What is nanotechnology, and how does it work?
Nanotechnology is a phrase used to describe fields of science and engineering in which phenomena occurring at nanoscale dimensions are used in the design, characterization, manufacture, and application of materials, structures, devices, and systems. Although there are many examples of structures with nanometer dimensions (hereafter referred to as the nanoscale) in the natural world, such as essential molecules in the human body and food components, and although many technologies have inadvertently involved nanoscale structures for many years, it has only been in the last quarter of a century that it has been possible to actively and intentionally modify molecules and structures within this size range. Nanotechnology is distinguished from other fields of technology by its ability to manipulate things at the nanometer scale.
Clearly, nanotechnology in its different manifestations has the potential to have a huge influence on society. In general, it is reasonable to expect that the deployment of nanotechnology will benefit both individuals and organizations. Many of these applications include novel materials that act at the nanoscale, where new phenomena are connected with the extremely large surface area to volume ratios observed at these dimensions, as well as quantum effects that are not seen at larger scales. . Materials in the form of ultra-thin films for catalysis and electronics, two-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires for optical and magnetic systems, and nanoparticles for cosmetics, medicines, and coatings are all examples. The information and communications sector, which includes electronic and optoelectronic fields, food technology, energy technology, and the medical products sector, which includes many different aspects of pharmaceuticals and drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and medical technology, where the terms nanomedicine and bio nanotechnology are already commonplace, are the industrial sectors that are most readily embracing nanotechnology. Nanotechnology goods may potentially present fresh challenges for environmental pollution mitigation. However, just as phenomena occurring at the nanoscale may be quite different from those occurring at larger dimensions and may be exploitable for the benefit of mankind, these newly identified processes and their products may expose the same humans, as well as the environment in general, to new health risks, potentially involving quite different mechanisms of interference with human and environmental species’ physiology. These possibilities might be focused on the destiny of free nanoparticles produced in nanotechnology processes and discharged into the environment, either purposefully or accidently, or supplied directly to persons through the operation of a nanotechnology-based product.
Individuals whose jobs expose them to free nanoparticles on a regular basis should be particularly concerned. The fact that evolution has determined that the human species has developed mechanisms of protection against environmental agents, both living and dead, is central to these health risk concerns. This process is determined by the nature of the agents commonly encountered, with size being a key factor. Exposure to nanoparticles with previously unknown properties may pose a threat to the body’s usual defense mechanisms, such as the immunological and inflammatory systems. It’s also likely that nanotechnology goods will have an environmental impact due to processes of dispersion and persistence of nanoparticles in the environment. Wherever the possibility for a completely new risk is discovered, a detailed examination of the risk’s nature is required, which may subsequently be utilized in risk management processes if necessary. It is commonly acknowledged that the hazards related with nanotechnology should be investigated in this manner. Many international organisations (e.g. Asia Pacific Nanotechnology Forum 2005), European Union governmental bodies (European Commission 2004,), National Institutions, non-governmental organizations (e.g. UN-NGLS 2005), learned institutions and societies, and individuals (e.g. Oberdörster et al 2005, Donaldson and Stone 2003) have published reports on the current state of nanotechnology. The European Council has emphasized the importance of paying close attention to potential risks throughout the life cycle of nanotechnology-based products, and the European Commission has expressed its desire to work on an international level to establish a framework of shared principles for the safe, sustainable, responsible, and socially acceptable use of nanotechnologies.
Scope and Definitions
There are numerous definitions of nanotechnology and nanotechnology products, which are frequently developed for specific reasons. The fundamental scientific principles of nanotechnology have been deemed more significant than the semantics of a definition in this Opinion, thus they are addressed first. The Committee believes that the UK Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering’s definition of nanoscience and nanotechnology in their 2004 report (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering 2004) effectively communicates these notions. This implies that the nanoscale extends from the atomic level (about 0.2 nm) to roughly 100 nm. . Because of the significantly increased ratio of surface area to mass, and also because quantum effects begin to play a role at these dimensions, leading to significant changes in several types of physical property, materials in this range can have significantly different properties than the same substances at larger sizes.
The words used in this Opinion are defined in accordance with the British Standards Institution’s recently released Publicly Available Specification on the Vocabulary for Nanoparticles (BSI 2005), which proposes the following meanings for the key generic terms:
Nanoscale refers to objects with one or more dimensions of 100 nanometers or less. Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and material manipulation at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular sizes, where characteristics differ dramatically from those at higher scales.
- Nanotechnology is the control of form and size at the nanoscale in the design, characterization, manufacturing, and application of structures, devices, and systems.
- Nanomaterial: a material with one or more exterior dimensions or an interior structure that may have unique properties when compared to a similar material without nanoscale features.
- Nanoparticle: a particle with one or more nanoscale dimensions. (Note: Nanoparticles are assumed to have two or more dimensions at the nanoscale in this paper.)
A nanocomposite is a composite in which at least one of the components has a nanoscale dimension. It’s worth noting that nanoscience and nanotechnology have exploded in popularity in recent years, and the terminology used by the respective fields hasn’t always been consistent. Furthermore, as this report points out, there have been and continue to be significant challenges in precisely measuring nanoscale parameters, making it difficult to have complete confidence in data and conclusions drawn about specific phenomena relating to specific features of nanostructures and nanomaterials. This Opinion recognises the inevitability of the situation and has derived some broad conclusions despite the fact that the literature may include contradictions and errors. While this Opinion adheres to the notion that nanoscale presently has dimensions of up to 100 nm, it recognises that certain publications may have depicted nanoscale as having bigger dimensions than 100 nm. Much of the research on particles, particularly that on aerosols, air pollution, and inhalation toxicity, has classified particles as ultrafine, fine, or conventional. Unless otherwise noted, ‘ultrafine particles’ are presumed to be substantially identical to nanoparticles in this research.
Also, when it comes to nanoparticles, keep in mind that a sample of a substance containing nanoparticles will often comprise a variety of particle sizes rather than being monodisperse This makes determining the characteristics of the nanoscale considerably more challenging, especially when considering dosages for toxicological investigations. In this Opinion, references to studies of particle exposure and toxicity data will be made often, and the particle size specified in the publications will be quoted as single numbers (e.g. 40 nm) or ranges (e.g. 40 – 80 nm), with the understanding that they will be approximations.
Furthermore, nanoparticles will have a tendency to agglomerate in specific settings. It’s reasonable to anticipate an aggregation of nanoparticles, which may have dimensions measured in microns rather than nanometers, to act differently than individual nanoparticles, but there’s no reason to expect the aggregate to behave like a single huge nanoparticle. Similarly, it is likely that nanoparticle behavior will be influenced by their solubility and susceptibility to degradation, and that neither the chemical composition nor particle size will remain constant over time. With the aforementioned definitions and disclaimers in mind, it’s evident that there are two sorts of nanostructures to evaluate in terms of intrinsic qualities and health risks: those where the structure is a free particle and those where the nanostructure is an essential element of a larger item.
Nanocomposites, which are solid materials with one or more dispersed phases present as nanoscale particles, and nanocrystalline solids, which have individual crystals with nanoscale dimensions, belong to the latter group. . This category also includes things that have been given a surface topography with nanoscale characteristics, as well as functional components with crucial nanometer dimensions, typically electrical components. Surface alterations can be achieved for medicinal applications by utilizing nanosized materials in particular coatings (Roszek et al 2005). This Opinion acknowledges the reality of such materials and products, as well as the fact that material properties on the nanoscale can affect interactions with biological systems. Despite the fast advancement of the study of interactions between biological systems and nano topographical characteristics, little is known about the potential for such interactions to cause harmful consequences. The danger would be related to the release during usage or at the end of the product’s life cycle, and would be determined by the strength of the adhesion to the carrier material. There is currently no reason to believe that immobilized nanoparticles represent a greater risk to health or the environment than larger size materials as long as the nanomaterials are fixed on the carrier’s surface.
The former group, which includes free nanoparticles, is the one that causes the most worry in terms of health hazards, and is the focus of the majority of this Opinion. . The term ‘free’ should be qualified since it indicates that the material in question is made up of individual nanoscale particles at some point during its creation or usage. These individual particles may be mixed into a quantity of another material, which may be a gas, a liquid, or a solid, to generate a paste, a gel, or a coating, in the application of the substance. Although their bioavailability will vary depending on the phase in which they are scattered, these particles may nonetheless be termed free This category would include ultrafine aerosols and colloids, as well as cream-based cosmetics and medicinal preparations, and it is with these instances that much of the current research on nanotechnology health implications has been focused. The main focus of this opinion is on the possible dangers connected with the manufacturing and use of items using engineered nanomaterials. Proteins, phospholipids, lipids, and other biological nanostructures are not considered in this context