Harappan civilization

Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization is the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. Among the world’s three earliest civilizations the Indus civilization was the most extensive. The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo daro near the Indus River in the Sindh oth sites are in present day Pakistan, in Punjab and Sindh provinces, respectively. The ruins of Mohenjo-daro were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980. The Indus civilization is known to have consisted of two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than 100 towns and villages, often of relatively small size. The population was estimated to be 23,500-35,000 in Harappa and 35,000-41,250 in Mohenjo daro. The civilization subsisted primarily by farming, supplemented by an appreciable but often elusive commerce. Domesticated animals included dogs and cats, humped and shorthorn cattle, domestic fowl, and possibly pigs, camels, and buffalo. Trade was extensive and apparently well-regulated, providing imported raw materials for use at internal production centres, distributing finished goods throughout the region, and arguably culminating in the establishment of Harappan colonies in both Mesopotamia and Badakhshan. The remarkable uniformity of weights and measures throughout the Indus lands were seen. Further, the widespread occurrence of inscriptions in the Harappan script almost certainly indicates the use of a single lingua franca. Stone sculpture is extremely rare, and much of it is quite crude. The figures are apparently all intended as images for worship. Such figures include seated men, recumbent composite animals a standing nude male and a dancing figure. The popular art of the Harappans was in the form of terra-cotta figurines. The majority are of standing females, often heavily laden with jewelry, but standing males some with beard and horns are also evident. Copper and bronze were the principal metals used for making tools and implements. Bronze is less common than copper, and it is notably rarer in the lowerlevels. Other special crafts include the manufacture of faience for making beads, amulets, sealings, and small vessels and the working of stone for bead manufacture and for seals. Beads were made from a variety of substances, but the carnelians Shell and ivory were also worked and were used for beads, inlays, combs, bracelets, and the like.. There are more than 500 signs, many appearing to be compounds of two or more other signs, but it is not yet clear whether these signs are ideographic, logographic, or other. The Harappans also employed regular systems of weights and measures. The decline probably occurred in several stages, perhaps over a century or more: the period between about 2000 and 1750 BCE is a reasonable estimation. The collapse of the urban system does not necessarily imply a complete breakdown in the lifestyle of the population in all parts of the Indus region, but it seems to have involved the end of whatever system of social and political control had preceded it. The end of Mohenjo-daro is known, however, and was dramatic and sudden