Feudalism

feudalism, also called feudal system or feudality. derived from the Latin words feudum and feodalitas, both of which were used during the Middle Ages and later to refer to a form of property holding. The terms feudalism and feudal system were generally applied to the early and central Middle Ages the period from the 5th century, when central political authority in the Western empire disappeared, to the 12th century, when kingdoms began to emerge as effective centralized units of government. For a relatively brief period, from the mid-8th to the early 9″ century, the Carolingian rulers, especially Pippin and Charlemagne had remarkable success in creating and maintaining a relatively unified empire. In the absence of forceful kings and emperors, local lords expanded the territory subject to them and intensified their control over the people living there. A broader definition of feudalism, as described by Marc Bloch includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but the obligations of all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clergy, and the peasantry, all of whom were bound by a system of manorialism; this is sometimes referred to as a “feudal society”. the concept of feudalism is often used by analogy, most often in discussions of feudal Japan under the shoguns, and sometimes in discussions of the Zagwe dynasty in medieval Ethiopia. Some have taken the feudalism analogy further, seeing feudalism (or traces of it) in places as diverse as China during the Spring and Autumn period ancient Egypt, the Parthian Empire, the Indian subcontinent and the Antebellum and Jim Crow American South. Feudalism, in its various forms, usually emerged as a result of the decentralization of an empire: especially in the Carolingian Empire in 8th century AD, which lacked the bureaucratic infrastructure necessary to support cavalry without allocating land to these mounted troops. Mounted soldiers began to secure a system of hereditary rule over their allocated land and their power over the territory came to encompass the social, political, judicial, and economic spheres. These acquired powers significantly diminished unitary power in these empires. However, once the infrastructure to maintain unitary power was re-established-as with the European monarchies feudalism began to yield to this new power structure and eventually disappeared. scholars in the 17th century, the medieval “feudal system” was characterized by the absence of public authority and the exercise by local lords of administrative and judicial functions formerly performed by centralized governments; general disorder and endemic conflict and the prevalence of bonds between lords and free dependents which were forged by the lords’ bestowal of property called”fiefs” and by their reception of homage from the vassals. The terms feudalism and feudal system enabled historians to deal summarily with a long span of European history whose complexities were and remain confusing The Roman Empire and the various emperors’ accomplishments provided a key to understanding Roman history, and the re emergence of states and strong rulers in the 12th century again furnished manageable focal points for historical narrative, particularly since medieval states and governmental practices can be presented as antecedents of modern nations and institutions. Those who formulated the

Harappan civilization

Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization is the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. Among the world’s three earliest civilizations the Indus civilization was the most extensive. The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo daro near the Indus River in the Sindh oth sites are in present day Pakistan, in Punjab and Sindh provinces, respectively. The ruins of Mohenjo-daro were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980. The Indus civilization is known to have consisted of two large cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and more than 100 towns and villages, often of relatively small size. The population was estimated to be 23,500-35,000 in Harappa and 35,000-41,250 in Mohenjo daro. The civilization subsisted primarily by farming, supplemented by an appreciable but often elusive commerce. Domesticated animals included dogs and cats, humped and shorthorn cattle, domestic fowl, and possibly pigs, camels, and buffalo. Trade was extensive and apparently well-regulated, providing imported raw materials for use at internal production centres, distributing finished goods throughout the region, and arguably culminating in the establishment of Harappan colonies in both Mesopotamia and Badakhshan. The remarkable uniformity of weights and measures throughout the Indus lands were seen. Further, the widespread occurrence of inscriptions in the Harappan script almost certainly indicates the use of a single lingua franca. Stone sculpture is extremely rare, and much of it is quite crude. The figures are apparently all intended as images for worship. Such figures include seated men, recumbent composite animals a standing nude male and a dancing figure. The popular art of the Harappans was in the form of terra-cotta figurines. The majority are of standing females, often heavily laden with jewelry, but standing males some with beard and horns are also evident. Copper and bronze were the principal metals used for making tools and implements. Bronze is less common than copper, and it is notably rarer in the lowerlevels. Other special crafts include the manufacture of faience for making beads, amulets, sealings, and small vessels and the working of stone for bead manufacture and for seals. Beads were made from a variety of substances, but the carnelians Shell and ivory were also worked and were used for beads, inlays, combs, bracelets, and the like.. There are more than 500 signs, many appearing to be compounds of two or more other signs, but it is not yet clear whether these signs are ideographic, logographic, or other. The Harappans also employed regular systems of weights and measures. The decline probably occurred in several stages, perhaps over a century or more: the period between about 2000 and 1750 BCE is a reasonable estimation. The collapse of the urban system does not necessarily imply a complete breakdown in the lifestyle of the population in all parts of the Indus region, but it seems to have involved the end of whatever system of social and political control had preceded it. The end of Mohenjo-daro is known, however, and was dramatic and sudden

Dissociative identity disorder

Dissociative personality disorder also known as multiple personality disorder r split personality disorder is a disorder intriguing the interest of a lot of people. It is characterized as endurance of a lot of personality in one person which are certainly unaware about each other as well. These personalities control their behaviour at different times. They might be accompanied by post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) substance abuse disorder, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorder etc. In about 90% of cases, there is a history of abuse in childhood while other cases are linked to experiences of war, or medical procedures during childhood, where as Genetic and biological factors are also believed to play al role. Treatment generally involves supportive care and psychotherapy. It is believed to affect about 1.5% of the general population DID is diagnosed about six times more often in females than males. According to the fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders the presence of two or more distinct personality states accompanied by the inability to recall personal information, beyond what is expected through normal forgetfulness is a major symptom of dissociative identity disorder. The majority of patients with this disorder report childhood sexual or physical abuse. It can lead to gaps in memory and hallucinations. It is one of several dissociative disorders. These disorders affect a person’s ability to connect with reality. Other dissociative disorders include Depersonalized or derealization disorder, which causes a feeling of detachment from your actions where as the other, Dissociative amnesia is a condition in which a person cannot remember important information about his or her life his forgetting may be limited to certain specific areas or may include much of the person’s life history and/or identity. In some rare cases called dissociative fugue, the person may forget most or all of his personal information and may sometimes even travel to a different location and adopt a completely new identity in all cases of dissociative amnesia, the person has a much greater memory. loss than would be expected in the course of normal forgetting. Sometimes dissociative identity disorder develops in response to a natural disaster or other traumatic events. A person with DID has two or more distinct identities. The “core” identity is the person’s usual personality. “Alters” are the person’s alternate personalities. Some people with DID have up to 100 alters The identities might have different genders, ethnicities, interests and ways of interacting with their environments. Its symptoms might include Memory loss Suicidal thoughts or self harm, drug abuse. There is no cure for it. Most people will manage the disorder for the rest of their lives. But a combination of treatments can help reduce symptoms. A strong support system can make living with DID more manageable

Depression

-Aastha Joshi



Depression is classified as a mood disorder. It may be described as feelings of sadness, loss, or anger that interfere with a person’s everyday activities. People experience depression in different ways. It may interfere with your daily work, resulting in lost time and lower productivity. It can also influence relationships and some chronic health conditions. feeling down at times is a normal part of life. Sad and upsetting events happen to everyone. But, if you’re feeling down or hopeless on a regular basis, you could be dealing with depression. Depression is considered a serious medical condition that can get worse without proper treatment. There are a lot of stigma about mental health and depression. There are various symptoms of depression example anger, aggressiveness, irritability, anxiousness, restlessness, feeling empty, sad, hopeless, loss of interest, no longer finding pleasure in favourite activities, feeling tired easily, thoughts of suicide, drinking excessively, using drugs, engaging in high-risk activities, reduced sexual desire, lack of sexual performance. Physical symptoms like fatigue, pains, headache, digestive problems, insomnia, restless sleep, excessive sleepiness, not sleeping through the night. Depression can be faced in any phase and any age of life. Depression can be caused by a lot of reasons like Family history, if you one have a family history of depression or another mood disorder they are prone to depression Early childhood trauma, Brain structure, there’s a greater risk for depression if the frontal lobe of your brain is less active. Medical conditions like chronic illness, insomnia, chronic pain, or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder can also lead to depression. A history of drug or alcohol misuse can trigger depression. About 21 percent of people who have a substance use problem also experience depression. low self-esteem or being self-critical and stressful events, such as loss of a loved one, economic problems, or a divorce can also make a person fall for depression. weight gain or loss, physical pain and panic attacks are evidently visible in a person suffering from depression. There are many types of depression. Major depressive disorder is the more severe form of depression. It’s characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness that don’t go away on their own. Persistent depressive disorder (PDD) used to be called dysthymia. It’s a milder, but chronic, form of depression. Some ways to treatand cure depression is medical treatment, therapy, exercise, avoid the use of alcohol or drugs, meditation.

Covid-19

-Aastha Joshi

The world has been stuck hard with corona virus at an extreme level taking lots and lots of lives globally. Coronavirus disease 2019 is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome.coronavirus 2. The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic. Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, but often include fever, cough, headache, fatigue, breathing difficulties, and loss of smell and taste. Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. COVID-19 transmits when people breathe in air contaminated by droplets and small airborne particles containing the virus. The risk of breathing these in is highest when people are in close proximity, but they can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors. Transmission can also occur if splashed or sprayed with contaminated fluids in the eyes, nose or mouth, and, rarely, via contaminated surfaces. Preventive measures include physical.or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions. The Covid-19 disease, caused by the infection of SARS Cov-2, was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The extremely communicable disease spread to other countries in a very short span of time. Professor Gautam Menon expert epidemiologist, Ashoka had an early warning of the pandemic On March 11, 2020 the WHO declared covid-19 as a pandemic. The outbreaks of covid-19 also posed other challenges, particularly supply of food and lifesaving medicines and other essential needs from within and between countries. These advances helped to design strategies to test, isolate and quarantine. to make people aware why masks and hand sanitisation are essential and planning days, if not weeks, in advance on how to increase our preparedness. Within 6 months, many vaccines and drugs entered clinical trials. The sharp drop in GDP is the largest witnessed by the countries in the history. From April to June 2020, India’s GDP dropped by a massive 24.4% According to the latest national income estimates, in the second quarter of the 2020/21 financial year of economy contracted by a further 7.4%. Where as the recovery was not very spectacular in the third and fourth quarter. In the post independence period, India’s national income has declined only four times before 2020. This means that 2020/21 is the worst year in terms of economic contraction in the country’s history, and much worse than theoverall contraction in the world. The unemployment has been suffered by a lot of people in the pandemic phase. Many small scale industries have been severely effected and were forced to shut down in the hard times of covid. The economic and social disruption caused by the pandemic is devastating tens of millions of people are at risk of falling into extreme poverty, while the number of undernourished people, currently estimated at nearly 690 million, could increase by up to 132 million by the end of the year. The pandemic has been affecting the entire food system and has laid bare its fragility. With low and irregular incomes and a lack of social support, many of them are spurred to continue working, often in unsafe conditions, thus exposing themselves and their families to additional risks. Some people are experiencing a range of new or ongoing symptoms that can last weeks or months after first being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, Tiredness or fatigue, Symptoms that get worse after physical or mental activities, Difficulty thinking or concentrating, Cough, Rash, Mood changes, Change in smell or taste, Changes in period cycles. The world has been dealing with it from last 2 years. Lately the world has been fighting with it together and certainly the covid is getting in control and the death rates and cases has seen a sharp at a global level.

Environmental pollution

– Aastha Joshi

Environmental pollution is an internationally viewed concern and its effects on ecosystems and human health are very evident. Sources and occurrences of pollutants that are clearly defined and measured in environmental compartments, food and food-related items, and human bodies. Activities urbanization, industrialization, mining, and exploration are at the forefront of global environmental pollution. Both developed and developing nations share this burden together, though awareness and stricter laws in developed countries have contributed to a larger extent in protecting their environment. Despite the global attention towards pollution, the impact is still being felt due to its severe long-term consequences. The decline in environmental quality as a consequence of pollution is evidenced by loss of vegetation, biological diversity, excessive amounts of harmful chemicals in the ambient atmosphere and in food grains, and growing risks of environmental accidents and threats to life support systems. A pollutant can be any chemical or geochemical substance, biological organism or product, or physical substance that is released intentionally or inadvertently by man into the environment with actual or potential adverse, harmful, unpleasant, or inconvenient effects. Pollution can be characterised Air Pollution Water Pollution, Soil/Land Pollution, Noise Pollution, Radioactive Pollution, Thermal Pollution. Which is threatening the environment, humans, plants, animals, and all living organisms.

Environmental pollution caused by the dumping of a wide range of industrial waste is now serious. Hazardous waste sites occur worldwide resulting in the deposition of xenobiotics in soil and water .Like all living creatures, microorganisms need carbon, nutrients, and energy to survive and replicate. Such organisms obtain nutrients and energy from the chemical degradation of contaminants into simple compounds, that is, water, carbon dioxide, salts, and other nontoxic substances. Major sources include the emission of pollutants from power stations, refineries, and petrochemicals, the chemical and fertilizer industries, metallurgical and other industrial plants, and, finally, municipal incineration. Climate is the other side of the same coin that reduces the quality of our Earth. Pollutants such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols affect the amount of incoming sunlight. As a result, the temperature of the Earth is increasing, resulting in the melting of ice, icebergs, and glaciers, ir pollution can have a disastrous effect on allcomponents of the environment, including groundwater, soil, and air. Additionally, it poses a serious threat to living organisms. In this vein, our interest is mainly to focus on these pollutants, as they are related to more extensive and severe problems in human health and environmental impact. Acid rain, global warming, the greenhouse effect, and climate changes have an important ecological impact on air pollution. Ozone is a gas formed from oxygen under high voltage electric discharge It is a strong oxidant, 52% stronger than chlorine. It arises in the stratosphere, but it could also arise following chain reactions of photochemical smog in the troposphere. Ozone can travel to distant areas from its initial source, moving with air masses It is surprising that ozone levels over cities are low in contrast to the increased amounts occuring in urban areas, which could become harmful for cultures, forests, and vegetation as it is reducing carbon assimilation. Ozone reduces growth and yield and affects the plant microflora due to its antimicrobial capacity In this regard, ozone acts upon other natural ecosystems, with microflora and animal species changing their species composition. Ozone increases DNA damage in epidermal keratinocytes and leads to impaired cellular function. Ground-level ozone is generated through a chemical reaction between oxides of nitrogen and VOCs emitted from natural sources and/or following anthropogenic activities. Ozone uptake usually occurs by inhalation. Ozone affects the upper layers of the skin and the tear ducts. A study of short-term exposure of mice to high levels of ozone showed malondialdehyde formation in the upper skin (epidermis) but also depletion in vitamins C and E. It is likely that ozone levels are not interfering with the skin barrier function and integrity to predispose to skin disease. Due to the low water-solubility of ozone, inhaled ozone has the capacity to penetrate deeply into the lungs. Toxic effects induced by ozone are registered in urban areas all over the world, causing biochemical, morphologic, functional, and immunological disorders Daily ozone concentrations compared to the daily number of deaths were reported from different European cities for a 3-year period. During the warm period of the year, an observed increase in ozone concentration was associated with an increase in the daily number of deaths. Environmental pollution is a concern in which all the countries have to come together at the global level and take initiatives.

Mass communication

-Aastha Joshi

Mass communication can be defined as the process of creating, sending, receiving, and analysing messages to large audiences via verbal and written media. These mediums are wide-ranging, and include print, digital media and the Internet, social media, radio, and television. Mass communication is a strategic process which includes integrated marketing communications, journalism, and more. Mass communication professionals use their knowledge of rhetorical principles and strategic media practices to develop, share, and evaluate effective messages targeting large audiences. Public relations specialists, journalists, broadcast professionals, advertisers and marketers, content writers, graphic designers and illustrators, public health educators, corporate media managers, and other media professionals use mass communication strategies on a daily basis to craft and launch strategic communication plans from broadcast news to online marketing campaigns and public health announcements across nearly every industry. The diversity of mass media and communication practices allows for creativity and flexibility in career selection. Individuals with an education in the field can pursue employment in a great number of areas, including marketing and advertising, entertainment, healthcare, journalism, public relations, non-profit and government, communications consulting, broadcast media, financial services, and foreign services etc.In media and mass communication is also a research area within academia.

Types of communication

1.

Advertising

Advertising, in relation to mass communication, is marketing a product or service in a persuasive manner that encourages the audience to buy the product or use the service. Because advertising generally takes place through some form of mass media, such as television, studying the effects and methods of advertising is relevant to the study of mass communication.

2.

Journalism

Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on events for presentation through the media. The study of journalism involves analyzing the dissemination of information to the public through media outlets such as newspapers, news channels, radio stations, television stations, and, more recently, e-readers and smartphones.

3 Public relations

Public relations is the process of providing information to the public in order to present a specific view of a product or organization. Public relations differs fromadvertising in that it is less obtrusive, and aimed at providing a more comprehensive opinion to a large audience in order to shape public opinion. Unlike advertising, public relations professionals only have control until the message is related to media gatekeepers who decide where to pass the information on to the audience


3. Social media

Social media, in its modern use, refers to platforms used on both mobile devices. and home computers that allow users to interact through the use of words, images, sounds, and video. Social media includes popular sites such as Facebook and Instagram, as well as sites that can aid in business networking such as LinkedIn. The use and importance of social media in communications and public relations has grown drastically throughout the years and is now a staple in advertisements to mass audiences. For many newer companies and businesses geared towards young people social media is a tool for advertising purposes and growing the brand. Social Media provides additional ways to connect and reach out to ones targeted audience.


4.Radio

Radio is considered the most widely accessible form of mass communication in the world and the medium used to the greatest degree in the United States Internet radio has now become increasingly more popular, as radio stations are streaming content through their websites and other applications. Music streaming services such as Apple Music and Spotify, have also integrated radio features onto the platform. Spotify Radio is a feature that allows Spotify to continuously create a playlist for its users with tracks and podcast segments based on any artist or playlist they wish.

5. Film and television.

The film industry began with the invention of the Kinetoscope by Thomas Edison. His failure to patent it resulted in two brothers, Louis and Auguste Lumiere creating a portable camera that could process film and project images. In the 1970s, television began to change to include more complicated and three dimensional characters and plots. PBS launched in 1970, and was the home for programming that would not be suitable for network television. It operates on donations and little government funding, rather than having commercials.

6.photography

Photography plays a role in the field of technology and mass communication by demonstrating facts or reinforcing ideas. Although the photos are altered digitally, it is still considered Photography plays a role in the field of technology and mass

Stress

-Aastha Joshi

Stress is something that every 3 people out of 4 are affected with Stress can be very harmful and or helpful Stress is the experience of a perceived threat to one’s mental, physical or spiritual well-being, resulting from a series of physiological responses and adaptations. It could help motivate you to meet a deadline and perform a task under pressure. Stress can also be very harmful, such as memory problems. moodiness, aches and pains, and eating more or less. There are two types of stress eustress and distress. Eustress is good stress that keeps us efficient and makes are performance better where as distress is bad stress which ultimately leads to the wear and tear of our body. Stress is a normal physical response that happens when one feels threatened or upset. When our feel that you are in danger whether it is real or imaged. Your body has a response when stress occurs and it is a way of actually protecting us. Stress can affect the mind, body, and behaviour. These affects could cause our relationships to hamper. Stress has many different symptoms the most often and most common is having a headache. On your body the effects of stress are muscle tension or pain, chest pain, and fatigue. The effects of stress on your mood is anxiety, restlessness, and lack of motivation or focus. Stress also shows symptoms like overeating or under eating, drug or alcohol abuse, and social withdraw. Adults and teenagers get stressed easily due to school, spots and or jobs. At times it may seem like stress is taking over your body leaving you physically, emotionally and mentally hurt but what you can do is learn how to manage your stress to have a healthier and happy lifestyle Stress management is learning to deal with your

stress and take charge. Stress management can be defined as a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies to control a person’s stress level: especially chronic stress Effective methods and techniques of stress management help an individual break the hold that stress has on their lives. This, in turn, helps. people in leading a productive lifestyle. Stress management includes preventing stress by practicing self-care and relaxation; also managing one’s response to stressful situations when they occur. Stress is a survival instinct or response when the body thinks that it is in danger. This is why one’s sympathetic nervous systemkicks in, increasing the heart rate with which there is a burst of the energy hormone adrenaline, which helps in dealing with any situation. This is also known as a flight or fight response. The problem starts when a person deals with constant stress and worry or unaware of ways to manage stressful situations. There are various stress management models, with each having distinctive explanations of mechanisms for dealing with or controlling stress. The first step of stress management is to identify the sources of stress in one’s life. Stress management serves as beneficial as it reduces heart diseases, digestive problems, blood pressure, and many more physical ailments. Stress management also helps in dealing with mental health issues such as anxiety or panic disorder. There are various techniques in reducing stress in one’s life, from meditation to exercising and even journaling. Yoga is a popular physical form of stress management technique. A morning or evening jog and other forms of cardiovascular exercises help release the happy hormones – endorphins-into the system that helps prevent stress throughout the day. Apart from these, making changes in everyday habits such as maintain a proper sleep schedule, avoiding cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs, making sure that one’s diet consists of proper nutrition; spending time doing things that bring them joy goes a long way in letting go of the stress that one comes across every day.

Egypt

– Aastha Joshi

The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt’s native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt’s ancient history was a mystery until Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the Great Pyramid of Giza. There was seen political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first king of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predominantly native Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC. In 332 BC, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered Egypt as he toppled the Achaemenids and established the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Kingdom, whose first ruler was one of Alexander’s former generals, Ptolemy I Soter The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final annexation by Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt’s becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801. Starting in 1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedivate Egypt fell under British control in 1882 following the Anglo Egyptian War. After the end of World War I and following the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the Kingdom of Egypt was established. While a de jure independent state, the United Kingdom retained control over foreign affairs, defense, and other matters. British occupation lasted until 1954, with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954. The modern Republic of Egypt was founded in 1953, and with the complete withdrawal of British forces from the Suez Canal in 1956, it marked the first time in 2500 years that Egypt was both fully independent and ruled by native Egyptians.

President Gamal Abdel Nasser introduced many reforms and created the short lived United Arab Republic (with Syria). His terms also saw the Six-Day War and the creation of the international Non-Aligned Movement. His successor, Anwar Sadat changed Egypt’s trajectory, departing from many of the political, and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system and launching the Infitah economic policy. He led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regainEgypt’s Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967. This later led to the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty. The pharaoh’s role in Egypt was both political and religious pharaohs were generally thought to be imbued with divinity and were effectively regarded as intermediaries between the gods and people, the pharaohs were also responsible for the more earthly concerns of leadership, and each pharaoh had a unique legacy; some were architectural innovators or revered military leaders while others were brilliant diplomats. Djoser is perhaps the most famous Third Dynasty pharaoh he oversaw the construction of the famous step pyramid at Saqqara, a hugely significant milestone in ancient Egyptian architecture. This pyramid, in which Djoser was buried, was the first structure to realise the iconic step design. A Fourth Dynasty pharaoh, Khufu’s greatest legacy is undoubtedly the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The monumental structure is a testament to the bewildering sophistication of Egyptian architecture and, remarkably, remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for the best part of 4,000 years. Only the second woman to assume the role of pharaoh, Hatshepsut was the wife of Thutmose II and reigned in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Her step-son Thutmose III was just two years old when his father died in 1479 and so Hatshepsut soon took on the role of pharaoh. The son of Amenhotep III, Akhenaten was named Amenhotep IV at birth but changed his name in accordance with his radical monotheistic beliefs. Akhenaten’s wife, Nefertiti, was a strong presence during his reign and played a significant part in his religious revolution After Akhenaten’s death, Egypt rapidly returned to polytheism and the traditional gods he had disowned. The youngest pharaoh in Egyptian history when he ascended to the throne at just nine or 10 years old, Tutankhamun became the most famous pharaoh of all. The cause of his death remains a mystery to Egyptologists. Ramses II’s reign was undoubtedly the greatest of the 19th Dynasty Ramses II went on to declare himself a god, while earning a reputation as a great warrior, fathering 96 children and ruling for 67 years. The last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra presided over the dying days of the Egyptian empire, yet her fame has lived on through folklore, Shakespeare and Hollywood. It’s hard to disentangle the real Cleopatrafrom the legend but scholars suggest that her portrayal as a stunningly beautiful seductress undersells her brilliance as a leader. Egypt specially grabs attention of people because of its mysteries and Pharos.

Social media marketing

-Aastha Joshi

The term social media marketing refers to the use of social media and social networks to market a company’s products and services. Social media marketing provides companies with a way to engage with existing customers and reach new ones while allowing them to promote their desired culture, mission, or tone. Social media marketing has purpose-built data analytics tools that allow marketers to track the success of their efforts. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are commonly used to execute social media marketing. Social media has changed the way we function as a society, including the way we connect with one another. Social media websites allow marketers to employ a broad range of tactics and strategies to promote content and have people engage with it. Many social networks allow users to provide detailed geographical, demographic, and personal information, which enables marketers to tailor their messages to what is most likely to resonate with users. Social media marketing campaigns have the advantage of appealing to a broad audience at once. Viral marketing seeks to spread information about a product or service from person to person by word of mouth or sharing via the internet or email. The goal of viral marketing is to inspire individuals to share a marketing message to friends, family, and other individuals to create exponential growth in the number of its recipients. Today’s consumers rush to browse social media when they want to know more about an organization or product because that’s where they’ll find others talking about that business. Social media is an ideal place for brands looking to gain insights into their audience’s interests and tastes. The way experts see it, smart companies will continue to invest in social media to achieve sustainable business growth. Whether you want to launch a new product or a business, social media is the perfect launchpad to create a buzz around your initiatives. As we move further into the future of e-commerce, it’s clear that social media marketing isn’t just an option. In an increasingly competitive environment, your business can’t afford to miss out on social media. It’s especially competitive in the social media influencer space, where there are thousands of new influencers starting a brand every day. If you’re trying to build more of an online presence to become a social media influencer, make sure to read our comprehensive guide. A few years ago, the sole purpose of using social media channels was to generate website traffic. Today, it has developed into something more than just a place to broadcast content. Twitter allows companies to promote their products in short messages known as tweets limited to 280 characters which appear on followers Home timelines Tweets can contain text, Hashtag, photo, video, Animated, Emoji, or links to the product’s website and other social media profiles, etc. Twitter is also used by companies to provide customer service. Some companies make support available 24/7 and answer promptly, thus improving brand loyalty and appreciation.Facebook pages are far more detailed than Twitter accounts. They allow a product to provide videos, photos, longer descriptions, and testimonials where followers can comment on the product pages for others to see. Facebook can link back to the product’s Twitter page, as well as send out event reminders. As of May 2015, 93% of businesses marketers use Facebook to promote their brand A study from 2011 attributed 84% of “engagement” or clicks and likes that link back to Facebook advertising. By 2014, Facebook had restricted the content published from business and brand pages. LinkedIn, a professional business-related networking site, allows companies to create professional profiles for themselves as well as their business to network and meet others. Through the use of widgets, members can promote their various social networking activities, such as Twitter stream or blog entries of their product pages, onto their LinkedIn profile page. LinkedIn provides its members the opportunity to generate sales leads and business
partners. Ability WhatsApp was founded by Jan Koum and Brian Acton. Joining Facebook in 2014, WhatsApp continues to operate as a separate app with a laser focus on building a messaging service that works fast and reliably anywhere in the world. Started as an alternative to SMS, WhatsApp now supports sending and receiving a variety of media including text, photos, videos, documents, and location, as well as voice calls. WhatsApp messages and calls are secured with end-to-end encryption, meaning that no third party including WhatsApp can read or listen to them. WhatsApp has a customer base of 1 billion people in over 180 countries. It is used to send personalised promotional messages to individual customers. It has plenty of advantages over SMS that includes to track how Message Broadcast Performs using blue tick option in WhatsApp.Instagram has proven itself a powerful platform for marketers to reach their customers and prospects through sharing pictures and brief messages. According to a study by Simply Measured, 71% of the world’s largest brands are now using Instagram as a marketing channel For companies, Instagram can be used as a tool to connect and communicate with current and potential customers. The company can present a more personal picture of their brand, and by doing so the company conveys a better and true picture of itself. The idea of Instagram pictures lies on on-the-go, a sense that the event is happening right now, and that adds another layer to the personal and accurate picture of the company. In fact, Thomas Rankin, co-founder and CEO of the program Dash Hudson, stated that when he approves a blogger’s Instagram post before it is posted on the behalf of a brand his company represents, his only negative feedback is if it looks too posed. Social media is a reliable asset for the promotion of product.

Social media marketing



The term social media marketing refers to the use of social media and social networks to market a company’s products and services. Social media marketing provides companies with a way to engage with existing customers and reach new ones while allowing them to promote their desired culture, mission, or tone. Social media marketing has purpose-built data analytics tools that allow marketers to track the success of their efforts. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are commonly used to execute social media marketing. Social media has changed the way we function as a society, including the way we connect with one another. Social media websites allow marketers to employ a broad range of tactics and strategies to promote content and have people engage with it. Many social networks allow users to provide detailed geographical, demographic, and personal information, which enables marketers to tailor their messages to what is most likely to resonate with users. Social media marketing campaigns have the advantage of appealing to a broad audience at once. Viral marketing seeks to spread information about a product or service from person to person by word of mouth or sharing via the internet or email. The goal of viral marketing is to inspire individuals to share a marketing message to friends, family, and other individuals to create exponential growth in the number of its recipients. Today’s consumers rush to browse social media when they want to know more about an organization or product because that’s where they’ll find others talking about that business. Social media is an ideal place for brands looking to gain insights into their audience’s interests and tastes. The way experts see it, smart companies will continue to invest in social media to achieve sustainable business growth. Whether you want to launch a new product or a business, social media is the perfect launchpad to create a buzz around your initiatives. As we move further into the future of e-commerce, it’s clear that social media marketing isn’t just an option. In an increasingly competitive environment, your business can’t afford to miss out on social media. It’s especially competitive in the social media influencer space, where there are thousands of new influencers starting a brand every day. If you’re trying to build more of an online presence to become a social media influencer, make sure to read our comprehensive guide. A few years ago, the sole purpose of using social media channels was to generate website traffic. Today, it has developed into something more than just a place to broadcast content. Twitter allows companies to promote their products in short messages known as tweets limited to 280 characters which appear on followers Home timelines Tweets can contain text, Hashtag, photo, video, Animated, Emoji, or links to the product’s website and other social media profiles, etc. Twitter is also used by companies to provide customer service. Some companies make support available 24/7 and answer promptly, thus improving brand loyalty and appreciation.Facebook pages are far more detailed than Twitter accounts. They allow a product to provide videos, photos, longer descriptions, and testimonials where followers can comment on the product pages for others to see. Facebook can link back to the product’s Twitter page, as well as send out event reminders. As of May 2015, 93% of businesses marketers use Facebook to promote their brand A study from 2011 attributed 84% of “engagement” or clicks and likes that link back to Facebook advertising. By 2014, Facebook had restricted the content published from business and brand pages. LinkedIn, a professional business-related networking site, allows companies to create professional profiles for themselves as well as their business to network and meet others. Through the use of widgets, members can promote their various social networking activities, such as Twitter stream or blog entries of their product pages, onto their LinkedIn profile page. LinkedIn provides its members the opportunity to generate sales leads and business
partners. Ability WhatsApp was founded by Jan Koum and Brian Acton. Joining Facebook in 2014, WhatsApp continues to operate as a separate app with a laser focus on building a messaging service that works fast and reliably anywhere in the world. Started as an alternative to SMS, WhatsApp now supports sending and receiving a variety of media including text, photos, videos, documents, and location, as well as voice calls. WhatsApp messages and calls are secured with end-to-end encryption, meaning that no third party including WhatsApp can read or listen to them. WhatsApp has a customer base of 1 billion people in over 180 countries. It is used to send personalised promotional messages to individual customers. It has plenty of advantages over SMS that includes to track how Message Broadcast Performs using blue tick option in WhatsApp.Instagram has proven itself a powerful platform for marketers to reach their customers and prospects through sharing pictures and brief messages. According to a study by Simply Measured, 71% of the world’s largest brands are now using Instagram as a marketing channel For companies, Instagram can be used as a tool to connect and communicate with current and potential customers. The company can present a more personal picture of their brand, and by doing so the company conveys a better and true picture of itself. The idea of Instagram pictures lies on on-the-go, a sense that the event is happening right now, and that adds another layer to the personal and accurate picture of the company. In fact, Thomas Rankin, co-founder and CEO of the program Dash Hudson, stated that when he approves a blogger’s Instagram post before it is posted on the behalf of a brand his company represents, his only negative feedback is if it looks too posed. Social media is a reliable asset for the promotion of product.

Capitalism

It is an economic system where the trade and industries are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. Market economy is the basis of production. Market economy is basically production of goods and services is based on supply and demand in the general market. It also involves free trade as a component. Today, most countries practice a mixed capitalist system that includes some degree of government regulation of business and ownership of select industries. A prominent supporter of capitalist economy is united states of America. Instead of planning economic decisions through centralized political methods, as with socialism or feudalism, economic planning under capitalism occurs via decentralized and voluntary decisions. Capitalism developed historically out of previous systems of feudalism and mercantilism in Europe, and dramatically expanded industrialization and the large-scale availability of mass-market consumer goods. Private property rights are fundamental to capitalism. With a common pool resource, which all people can use, and none can limit access to, all individuals have an incentive to extract as much use value as they can and no incentive to conserve or reinvest in the resource. Privatizing the resource is one possible solution to this problem, along with various voluntary or involuntary collective action approaches. Capitalism has many unique features, some of which include a two-class system, private ownership, a profit motive, minimal government intervention, and competition. In Marxist theory, the class structure of the capitalist mode of production is characterized by the conflict between two main classes: the bourgeoisie, the capitalists who own the means of production and the much larger proletariat who must sell their own labour power. The economy is run by individuals (or corporations) who own and operate companies and make decisions as to the use of resources. But there exists a “division of labor” that allows for specialization, typically occurring through education and training, further breaking down the two class system into sub-classes. Consumer sovereignty is the system in which market is controlled by the demands of the consumer. It regulates the level of production undertaken by the companies, and the consumer is free to decide which products to purchase. Free trade is the system where, the low tariff barriers exist that promote international trade. In a capitalist economy, there is no government interference in the daily activities of the business. The customers and producers are free to make their own decisions regarding any product or service. Flexibility in labour markets in capitalism, there is a flexibility in hiring and firing of the workforce. Freedom of ownership .In thissystem, an individual can accumulate any amount of property and use it according to his will. After his death, the same property is passed on to the successors by the right of inheritance.

Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system where the trade and industries are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. Market economy is the basis of production. Market economy is basically production of goods and services is based on supply and demand in the general market. It also involves free trade as a component. Today, most countries practice a mixed capitalist system that includes some degree of government regulation of business and ownership of select industries. A prominent supporter of capitalist economy is united states of America. Instead of planning economic decisions through centralized political methods, as with socialism or feudalism, economic planning under capitalism occurs via decentralized and voluntary decisions. Capitalism developed historically out of previous systems of feudalism and mercantilism in Europe, and dramatically expanded industrialization and the large-scale availability of mass-market consumer goods. Private property rights are fundamental to capitalism. With a common pool resource, which all people can use, and none can limit access to, all individuals have an incentive to extract as much use value as they can and no incentive to conserve or reinvest in the resource. Privatizing the resource is one possible solution to this problem, along with various voluntary or involuntary collective action approaches. Capitalism has many unique features, some of which include a two-class system, private ownership, a profit motive, minimal government intervention, and competition. In Marxist theory, the class structure of the capitalist mode of production is characterized by the conflict between two main classes: the bourgeoisie, the capitalists who own the means of production and the much larger proletariat who must sell their own labour power. The economy is run by individuals (or corporations) who own and operate companies and make decisions as to the use of resources. But there exists a “division of labor” that allows for specialization, typically occurring through education and training, further breaking down the two class system into sub-classes. Consumer sovereignty is the system in which market is controlled by the demands of the consumer. It regulates the level of production undertaken by the companies, and the consumer is free to decide which products to purchase. Free trade is the system where, the low tariff barriers exist that promote international trade. In a capitalist economy, there is no government interference in the daily activities of the business. The customers and producers are free to make their own decisions regarding any product or service. Flexibility in labour markets in capitalism, there is a flexibility in hiring and firing of the workforce. Freedom of ownership: In this system, an individual can accumulate any amount of property and use it according to his will. After his death, the same property is passed on to the successors by the right of inheritance.

Mauryan Empire

The Mauryan Empire, which formed around 321 B.C.E. and ended in 185 B.C.E. was the first pan-Indian empire, an empire that covered most of the Indian region. The Mauryan Empire’s first leader, Chandragupta Maurya, started consolidating land as Alexander the Great’s power began to wane. After crowning himself king, Chandragupta took additional lands through force and by forming alliances. Chandragupta’s chief minister Kaustalya advised Chandragupta and contributed to the empire’s legacy. Chandragupta’s government closely resembled the government described in the Arthashastra. Bindusara, Chandragupta’s son, assumed the throne around 300 B.C.E. He kept the empire running smoothly while maintaining its lands. Bindusara’s son, Ashoka, was the third leader of the Mauryam Empire. Ashoka left his mark on history by erecting large stone pillars inscribed with edicts that he issued. After the kalinga war Ashoka reevaluated his commitment to expanding the empire and instead turned to Buddhism and its tenet of nonviolence. Many of his edicts encouraged people to give up violence and live in peace with each other-two important Buddhist principals. After Ashoka’s death, his family continued to reign, but the empire began to break apart. Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings. He was succeeded by Dasharatha Maurya, who was Ashoka’s grandson. None of Ashoka’s sons could ascend the throne after him. Mahendra, his first born, was on to spread Buddhism in the world. Kunala Maurya was blind hence couldn’t ascend the throne and Tivala, son of Kaurwaki, died even earlier than Ashoka. Another son, Jalauka, does not have much story behind him. The empire lost many territories under Dasharatha, which were later reconquered by Samprati, Kunala’s son. Post Samprati, the Mauryas slowly lost many territories. The last of the Mauryas, Brihadratha, was assassinated by his commander in chief-a man named Pushyamrita who went on to found the Shunga Dynasty-in 185 B.C.E. The Empire was divided into four provinces, with the imperial capital at Pataliputra. From Ashokan edicts, the names of the four provincial capitals are Tosali, Ujjain,Suvarnagiri, and Taxila. The head of the provincial administration was the Kumara who governed the provinces as king’s representative. The kumara was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. Coins were mostly made of silver and copper. Certain gold coins were in circulation as well. The coins were widely used for trade and commerce. Farmers were freed of tax and crop collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the principles in the Arthashastra. Chandragupta Maurya established a single currency across India, and a network of regional governors and administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for merchants, farmers and traders. The Mauryan army wiped out many gangs of bandits, regional private armies, and powerful chieftains who sought to impose their own supremacy in small areas. Although regimental in revenue collection, Maurya also sponsored many public works and waterways to enhance productivity, while internal trade in India expanded greatly due to new-found political unity and internal peace. The Mauryan empire was an efficient and highly organized autocracy with a standing army and civil service. The decline of the Maurya Dynasty was rather rapid after the death of Ashoka. One obvious reason for it was the succession of weak kings. Another immediate cause was the partition of the Empire into two. Had not the partition taken place, the Greek invasions could have been held back giving a chance to the Mauryas to re-establish some degree of their previous power.

Secularism in India and western world

Secularism is basically the principle of separation of the state from religious institutions Indian leaders soon after the independence from British and the partition of British India into India and Pakistan while drafting the constitution enshrined the values of secularism saying no religion is supreme. They believed that people of all the religions are equal and that India should be a country which gives supreme status to none and proclaim proclaim inferior to those who follow other religions. They proclaimed that all the people will be treated equally despite their religious affiliation. With the Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India enacted in 1976, the Preamble to the Constitution asserted that India is a secular nation. Secularism as practiced in India, with its marked differences with Western practice of secularism, is a controversial topic in itself. Ashoka about 2200 years ago, Harsha about 1400 years ago accepted and patronised different religions. They back then gave people the liberty to follow their customs and traditions. The people in ancient India had freedom of religion, and the state granted citizenship to each individual regardless of whether someone’s religion was Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or any other. Ellora cave temples built next to each other between 5th and 10th centuries, for example, shows a coexistence of religions and a spirit of acceptance of different faiths. The colonial administrators did not separate religion from state, but marked the end of equal hierarchy between Islam and Hinduism, and reintroduced the notion of equality before the law for Hindus, Christians and Muslims. Bronze and Iron Age religion in Europe as elsewhere was predominantly polytheistic. During the Early Middle Ages, most of Europe underwent Christianization, a process essentially complete with the Christianization of Scandinavia in the High Middle Ages. The notion of Europe and the western world has been intimately connected with the concept of Christendom, and many even consider Christianity as the unifying belief that created a European identity, especially since Christianity in the Middle East was marginalized by the rise of Islam from the 8th century. Nazis wanted to exterminate the Jews andthat they were able to do so. But their lust for murder didn’t come out of nowhere. The antisemitic Nazi ideology must be considered in the broader context of the age-old hostility towards Jews, modern racism, and nationalism. Jews in Europe have been discriminated against and persecuted for hundreds of years, often for religious reasons. For a start, they were held responsible for the death of Christ. Bosnia and Yugoslavia are also some astonishing examples of killings on the basis of sects where one sect was denied of the rights and was massacred my the other dominant sect. The Bosnian genocide refers to either the Srebrenica massacre or the wider crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas. The ethnic cleansing that took place in VRS-controlled areas targeted Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats. So to concluded India from older times was a nation holding secular notions

Child education

India is the second most populous country of the world where children constitute about 39% of the population of the country and, since children are the future of the country hence, their education is of primary importance for any every nation. Early childhood days are the major growth years of a child. These are the most critical years in a child’s life. During this time the brain is at its peak development stage and determine a child’s development over the course of their lives. At this time a child develops cognitive, physical, social, and emotional skills. Early childhood education is a basis to define a healthy and a fruitful life to children it also aims to develop basic life skills in children to lay a foundation of lifelong learning and success. It also helps a child to develop efficient motor skills. Team working skill is one of the most important assets of an individual’s holistic development and education teaches a child the value and importance of team work. The skill is useful throughout formal education, in personal relationships, and in the workforce. Hence, it is crucial to ensure that children develop skills early in their childhood. Early childhood education programmes ensure that children develop the curiosity to learn. Sharing with others is the core of any relationship and peaceful society. Early childhood education enables a child to learn how to share their things so they can develop strong friendships with other children. Humans are social beings. They need to develop healthy relationships in order to live a fruitful life. Early childhood education ensures children learn how to socialize with other children of their age, with people outside of their immediate family and develop the skills to successfully socialize with people later on in their lives. More children and adolescents today are enrolled in pre-primary, primary and secondary education than ever before because now the people are much more advanced and aware about the importance of education. Examinations and assignments are encouraged by them as tools to assess the capability of the students. Whether a child was knowledgeable or not depended on the marks he/she scored. There are various reasons behind the improper education to the girl child-like indifference in attitudes and practices against girl child including their health, and well-being, illiterate parents and guardians who have little or no awareness of the importance of education and most importantly financial constraints of various types etc. The importance of the role of women in the society cannot be overlooked but still instead of children going to the schools they are seen instead working as domestic servants or in the factories. There are various NGOs that work for the education of the children likeSave The Children CRY ie. child rights and you. It has undertaken a lot of initiatives to improve the condition of underprivileged children one of them being Mission Education’ to make sure that ‘education is every child’s right and that proper education reaches to more children in every new academic year, Barefoot College India trains local community people into teachers, specialized professionals in other fields and has initiated many educational efforts for children, Pratham comprises of civil servants, PhDs, social workers, educationists and many other educated personnel who are working for a common dream of developing the future of children of the country. With an aim to offer every child their fundamental right to education etc. Education makes us capable of interpreting things, among other things. It is not just about lessons in textbooks. It is about the lessons of life.

Women empowerment

Women empowerment is a topic of dynamic discussion. It in a very simple terms can be defined to promoting women’s sense of self-worth, their ability to determine their own choices, and their right to influence social change for themselves and others. The female empowerment can be closely corelated to peace, stability. Female empowerment has various aspects in it just like promoting their education, giving them respect, equal pay and job opportunities in every field. Women in general have never failed to prove their worth when given an opportunity. In Western countries, female empowerment is often associated with specific phases of the women’s rights movement in history. This movement tends to be split into three waves, the first beginning in the 19″ and early 20 century where suffrage was a key feature. The second wave of the 1960s included the sexual revolution and the role of women in society. Third wave feminism is often seen as beginning in the 1990s. In the turning times we have seen the tables turns and women rights and empowerment has emerged at a global level and movements for women rights and have continued to break the violence and atrocities against women. Days like International Women’s Empowerment Day are also gaining momentum. But despite a great deal of progress, women and girls continue to face discrimination and violence in every part of the world. Empowering women is essential to the health and social development of families, communities and countries. When women are living safe, fulfilled and productive lives, they can reach their full potential contributing their skills to the workforce and can raise happier and healthier children. The empowerment and autonomy of women and the improvement of their political, social, economic and health status is a highly important end in itself. In all parts of the world, women are facing threats to their lives, health and well-being as a result of being over burdened with work and of their lack of power and influence. In most regions of the world, women receive less formal education than men, and at the same time, women’s own knowledge, abilities and coping mechanisms often go unrecognized, Education is one of the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence necessary to participate fully in the development process. More than 40 years ago, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserted that “everyone has the right to education In 1990, Governments meeting at the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand, committed themselves to the goal of universal access to basic education. But despite notable efforts by countries around the globe that have appreciably expanded access to basic education, there are approximately 960 million illiterate adults in the world, of whom two thirds are women. More than one third of the world’s adults, most of them women, have no access to printed knowledge, to new skills or to technologies that would improve the quality of their lives and help them shape and adapt to social and economic change. There are 130 million children who are not enrolled in primary school and 70 per cent of them are girls. Countries should act to empower women and should take steps to eliminate inequalities between men and women as soon as possible by establishing mechanisms for women’s equal participation and equitable representation at all levels of the political process and public life in each community and society and enabling women to articulate their concerns and need, Promoting the fulfilment of women’s potential through education, skill development and employment, giving paramount importance to the elimination of poverty, illiteracy and ill health among women, Eliminating all practices that discriminate against women; assisting women to establish and realised

their rights, including those that relate to reproductive and sexual health, Adopting appropriate measures to improve women’s ability to earn income beyond traditional occupations, achieve economic self reliance, and ensure women’s equal access to the labour market and social security systems, Eliminating violence against women. A more equalized world with less inequalities between men and women is desirable and would help any country to perform better in future if adopted these aspects.

Neolithic Age



Neolithic age witness a drastic change into the subsistence strategies of humans from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Which lead to an evident change in dietary habits people back then. The post Pleistocene climatic conditions were much warmer climate and environmental change meant now societies subsiding could not produce food the way they used to earlier. Certain animal species like reindeers were now scarce.. The large proportion of earths water which was frozen now melted raising the sea and ocean levels. Frozen rivers and streams could now be exploited easily and enriched people with vast varieties of sea food and river fishes were being consumed. Forests saw dense growth and several areas which had earlier been dry became open grasslands. New enivironment couldnot survive Magdalenian economy. In most parts of Europe hunting and food gathering economy continued at the beginning of the post Pleistocene epoch and post glacial cultures seem inferior as compared of Magdalenian and for long time prehistorian saw this as a period of all-round decline. They used the term Mesolithic for European cultures of this period. The term Mesolithic was used specifically for the hunting and food gathering cultures of Europe in early post glacial times.

Invasion of Afghanistan

We all know that Afghanistan globally is going through a tough phase, it has been invaded by the Taliban regime and the prime minister Ashraf Ghani fled from the country. On Sunday, the Taliban captured at least seven capital cities, including Jalalabad, the capital of Nangarhar province before surrounding the capital city of Kabul. The US president Joe Biden refuses to help Afghanistan at the time of crises justifying his statement by saying that the Afghan leaders should fight for their own self. Taliban insurgents are now controlling 65% of the whole territory in the country. The U.S. president said he does not regret his decision to withdraw, noting that Washington has spent more than $1 trillion over 20 years and lost thousands of troops. He said the United States continues to provide significant air support, food, equipment and salaries to Afghan forces. Taliban insurgents released Al Qaeda, ISIS and terrorist.The United States invaded Afghanistan in late 2001 with the goal of destroying al-Qaida and its Taliban hosts group and,supposedly, establishing a typical Afghan state and helping Afghan women and children.
Twenty years later, the U.S. and its coalition of 40 or so allies have shuttered their bases and withdrawn, with few exceptions, their last troops.
The Taliban have taken over most of the country, including its capital, Kabul. More than 5,000 American soldiers and contractor were killed over that time. Another 1200 coalition soldiers also died. Al-Qaida is not defeated; it’s still in Afghanistan and overall has considerably more members and operate many more territories in around the world than it did in 2001. A careful reading of the February 2020 peace agreement between the Trump administration and the Taliban, an agreement that the Biden administration is apparently adhering to, reveals that the Taliban made almost no concessions in return for the U.S. withdrawal. As a long time researchers of Afghanistan conflict, I have observed how Afghans’ lives and livelihoods have been affected by the failed 20-year Western occupation
of their country.

Importance of music and art

Music has been describe by many people in many ways but evident fact about these two is that they are present around us in a priceless manner working as a source of entertainment. Music and art very easily and gracefully define any emotion and depict the beauty of the scenario. Music and art have been used since early times by the people. Art was the only medium of communication in the early paleolithic age when the residing humans did not have active vocal chords. Music from the time of rulers have been designated as a form of entertainment and a skill which is difficult to hold on. The classical music and musicians in the court of rulers back then were given huge respect and the name itself suggests that the classical music was used by elites only as it was considered as a skill that is precious and classic. The best example of it is Tansen the legendary musician who was termed one of the ratan in the court of Akbar. If we connect it to the emotional aspect they help in the expression of thoughs, feeling and emotions and it keep us close to our history, certainly we get to know about the culture and tradition of early times through art and music. They keep us close and aware about out tradition so the inculcation of music and art is an essential in schools. If we see the psychological aspect of it then we get to know even more perks about these two skills the psychologists use music and art therapy to treat the unstable people who are suffering from anxiety and depression. They give mental peace, focus and works just like mediation to the mind of person pressuring them giving them mental maturity. Music has even been seen to treat very severe diseases like cancer. They are an essential in the schooling of a child because they encourages creativity and engagement in a different way bring in more confidence and focus. They make education more interesting and playful. Thinking outside the box and having good interpersonal skills are some factors on which art and music works efficiently. They also work as a stress buster for a lot of people after a long and tiring day. They give children just not a study based on facts but also practical and real life education. It also works on motor skills specifically in young children. It enhances the spectrum of thinking in a child but also fosters group learning making them more comprehensive and making them conscious about the importance of team work and how to culminate even ones ideas together. They can become self-learners through them,constantly challenging themselves, and become more focused on achieving their goals, making them responsible and accountable.

Evolution of humankind

-Aastha Joshi

According to Darwin’s theory species have evolved due to minor variation in the individual members of species, which ways they are inherited by the offspring’s and so the variation end up on the emergence of a new specie. amongst the species that are extant, apes and monkeys are the closest resemblance to human beings.

1. PRIMATES-Monkeys, humans and apes belong to primates group. They have features which allow them to climb on trees with ease and use their forelimbs extensively. They are prehensile. Because of evolution they have got stereoscopic vision because of which they get a three dimensional picture of the surroundings.

Classifications of primates

a. Prosimii – They are more primitive. They include lemurs, lorises and tarsiers.Some zoologist also classify tree-shrews with prosimians. They are small squirrel like creatures who might represent transformation from insectivores to early primates. They are small in size but possess large eyes. Their eyes are located in ring like structure.

b. Anthropoidea – More advanced primates like money, apes and humans. They differ from the prosimii in the structure of bones in which their eyes are places. Their eyes are bowl like in shape, which allows them greater freedom of vision to see in various angles.

Hominoidea are furture classified into :1. PONGIDEA-Also classified as apes,gorillas, orangutans are a part of this group of species.

2. HOMINIDAE-Human beings and extant species of closest ancestors.

● APES-They are relatively larger in size than monkeys and have large cannon size teeth which are built strong.They are not adaptive to arboreal habitat and so exploit land resources equally as the resources from trees.

DRYOPITHECUS-Fossil evidences reveal that apes which lives in Africa were well adaptive to living in group such type of apes were referred as Dryopithecus

RAMAPITHECUS-15 million years ago the African-Arabian landmass collided with Asia bringing two continents together. This created conditions of expansion from Africa to Asia. A branch of dryopithecus separated and evolved into what we call ramapithecus. Their fossils

have been found in Siwalik hills and Rawalpindi areas.

The molecular biology has reveled that humans are decedents of African apes. Who first developed bipedalism and then in the second phase rapid expension of brain size was seen. On the basis of fossils hominids have been divided into two parts:

1. AUSTRALOPITHECUS-They were first evolved, what separated them from apes was their upright posture. Their fossils were originally discovered in south Africa by Raymond Dart. They are further classified into

AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFRICANUS-Their forehead is steeper and the skull was more round at the top. The were omnivorous

AUSTRALOPITHECUS ROBUSTON-They have flatter forehead and cheek teeth. In males they have a bony crest at the top of the skull. They were herbivorous.AUSTRALOPITHECUS BOISEI- Their fosssils were discovered in east Africa. Louis and Mary Leakey found its remains in Tanzania. These species were caked zinjanthropus now called Australopithecus boisei.

AUSTRALPITHECUS AFARENSIS- These were evolved much earlier then other forms of australpithecus and might be the ancestors of other species.

★ HOMO- The had an upright posture with changes in jaw and teeth leading to the increase in the size of brain. They are further subdivided into:

★ HOMO HABILIS- They are the oldest form of homo and were found near the lake Turkana in Kenya. Its brain size was 800 cc and they were tool makers.

★ HOMO ERUCTUS- Their fossils were found in east turkana Kenya, thy were almost like modern humans ,apart of upright posture they had larger brain size and well developed hands. They were much taller then Australopithecus and had abrain size of 1000 cc, while made tools with great skills

★ NEANDERTHALS- They were early homo sapiens and found in Germany first in 1856. In them brain size was further expanded wand stone tools became more efficient but their skull was thicker and less rounded unless modern humans

HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS-Richard Leakey argued that they had African origin. They had a brain size of 1350 c.c. and they had mobility in speech except high level social interaction and complex stone tools. A larger brain size combined with well developed hands that were free to use was a revolutionary change, they also had better social interaction. They skull of modern humans is of globular shape while the changes in neck help with speech for resonation of sounds as they were able to produce vast amounts of sounds which were unique. Language and communication with the ability to arrange theideas is what made them efficient and adaptive the most and this feature of helped them to transmit knowledge and information to the successive generations also the more advanced brain help them to store information.

Art in paleolithic age


-Aastha Joshi

Upper paleolithic art was first discovered in the last quarter of 19 century. In 1879 Don Marcelino de sautuola found paintings on the roof of cave in Altamira. He examined the painting carefully and suggested that they were made by early stone age people. Panting were so brilliantly executed and the style of the paintings appeared to be very modern. The realistic manner in which painters depicted the animals in motion was considered beyond the capacity of Paleolithic people. Henri Breuil who did pioneering research on the upper paleolithic found nearly 200 paleolithic caves which contain paintings and engravings on the wall, apart from it another upper paleolithic cave has been situated at Lascaux in France.

Cave paintings were not the only source of art present at that particular point of time, objects like statuette, tools and clay figures, these objects depict animals and geometrical figures. The clay figure portray the human female body. While paintings were restricted to western Europe the other objects were widespread.

AURIGNACIAN CULTURE- They contained the evidences of first extensive evidence of upper paleolithic art. There were no paintings but beautifully carved ivory beads used for ornamentation, they made animal figures using bone and ivory and also made a flute like instrument from boneSOLUTREAN CULTURE- cave paintings emerged as a main form of art in them. Early painting were roughly outlined but later the lines become graceful and filled with details, the painting were also coloured with natural pigments, they were also expert in carving figures at the walls of the caves. This technique was called bas-relief where the figures are slightly raised on the surface of the wall.

MAGDALENIAN CULTURE-cave paintings were fully developed by this culture. V. Gordon Childe refer it as the most brilliant culture created by the hunter gatherers. 80% of upper paleolithic cave paintings were from these sites and they had a perfect technique of painting deep inside the caves. Lamps containing animal fat were used up for lighting the caves while the painters were working so it tells that painting demanded lots and lots of precision, skill and was a difficult job. There are scenes depicting human engaged in hunting.

Their were lots of debates on the art some felt that art is merely for arts sake were as some saw great in-depth meaning in the art and paintings,

these people attained advance level artistic sophistication which reveal their high level of thinking process.

Reinach had studied the paintings made by Australian aboriginal hunters I found that painting were ritual intended to improve chances of successful hunts, most of the animals painted were intended for hunts.

Breuil argued that upper paleolithic paintings were magicalin nature, by the term magic they meant ritual practices which intend to exert control over some objects.

Magical rituals marked the beginning of religious beliefs, the purpose of ritual was to give hunters greater control over animals which they hunted and so bison, deer and horses were predominant in their paintings

Andre Leroi-Gourhan- He tried placing animals,certain groups of animals are uniformly depicted in certain parts of caves. Bison and horse are invariably depicted deep inside the caves, while deer were always drawn near the entrance of caves. He classified a division of male and female nature. Some forces like horse, stag were representative of maleness while the female animals like ox and bison.

Count Begouen’s- his views on rituals were act of drawing itself and suggested two significant features of paintings, first is in many cases figures are drawn repeatedly on the spot in respective caves, second that majority of the paintings are located in the dark parts of the caves.

The rituals which reflect shared beliefs, gave rise to the cave paintings of the periods. Paintings were an important source of knowledge which help us to know significant facts about paleolithic age

Film review

-Aastha joshi
3 Idiots

3 idiots is a Hindi comedy-drama film directed by Rajkumar Hirani which was released on 25 December 2009, starring Amir khan as Rancchoddas Shyamaldas Chanchad, Sharman Joshi as Raju Rastogi, R Madhavan as Farhan Qureshi as their central actors. The central idea of the plot strikes the commonly raised issue amongst the youngsters that is consciously taking decision of ones own life, shaping the life that one wants to live and not a life of compulsion because of societal and parental issues. It appeals the audience and specially the youth to be non conformist and choose the path that can lead them toward success so that they can shape their own identity.

The story starts when 3 boys Rancchoddas Shyamaldas Chanchad, Raju Rastogi, Farhan Qureshi meet for the where first time at the city’s most renowned engineering college where the first year ragging was going on. Rancchoddas believed in practical learning of the things and not the illogical rote leaning of the concepts and running after excellence. He quite often pointed out onseveral flaws in the education system. While it was his turn of getting ragged by the seniors he was a basic concept of science that salt water is a good conductor of salt and applied it on the time of crises while he was being ragged my the seniors because of which he easily escaped the situation and eventually the three became very goody friends ,while the Farhan and Raju used to be extra anxious students burdened with family pressure to score well, Rancchoddas use to make them comfortable by asking them to say all is well whenever the feel stressed.

The three of them used to be under the loop of duel will the principle authority of the college Viru

Sahastrabuddhe (Boman Irani) who used to believe that life is a race and the ones who would not be able to perform will get defeated because there is only one place at the top, modelling students like chatur as the ideal state of a student. He even pressurise his own son with so much burden to peruse Engineering and not literature that he attempted suicide. While at the end he is convinced that letting a person do what he/she longs for will make them successful in future as Rancchoddas plays a major role in the successful delivery of his daughter at the time of excessive flood because of which reaching hospitals were impossible. Students like Rancchodass succeed in their lives because they arehight at both intelligence quotient and emotional quotient unlike chatur who opted the path of rote learning then practical learning of the concepts. Mean while he made Farhan realise that perusing wild life photography which gives him immense satisfaction will lead him to happy life then engineering so he must talk to his father about it. While it was witnessed in the movie that in the near future Rancchoddas emerged as the most leading and high profiled scientist as he did what he felt he is potent of where as both Raju and Farhan were also performing exceptionally well in their respected occupations. r

The movie very gracefully conveys its message without getting dull or loosing its humour at any point of time. Smalls punches of comedy adds a different taste to the movie making it more entertaining and eye catching for the audience. Scenes like the instance of ragging, creation of virus generator and speech given by chatur will burst the audience out loud in laughter. While it does not miss out on the emotional flavour to the movie, impressing the critics. It also beautifully portrays messages of humanity, selflessness and importance of friendship and love. Certain scenes from the movie specially the child birth scene does not fail to impress the audience. All three central actors Amir Khan, Sharman Joshi, R.Madhvan do justice to their roles doinga splendid and their acting is highly appreciable.

What is literature??

-Aastha Joshi

When a superior written material gets published into printed forms and is recognized by the people and artist it is called as literature. It gives people wider platform to showcase their thought and ideas which then people take into consideration. The person engaging into writing have so much power that in a few words they can express a whole lot of emotions and can even make a person immortal forever in their works. Literature even gives an opportunity to the writer to portray their subconscious of wild thoughts, fantasies or real life instances to entertain people, while the audience or the reader take them into consideration. It is a skill that takes a person into trans state where personal relives the literature relating himself/herself with the protagonist, and for some it’s a relief as its an escape for the harsh realities of life and give them a wider space of imagination and pleasure. It can consist of wide ranging material to read like prose,fiction, drama, poetry etc. while it can be both fiction and non fiction and have several genres according to the interest of the reader. If we talk about the history of literaturethe ancient Egyptian literature along with Sumerian literature is considered as the earliest form of literature. In the ancient Egypt the literature was used in from of didactive texts which tells us about the societal norms, rules and social orders of that time, hymns which were usually sung by the people in praise of their worship deities, popular folks and stories which were prevalent during those times were also noted into text for example Panchatantra. In the medieval period the manuscript literature was considered as an art of great precision and utmost importance. Hence literature is of a great importance in our lives as it not only enhances our spectrum of knowledge and imagination but also give us an opportunity to know the history and legendary people by giving us a glimpse of their lives, which inturn give us a new vision to view the world and get motivated by certain incidents keeping in mind the mistakes that me must not repeat that were already done in past.

BOOK REVIEW



What is History?
-AASTHA JOSHI


What is history? written by Edward Haller Carr is an amalgamation of various views of him about what history actually is and how is it suppose to be written.

It’s a classical contribution to the field of history and a treasure box for the lovers of history. Carr starts by discussing that history is all about facts and collection of as much facts as one can to strength the source of history. He says that some facts are like fish on the fish mongoose slab which are ready to be chosen and cooked. According to him facts are raw and only speaks when the historians cooks then to turn them into a dish. One fact is selected over other because its considered more importance and useful in the sight of historians. He said that use use facts to understand something larger so we have the historians in the present on one side ,making judgements about what facts are suppose to chosen. While we have other fact sources like dairies, treaties, document, letters butcertainly they are the source that tell us no more then what the author thought and so are one sided. He said about the classical liberal view of history that was extensively popular in the 19th century allows the historians to choose from the humongous market of facts would result in universal social harmony. He pointed out several probl9ems with this issue, the facts of past are only assessable through present. The ideas and word used then are also very applicable in the current scenario. To answer the issue of skepticism he said in his book that facts are collected and interpreted turning into a narrative. He says that the historians and continuously engaged in the process of collection of facts, interpreting them and again molding their facts and interpretation, it’s impossible to priorities one over other both have their equal share of importance and none of them can be neglected. He mentions in his book that past is only useful to us in the light of present and wecan’t fully understand the present with the reference of past, so the are interlinked. The process according to him is not an individual one because the person historians study were not located in isolation andvacuumed, they functioned in a social context with a proper environment and a physical surrounding and so it becomes important that we look towards and study the social forces,classes and the physical environment that existed so that we donot miss any important facts and information. He in his book said that the scientist no more spend time studying the nature but instead come up with results and hypothesis, test if it’s a fact and then reassess. Science is also driven by back and forth and also values the ideas and notions of present. He finds lots of objections questioning about history being a science, like its said that history deal with particular with unique events and dates but science deals in general but also argue that history is also general another argument was that history is unable to protect the future. Like science can predict only possibilities but history cannot be predicted prior. According to him search of causality is impossible without the reference to values behind the causality that lie directly or indirectly behind the incident. As we always learn and grow with history so to avoid total skepticism the facts and interpretations chosenand done by the historians should be organized with the idea of efficient progress. He says when we mean about historian object we mean two things,first that he has the capacity to raise above the limited versions of situation in the society and in the history. Secondly that he has the potential to project his vision into the future in such a way that they leave a more lasting and profound insight into the past that can be attained by the historians whose outlook is bound by their own immediate situation, and so historians must work in the direction of development. He has been criticized for having a different view about the history. The book in the beginning also reveals about the multiple professions of E.H Carr like philosopher, historian, journalist and biographer. This book would give the readers a deep insight about history and will make a aware about a very different perspective and ideology about the history, help them to makeup their own mind about the history. The book fully expresses that he has just not studied history but mastered in it efficiently. One cannot copy or create history by merely collection facts but by actuallycollecting various facts and putting them together to create a piece of history. The actual idea of history expressed is that we can certainly know more about the past then the past actually knows about us. Carr proposed the idea in the progress of history that each generation of historians assimilate the insight of previous generations, not replacing them but incorporating then to give a comprehensive and wide perspective The variety of ways in which he has portrayed his notions about history makes him one of the best historians of the last century. He moved forward to gave a systematic way of writing history so that it is approachable to wider section of people and incorporate various ideas within history. He is a leading historian for many who are studying history and his was of thinking influences young mind. This book is a must read specially for the students of historian and people perusing history in the near future. It would also keen the interested minds of history, so all those who are linked with history must read this book

Decline of print media

-Aastha Joshi

Print media had been in a decline way before the introduction of the internet in the 1990s. This downward trend began with televison’s emergence in 1950s. The internet rise of the 1990s brought hope with many print companies believing this would be an outer avenue to make profits. However with the rise of google and social media things saw a drastic change. The ability of the search engines to find a particular writer or blog means that it makes the print version of the paper useless. News outlets saw the internet as a new opportunity. Media outlets grew profits by giving out news through online articles via the internet because it was the cheapest and quickest way to make money. According to Michael Barthel’s “Newspaper: Fact Sheet in his research on newspaper sales at the Pew Research Center, weekday and Sunday newspaper circulation fell approximately 7% and 4% respectively in 2015, the biggest decline since 11% and 8% in 2010.TV and internet are the most influential sources of mass media in current scenario, and in the ultra fast paced life television and internet has preceded newspaper in almost all the aspects and has reached out as the most feasible and convenient option. Internet is one of the most hyped technological tool which has been has been declared the most favorable outcome by all the netizens. The consumption rate of internet currently in top notch and it has been an indispensable part of humans these days. Internet helps disseminate a message to a wide ranging audience in a much lucid way. Its one of the most feasible option considering that it is very portable source of information in comparison to other sources. Internet keeps us updated with every chain of events that is happening or has happened around be it current affairs, controversial acts or historic events. It has minimalized human efforts to the utmost level, now in just a span of few minutes we briefly study various things and various topics even while snuggling in our beds. As we have seen internet has increased the spectrum of learning making it limitless, while giving people a great platform to showcase their talent and making learnings lot more convenient by proving students with teaching platform. In the aspects of television we can say it is more leaned towards the interest of audience as it is more visually appealing due to the short clipping ads and auditory effects attached to them catching the sight of people. Visual and auditory effects combined together leads to fast leaning and grabbing more attention. Moving on the same policy TV and internet has lead to a slow death of internet, while newspaper requires full attention of the person reading it and looks pale due to the print making the people lose interest in it. TV on the other hand provides us with the information that is necessary and in brief and is a great source of entertainment. We quite often look that any posters or articles on internet or social media has a vast reach in comparison to newspaper. All the social issues and concerning issues have been bough to light. Internet and television have been used as a great weaponto spontaneously use against culprits of issues for example the increase in number count of raped have been actively talked on social media, awareness ads on women’s rights and education have been rendering all over the social media, internet and television creating a pressure on government to take optimal steps to resolve the problems. Television and internet act as a more sensitive medium to those who are not literate acting out as a possible source of knowledge. The absence of audio and video element makes it dull. It required too many resources, such as paper, ink, and print systems, etc. Also, it needs many delivers to distribute to each home subscribers demanding lot of hard work, time, resource and labour. But with just a click the work done, articles and ads get available to all the population using internet. Internet also provides us with immediate information present. Too much technology and the lack of reading has led to the downfall of newspapers as actual paper articles. Everything is electronic now so people prefer to buying subscriptions instead of a newspaper. Once printed, mistakes are difficult to correct in newspapers but the mistakes can be edited on much easier internet. In newspaper the content is out of date before we actually read it so it loses its value. Internet in comparison to newspaper is more accountable, reachable and gives more freedom to express ones ideas and thoughts giving liberation. It serves multi-lateral purpose and seems to provide much more opportunity in comparison to newspaper for a better growth. Lately lots of journalists have switched to digital media used by internet and TV choosing these non-conventional jobs as a source of their bread and butter for a steady growth in their lives. So it can be said that TV and internet lead to a downfall of newspaper industry.

John Muir

-Aastha Joshi

John Muir

John Muir was also name as “John of mountains” or “Father of National park”. He was a Scottish American. He was a naturalist, author, environmental philosopher, botanist, zoologist, glaciologist, and early advocate for the preservation of wildness in the USA. His letters, essays, and books describing his adventures in nature, especially in the sierra Nevada, have been read by millions. His activism helped to preserve the Yosemite valley and Sequoia National Park. He was the co founder of Sierra-club which was a prominent America conservation organization. In his later life, Muir devoted most of his time to the preservation of the western forests. John Muir has been considered “an inspiration to both Scots and Americans”. Muir was appreciated for being an ecological thinker, political spokesman, and religious prophet, whose writings became a personal guide into nature for many people, making his name eternal in the modern environmental consciousness. On April 21, 2013, the first John Muir Day was celebrated in Scotland, which marked the 175th anniversary of his birth, paying homage to the conservationist. He lived on Dunbar, East Lithuania. Although he spent the majority of his life in America, he never forgot his roots in Scotland. He held a strong connection with his birthplace and Scottish identity throughout his life and was frequently heardtalking about his childhood in the East Lothian countryside. His strict and religious family has been seen as a reason for his love with nature. Muir soon became convinced that glaciers had sculpted many of the features of the Yosemite Valley and surrounding area. As Muir’s ideas spread, Whitney tried to discredit Muir by branding him as an amateur. But Louis Agassiz, the premier geologist, saw potential in Muir’s ideas and lauded him as “the first man I have ever found who has any adequate conception of glacial action.” During an accident where the tool he was using was slipped from his hand and stuck to his eyes, cutting the cornea in his right eye and then his left eye sympathetically failed. He was confined to a darkened room for six weeks to regain his sight, worried about whether he would end up blind. In his life, Muir published six volumes of writings, all describing explorations of natural settings. Four additional books were published. Muir’s friend, zoologist Henry Fairfield Osborn, writes that Muir’s style of writing did not come to him easily, but only with intense effort. He used to wale up early morning at 4:30am and practice his writing skills. He died on December 24 1914 in California, los Angeles

JOHNLUN BOCK

& Aastha Joshi

JOHNLUB BOCK

John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, 4th Baronet, known as Sir John Lubbock, 4th Baronet from 1865 until 1900, was an English banker, liberal politician, scientist, philanthropist and polymath. Lubbock worked in his family company as a banker but made significant contributions in archaeology, ethnography, and several branches of biology. He coined the terms “Paleolithic” and “Neolithic” to denote the Old and New Stone Ages, respectively. He helped establish archaeology as a scientific discipline, and was also influential in nineteenth-century debates concerning evolutionary theory. He introduced the first law for the protection of the UK’s archaeological and architectural heritage. He was also a founding member of the X Club. John Lubbock was born in 1834, the son of Sir John Lubbock, 3rd Baronet, a London banker, and was brought up in the family home of High Elms Estate, near Downe in Kent. The family had two homes, one at 29 Eaton Place, Belgrave Square where John was born and another in Mitcham Grove. Lubbock senior had studied mathematics at Cambridge University and had written on probability, and on astronomy. A Fellow of the Royal Society, he was keenly involved in the scientific debates of the time apart from serving as the Vice Chancellor of London University. In 1845, Lubbock began studies at Eton college. After finishing school, he was employed by his father’s bank, of which he became a partner at the age of twenty-two. Around 1852, he assisted Darwin’s research by examining and illustrating barnacles. In 1865, he succeeded to the baronetcy.

In the early 1870s, Lubbock became increasingly interested in politics. In 1870, and again in 1874, he was elected as a Liberal Party Member of Parliament for Maidstone. He lost the seat at the election of 1880, but was at once elected member for London University, of which he had en vice chancellor since 1872 As an MP, Lubbock had a distinguished political career, with four main political agendas: promotion of the study of science in primary and secondary schools; the national debt, free trade, and related economic issues; protection of ancient monuments; securing of additionalholidays and shorter working hours for the working classes. He was successful with numerous enactments in Parliament, including the Bank. Holidays Act of 1871 and the Ancient Monuments Act of 1882, along with another 28 acts of Parliament. When the Liberals split in 1886 on the issue of Irish Home Ruler, Lubbock joined the breakaway Liberal Unionist Party in opposition to Irish home rule. A prominent supporter of the Statistical Society, he took an active part in criticizing the encroachment of municipal trading and the increase of the municipal debt. Lubbock’s thoughts about the nature and value of politics were deeply influenced by his scientific research, particularly his writings on early human society. He believed that the cognitive foundations of morality could be shaped through political economy, particularly through a national education system that implemented subjects mandated by the state. He held that the minds of children could be shaped in the direction of democracy, liberalism and morality through learning how to read and write. To this goal he was a strong supporter of the national education act of 1871 In 1879, Lubbock was elected the first president of the Institute of Bankers. In 1881, he was president of the British Association, and from 1881 to 1886, president of the Linnean Society of London. In March 1883, he founded the Bank Clerks Orphanage, which in 1986 became the Bankers’ Benevolent Fund – a charity for bank employees, past and present, and their dependants. and he defended the introduction of the national curriculum during the 1870s and 1880s. In addition to his work at his father’s bank, Lubbock took a keen interest in archaeology and evolutionary theory. In 1855, he and Charles Kingsley discovered the skull of a musk ox in a gravel pit, a discovery that was commended by Darwin A collection of Iron Age antiquities Lubbock and Sir John Evans excavated at the site of Hallstatt in Austria is now in the British Museum’s collection He spoke in support of the evolutionist Thomas Henry Huxley at the famous 1860 Oxford evolution debate.. During the 1860s, he published many articles in which he used archaeological evidence to support Darwin’s theory. In 1864, he became one of the founding members of the elite X Club, a dining club composed of nine gentlemen to promote the theories of natural selection and academic liberalism. During the 1860s he held a number of influential academic positions, including President of the Ethnological Society from 1864 to 1865,Vice-President of Linnean Society in 1865, and President of the International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology in 1868. In 1865 he published Pre-Historic Times, which became a standard archaeology textbook for the remainder of the century, with the seventh and final edition published in 1913. His second book, On the Origin of Civilization, was published in 1870. During 1871, he purchased part of the Avebury estate to protect its prehistoric stone monuments from impending destruction. During the early 1870s, he held the position of President of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland from 1871 to 1872, [13 as well as the position of Vice President of the Royal Society in 1871. During this period he worked with John Evans, the other key figure in the establishment of the discipline of archaeology. He invented the ms “Palaeolithic” and “Neolithic” to denote the Old and New Stone Ages, [14] respectively. He also introduced a Darwinian-type theory of human nature and development. In 1871, he bought land at Avebury to prevent part of the ancient stone circle from being built on. This, and other threats to the nation’s heritage, persuaded him that some legal protection was needed. In 1874, he introduced a parliamentary bill that would identify a list of ancient sites that deserved legal protection. After several later attempts and against some opposition, it was not until 1882 that a much watered down version, The Ancient Monuments Act, came into being. Though restricted to 68 largely prehistoric monuments it was the forerunner of all later laws governing the UK’s archaeological and architectural heritage. In 1893, Lubbock was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society.

GREDA LENER

-Aastha Joshi

Gerda Lerner was bornin 30 April 1920 in Austria. She was Austrian born American historian and a women’s history author. Apart from scholarly publication she wrote numerous poems, fiction, screenplays, theater pieces and an autobiography. She also served as the president of organization of American historians from 1980 to 1981. She was also appointed as the history professor of Robinson Edward in Wisconsin until retiring. She was the founder of women’s history and in 1963 while she was still an undergraduate she taught “Great women’s in American history” which is considered as the first regular course for women in the field of women’s history. She played a key role in development of the curricula of the women’s history and formation of degree programs in women’s history at sarah Lawrence college and Wisconsin university were she also launched PH.D programe. Gerda Lerner was the first child of her parents and she had younger sister. She mentioned that as a child she has strained relationships. In 1938 at the time of anti-Nazi resistance Gerda got involved in it, because of which she and her mother were behind the bars and occupied the cell for 6weeks.In 1939 she immigrated to America on scholarship of bobby Jensen, her socialist fiance. Her marriage with Jensen did not work efficiently after she met carl Lerner who was a theater director. In 1951, Gerda Lerner collaborated with poet Eve Merriam on a musical, The Singing of Women. Her novel No Farewell was published in 1955. In the early 1960s, Lerner and her husband co authored the screenplay of the film Black Like Me, based on the book by white journalist John Howard Griffin. In 1966, Lerner became a founding member of National Organisation for Women.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Lerner published scholarly books and articles that helped establish women’s history as a recognized field of study. Her 1969article “The Lady and the Mill Girl: Changes in the Status of Women in the Age of Jackson”, published in the journal American studies, was an early and influential example of class analysis in women’s history. She was among the first to bring a consciously feminist notion to the study of history. In 1979, Lerner chaired The Women’s History Institute,

a fifteen-day conference at sarah college. It was attended by leaders of national organizations for women and girls

IMPORTANT WORKS

1. Black Women in White America,documentary

2. The Female Experience

3. Creation of patriarchy

4. Fireweed: A political autobiography

5. Creation of feminist consciousness

She died on January 2 2013 in Wisconsin at the age of 92.

LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY



-Aastha Joshi

The last 50 years have seen rapid growth in population, urbanization and human Consumption resulting in usage of most of the earth’s resources to an extreme level. A recent report by WWF states that the population size of mammals, reptiles, fishes, birds and amphibians have decreased by 68 percent on a average from 1970 to 2016, which makes us astonished about the biodiversity we have lost. The report pinpoint’s this biodiversity loss to a variety of factors, but mainly land-use change,particularly the conversion of habitats, like forests, grasslands and mangroves, into agricultural systems. Animals like sharks and seahorses are significantly affected by the illegal wildlife trade, and pangolins are critically endangered because of it. It has been found that the sixth mass extinction of wildlife on Earth is accelerating. More than 500 species of land animals are on the brink of extinction and are likely to be lost within 20 years. The species that are endangered will go extinct whereas the species that are readily available will fall into endangered category. Without such harsh actions of humans on the environment this loss of biodiversity would have taken thousands of years. The living planet report 2020 shows that population sizes in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced the highest decline, at 94%, while globally, freshwater species have been disproportionately impacted, declining 84% of average. Humans have been openly criticised for using up the earths resources and not giving them time to replenish. Since the industrial revolution, human activities have increasingly destroyed and degraded forests, grasslands, wetlands and other important ecosystems. local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are disappearing. The best example to it is crows and pigeons, early generations have seen the being on their rooftops but now days we can hardly find some around us. Several wildlife conservation techniques have now been adapted by the mankind to tackle this loss of biodiversity and maintain an ecological balance. Many wildlife centuries and biosphere reserves have been made to provide a natural habitat to these endangered species as the loss of natural habitat has been reported one of the major reasons for the loss of these species. The alarming ratios of decrease in the species has made the people around globe a little more concerned. Several projects have been initiated by the counties and also at the global level to converse these species and stop them from getting extinct. Harsh treatment to animals have strongly been prohibited, also hunting has now came in the negative light and strict actions are taken upon people practicing it without the permission of government. All on the world Biosphere reserves have been created to promote the well being of these animals and providing them a secured environment as well as a habitat that is originally meant for them. Humans have created a ruckus all over the earth disturbing the balance around and lifestyle of the species. If optimal measures are not taken at the right time these acts of humans can have a disastrous impact on them itself.

ISIS -THE EGYPTIAN GODDESS

Egyptian goddess


-Aastha Joshi


Isis is an Egyptian goddess who lacked her own dedicated temples but grew as one of the most important deities of ancient Egypt. Her cult subsequently spread throughout the Roman Empire, and Isis was worshipped from England to Afghanistan. She is still revered by pagans today. she was most often represented as a beautiful woman wearing a sheath dress and either the hieroglyphic sign of the throne or a solar disk and cow’s horns on her head. she was a principal deity in rites connected with the dead; as magical healer, she cured the sick and brought the deceased to life; and as mother, she was a role model for all women. Occasionally she was represented as a scorpion, a bird, a sow, or a cow. she is mentioned many times in the Pyramid Text, in which she offers assistance to the dead king. The priests of Heliopolis, followers of the son god re, developed the myth of Isis. This told that Isis was the daughter of the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut and the sister of the deities Osiris, Seth, and Nephthys. Married to Osiris, king of Egypt, Isis was a good queen who supported her husband and taught the women of Egypt how to weave, bake, and brew beer. But Seth was jealous, and he hatched a plot to kill his brother. Seth trapped Osiris in a decorated wooden chest, which he coated in lead and threw into the Nile. With his brother vanished, Seth became king of Egypt. But Isis could not forget her husband, and she searched everywhere for him until she eventually discovered Osiris, still trapped in his chest. She brought his body back to Egypt, where Seth discovered the chest and hacked his brother into pieces, which he scattered far and wide. Transforming into a bird, and helped by her sister, Nephthys, Isis was able to discover and reunite the parts of her dead husband’s body-only his penis was missing. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son, Horus. Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son,Horus, Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Isis hid with Horus in the marshes of the Nile delta until her son was fully grown and could avenge his father and claim his throne. She defended the child against attacks from snakes and scorpions. But because Isis was also Seth’s sister, she wavered during the eventual battle between Horus and Seth. In one episode Isis took pity on Seth and was in consequence beheaded by Horus. Eventually she and Horus were reconciled, and Horus was able to take the throne of Egypt. Isis was the perfect traditional Egyptian wife and mother-content to stay in the background while things went well, but able to use her wits to guard her husband and son should the need arise. The shelter she afforded her child gave her the character of a goddess of protection. Several narratives tell of her magical process, far stronger than the powers of Osiris and Re. Isis became associated with various other goddesses, including Bastet, Nut, and Hathor, and thus her nature and her powers became increasingly diverse. Isis became known, like other fierce goddesses in the Egyptian pantheon, as the “Eye of Re” and was equated with the Dog Star, Sothis. The first major temple dedicated to Isis was built by the Late Period king Nectanebo II at Behbeit el-Hagar, in the central Nile delta. Other important temples, including the island temple of Philae, were built during Greco-Roman times when Isis was dominant among Egyptian goddesses. Several temples were dedicated to her in Alexandria, where she became the patroness of seafarers. From Alexandria her cult spread to Greece and Rome. Images of Isis nursing the baby Horus may have influenced the early Christian artists who depicted the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. In many spells in the Pyramid Texts, Isis and Nephthys help the deceased king reach the afterlife. In the Coffin Texts from the Middle Kingdom, Isis appears still more frequently, though in these texts Osiris is credited with reviving the dead more often than she is. New Kingdom sources such as the Book of the Dead describe Isis as protecting deceased souls as they face the dangers in the Duat. They also describe Isis as a member of the divine councils that judge souls’ moral righteousness before admitting them into the afterlife, and she appears in vignettes standing beside Osiris as he presides over this tribunal. Late funerary texts prominently featured her mourning for Osiris, and one such text, one of the Books of Breathing, was said to have been written by her for Osiris’s benefit. [117] In Nubian funerary religion, Isis was regarded as more significant than her husband, because she was the active partner while he only passivelyreceived the offerings she made to sustain him in the afterlife. Isis continues to appear in modern esoteric and pagan belief systems. The concept of a single goddess incarnating all feminine divine powers, partly inspired by Apuleius, became a widespread theme in literature of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Influential groups and figures in esotericism, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in the late nineteenth century and Dion Fortune in the 1930s, adopted this all-encompassing goddess into their belief systems and called her Isis. This conception of Isis influenced the Great Goddess found in many forms of contemporary witchcraft. Today, reconstructions of ancient Egyptian religion, such as Kemetic Orthodoxy or the Church of the Eternal Source, include Isis among the deities they revere.

GILGAMESH

-Aastha Joshi

Gilgamesh was a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late 2nd millennium BC. He was likely a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, who was posthumously deified. His rule probably would have taken place sometime in the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period. Though he became a major figure in Sumerian legend during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Tales of Gilgamesh’s legendary exploits are narrated in five surviving Sumerian poems. The earliest of these is likely “Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld”, in which Gilgamesh comes to the aid of the goddess Inanna and drives away the creatures infesting her huluppu tree. She gives him two unknown objects, a mikku and a pikku, which he loses. After Enkidu’s death, his shade tells Gilgamesh about the bleak conditions in the Underworld. The poem “Gilgamesh and Agga” describes Gilgamesh’s revolt against his overlord King Agga. Other Sumerian poems relate Gilgamesh’s defeat of the giant Huwawa and the Bull of Heaven, while a fifth, poorly preserved poem relates the account of his death and funeral. In later Babylonian times, these stories were woven into a connected narrative. The standard Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh was composed by a scribe named Sin-lēqi-unninni, probably during the Middle Babylonian Period based on much older source material. In the epic, Gilgamesh is a demigod of superhuman strength who befriends the wild man Enkidu. Together, they embark on many journeys, most famously defeating Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven, who is sent to attack them by Ishtar after Gilgamesh rejects her offer for him to become her consort. After Enkidu dies of a disease sent as punishment from the gods, Gilgamesh becomes afraid of his own death, and visits the sage Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Great Flood, hoping to find immortality. Gilgamesh repeatedly fails the trials set before him and returns home to Uruk, realizing that immortality is beyond his reach. Most classical historians agree the Epic ofGilgamesh exerted substantial influence on both the Iliad and the Odyssey. two epic poems written in ancient Greek during the 8th century BC. The story of Gilgamesh’s birth is described in an anecdote from On the Nature of Animals by the Greek writer Aelian. Aelian relates that Gilgamesh’s grandfather kept his mother under guard to prevent her from becoming pregnant, because an oracle had told him that his grandson would overthrow him. She became pregnant and the guards threw the child off a tower, but an eagle rescued him mid-fall and delivered him safely to an orchard, where the gardener raised him. The Epic of Gilgamesh was rediscovered in the Library of Ashurbanipal in 1849. After being translated in the early 1870s, it caused widespread controversy due to similarities between portions of it and the Hebrew Bible. Gilgamesh remained mostly obscure until the mid-20th century, but, since the late 20th century, he has become an increasingly prominent figure in modern culture. Stephanie. Dalley, a scholar of the ancient Near East, states that “precise dates cannot be given for the lifetime of Gilgamesh, but they are generally agreed to lie between 2800 and 2500 BC” By the Old Babylonian Period stories of Gilgamesh’s legendary exploits had been woven into one or several long epics. The Epic of Gilgamesh, the most complete account of Gilgamesh’s adventures, was composed in Akkadian during the Middle Babylonian Period by a scribe named Sin-leqi-unninni The most complete surviving version of the Epic of Gilgamesh is recorded on a set of twelve clay tablets dating to the seventh century BC, found in the Library of Ashurbanipal in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. The epic survives only in a fragmentary form, with many pieces of it missing or damaged. Some scholars and translators choose to supplement the missing parts of the epic with material from the earlier Sumerian poems or from other versions of the Epic of Gilgamesh found at other sites throughout the Near East An inscription possibly belonging to a contemporary official under Gilgamesh was discovered in the archaic texts at Ur; his name reads: “Gilgameš is the one whom Utu has selected”. Aside from this the Tummal Inscription, a thirty four-line historiographic text written during the reign of Ishbi-Erra also mentions him. The inscription credits Gilgamesh with building the walls of Uruk. Gilgamesh is also connected to King Enmebaragesi of Kish, a known historical figure who may have lived near Gilgamesh’s lifetime. Furthermore,he is listed as one of the kings of Uruk by the Sumerian King List Fragments of an epic text found in Mê-Turan relate that at the end of his life Gilgamesh was buried under the river bed. The people of Uruk diverted the flow of the Euphrates passing Uruk for the purpose of burying the dead king within the river bed. In the epic, Gilgamesh is introduced as “two thirds divine and one third mortal.” At the beginning of the poem, Gilgamesh is described as a brutal, oppressive ruler. This is usually interpreted to mean either that he compels all his subjects to engage in forced laboror that he sexually oppresses all his subjects. As punishment for Gilgamesh’s cruelty, the god Anu creates the wild man Enkidu. After being tamed by a prostitute named Shamhat, Enkidu travels to Uruk to confront Gilgamesh. In the second tablet, the two men wrestle and, although Gilgamesh wins the match in the end, he is so impressed by his opponent’s strength and tenacity that they become close friends. In the earlier Sumerian tAlthough stories about Gilgamesh were wildly popular throughout ancient Mesopotamia,. authentic representations of him in ancient art are uncommon Popular works often identify depictions of a hero with long hair, containing four or six curls, as representations of Gilgamesh, but this identification is known to be incorrect. A few genuine ancient Mesopotamian representations of Gilgamesh do exist, however. These representations are mostly found on clay plaques and cylinder seals. Generally, it is only possible to identify a figure shown in art as Gilgamesh if the artistic work in question clearly depicts a scene from the Epic of Gilgamesh itself One set of representations of Gilgamesh is found in scenes of two heroes fighting a demonic giant, certainly Humbaba. Another set is found in scenes showing a similar pair of heroes confronting a giant, winged bull, certainly the Bull of Heaven.exts, Enkidu is Gilgamesh’s servant, but, in the Epic of Gilgamesh, they are companions of equal standing. Starting in the late twentieth century, the Epic of Gilgamesh began to be read again in Iraq. Saddam Hussein, the former president of Iraq had a lifelong fascination with Gilgamesh Hussein’s first. novel Zabibah and the King (2000) is an allegory for the Gulf War set in ancient Assyria that blends elements of the Epic of Gilgamesh and the One Thousand and One Nights Like Gilgamesh, the king at the beginning of the novel is a brutal tyrant who misuses his power and oppresses his people,but, through the aid of a commoner woman named Zabibah, he grows into a more just ruler When the United States pressured Hussein to step down in February 2003, Hussein gave a speech to a group of his generals posing the idea in a positive light by comparing himself to the epic hero. In 2000, a modern statue of Gilgamesh by the Assyrian sculptor Lewis Batros was unveiled at the University of Sydney in Australia.

LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY



-Aastha Joshi

The last 50 years have seen rapid growth in population, urbanization and human Consumption resulting in usage of most of the earth’s resources to an extreme level. A recent report by WWF states that the population size of mammals, reptiles, fishes, birds and amphibians have decreased by 68 percent on a average from 1970 to 2016, which makes us astonished about the biodiversity we have lost. The report pinpoint’s this biodiversity loss to a variety of factors, but mainly land-use change,particularly the conversion of habitats, like forests, grasslands and mangroves, into agricultural systems. Animals like sharks and seahorses are significantly affected by the illegal wildlife trade, and pangolins are critically endangered because of it. It has been found that the sixth mass extinction of wildlife on Earth is accelerating. More than 500 species of land animals are on the brink of extinction and are likely to be lost within 20 years. The species that are endangered will go extinct whereas the species that are readily available will fall into endangered category. Without such harsh actions of humans on the environment this loss of biodiversity would have taken thousands of years. The living planet report 2020 shows that population sizes in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced the highest decline, at 94%, while globally, freshwater species have been disproportionately impacted, declining 84% of average. Humans have been openly criticised for using up the earths resources and not giving them time to replenish. Since the industrial revolution, human activities have increasingly destroyed and degraded forests, grasslands, wetlands and other important ecosystems. local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are disappearing. The best example to it is crows and pigeons, early generations have seen the being on their rooftops but now days we can hardly find some around us. Several wildlife conservation techniques have now been adapted by the mankind to tackle this loss of biodiversity and maintain an ecological balance. Many wildlife centuries and biosphere reserves have been made to provide a natural habitat to these endangered species as the loss of natural habitat has been reported one of the major reasons for the loss of these species. The alarming ratios of decrease in the species has made the people around globe a little more concerned. Several projects have been initiated by the counties and also at the global level to converse these species and stop them from getting extinct. Harsh treatment to animals have strongly been prohibited, also hunting has now came in the negative light and strict actions are taken upon people practicing it without the permission of government. All on the world Biosphere reserves have been created to promote the well being of these animals and providing them a secured environment as well as a habitat that is originally meant for them. Humans have created a ruckus all over the earth disturbing the balance around and lifestyle of the species. If optimal measures are not taken at the right time these acts of humans can have a disastrous impact on them itself.

ISIS – The Egyptian Goddess

-Aastha Joshi

Isis is an Egyptian goddess who lacked her own dedicated temples but grew as one of the most important deities of ancient Egypt. Her cult subsequently spread throughout the Roman Empire, and Isis was worshipped from England to Afghanistan. She is still revered by pagans today. she was most often represented as a beautiful woman wearing a sheath dress and either the hieroglyphic sign of the throne or a solar disk and cow’s horns on her head. she was a principal deity in rites connected with the dead; as magical healer, she cured the sick and brought the deceased to life; and as mother, she was a role model for all women. Occasionally she was represented as a scorpion, a bird, a sow, or a cow. she is mentioned many times in the Pyramid Text, in which she offers assistance to the dead king. The priests of Heliopolis, followers of the son god re, developed the myth of Isis. This told that Isis was the daughter of the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut and the sister of the deities Osiris, Seth, and Nephthys. Married to Osiris, king of Egypt, Isis was a good queen who supported her husband and taught the women of Egypt how to weave, bake, and brew beer. But Seth was jealous, and he hatched a plot to kill his brother. Seth trapped Osiris in a decorated wooden chest, which he coated in lead and threw into the Nile. With his brother vanished, Seth became king of Egypt. But Isis could not forget her husband, and she searched everywhere for him until she eventually discovered Osiris, still trapped in his chest. She brought his body back to Egypt, where Seth discovered the chest and hacked his brother into pieces, which he scattered far and wide. Transforming into a bird, and helped by her sister, Nephthys, Isis was able to discover and reunite the parts of her dead husband’s body-only his penis was missing. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son, Horus. Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son,Horus, Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Isis hid with Horus in the marshes of the Nile delta until her son was fully grown and could avenge his father and claim his throne. She defended the child against attacks from snakes and scorpions. But because Isis was also Seth’s sister, she wavered during the eventual battle between Horus and Seth. In one episode Isis took pity on Seth and was in consequence beheaded by Horus. Eventually she and Horus were reconciled, and Horus was able to take the throne of Egypt. Isis was the perfect traditional Egyptian wife and mother-content to stay in the background while things went well, but able to use her wits to guard her husband and son should the need arise. The shelter she afforded her child gave her the character of a goddess of protection. Several narratives tell of her magical process, far stronger than the powers of Osiris and Re. Isis became associated with various other goddesses, including Bastet, Nut, and Hathor, and thus her nature and her powers became increasingly diverse. Isis became known, like other fierce goddesses in the Egyptian pantheon, as the “Eye of Re” and was equated with the Dog Star, Sothis. The first major temple dedicated to Isis was built by the Late Period king Nectanebo II at Behbeit el-Hagar, in the central Nile delta. Other important temples, including the island temple of Philae, were built during Greco-Roman times when Isis was dominant among Egyptian goddesses. Several temples were dedicated to her in Alexandria, where she became the patroness of seafarers. From Alexandria her cult spread to Greece and Rome. Images of Isis nursing the baby Horus may have influenced the early Christian artists who depicted the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. In many spells in the Pyramid Texts, Isis and Nephthys help the deceased king reach the afterlife. In the Coffin Texts from the Middle Kingdom, Isis appears still more frequently, though in these texts Osiris is credited with reviving the dead more often than she is. New Kingdom sources such as the Book of the Dead describe Isis as protecting deceased souls as they face the dangers in the Duat. They also describe Isis as a member of the divine councils that judge souls’ moral righteousness before admitting them into the afterlife, and she appears in vignettes standing beside Osiris as he presides over this tribunal. Late funerary texts prominently featured her mourning for Osiris, and one such text, one of the Books of Breathing, was said to have been written by her for Osiris’s benefit. [117] In Nubian funerary religion, Isis was regarded as more significant than her husband, because she was the active partner while he only passivelyreceived the offerings she made to sustain him in the afterlife. Isis continues to appear in modern esoteric and pagan belief systems. The concept of a single goddess incarnating all feminine divine powers, partly inspired by Apuleius, became a widespread theme in literature of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Influential groups and figures in esotericism, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in the late nineteenth century and Dion Fortune in the 1930s, adopted this all-encompassing goddess into their belief systems and called her Isis. This conception of Isis influenced the Great Goddess found in many forms of contemporary witchcraft. Today, reconstructions of ancient Egyptian religion, such as Kemetic Orthodoxy or the Church of the Eternal Source, include Isis among the deities they revere.

ISIS – The Egyptian Goddess

Isis is an Egyptian goddess who lacked her own dedicated temples but grew as one of the most important deities of ancient Egypt. Her cult subsequently spread throughout the Roman Empire, and Isis was worshipped from England to Afghanistan. She is still revered by pagans today. she was most often represented as a beautiful woman wearing a sheath dress and either the hieroglyphic sign of the throne or a solar disk and cow’s horns on her head. she was a principal deity in rites connected with the dead; as magical healer, she cured the sick and brought the deceased to life; and as mother, she was a role model for all women. Occasionally she was represented as a scorpion, a bird, a sow, or a cow. she is mentioned many times in the Pyramid Text, in which she offers assistance to the dead king. The priests of Heliopolis, followers of the son god re, developed the myth of Isis. This told that Isis was the daughter of the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut and the sister of the deities Osiris, Seth, and Nephthys. Married to Osiris, king of Egypt, Isis was a good queen who supported her husband and taught the women of Egypt how to weave, bake, and brew beer. But Seth was jealous, and he hatched a plot to kill his brother. Seth trapped Osiris in a decorated wooden chest, which he coated in lead and threw into the Nile. With his brother vanished, Seth became king of Egypt. But Isis could not forget her husband, and she searched everywhere for him until she eventually discovered Osiris, still trapped in his chest. She brought his body back to Egypt, where Seth discovered the chest and hacked his brother into pieces, which he scattered far and wide. Transforming into a bird, and helped by her sister, Nephthys, Isis was able to discover and reunite the parts of her dead husband’s body-only his penis was missing. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son, Horus. Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son,

Isis is an Egyptian goddess who lacked her own dedicated temples but grew as one of the most important deities of ancient Egypt. Her cult subsequently spread throughout the Roman Empire, and Isis was worshipped from England to Afghanistan. She is still revered by pagans today. she was most often represented as a beautiful woman wearing a sheath dress and either the hieroglyphic sign of the throne or a solar disk and cow’s horns on her head. she was a principal deity in rites connected with the dead; as magical healer, she cured the sick and brought the deceased to life; and as mother, she was a role model for all women. Occasionally she was represented as a scorpion, a bird, a sow, or a cow. she is mentioned many times in the Pyramid Text, in which she offers assistance to the dead king. The priests of Heliopolis, followers of the son god re, developed the myth of Isis. This told that Isis was the daughter of the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut and the sister of the deities Osiris, Seth, and Nephthys. Married to Osiris, king of Egypt, Isis was a good queen who supported her husband and taught the women of Egypt how to weave, bake, and brew beer. But Seth was jealous, and he hatched a plot to kill his brother. Seth trapped Osiris in a decorated wooden chest, which he coated in lead and threw into the Nile. With his brother vanished, Seth became king of Egypt. But Isis could not forget her husband, and she searched everywhere for him until she eventually discovered Osiris, still trapped in his chest. She brought his body back to Egypt, where Seth discovered the chest and hacked his brother into pieces, which he scattered far and wide. Transforming into a bird, and helped by her sister, Nephthys, Isis was able to discover and reunite the parts of her dead husband’s body-only his penis was missing. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son, Horus. Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son,