is the time it takes to replace all the cells in your physical body. In a more superstitions time, mirrors were thought to be reflections of the soul. So breaking a mirror was believed to be harmful to the soul.
  • Black cats: Bad luck – This superstitions is a tough one for cats lovers to swallow, but in the middle ages it was thought that witched kept black cats as companions.


A superstition is an irrational fear of what is unknown or mysterious, especially in connection with religion. Being too superstitious is opposite of being materialistic and realistic. It is the belief that certain events bring good or bad luck which cannot be explained by reason or science. In short, superstitions means blind belief.


Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. These harmful materials are called pollutants. Pollutants can be natural, such as volcanic ash. They can also be created by human activity, such as trash or runoff produced by factories. Pollutants damage the quality of air, water and land.

7 types of pollution

  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Land pollution
  • Radioactive pollution
  • Thermal pollution
  • Light pollution
  • Sound pollution

Air Pollution

Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust pollen and mold spores may be suspended as particles. Ozone, a gas is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution it’s also called smog. Some air pollutants are poisonous.

Air pollution can cause headaches, dizziness. Long term effects from air pollution include heart disease, lung cancer and respiratory diseases such as emphysema. Air pollution can also cause long-term damage to people’s nerves, brain, kidneys, liver and other organs.

9 best ways to reduce air pollution

  • Using public transports
  • Recycle and reuse
  • No to plastic bags
  • Reduction of forest fires and smoking
  • Use of fans instead of air conditioner
  • Use filters for chimneys
  • Avoid usage of crackers
  • avoid using provide with chemicals
  • Implement Afforestation

Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater. They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. The causes of water pollution vary and may be both natural and anthropogenic. However, the most common cause of water pollution are the anthropogenic ones, including Agricultural runoff carrying fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and other pollutants into water bodies such as lakes, river.

Effects of water pollution include

  • Destruction of biodiversity
  • Contamination of the food chain
  • Lack of potable water
  • Disease
  • Infant mortality

8 ways to reduce water pollution

  • Reduce the use of chemicals when cleaning
  • Practice water conservation
  • Dispose of your medications properly
  • Avoid use of pesticides and herbicides
  • Avoid water-polluting recreational activities.
  • Avoid disposing items into the toilet
  • Maintain your vehicle
  • Carryout these practices everywhere

Land pollution

Soil pollution or soil contamination is a part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics chemicals or other alternation in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. Soil erosion the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, deforestation and overgrazing is one of the main reasons for soil pollution. Water pollution-the toxic waste material and liquids that are discarded on land contaminate water through the sewage system and sludges.

Various causes of land pollution

  • Deforestation and soil erosion
  • Agricultural activities
  • Mining activities
  • Overcrowded landfills
  • Industrialization
  • Urbanization
  • Construction activities
  • Nuclear waste
  • Sewage treatment
  • Littering

5 best ways to reduce land pollution

  • Eat sustainable foodstuffs, properly recycle batteries, produce homemade compost and dispose of drugs in the places authorized for this purpose.
  • Encourage a more eco-friendly model for industry, farming and stock breeding, among other economic activities.
  • Improve urban planning and transport planning and waste water treatment.
  • Improve the management of mining waste, restore the landscape and conserve topsoil.
  • Involve local communities and indigenous peoples in the design, implementation and assessment of sustainable land and soil management.

Radioactive pollution

The radioactive pollution is defined as the physical pollution of living organisms and their environment as a result of release of radioactive substances into the environment during nuclear explosions and testing of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapon production and decommissioning mining of radioactive ores and handling of radioactive waste, and accidents at nuclear power plants. Exposure of high level of radiation, such as being close to atomic blast, can cause acute health effects such as skin burns and acute radiation syndrome. It can also result in long-term health effects such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Causes of radioactive pollution

  • The use of nuclear weapons as weapons of mass destruction
  • Use of radioisotopes
  • Mining
  • Spillage of radioactive chemicals
  • Tests on radiation

Solution for radioactive pollution – The only options are either to contain the waste storing in tightly closed containers shielded with radiation-protective materials or dilute it. It can also be contained by storage in remote caves or abandoned salt mines

Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is any deviation from the natural temperature in a habitat and can range from elevated temperature associated with industrial cooling activities to discharges of cold water into streams below large impoundments. The effects of thermal pollution include decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, which aquatic life requires, damage to larvae and eggs of fishes in rivers. Killing off some species of fish and macroinvertibrates that have a limited tolerance for temperature change, and migration of living entities.

Ways to prevent thermal pollution

  • Heated water from the industries can treated before discharging directly to the water bodies.
  • Industrial treated water can be recycled for domestic use or industrial heating.
  • Heated water from the industries can be treated by the installation of cooling ponds and cooling towers.

Light pollution

Light pollution is excessive, misdirected or artificial light. Too much light pollution has consequences it washes out starlight in the night sky, interferes with astronomical research, disrupts ecosystems had adverse health effects and wastes energy.

Light pollution is mainly caused by misdirected excessive, inefficient and unnecessary lighting systems. New energy efficient and cost efficient light sources such as LED will only aggravate light pollution.

Prevention of light pollution

  • Use LED
  • Minimizing the use of lights
  • Glare-free lighting for vehicles driven at night
  • All outdoors lights with glare should be replaced with low-glare alternatives.
  • Colored lights can be used as an option.

Sound pollution

Sound pollution also known as environmental noise or sound pollution is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport and propagation system. It effects millions of people on a daily basis. The most common health problem it causes is Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NHL), can also cause high blood pressure, heart disease, sleep disturbances and stress. These health problems can affect all age group especially children.

Steps to reduce sound pollution

  • Close the windows.
  • Put on earplugs
  • Improve your insulation
  • Invest in noise-canceling headphones
  • Do wall-to-wall carpeting
  • Install a fence



A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. The content and function of dreams are not fully understood. Although they have been a topic of scientific, philosophical and religious interest throughout recorded history. Dream interpretation is the attempt at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for an underlying message. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology.

Rapid Eye Movement

Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tends to be much less vivid or memorable. The length of a dream can vary, they may last for a few seconds, or approximately 20-30 minutes. People are more likely to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phrase. The average person has three to five dreams at night and some may have up to seven. However, most dream are immediately forgotten. During a full eight-four night sleep, most dreams occur in the typical two hours of REM. Dreams related to work-life experience are associated with REM activity, which suggests that emotional memory processing takes place in REM sleep.

Babies spend almost half of their sleep dreaming, while the elderly spend less than a fifth. Blind people dream in other senses, especially if they lost their sight before the age of seven.


Dream interpretation can be a result of subjective ideas and experiences. One study found that most people believe that ” their dreams reveal meaning hidden truths”. In one study conducted in the United States, South Korea and India, they found that 74% of Indians, 65% of South Korea and 56% of Americans believed their dreams content provided them with meaningful insight into their unconscious beliefs and desires.

The history of dream interpretation

Going back around 5000 years ago in Mesopotamia, the earliest recorded dreams were documented on clay tablets. In the Roman and Greek periods, people believed that dreams were messages sent differently from one or more deities, from deceased people, and that they were the predictors of the future. Then there were cultures that practiced dream incubation, their intention being to cultivate dreams of prophecy.


A nightmare is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong negative emotional response from the mind. Typically fear or horror, but also despair, anxiety and great sadness. The dream may contain situations of danger, discomfort, psychological or physical terror. Sufferers usually awaken in a state of distress and may be unable to return to sleep for a prolonged period of time. Therapy for recurring nightmares (often associated with post-traumatic stress disorder) can include imaging alternative scenarios that could begin at each step of the dream.

Do dreams have a deeper meaning?

A surprising number of people believe that the answer to this question is yes. According to a poll conducted, 43% of Americans believe that dreams reveal unconscious desires and wishes. While most modern theories of dreams would suggest that the answer is no, this hasn’t stopped interpreters and analysis from publishing a whole host of dream dictionaries that purport to identify what these common dream themes and symbols really mean.


Rain is one of the most beautiful moments of nature. Rain is the falling of water from the clouds coming back to the earth, which is taken indirectly by the sun. Rain is a very beautiful moment that can enhance any person, and is able to make many people to admit it as a great blessing of God bestowed upon man by him in some specific time. Nature is beautiful and it has many forms, and scenes, each of which is different to one another and varies in their beauty. Rain is one of them that give a real feeling of happiness and gratitude in a sad or mournful time. There are various ways to enjoy rainy days. You can sit in your balcony and sip on tea while enjoying the whether. Moreover, you may go in the garden or terrace and bathe in it. Make paper boats and take a long drive on the road as well.

Rainy days are different from any other day. They hold great importance for everyone differently. People have different reasons to wait for the rainy season. No matter what the whether may be, a rainy day relaxes and soothes our soul. There are no age limits to enjoy rainy days people of almost every age enjoy it equally.

As stated earlier, rainy days are enjoyed by people of all ages. The kids are probably the most excited lot of all. Rainy days bring pleasant weather and uplift the moods of kids. Moreover, it gives them a chance to step out and play in the rain, jump in the puddles and make paper boats. Similarly, for students, a rainy day means a break from school. It gives them a break from their monotonous routine as the school declares a holiday. The joy of giving to school on a rainy day enjoying the weather and then realizing the school is closed is one of a kind experience. The students become relaxed and spend their day doing other activities like going out with friends and more. Most importantly, we see rainy days are of utmost importance for farmers. It is quite essential for the production of crops. It provides them with adequate water to make their crops flourish which will eventually benefit them.


A fresh, afternoon shower soothes our soul and rekindles our enthusiasm. The rain drops resting on the trees and flowers, and the chirping of a thousand unknown birds provide a surreal feeling to our minds. The sound of rain on tin roofs and the refreshing petrichor acts as a balm for our tired souls. Something is astonishing and beautiful in observing cats and dogs as they run inside sheds to shelter themselves from the torrential downpour. Rainy days are like recesses between our exhausting routines. We are all creatures of Mother Nature, and it takes very little to bring out our anarchic selves. Rainy days are those rare times when we take our eyes off our phones and gadgets and experience nature in all its glory. Few people can resist running to their balcony to take in the smell of rain. It fills our mechanical hearts with a strange warmth. The small raindrops on windowpanes and dandelions shine like pearls in the late sunlight. Rain comes with thunder and lighting. The grey clouds darken the usual azure palate and guard the sun. Every dark cloud has a silver lining, and that renews our hope and inspires us.

Rainy days are perfect for introverts. They would cuddle up with blankets and a warm cup of coffee and their favorite book. They would plug in their earphones and listen to songs.


Water is an essential nutrient that our body requires every day. Without water human life cannot be sustained. Water deprivation kills faster than lack of any other nutrient. People don’t realize the important role of water in the body function.Water facilitates the transportation system of the body. It is the medium by which all the other nutrients and other essential elements are distributed to every part of the body. Water also transports the waste from the body. The body looses water in the form of swear during exercise and vigorous physical activity. It is also lost a urine which accounts for three quarters of the body water loss. Dark yellow urine indicates dehydration and means that we should consume more water.

Water comes from a variety of sources. All beverages, juices and fluids we consume are sources of water for our body. Even solid food contains water. Vegetables such as cucumber, lettuce and celery may have up to 90% water. Protein rich food such as meat and fish could contain two-thirds to one half of their water. Even carbohydrates like grains, although do not appear to be watery could contain water as much as one third of their weight. fats such as butter or margarine contain very little water. Some water may come from within our body because of energy metabolism but the amount is insignificant. Although juices, milk and beverages increase fluid intake but plain water is the best source. Most beverages contain some sugar, natural or added, this will have an effect on our body weight. Drink water throughout the day at regular intervals. If we consume too much water just before going to bed, it may interfere with the sleep. Feeling of tiredness and migraine, even without other symptoms, may indicate dehydration. It would help to sip one or two glasses of water. If this feeling does not go off then it will be due to some other reasons and require medical assistance.

Percentage of water in human body

According to H.H Mitchell. Journal of Biological Chemistry 158, the brain and heart are composed of 73% of water, and the lungs are about 83% of water. The skin contains 64% of water, muscles and kidneys are 79% and even the bones are watery about 31%.

Each day human must consume a certain amount of water to survive. Of course, this varies according to age and gender, and also by where someone lives. Generally, an adult male needs about 3 liters per day while an adult female needs about 20.2 liters per day. In general, women have a lower body water percentage than men. This is because women have more tissue than man. The ideal percentage for adult women will fluctuate between 45 and 60%, while the ideal percentage for adult men will be between 50 and 65% of the total body. All of the water a person needs does not have to come from drinking liquids, as some of this water is contained in the food we eat.

What happens if we don’t consume water

Any deficit in normal body water-through dehydration, sickness, exercise or heat stress can make us feel rotten. First we feel thirsty and fatigue, and may develop a mild headache. This eventually gives was to grumpiness, and mental and physical decline.

Disadvantages of water

It is said that too much consumption of water can lead to fluid overload in the body and imbalance in the body. Excess water can lead to lower sodium levels in the body, which may further lead to nausea, vomiting, cramps, fatigue, etc. This condition is known as hyponatremia.


Due to the devastating pandemic education has changed dramatically, whereby teaching is undertaken remotely and on digital platforms. Globally, over 1.2 billion children are affected in school closures or are out of the classroom. Even before COVID-19, there was already high growth and adoption in education technology, with global tech investments reaching US$18.88 billion in 2019 and the overall market for online education projected to reach $350 Billion by 2025. Whether it is language apps, virtual tutoring, video conferencing tools, or online learning software, there has been a significant usage since COVID_19.


  • Online class are convenient – The biggest advantage of online class is that everything is available to you. You can get announcements, access notes, review assignments, take practice quizzes, discuss questions, chat with fellow students. Other than certain due dates, you make your own schedule for completing the requirements of the class.
  • Online class offer flexibility – Online class gives flexibility to spend time with work, family, friends or any other activity you like.
  • Online class bring education right to your home – Children may take interest in online environment. Parents may look over the shoulder of an online student while they are surfing across the web. In shorts, everyone in the household gets involved in learning. Having the support of your family and friends makes you more likely to succeed.
  • Online class offer more individual attention – Many students aren’t comfortable asking questions in class for fear of feeling stupid. Many times you think of a question after class or while you are studying. Rather than trying to remember to ask it or forgetting it, you can send an e-mail to the instructor, your opportunity to learn is enhanced.
  • Online class have financial benefits – Although you may think that buying computer and paying for internet access is pretty expensive, consider what if would cost you in gas and parking each month if you were driving to campus. Consider the costs of eating out versus eating at home. Consider the costs of pet-care or any other care that you need to provide while you are away from home. These are very tangible benefits of having access to education at home.


  • Online class require more time than on-campus classes – You will spend more time studying and completing assignments in the online environment than you will in an on-campus classes. The online environment is text based. To communicate with your instructor and other students, you must type messages, post responses and otherwise communicate with your fingers. Typing is slower than speaking. Each word you type it and compare the difference if you had spoken the same.
  • Online class require good time-management skills – An internet based class demands that you develop personal time-management skills. Online class require the self-discipline to set aside chunks of time to complete your studies. It means you have to make online studies priority and not let other activities interfere.
  • Online class give you more freedom, perhaps, more than you can handle – This freedom can be dangerous if you don’t learn how to handle it.
  • Online class requires you to be responsible for your own learning – Only you are responsible for your learning. You might not take responsibility for your studies and your goals.

Mental Stress

Stress can be defined as any type of change that causes physical, emotional, or psychological strain. Stress is your body’s response to anything that requires attention or action. Everyone experiences stress to some degree. The way you respond to stress, however, makes a big difference to your overall well-being.

Sometimes, the best way to manage your stress involves changing your situation. At other times, the best strategy involves changing the way you respond to the situation.

Mental stress is a form of stress that occurs because of how events in one’s external or internal environment are perceived, resulting in the psychological experience of distress and anxiety. Mental stress is often accompanied by physiological responses. Stress is also the feeling of being overwhelmed or unable to cope with mental or emotional pressure.

Developing a clear understanding of how stress impacts your physical and mental health is important. It’s also important to recognize how your mental and physical health affects your stress level.


Stress can be short-term or long term. Both can lead to a variety of symptoms, but chronic stress can take a serious toll on the body over time and have long lasting health effects.

Some of the signs of stress include

  • Changes in mood – Mood swings refer to rapid changes in mood. The term may refer to minor daily mood changes or to significant mood changes as seen with mood disorders such as major depression or bipolar depression. Mood swings cal also occur in women who suffer from premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
  • Diarrhea – According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA), when a person is anxious, the body releases hormones and chemicals. These can enter the digestive tract and disrupt the gut flora, which can result in a chemical imbalance that leads to diarrhea.
  • Difficulty in sleeping – Many issues that impact your mental or physical health can disrupt sleep. You’re under a lot of stress. Stressful times and event can cause temporary insomnia. And major or long-lasting stress can lead to chronic insomnia.
  • Digestive problems – In some people, stress slows down digestions, causing bloating, pain and constipation, while in others it speeds it up, causing diarrhea and frequent trips to the loo. some people lose their appetite completely. Stress can also worsen digestive conditions like stomach ulcers and irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Dizziness – Dizziness is common symptom of anxiety stress and, all if one is experiencing anxiety, dizziness can be anxiety producing. The vestibular system is responsible for sensing body position and movement in our surroundings.
  • Headaches – Headaches are more likely to occur when you’re stressed. Stress is a common trigger of tension-type headaches and migraine, and can trigger other types of headaches or make them worse.
  • Physical aches and pains – Your muscles tense up to protect themselves from injury when you’re stressed. They tend to release again once you relax, but if you’re constantly under stress, your muscles any not get the chance to relax. Tight muscles cause headaches, back and shoulder pain, and body aches.

Simple ways to relieve stress

  • Exercise – Exercise is one of the most important things you can do to combat stress. It might seem contradictory, but putting physical stress on your body through exercise can relieve mental stress. The benefits are strongest when you exercise regularly.People who exercise regularly are less likely to experience anxiety than those who don’t exercise.
  • Light a candle – Using a essential oils or burning a scented candle may help reduce your feeling of stress and anxiety. Some scents are especially soothing, mot calming scents like lavender, rose, orange or orange blossom etc.
  • Reduce your caffeine intake – Caffeine is a stimulant found in coffee, tea, chocolate and energy drinks. High dose can increase anxiety. Although many studies show that coffee can be healthy in moderation, it’s not for everyone. In general five or fewer cups per day is considered a moderate amount.
  • Spend time with friends and family – Social support from friends and family can help you get through stressful times. Being a part of a friend network gives you a sense of belonging and self-worth, which can help you in tough times.
  • Laugh – It’s hard to feel anxious when you’re laughing. It’s good for your health, and there are a few ways it may help relieve stress: Relieving your stress response, Relieving tension by relaxing your muscles. In the long term, laughter can also help improve your immune system and mood. A study among people with cancer found that people in the laughter intervention group experience more stress relief than those who were simply distracted.
  • Take a yoga class – Yoga has become a popular method of stress relief and exercise among all ages groups. Yoga primarily does this by increasing body and breath awareness. In general, the benefit of yoga for stress and anxiety seems to be related to its effect on your nervous system and stress response.


A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices, namely for decorative purposes, but studies have also shown them to have positive psychological effects. They also help indoor air purification, since some species, and the soil-dwelling microbes associated with them, reduce indoor air pollution by absorbing volatile organic compounds.While generally toxic to humans, such pollutants are absorbed by the plant and its soil-dwelling microbes without harm. Common houseplants are usually tropical or semi-tropical, succulents or cacti. Houseplants need to correct moisture, light levels, soil mixture, temperature and humidity. Without these conditions most house plants need to proper fertilizer and correct-sized pots.

Most species of houseplant will tolerate low humidity environments if they’re watered regularly. Different plants require different amounts of light, for different duration. Houseplants are generally grown in specialized soils called potting compost or potting soil.

Both under-watering and over-watering can be detrimental to a houseplant. Different species of houseplants require different soil moisture levels. Brown crispy tips on a plant’s leaves are a sign that the plant is under-watered. Yellowing leaves can show that the plant is over watered. Most plants can not withstand their roots sitting in water and will often lead to root rot. Most species of houseplant will tolerate low humidity environments if they’re watered regularly. Different plants require different amounts of light, for different duration. Houseplant are generally grown in specialized soils called potting compost or potting soil. A good potting compost mixture includes soil conditioners to provide the plant with nutrients, support, adequate drainage and proper aeration.

Houseplants are generally planted in pots that have drainage holes in the bottom of the pot to reduces the likelihood of over watering and standing water. A pot that is too large will cause root disease because of the excess moisture retained in the soil, while a pot that is too small will restrict a plant’s growth.

Psychological Effects

A 2015 study showed that active interaction with houseplants can reduce physiological and psychological stress compared with mental work. It appears that benefits are contingent on features of the context in which the indoor plant are encountered and on characteristics of the people encountering them. The phenomenon of biophilia explains why houseplants have positive psychological effects. Biophilia describes humans subconscious need for a connection with nature. This is why humans are fascinated by natural spectacles such as waves or a fire. It also explains why gardening and spending time outdoors can have healing effects. Having plants in indoor living areas can have positive effects on physiological, psychological and cognitive health.

Houseplant Care

Houseplant care is the act of growing houseplants and ensuring they have the necessary conditions for survival and continuing growth. This includes providing soil with sufficient nutrients, correct lighting conditions, air circulation and adding the right amount of water. Watering houseplants on a regular basis is necessary for the plant to remain healthy. They should not, however, be watered on a scheduled basis, because different plant species need different amounts of water and sunlight so it is important to know the specifics for the particular plants that are being grown.

Houseplants sometimes also need to be cleaned of dust and greasy films that collect on the leaves when they are indoors. Dusty, grimy leaves can inhibit growth.

Types of Houseplants

  • Pothos
  • Spider Plant
  • Peace Lily
  • Aloe vera
  • Rubber plant
  • English ivy
  • Jade plant
  • Bamboo palm


Cardiac arrest happens when the heart suddenly stops beating. This can be caused by a heart attack in which the heart’s demand for oxygen is not met and heart muscle begins to die. With cardiac arrest, normal circulation of blood stops, because of a failure of the heart to contract. Cardiac arrest is a medical emergency. The most common cause of cardiac arrest is Coronary Artery Disease. Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heat failure and intense physical exercise.

Causes of cardiac arrest

  • Coronary Artery Disease – Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease, is responsible for 62 to 70 percent of all SCD ( sudden cardiac death). CAD is a much less frequent cause of SCD in people under age 40. Cases have shown that the most common finding at postmortem examination of sudden cardiac death is chronic high-grade stenosis of at least one segment of a major coronary artery, the article that supply the heart muscle with its blood supply.
  • Structural Heart Disease – Structural heart diseases are not related to CAD account for 10 percent of all SCDs. Left ventricular hypertrophy is thought to be a leading cause of structural heart disease in the adult population. This is the most commonly result of longstanding high blood pressure which has caused secondary damage to the wall of the main pumping chamber of the heart, the left ventricle. In the year 1999 United States has found that this accounted to over 30 percent of structural heart disease for those under 30 years. a study of military recruits age 18-35 found that this accounted for over 40 percent of SCDs. Congestive heart failure increases the risk of SCD.
  • Non-cardiac arrest – Sudden cardiac arrest due to non-cardiac causes accounts for the remaining 15 – 25 percent. The most common non-cardiac causes are trauma, major bleeding, overdose, drowning etc. cardiac arrest can also be caused by poisoning or lighting.

Signs and Symptoms

Cardiac arrest is not preceded by any warning symptoms in approximately 50 percent of people. For those who do experience symptoms, they will be non-specific, such as new or worsening chest pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness and vomiting. When cardiac arrest occurs, the most obvious sign of its occurrence will be the lack of a palpable pulse in the victim. The main criterion for diagnosing a cardiac arrest, as opposed to respiratory arrest, which shares many of the same features, is lack of circulation, however there are a number of ways of determining this. Near-death experience are reported by 10 to 20 percent who survive cardiac arrest.


Certain strategies to prevent cardiac arrest are with the prime causes of cardiac arrest being ischemic heart disease, efforts to promote a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are important. For people at risk of heat disease, measures such as blood pressure control, cholesterol lowering are used. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator is a battery-powered device that monitors electrical activity in the heart and when an asystole is detected is able to deliver an electrical shock to terminate the abnormal rhythm. ICDs are used to prevent sudden cardiac arrest. Numerous studies have been conducted on the use of ICDs for the secondary prevention of SCD. These studies have shown improved survival with ICDs compared to the use of anti-arrhythmic drugs. Primary prevention of SCD with ICD therapy for high-risk patient population had similarly shown improved survival rates in a number of large number of studies. Th high-risk patient populations in these studies were defined as those severe ischemic cardiomyopathy.



The dowry system refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride’s family gives to the groom, his parents and his relatives as a condition of the marriage.

Dowry system was introduced in England in the 12th century by the Normans. Earlier to this there was another kind of practice where husband gave some kind of morning gift to his wife. Dowry was generally given at the wedding by the husband at the church door in front of all present public. In India, it has it’s roots in the medieval times when a gift in cash or kind was given to a bride by her father to maintain her independence after her marriage. During colonial period, it became the only legal way to get married, with the British making the practice of dowry mandatory.

Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961

Dowry Prohibition Act, enacted on May 1, 1961, states to prevent the giving and receiving of a dowry. Under the Dowry Prohibition Act, dowry includes property, goods or money given by either party to the marriage, by the parents of either party or by anyone else in connection with the marriage. This act was passed to put an end to the receiving and giving of an evil practice.

Dowry cases in India

India has the highest number of dowry related deaths in the world according to India National Crime Record Bureau. In 2012, 8,233 dowry death cases were reported across India. This means a bride was burned every 90 minutes, or dowry case issues cause 1.4 deaths per year per 100,000 women in India. Number of reported dowry death cases in India 2005-2019 – In 2019,reported dowry death cases in India amounted to more than 7.1 thousand. This was a gradual decrease from the 2014, in which this was approximately 8.5 thousand. According to World Bank Blog in India the highest dowry system practice is in Kerala. Since 1970 Kerala exhibits stark and persistent dowry inflation and had the highest average dowry in recent years, similar inflationary trends are seen across Haryana, Punjab and Gujarat.

Bad Effects of Dowry

  • Dowry leads to harassing a women.
  • Women are ill-treated, disrespected, tortured and are subjected to sorts of cruelties in the name of dowry.
  • Women are killed or murdered.
  • Women are abused.
  • Dowries maintain gender inequality.
  • Dowries keep women from economic independence.
  • Dowries trap poor people in debt.
  • Dowries discriminate against the disabled.

Dowry is a social evil in the society, that has caused unimaginable tortures and crimes towards women. The evil has taken lives of many women from all types of society be it poor, middle class or the rich. However it is the poor who succumb and fall prey to it, more due to their lack of awareness and education.

Causes of dowry system in India

  • Greed – The expectation that a dowry will be given at the time of the bride and groom’s engagement is to compensate for the groom’s education, career, and wealth. The bride’s education, career and wealth are completely disregarded, as she is not given equal societal status to a man.
  • Lack of education – The bride’s family, unaware and un-knowledgeable of the laws, face outrageous financial ultimatums, which when not met, lead to mistreatment of their daughters.

Important Steps to eradicate dowry

  • Educate your daughters.
  • Encourage them to have their own career.
  • Teach them to be independent and responsible.
  • Treat them equally without any discrimination.
  • Do not encourage the practice of giving or taking dowry.


Lakshmi Sahgal was one of the strongest women during the Indian Independence Movement. She was an officer in the Indian National Army, and the Minister of Women’s Affairs in the Azad Hind Government. Lakshmi Sahgal is commonly called as Captain Lakshmi.


Lakshmi Swaminathan was born on 24 October 1914 in Madras to S. Swaminathan, a criminal lawyer and A V Ammu Swaminathan, a women social worker and an activist. During the Indian Independence movement women was not given much importance for education and was forced to marry in a very small age. But Lakshmi Swaminathan was a strong women who decided to complete her higher studies and then get married. She studied medicine and received MBBS degree from Madras Medical College in 1938. In 1939 she received her diploma in Gynaecology and Obstetrics. She worked as a doctor in Government Kasturba Gandhi Hospital in Chennai. Captain Lakshmi married Prem Kumar Sahgal in March in Lahore. They had two daughters. Lakshmi Sahgal continued her profession even after her marriage. Lakshmi was a helping hand for the refugees who was arriving in large numbers because of the Partition of India. Her daughter Subhashini was a Communist politician and activist.

Indian National Army/ Azad Hind Fauj

During the surrender of Singapore by the British, Lakshmi Sahgal aided wounded prisoners of war in Singapore. Singapore at that time had several nationalist Indians working there such as K P Kesava Menon, S C Guha and N Raghavan. Subhash Chandra Bose had arrived in Singapore on July 1943. Subhash Chandra Bose had arrived in Singapore to draft women into the organisation. Dr. Lakshmi had a meeting with Bose and set up a women’s regiment, to be called the Rani of Jhansi regiment. Most of the women were interested to join the all-women regiment and Dr. Lakshmi became the Captain of this regiment. This was a turning point in Lakshmi Swaminathan’s life and later she was called as Captain Lakshmi.

Indian National Army also known as Azad Hind Fauj did not receive any approval from occupying Japanese forces regarding their participation in the war. In 1944 the Indian National Army along with the Japanese army marched to Burma for a war against them. But many were arrested by the British army and was sent to India. Captain Lakshmi was a part of the Azad Hind Fauj was also arrested and sent to India and was sent to jail.

After the Indian Independence, in 1971 captain Lakshmi joined the Communist Party of India and was also representated the party in the Rajya Sabha. Captain Lakshmi during the Bangladesh crisis, she organised relief camps and medical aid for refugees who streamed into India from Bangladesh. Captain Lakshmi was one of the member of All India Democratic Women’s Association. Captain Lakshmi along with others members of All India Democratic Women’s Association led many activities and campaigns. She led many medical camps and also organised many medical teams in many places. One of the notable medical camp conducted by Captain Lakshmi was in Bhopal after the gas tragedy in December 1984, worked towards restoring peace in Kanpur following the anti-sikh riots and Captain Lakshmi was arrested for her participation in the campaign against the Miss World competition in Bangalore. She was seeing her patients regularly at the age of 92. In 2002 the Communist Party of India, the Communist Party of India ( Marxist), the Revolutionary Socialist Party, and the All India Forward Bloc nominated Lakshmi as a candidate in the presidential elections. She was the sole opponent of A P J Abdul Kalam, who won the election and became the President.

In 1998 Captain Lakshmi was awarded the Padma Vibhushan by Indian President K R Narayan. In 2010, she was bestowed with Honorary doctorate by University of Calicut.


On 19 July 2012, Captain Lakshmi suffered a cardiac arrest and died on July 23 2012 at the age of 97 at Kanpur. Her body was donated to Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Memorial Medical College for medical research.