PESTLE ANALYSIS-AMAZON

Political


With the government encouraging make in India campaigns and promoting atmanirbhar Bharat.
The budget for the year is incorporative of several schemes and initiatives that will help businesses and ecommerce websites operate more easily. schemes such as “Ease of Doing Business 2.0” and “One nation, one registration” programs and “Digital Ecosystem for Skilling and Livelihood” (DESH-Stack) portal which will aid business operations with measures such as:
• Digitization for improved transparency and ease of use
• Interlinking of the ASEEM (Atmanirbhar Skilled Employee-Employer Mapping) Udyam, e-Shram and National Career Service (NCS) portals to create connected databases and improve efficiency

Economic

The amazon effect


The Amazon effect refers to the impact created by the online, eCommerce, or digital marketplace on the traditional brick and mortar business model that is the result of the change in shopping patterns, customer expectations, and the industry’s competitive landscape. As online shopping and eCommerce grow in popularity, it has hurt many traditional businesses that are forced to compete with the online marketplace with only a physical location.
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Amazon has enabled small businesses to reach millions of customers across India by providing an ecosystem for them to use. They have been empowered to offer a superlative customer experience while helping these local sellers increase their product exposure, expert endorsements along with product reviews. It has also created a space that can foster these sellers’ unique products and services. .he world.”

Technological


Amazon is virtually in every industry from food delivery, content streaming, e commerce. It is truly an unrivalled monopoly. Amazon has had several fantastic technological innovations in the last decade.
Fire tv
Fire TV is Amazon’s response to similar products from competitors, such as Apple TV and Roku. The product is gobbling up market share quickly. By mid-2019 it had more than 34 million active users.4 The streaming industry measures market share separately for the box and the stick. In the U.S., Amazon’s Fire TV box had a 28.5% share of the market but 57% of the market for sticks.4Its versatility has garnered rave reviews from industry analysts: A Fire TV box streams live TV and allows users to watch hundreds of queued shows and movies. It is also a popular and well-received gaming device.
Amazon Alexa
While the voice-assisted technology isn’t entirely there yet, Amazon’s voice-responding virtual assistant is helping to propel it forward. With the Amazon Echo, Tap, and Dot, Amazon is getting people accustomed to using this technology—and trying to grab their share of the market (versus competitors like Google and Apple). Amazon’s voice assistant, Alexa, is amazing at doing Amazon things (placing orders, finding music, etc.). And she can hear and respond to voice commands at a normal volume from across a noisy room, which is pretty impressive.

Social


the social impact of e-commerce can be measured by satisfaction and trust.
Social media playing a key role in the dynamic in the website consumer relationship. Eith the nuber of people using the internet increasing day by day. the effect social media has particularly on the millennial and gen z is astonishing. Various social media platforms have a strong impact on lifestyles of people today. Facebook, Quicker, Snapdeal, Amazon, Pinterest, and Instagram greatly affect consumers in their online shopping habits with SEO and SMO, and strategies like pay per click advertising whereby they reach the target audience effectively.
Compared to 39.1% of Millennials, 64.2 percent of Gen Z said they draw purchasing inspiration from Instagram. Ethics, sustainability, and equality are equally important to these younger generations. For example, 41% of Gen Z indicated they’d pay more for sustainable apparel, while 73.9 percent of Millennials believe it’s extremely or somewhat essential for firms to demonstrate their support for diversity and equality.

  • Over 75% of people are shopping at least once a month online.
  • 45% of millennials admitted they prefer buying online because they can run comparisons on products and prices
  • Eight out of 10 millennials never buy anything without first reading a review
  • 95.1% of millennials admit to impulse shopping
  • 83% of Millennials are not concerned about security while online shopping
  • 40% of millennials have used voice search before making a purchase online
  • More than 53% of millennials prefer to seek out details online rather than talk to store staff when they are in a shop

Social media is also a big influence on their purchase decisions. In particular, 64.2% of Gen Z noted that they get shopping inspiration from Instagram, compared to 39.1% of Millennials. These younger generations also care a great deal about ethics, sustainability, and equality. For example, 41% of Gen Z said they’d pay more for sustainable fashion, while 73.9% of Millennials think it’s very or fairly important that brands show that they are pro-diversity and pro-equality

Environmental

Recycling

Amazon is committed to reducing our environmental footprint through recycling initiatives in our own operations and partnerships that support the development of recycling infrastructure across the industry.
Carbon footprint
Amazon’s corporate carbon footprint quantifies the total greenhouse gas emissions attributed to our direct and indirect operational activities. We measure our total impact on the climate, map the largest activities contributing to this impact, and develop meaningful carbon reduction strategies to reach net-zero carbon emissions across our business by 2040.
Renewable Energy
As part of our goal to reach net-zero carbon by 2040, Amazon is on a path to powering our operations with 100% renewable energy by 2025—five years ahead of our original target of 2030. In 2020, we became the world’s largest corporate purchaser of renewable energy, reaching 65% renewable energy across our business.
The Climate Pledge
Amazon is committed to building a sustainable business for our customers and the planet. In 2019, Amazon co-founded The Climate Pledge—a commitment to be net-zero carbon across our business by 2040, 10 years ahead of the Paris Agreement.


legal


In June 2021 by the Department of Consumer Affairs came up with the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) (Amendment) Rules, 2021, placing some stringent rules on ecommerce websites. Amazon as an ecommerce
Some of the rules are
Use of marketplace entity’s name or brand for advertising or sale of products or services: Marketplaces may not use their name or brand to represent that their offers are from the marketplace itself.
Misuse of a dominating market position: An e-commerce business may not abuse its dominant market position in any market. fallback liability: In the event that a seller on a marketplace platform fails to provide goods or services, resulting in a loss to the customer, the marketplace will be held liable.
Advertising that are deceptive: An e-commerce platform should not allow misleading advertisements. Falsely portraying a product or service, (ii) falsely promising or misleading regarding nature are all examples of deceptive advertising under the Act.

Case Discussion: PESTLE ANALYSIS : PEPSICO

PepsiCo is the largest selling beverage the world over, of course after its arch rival Coca Cola. It accounts for a 37% share of the global beverage market, and therefore they need to understand each and every country’s market in order to stay in line with their PESTLE situations. Pepsico is a big brand, currently holds the 23rd place in the Interbrand report of the World’s Leading Brands. Their advertisements feature major celebrities and athletes like David Beckham, Robbie Williams, Britney Spears, Michael Jackson, Kendall Jenner etc.
Their market reach is also very diverse, as they’re present in almost every country from the US to New Zealand. A probable PESTLE analysis for them is given below:

Political:


Major economies like the United States and Canada are politically stable but in many parts of the world civil unrest in certain markets results in sales dip, product seizure, disrupted supply chain, product damage and hence losses. Most importantly, cross border situations are starkly different therefore Pepsi has to stay in line with all those policies and changes so that they can adapt to all those changes accordingly.
Besides, US government initiatives against sweetened carbonated drinks are a threat that could reduce PepsiCo’s revenues in the upcoming future. Due to new introduction of an American tax called the soda tax, the price of soda rose 3 cents per ounce when adopted by Philadelphia. Although this soda tax originated in 2015 but since Philadelphia’s adoption, Oakland, Seattle (Washington), San Francisco, and Boulder Colorado have also integrated this change. The government is trying to make a point- sugar and obesity is the biggest threat to American youth health today and a stop has to be put to it.

Economic:


As the recent economic downturn has plagued the economy, companies had to restructure their sales and marketing campaigns greatly- so they will have to rethink budget. Also, if profits diminish they may have to undergo downsizing internally and re-think upon how to increase the sales. Economic conditions have the highest influence on a business, regardless of what trade it is in.
Social:
Social factors greatly impact Pepsico, as it’s a non-alcoholic beverage it has to remain in line with the strict and stark differences of cultures the world over. Also, Pepsi has to communicate its image as a global brand so that the people can associate it with themselves as something that connects the world together. People are avoiding sweetened aerated beverages (an average can has 40 sachets of sugar) and obesity is becoming a concern- they have to address these concerns.
Pepsico is running various CSR projects globally for food, water and children well-being.


Technological:


With the advent of the new age in technology, companies have completely integrated themselves with all the recent changes that have taken place. To mention a recent trend that has greatly picked up and something that almost every business is turning toward is Social Media for advertising. The social media explosion has allowed for increasingly interactive engagement with the consumers with real time results so Pepsi has to stay ahead of all the developments that take place with keeping in view how the youth of today utilizes technology for their benefit and how can Pepsi reach them in order to keep on increasing brand recall and brand engagement.
E-commerce delivery can also be looked at. Factory automation is another developmental focus area and technology upgradation could help production.

Legal:


There can be many legal implications upon the beverage industry.
Pepsi is a non-alcoholic beverage and is therefore regulated by the FDA. So, they’re supposed to maintain a firm standard of the laws set out by the FDA with consistency. Also, many different markets across the world have different set of regulations that are either relaxed or are either stringent.
In the early decade of this century, Pepsi was accused of using contaminated water in Indian market, given a lab test that was done upon the water flowing into the Pepsi factory that was located nearby an industrial estate. A massive recall was issued for the products from shelves and then the product was tested costing the company many billions of dollars upon the tests as India is a very major market. Pesticide charges were another legal controversy.

Environmental:


Plastic is adding to environmental strain and so bottling /packaging will have to be thought again.
Over utilization of water resources for manufacturing has created a concern today.

BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology’s history


Beginning with the first agricultural settlements, people have been utilising biological processes to enhance their quality of life for over 10,000 years. Humans began to use microbes’ biological processes to manufacture bread, alcoholic drinks, and cheese, as well as to preserve dairy goods, some 6,000 years ago. However, such processes are not included in today’s definition of biotechnology, which was coined to describe the molecular and cellular technologies that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. In the mid- to late 1970s, a nascent “biotech” sector emerged, led by Genentech, a pharmaceutical firm founded in 1976 by Robert A. Swanson and Herbert W. Boyer to commercialise Boyer, Paul Berg, and Stanley N. Cohen’s recombinant DNA technology. Genentech, Amgen, Biogen, Cetus, and Genex were among the first businesses to produce genetically altered molecules for medicinal and environmental purposes.

Recombinant DNA technology, often known as genetic engineering, dominated the biotechnology sector for more than a decade. Splicing the gene for a useful protein (typically a human protein) into production cells—such as yeast, bacteria, or mammalian cells in culture—causes the protein to start producing in large quantities. When splicing a cable, there are a few things to keep in mind. . A new creature is produced when a gene is spliced into a producing cell. Biotechnology investors and researchers were first unsure if the courts would enable them to get patents on organisms; after all, patents were not permitted on newly found and recognised creatures in nature. However, in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the United States Supreme Court decided in 1980 that “a living human-made microbe is patentable subject matter.” This decision resulted in the formation of a slew of new biotechnology companies as well as the industry’s first investment boom. Recombinant insulin was the first genetically engineered product to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1982. . Since then, hundreds of genetically modified protein therapies, such as recombinant growth hormone, clotting factors, proteins that stimulate the creation of red and white blood cells, interferons, and clot-dissolving agents, have been sold across the world.

In a laboratory, a researcher purifies molecules for the manufacture of therapeutic proteins from biological material.
Alamy/Uwe Moser
Methodologies and tools
The capacity to create naturally occurring therapeutic compounds in bigger amounts than could be obtained from conventional sources such as plasma, animal organs, and human cadavers was the primary success of biotechnology in the early years. Pathogens are less likely to infect recombinant proteins, and allergic responses are less common. Biotechnology experts are now working to identify the underlying biological causes of disease and intervene precisely at that level. As with the first generation of biotech drugs, this might imply creating therapeutic proteins to supplement the body’s own resources or compensate for hereditary inadequacies. (A related procedure is gene therapy, which involves inserting genes encoding a required protein into a patient’s body or cells.)

The biotechnology sector has also increased its research into conventional medications and monoclonal antibodies that can halt disease progression. One of the most important biotechnology approaches to emerge in the final part of the twentieth century was the successful manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. Because of the specificity of monoclonal antibodies and their widespread availability, sensitive tests for a wide range of physiologically essential chemicals have been developed, as well as the capacity to differentiate cells by recognising hitherto identified marker molecules on their surfaces. The study of genes (genomics), the proteins that they encode (proteomics), and the wider biological pathways in which they function allowed for such advancements.

Biotechnology’s applications


Biotechnology offers a wide range of uses, including medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology could be used to merge biological information with computer technology (bioinformatics), or it could be used to investigate the use of microscopic equipment that can enter the human body (nanotechnology), or it could be used to replace dead or defective cells and tissues using stem cell research and cloning techniques. Biotechnology has been useful in refining industrial processes through the discovery and production of biological enzymes that spark chemical reactions (catalysts); in environmental cleanup with enzymes that digest contaminants into harmless chemicals and then die after consuming the available “food supply”; and in agricultural production through genetic engineering. Biotechnology’s agricultural uses have been the most contentious. Some environmentalists and consumer groups have proposed GMO bans or labelling regulations to alert people to the rising prevalence of GMOs in the food chain. GMOs were first introduced into agriculture in the United States in 1993, when the FDA authorised bovine somatotropin (BST), a growth hormone that increases milk output in dairy cows. The FDA authorised the first genetically modified whole product the following year, a tomato with a longer shelf life. Since then, dozens of agricultural GMOs have received regulatory clearance in the United States, Europe, and abroad, including crops that make their own insecticides and crops that resist the application of certain herbicides.
creatures that have been genetically modified
Scientific approaches, such as recombinant DNA technology, are used to create genetically engineered species.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. is a company that publishes encyclopaedias.
GMO foods have been found to be safe by studies conducted by the United Nations, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, the European Union, the American Medical Association, US regulatory agencies, and other organisations, but sceptics argue that it is still too early to judge the long-term health and ecological effects of such crops. The land area planted in genetically modified crops expanded substantially in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, from 1.7 million hectares (4.2 million acres) in 1996 to 180 million hectares (445 million acres) in 2014. Approximately 90% of maize, cotton, and soybeans cultivated in the United States were genetically modified by 2014–15. The Americas were home to the bulk of genetically modified crops.

Over the five-year period from 1996 to 2000, the revenues of the biotechnology sectors in the United States and Europe almost quadrupled. The development of new products, notably in health care, spurred rapid expansion far into the twenty-first century. The worldwide biotechnology market is expected to be worth $752.88 billion by 2020, with significant growth potential arising in particular from government and industry-led efforts to speed up medication research and product clearance procedures.

NANOTECHNOLOGY

What is nanotechnology, and how does it work?

Nanotechnology is a phrase used to describe fields of science and engineering in which phenomena occurring at nanoscale dimensions are used in the design, characterization, manufacture, and application of materials, structures, devices, and systems. Although there are many examples of structures with nanometer dimensions (hereafter referred to as the nanoscale) in the natural world, such as essential molecules in the human body and food components, and although many technologies have inadvertently involved nanoscale structures for many years, it has only been in the last quarter of a century that it has been possible to actively and intentionally modify molecules and structures within this size range. Nanotechnology is distinguished from other fields of technology by its ability to manipulate things at the nanometer scale.
Clearly, nanotechnology in its different manifestations has the potential to have a huge influence on society. In general, it is reasonable to expect that the deployment of nanotechnology will benefit both individuals and organizations. Many of these applications include novel materials that act at the nanoscale, where new phenomena are connected with the extremely large surface area to volume ratios observed at these dimensions, as well as quantum effects that are not seen at larger scales. . Materials in the form of ultra-thin films for catalysis and electronics, two-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires for optical and magnetic systems, and nanoparticles for cosmetics, medicines, and coatings are all examples. The information and communications sector, which includes electronic and optoelectronic fields, food technology, energy technology, and the medical products sector, which includes many different aspects of pharmaceuticals and drug delivery systems, diagnostics, and medical technology, where the terms nanomedicine and bio nanotechnology are already commonplace, are the industrial sectors that are most readily embracing nanotechnology. Nanotechnology goods may potentially present fresh challenges for environmental pollution mitigation. However, just as phenomena occurring at the nanoscale may be quite different from those occurring at larger dimensions and may be exploitable for the benefit of mankind, these newly identified processes and their products may expose the same humans, as well as the environment in general, to new health risks, potentially involving quite different mechanisms of interference with human and environmental species’ physiology. These possibilities might be focused on the destiny of free nanoparticles produced in nanotechnology processes and discharged into the environment, either purposefully or accidently, or supplied directly to persons through the operation of a nanotechnology-based product.
Individuals whose jobs expose them to free nanoparticles on a regular basis should be particularly concerned. The fact that evolution has determined that the human species has developed mechanisms of protection against environmental agents, both living and dead, is central to these health risk concerns. This process is determined by the nature of the agents commonly encountered, with size being a key factor. Exposure to nanoparticles with previously unknown properties may pose a threat to the body’s usual defense mechanisms, such as the immunological and inflammatory systems. It’s also likely that nanotechnology goods will have an environmental impact due to processes of dispersion and persistence of nanoparticles in the environment. Wherever the possibility for a completely new risk is discovered, a detailed examination of the risk’s nature is required, which may subsequently be utilized in risk management processes if necessary. It is commonly acknowledged that the hazards related with nanotechnology should be investigated in this manner. Many international organisations (e.g. Asia Pacific Nanotechnology Forum 2005), European Union governmental bodies (European Commission 2004,), National Institutions, non-governmental organizations (e.g. UN-NGLS 2005), learned institutions and societies, and individuals (e.g. Oberdörster et al 2005, Donaldson and Stone 2003) have published reports on the current state of nanotechnology. The European Council has emphasized the importance of paying close attention to potential risks throughout the life cycle of nanotechnology-based products, and the European Commission has expressed its desire to work on an international level to establish a framework of shared principles for the safe, sustainable, responsible, and socially acceptable use of nanotechnologies.


Scope and Definitions


There are numerous definitions of nanotechnology and nanotechnology products, which are frequently developed for specific reasons. The fundamental scientific principles of nanotechnology have been deemed more significant than the semantics of a definition in this Opinion, thus they are addressed first. The Committee believes that the UK Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering’s definition of nanoscience and nanotechnology in their 2004 report (Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering 2004) effectively communicates these notions. This implies that the nanoscale extends from the atomic level (about 0.2 nm) to roughly 100 nm. . Because of the significantly increased ratio of surface area to mass, and also because quantum effects begin to play a role at these dimensions, leading to significant changes in several types of physical property, materials in this range can have significantly different properties than the same substances at larger sizes.
The words used in this Opinion are defined in accordance with the British Standards Institution’s recently released Publicly Available Specification on the Vocabulary for Nanoparticles (BSI 2005), which proposes the following meanings for the key generic terms:
Nanoscale refers to objects with one or more dimensions of 100 nanometers or less. Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and material manipulation at the atomic, molecular, and macromolecular sizes, where characteristics differ dramatically from those at higher scales.

  • Nanotechnology is the control of form and size at the nanoscale in the design, characterization, manufacturing, and application of structures, devices, and systems.
  • Nanomaterial: a material with one or more exterior dimensions or an interior structure that may have unique properties when compared to a similar material without nanoscale features.
  • Nanoparticle: a particle with one or more nanoscale dimensions. (Note: Nanoparticles are assumed to have two or more dimensions at the nanoscale in this paper.)


A nanocomposite is a composite in which at least one of the components has a nanoscale dimension. It’s worth noting that nanoscience and nanotechnology have exploded in popularity in recent years, and the terminology used by the respective fields hasn’t always been consistent. Furthermore, as this report points out, there have been and continue to be significant challenges in precisely measuring nanoscale parameters, making it difficult to have complete confidence in data and conclusions drawn about specific phenomena relating to specific features of nanostructures and nanomaterials. This Opinion recognises the inevitability of the situation and has derived some broad conclusions despite the fact that the literature may include contradictions and errors. While this Opinion adheres to the notion that nanoscale presently has dimensions of up to 100 nm, it recognises that certain publications may have depicted nanoscale as having bigger dimensions than 100 nm. Much of the research on particles, particularly that on aerosols, air pollution, and inhalation toxicity, has classified particles as ultrafine, fine, or conventional. Unless otherwise noted, ‘ultrafine particles’ are presumed to be substantially identical to nanoparticles in this research.

Also, when it comes to nanoparticles, keep in mind that a sample of a substance containing nanoparticles will often comprise a variety of particle sizes rather than being monodisperse This makes determining the characteristics of the nanoscale considerably more challenging, especially when considering dosages for toxicological investigations. In this Opinion, references to studies of particle exposure and toxicity data will be made often, and the particle size specified in the publications will be quoted as single numbers (e.g. 40 nm) or ranges (e.g. 40 – 80 nm), with the understanding that they will be approximations.

Furthermore, nanoparticles will have a tendency to agglomerate in specific settings. It’s reasonable to anticipate an aggregation of nanoparticles, which may have dimensions measured in microns rather than nanometers, to act differently than individual nanoparticles, but there’s no reason to expect the aggregate to behave like a single huge nanoparticle. Similarly, it is likely that nanoparticle behavior will be influenced by their solubility and susceptibility to degradation, and that neither the chemical composition nor particle size will remain constant over time. With the aforementioned definitions and disclaimers in mind, it’s evident that there are two sorts of nanostructures to evaluate in terms of intrinsic qualities and health risks: those where the structure is a free particle and those where the nanostructure is an essential element of a larger item.
Nanocomposites, which are solid materials with one or more dispersed phases present as nanoscale particles, and nanocrystalline solids, which have individual crystals with nanoscale dimensions, belong to the latter group. . This category also includes things that have been given a surface topography with nanoscale characteristics, as well as functional components with crucial nanometer dimensions, typically electrical components. Surface alterations can be achieved for medicinal applications by utilizing nanosized materials in particular coatings (Roszek et al 2005). This Opinion acknowledges the reality of such materials and products, as well as the fact that material properties on the nanoscale can affect interactions with biological systems. Despite the fast advancement of the study of interactions between biological systems and nano topographical characteristics, little is known about the potential for such interactions to cause harmful consequences. The danger would be related to the release during usage or at the end of the product’s life cycle, and would be determined by the strength of the adhesion to the carrier material. There is currently no reason to believe that immobilized nanoparticles represent a greater risk to health or the environment than larger size materials as long as the nanomaterials are fixed on the carrier’s surface.
The former group, which includes free nanoparticles, is the one that causes the most worry in terms of health hazards, and is the focus of the majority of this Opinion. . The term ‘free’ should be qualified since it indicates that the material in question is made up of individual nanoscale particles at some point during its creation or usage. These individual particles may be mixed into a quantity of another material, which may be a gas, a liquid, or a solid, to generate a paste, a gel, or a coating, in the application of the substance. Although their bioavailability will vary depending on the phase in which they are scattered, these particles may nonetheless be termed free This category would include ultrafine aerosols and colloids, as well as cream-based cosmetics and medicinal preparations, and it is with these instances that much of the current research on nanotechnology health implications has been focused. The main focus of this opinion is on the possible dangers connected with the manufacturing and use of items using engineered nanomaterials. Proteins, phospholipids, lipids, and other biological nanostructures are not considered in this context

impact on the Indiana economy due to the Russia Ukraine conflict

The invasion of Ukraine by Russia, as well as the flurry of punitive measures put on it by the US and European nations, has the potential to have two effects on India Inc. One, if not passed on, the resulting jump in commodity prices might raise input costs and pressure downstream sector margins.

Two, trade and banking restrictions may limit India’s export-import operations in the targeted region unless workarounds are discovered.

However, according to a CRISIL analysis, a few industries, such as steel and aluminium, may profit from increased prices. Overall, the impact of the continuing battle will differ depending on the industry.

. However, as the geopolitical situation improves, a clearer picture, including the credit quality of affected enterprises, will emerge.

Brent crude prices have soared beyond US$130/barrel, up from US$97/barrel before the Russian incursion. Oil marketing corporations are already losing money without a corresponding increase in retail fuel costs. Chemicals and paints industries that use crude oil-linked derivatives as their principal feedstock are feeling the effects of this. As inventory purchased at reduced prices run out, these industries may face a margin compression that might go far into the first quarter of the following fiscal year.

Other commodities will witness increased cost inflation as well. Steel and aluminium prices, which have recently risen from already high levels (Russia provides nearly 6% of world primary aluminium output), will continue to rise. While this would assist local primary steelmakers and aluminium smelters by increasing realisations, it would have a detrimental impact on the construction, real estate, and car industries.

Natural gas spot prices, which are similarly related to petroleum, may continue to rise. However, the downstream industries would be less affected. The higher pricing can be passed on to urea producers who utilise it as a feedstock. However, if the conflict continues, domestic urea supply might become a problem for the agricultural industry, as about 8% of the demand is met domestically.

City gas operators have favourable cost economics compared to competing fuels, according to the credit rating agency, which might allow them to pass on gas price rises downstream – at least to some extent.

Sanctions tied to trade and banking might affect industries that get critical raw materials like crude sunflower oil and rough diamonds, according to CRISIL. Sunflower oil accounts for over 10% of India’s edible oil consumption, with 90% of it coming from Russia and Ukraine.

An protracted battle might disrupt supply to domestic oil mills, which normally keep 30-45 days’ worth of inventories on hand and have few alternatives for changing their source on short notice.

For diamond polishers, persistent trade interruption can raise the cost of raw diamonds, putting a strain on their profit margins. Alrosa, Russia’s largest diamond miner, produces approximately 30% of the world’s rough diamonds, which saw a 21 percent increase in price in 2021.

The persistent semiconductor shortfall is unlikely to provide relief to the automotive industry. This is due to the fact that Russia and Ukraine supply over 75% of the neon gas required in semiconductor manufacturing operations such as etching circuit patterns into silicon wafers to build chips. A lengthy conflict, as well as sanctions against Russia, would stifle semiconductor output even further. According to the rating agency, import dependency on palladium and platinum, which are used in catalytic converters, and nickel, which is used as a cathode in lithium-ion batteries, is low and so may have only a minor impact on the vehicle sector.

The pharmaceuticals industry may only see a minor impact because its shipments to Russia and Ukraine are now free from sanctions, and Indian drugmakers’ exposure to these regions is modest, accounting for less than 3% of overall exports, according to CRISIL. To be sure, the government and the impacted enterprises are expected to take efforts to mitigate the situation, and CRISIL is keeping a close eye on the situation and will analyse its impact on credit quality on a case-by-case basis.

Consumers could also expect a significant increase in the price of animal protein, such as chicken, dairy products, and seafood. Amul, the world’s largest dairy company, hiked retail milk prices by 4% in all Indian markets on March 1st. “Due to growing energy, packaging, transportation, and cow feeding expenses, this price increase is necessary. As a result, the overall cost of operation and milk production has increased “Amul stated in a press statement. Mother Dairy, a milk brand, has also announced a price increase of Rs 2 effective March 6th.

The ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine are expected to have an influence on local wheat and sunflower oil prices. Both nations produce considerable amounts of wheat, and Ukraine is one of the world’s leading exporters of sunflower seeds. Analysts say that while India is self-sufficient in wheat, it does import some high-quality grain. Furthermore, the drop in Russian and Ukrainian wheat prices on the international market would provide an appealing opportunity for Indian exporters, raising local prices significantly. In the last 8-10 days, the price of sunflower oil has risen by around 5% to 10% on the worldwide market. For customers who have been paying historically high prices for over two years, the Russia-Ukraine conflict has dashed any thoughts of relief from high cooking oil costs.

Chicken prices have risen by 25% since January, and industry insiders predict a further increase of 10% to 50% in March in various regions of the nation owing to a severe feed scarcity.

Tea exports, which are referred to as chai in both Russian and Ukrainian, may also meet difficulties. Russia is one of India’s largest tea buyers, accounting for 18% of the country’s tea exports. Given the importance of the Russian market for Indian tea exports, Given that Iran shipments continue to be plagued by payment troubles, which has resulted in a sharp drop in export volumes, the Russian market is critical for Indian tea exports.

Hostilities between Russia and Ukraine are projected to put pressure on India’s agriculture industry, raising costs and limiting availability of potash, a vital component used in fertiliser production.

Belarus and Russia are now the world’s leading suppliers of potash. India, on the other hand, is a large importer of potash, which is utilised in fertiliser production. Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus account for ten percent to twelve percent of India’s total fertiliser imports. . With already-high prices, the government’s subsidy expenditure, which would be necessary to maintain an acceptable retail price for farmers, will skyrocket.

If Russia and Ukraine do not reach an agreement quickly, there is a risk that the war may spread beyond the area. This would be disastrous for businesses. Regardless of whether the battle continues or ends soon, it is likely to result in soaring inflation, which will affect a variety of industries.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

A conflict of interest arises when a party’s interests or loyalties are divided as a result of their obligations to more than one person or organization. A person with a conflict of interest cannot fairly represent both parties’ real or projected conflicting interests.

What Does It Mean to Have a Conflict of Interest?

A person or entity having two relationships contending for the individual’s loyalty is said to be in a conflict of interest. For example, the person may be devoted to both his or her employment and a family company. Each of these companies expects the individual to put the company’s best interests first

As a result, there is a disagreement. Personal and professional conflicts of interest might occur.

What is a Conflict of Interest?

In many different scenarios involving personal allegiance and loyalty to a private employer, government employer, or professional connection, a conflict of interest might arise. A public official whose personal interests conflict with their expected loyalty to the organisation, a person of authority in one company or organisation who conflicts with their interests in another company or organisation, or an attorney who tries to represent both parties in a divorce are all examples of conflicts of interest.

Conflicts of Interest: What They Are and What They Aren’t

There are a variety of activities that might lead to a conflict of interest, including:

Nepotism

Self-dealing

excessive remuneration

In situations of employment, promotion, transfer, or termination, nepotism is the practise of offering favours to family and close friends. It was customary practise in ancient times, and the phrase originates from the word “nephew.” Because the relative may not be the best person for the position, nepotism is regarded a conflict of interest.

Self-dealing is when a corporate fiduciary acts for his or her own personal gain rather than the company’s profit. Using business cash as a personal loan is one example, as is buying company shares based on insider information, which is also an insider trading offence. 3 Setting salary or perks for officials, directors, or trustees in a non-profit organisation can lead to a conflict of interest. Paying an employee in a position of significant power exorbitant salary, for example, serves a private purpose. 4

Workplace conflicts of interest may take many different shapes.

There are business-related issues, such as an employee running a side business that competes with the employer, and personal issues, such as a manager having a romantic involvement with an employee. The latter creates a problem since the manager has the authority to grant the employee increases or promotions, and communications between the two persons concerning the firm may also violate confidentiality agreements.

Conflicts of interest are more likely to occur in organizations that rely on a supply chain. An employee’s acquaintance with a supplier, for example, may allow them to bypass the bidding procedure and secure contracts with little or no competition.

Many organizations have laws and processes in place that prohibit conflicts of interest, such as hiring family in specific circumstances.

After-Employer Conflict of Interest

A conflict of interest can arise even after someone has left a post, despite the fact that many institutions prohibit this type of conflict. Executives and business owners are frequently obliged to sign non-compete agreements to avoid scenarios such as someone obtaining their former company’s client list and immediately competing with them.

Former federal workers in the executive branch are prohibited from testifying on behalf of other individuals or organizations before the federal government. This includes limits on “switching sides” after leaving the government and working for a corporation where the official previously worked.

The Massachusetts conflict of interest statute, like those of other government and commercial institutions, prohibits a person from working for anyone other than the government entity on an issue that they worked for the entity on. Business partners and intimate family members may be subject to these post-employment limitations.

Is it Illegal to Have a Conflict of Interest?

Conflict of interest actions, like other sorts of unlawful or immoral behaviour, pose the possibility of negative repercussions. Conflicts of interest in the public sector are illegal under federal and state law, and they can lead to punishment in certain instances.

Government personnel are prohibited from acting personally and materially in official activities in which they have a financial interest under the federal government’s criminal conflict of interest legislation. This limitation also applies to the spouse, minor child, general partner, and a few others. Conflicts of interest can develop from a variety of sources, including:

Investments and assets

  • Liabilities
  • Funds for private investment
  • Ownership of a business or a farm
  • Working for a company
  • Working for a legal company or as a consultant
  • Work with higher education institutions, as well as associated research, speaking, and writing activities

Alternative dispute resolution

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) refers to a variety of methods for resolving disagreements without going to court. Mediation, arbitration, and neutral evaluation are examples of ADR methods. Unlike typical court sessions, these procedures are often more private, less official, and less stressful.

ADR frequently saves money and expedites the settlement process. Parties have a vital role in settling their own conflicts through mediation. This frequently leads to innovative ideas, long-term results, increased satisfaction, and enhanced relationships.
In family law, general civil, and commercial law issues, the New York State Unified Court System provides free or reduced-fee mediation and other ADR services. These services are offered in virtually all of New York State’s 62 counties, as well as numerous courthouses and Community Dispute Resolution Centers.
Arbitration: a neutral person known as a “arbitrator” hears both sides’ arguments and evidence before making a decision. The rules of evidence are typically modified in arbitration, making it less formal than a trial. Parties agree to accept the arbitrator’s judgement as final in binding arbitration, and there is usually no right of appeal. If the parties do not accept the arbitrator’s ruling in nonbinding arbitration, they may request a trial.

Collaborative Law is a problem-solving technique that allows divorcing couples and their lawyers to dissolve marriages and reconstruct families without the stress, delay, and expense of traditional litigation. Three elements underpin collaborative law:

  1. A promise not to fight issues in court;
  2. an honest, voluntary, quick, and good-faith exchange of pertinent facts without formal discovery; and
  3. a commitment to seek solutions that include both parties’ and their children’s greatest objectives. Despite their shared dedication to collaborative law concepts, each lawyer has a professional responsibility to zealously represent his or her own client and is not the counsel for the other party.

Mediation: In mediation, a neutral third party known as a “mediator” assists the parties in attempting to obtain a mutually agreeable resolution of the conflict. The mediator does not make a decision in the case; instead, he or she assists the parties in communicating so that they can try to resolve the conflict on their own. Mediation can be especially beneficial when family members are involved. If one side has a major advantage in power or influence over the other, mediation may not be acceptable. To learn more about mediation, click here.

In order to facilitate settlement, a neutral person with subject-matter experience hears abridged arguments, assesses the strengths and weaknesses of each side’s case, and provides an assessment of potential court outcomes. With the parties’ permission, the neutral evaluator may also give case planning advice and settlement aid.

PC stands for Parenting Coordination, which is a child-centered procedure in which a qualified and experienced mental health or legal expert known as a “parenting coordinator” aids high-conflict parents in carrying out their parenting plan. The parenting coordinator may make decisions within the scope of the court order with the parties’ and the court’s previous consent.
Parent Coordination’s goal is to assist parents in resolving child-related problems in a timely manner while also attempting to create safe, healthy, and meaningful parent-child interactions.

Restorative Justice is a process in which stakeholders identify and address the effects, needs, and duties of an incidence of damage or other conflict, and form an action plan to move forward.

Settlement Conferencing: Before going to trial, a court or a judge’s representative meets with the parties and their lawyers to try to resolve some or all of the points in dispute. The parties’ involvement is restricted, and the emphasis is on limiting the issues at hand.
A court appoints a Special Master to carry out some form of action on its behalf. This might entail managing discovery concerns, conferencing cases, or post-judgment action.

Summary Jury Trials (SJT): In this adversarial dispute resolution method, each party presents their case to the jury in a condensed manner. The jury then offers a recommendation, which is simply advisory unless the parties want a binding ruling. A summary jury trial provides parties a sneak peek at what they could get if the matter goes to trial. SJTs are only accessible in a few states.
Advantage and disadvantages of ADR[
• Suitable for multi-party disputes
• Lower costs, in many cases it’s free when involving consumers
• Likelihood and speed of settlements
• Flexibility of process
• Parties’ control of process
• Parties’ choice of forum
• Practical solutions
• Wider range of issues can be considered
• Shared future interests may be protected
• Confidentiality
• Risk management
• Generally no need for lawyers
• Can be a less confrontational alternative to the court system
However, ADR is less suitable than litigation when there is:
• A need for precedent
• A need for court orders
• A need for interim orders
• A need for evidential rules
• A need for enforcement
• Power imbalance between parties
• Quasi-criminal allegations
• Complexity in the case
• The need for live evidence or analysis of complex evidence
• The need for expert evidence

MARKETING MANIA

The practice of attracting new clients or consumers to your products and services is known as marketing. “Process” is the important word in this definition. Marketing entails conducting market research, advertising, selling, and disseminating your goods or services.

This field examines the commercial management of firms in order to attract, gain, and keep consumers by meeting their desires and requirements and creating brand loyalty.

Do you want to know what the most important digital marketing trends will be in 2022? Discover our top 222 trends and forecasts in our free booklet!
Click to view the video player – what-is-mkt

Marketing Definition Index

The Marketing 4 Ps

What Does Marketing Mean to Your Company?

Various Marketing Techniques

The Evolution of Marketing

The action or business of promoting and selling items or services, including market research and advertising, is defined as marketing. Today, marketing is an important part of every company’s or organization’s growth plan. As they attempt to advertise themselves and improve sales of their product or service, many businesses adopt marketing strategies without even recognising it. Marketing is one of the most important components of company nowadays.

When questioned, most people have no idea what marketing is and interpret it as selling or promoting. While these responses are not incorrect, they are merely a component of the marketing process.

The greatest thing to do is build your product or service on the requirements and motivations of customers, as well as how the product will benefit them, rather than the object’s physical traits or attributes.

Place. Strategic merchandising sites might range from an internet store to a network of physical outlets spread over several cities or nations. The purpose of the distribution strategy is to give potential customers easy access to your products/services while also providing a pleasant shopping experience.

What type of customer do you want to appeal to, and how much money do they have? Do you want to go for the high-end or the mainstream market?

The financial objectives of the firm.

What is the pricing of the competition’s items, and are there any suitable product substitutes?

Fashions and fads.

Increasing your pricing to offer the impression of higher quality.

What Does Marketing Mean to Your Company?

Marketing may benefit your company in a variety of ways, but let’s look at a few of the most important.

  1. Raising Brand Awareness

This is important because it gets people acquainted with your brand and the products or services you provide. It also makes you memorable to customers who can begin to trust your brand, become loyal clients, and tell their network about you.

  1. Generating Traffic

Growing the number of visitors to your site means getting more qualified leads (lead scoring can help determine this) and ultimately increasing your sales. An effective marketing strategy will help you through this process.

  1. Increasing Revenue

Every business want to increase their sales and marketing can help achieve this goal through a variety of strategies like optimizing your website and SEO, creating email campaigns, performing A/B tests to pinpoint the best strategy for you, and much more.

  1. Building Trust in Your Brand

Creating a high level of trust in your brand leads to customer loyalty and repeat purchases. This not only increases revenue but also leads to great reviews both online and by word of mouth, which is still one of the most effective types of promotion.

  1. Tracking Your Metrics

Metric are incredibly helpful when it comes to creating your marketing strategy. They not only drive the strategy and help track its progress, but also inform what can be adapted or adjusted to continually optimize your campaigns.

Different Marketing Strategies

Marketing is not just one single strategy, but rather a combination of many different techniques and tactics. Below we’ve listed some essential marketing strategies that you should know about. Click on the red links to learn more about each of these strategies.

Marketing Plan: Discover what a marketing plan is, why you need to design one, and the keys to creating a strong plan. Without a marketing plan, a company or brand can’t reach its goals.

Digital Marketing: Digital marketing is the discipline of marketing which focuses on developing a strategy solely within the digital environment.

Direct Marketing: Direct marketing is a type of campaign based on direct, two-way communication that seeks to trigger a result from a specific audience.

Email Marketing: Email Marketing is one of the most profitable and effective techniques in terms of return. Naturally, it consists of sending emails to your audience, but make sure to define your segments well in order to be effective.

Mobile Marketing: Mobile Marketing is a broad concept which brings together all marketing campaigns and actions focused exclusively on mobile platforms and applications (i.e. smartphones and tablets).

Viral Marketing: Having something go viral is every company’s dream. Viral Marketing spreads from one person to the next and is capable of going incredibly far incredibly fast.

Performance Marketing: Performance Marketing is a methodology which applies various marketing methods and techniques and guarantees advertisers that they only have to pay for achieved results.

Inbound Marketing: This methodology focuses on creating valuable content to attract qualified web traffic and work towards the final sale.

Don’t forget that the most important step which is starting your own marketing strategy! If you’re looking to launch (or relaunch) a product or service, we would be happy to offer our expertise. We would be thrilled to be your partner and help you attract visits, fully optimize your campaigns, and get the best ROI!

The History of Marketing

Do you know how marketing has evolved over time?

Not too long ago, marketing mostly consisted of outbound marketing, which meant chasing potential customers with promotions without really knowing if that person was interested in purchasing. Thanks to the digital transformation and the rise of new communication channels, marketing has drastically changed over the years.

To understand how marketing has changed, let’s take a look at this timeline HubSpot has assembled showcasing the innovations of this industry.

1450-1900: Printed Advertising

1450, Gutenberg invents the printing press. The world of books and mass copies is revolutionized.

1730, the magazine emerges as a means of communication.

1741, the first American magazine is published in Philadelphia.

1839, posters become so popular that it becomes prohibited to put them in London properties.

1920-1949: New Media

1922, radio advertising begins.

1933, more than half of the population in the United States (55.2%) has a radio in their home.

1941, television advertising begins. The first advertisement was for Bulova watches and reached 4,000 homes that had television.

1946, more than 50% of the homes in the United States already had a telephone.

1950-1972: Marketing is Born and Grows

1954, for the first time revenue from television advertising surpasses revenue from radio and magazine ads.

Telemarketing grows as a means of contacting buyers directly.

1972, print media suffers an exhaustion of the outbound marketing formula.

1973-1994: The Digital Era Flourishes

1973, Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher, makes the first call through a cell phone.

1981, IBM launches its first personal computer.

1984, Apple introduces the new Macintosh.

1990-1994, major advances in 2G technology, which would lay the foundation for the future explosion of mobile TV.

1994, the first case of commercial spam through e-commerce is produced.

1995-2020: The Era of Search Engines and Social Media

1995, the Yahoo! and Altavista search engines are born.

1995-1997, the concept of SEO is born.

1998, Google and MSN launch new search engines.

1998, the concept of blogging arises. By mid-2006, there are already 50 million blogs worldwide.

2003-2012, the era of inbound marketing begins.

2003-2004, three social networks are launched: LinkedIn, MySpace and Facebook.

2005, the first video is posted on YouTube

2006, Twitter is born.

2009, Google launches real time searches.

2010, 90% of all American households have a cell phone. Instagram is created in October 10.

Young people between the ages of 13 and 24 spend 13.7 hours on the Internet, compared to 13.6 hours watching television.

2011, Snapchat is created, driving even more young users to their phones and fueling the social media app craze.

2012, there are already 54.8 million tablet users.

2014, the rise of influencer marketing begins. Users and brands alike begin to realize the power of social media users with large followings. Marketing tools for Instagram and other platforms abound

2014, for the first time ever mobile usage outweighs desktop usage. More users are checking social media, reading emails, and making purchases on their phones.

2015-2016, big data and marketing automation are explored and used more robustly to advertise to users.

2018, video marketing continues to grow, especially with Instagram’s launch of IGTV. Video content is no longer just limited to YouTube and Facebook.

2019-2020, Move over millennials! Gen Z is the new focus and they have a hot new app: TikTok.

It will be interesting to see where marketing continues to grow. With new world events, like the COVID-19 crisis of 2020 causing millions of people to stay in doors, social media and marketing trends are sure to change, and we’ll be right here to track them.

Cyberclick’s View on Marketing

Marketing is any strategy or action which can help a company achieve their goals, increase their sales and profits, and/or have improved brand perception.

Here at Cyberclick, we live and breathe marketing and advertising; it’s in our DNA!

We are experts in attracting users to our clients’ websites or landing pages through marketing acquisition.

Cyberclick is a performance marketing agency. We analyze each new project we get and, if we see it as viable, we can ensure certain results according to a client’s goals. You might be thinking, “what’s so special about performance marketing?” The special thing is that a client only pays when results are achieved!

How Can We Help You?

We will assess how to best optimize your digital marketing strategy and how to best distribute your budget across all channels.

We keep track of everything and exceed expectations.

We have an analytic vision and react in the shortest possible time.

We are always testing. We guarantee the best impact by thoroughly studying each campaign and/or ad, carrying out multiple tests in order to find which factors work best, and continually optimizing your digital marketing plan.

We will increase the number of users who are happy with both your company and the experience they have had with you.

Thanks to technology and artificial intelligence, we continually analyze results in real time.

COMMUNICATION IS KEY

Communication is defined as the interchange of information or the transfer of information, ideas, or thinking from one person to another or from one end to the other. Communication, according to McFarland, is “a process of meaningful contact among human beings.” It is, more particularly, the process through which human beings sense meanings and come to understandings.” “An interchange of information, ideas, views, or emotions by two or more individuals,” Newman and Summer defined communication.

The process of conveying information from one person to another is known as communication. The goal of communication is to convey information. Whatever one wishes to communicate with another person must be properly understood by him, otherwise the communication’s objective will be thwarted.

Communication in an organisation enables the flow of information and understanding across various individuals and departments by utilising a variety of mediums and networks. This flow of information is critical for management effectiveness and decision-making in general, and for the human resource manager in particular, since he must communicate with department managers, employees and workers, and trade union leaders.

As a result, communication aids in better understanding others, reducing misunderstandings and promoting clarity in thinking and speech. People are also educated as a result of it. Interpersonal, intrapersonal, interdepartmental, and intra-organizational communication can be written or spoken, formal or informal, upward, downward, horizontal, diagonal, interpersonal, intrapersonal, interdepartmental, and intra-organizational.

People become more connected as a result of communication. Communication is a crucial management function that is intertwined with all other management responsibilities. It closes the gap between people and groups by facilitating the exchange of information and understanding. The most important part of communication is information. It is the data that is sent, received, investigated, analysed, interpreted, and saved. As a result, the manager must set out time to gather, evaluate, and retain data for decision-making and day-to-day operations.

The goal of communication is for management to get things done via others. People in the organisation should be educated on how to complete the tasks entrusted to them in the most efficient manner feasible. In any organisation, communication is critical.

1. Information Flow: Important data must flow continually from top to bottom and vice versa. Employees at all levels must be kept informed on the organization’s goals and other happenings. It is important to ensure that no one gets mislead. The information should be delivered to the employee in a language that he or she can comprehend. It is best to avoid using complex terms. Through the appropriate person, the correct information should reach the right person at the right time.

2. Collaboration: The actions of all employees in the organisation may be coordinated through communication in order to achieve the organization’s objectives. The core of teamwork is the synchronisation of all personnel’s activities.

3. Learning Management Skills: Communication promotes the flow of information, ideas, beliefs, perceptions, advice, opinion, commands, and instructions, among other things, in both directions, allowing managers and other supervisory employees to acquire managing skills from others’ experience. The sender’s experience is represented in the communication, and the person on the receiving end can learn from it by studying and interpreting it.

4. Preparing People to Accept Change: Proper and effective communication is a vital instrument in the hands of any organization’s management to bring about general change in the policies, methods, and work culture of the organisation, as well as to get employees to accept and respond favourably.

5. Fostering Positive Human Relations: Managers, workers, and other employees communicate with one another to share their ideas, opinions, and impressions. This allows them to better comprehend one other. They are aware of the hardships that their coworkers experience at work. As a result, the organization’s human interactions are improved.

6. Encouragement of subordinates’ ideas: On particular moments on any work, communication allows inviting and encouraging suggestions from subordinates. This will help you think more creatively. Honoring subordinates’ ideas will drive them to work harder and establish a sense of belonging to the organisation. It will give them the confidence to share information with their bosses without reluctance. It will give them the confidence to share information with their bosses without reluctance. Managers must be aware of their subordinates’ ideas, thoughts, remarks, responses, and attitudes, and subordinates should be aware of the same from their departments’ lowest level workers. Communication is Crucial: Effective communication is essential for effective management and improved labour relations. In today’s world, the rise of telecommunications and information technology, as well as increased competitiveness and complexity in production, have raised the importance of communication in large and small businesses of all sizes and types. A business CEO must be able to successfully interact with his superiors, departmental colleagues, and subordinates.

Principles of Communication:

Lack of effective communication renders an organisation handicapped. So to have effective communication certain principles are to be followed.

They are as follows:

1. Clarity: The principle of clarity means the communicator should use such a language which is easy to understand. The message must be understood by the receiver. The words used should be simple and unambiguous. The language should not create any confusion or misunderstanding. Language is the medium of communication; hence it should be clear and understandable.

2. Adequacy and Consistency: The communicator must carefully take into account that the information to be communicated should be complete and adequate in all respect. Inadequate and incomplete message creates confusion and delays the action to be taken The appropriate data must be in line with the organization’s goals, strategies, rules, and processes. The inconsistency of the message may cause mayhem and distort business objectives.

3. Integration: The concept of integration states that the efforts of the organization’s human resources should be merged toward the attainment of corporate objectives through communication. The goal of communication is to achieve a certain goal. The purpose of communication should be to coordinate the activities of employees at work in order to achieve corporate objectives.

4. Cost: Unnecessary communication system utilisation will increase costs. The communication system must be used effectively and in a timely manner, that is, when it is required. It is possible to achieve economy in the usage of communication systems in this way.

5. Feedback: If the recipient does not provide feedback, the objective of communication is destroyed. The purpose of communication is fulfilled when the receiver confirms receipt of the message in its proper perspective. Only in the event of written correspondence and communications sent over messengers is feedback required. In the event of spoken communication, the feedback is available right away.

6. Communication Network: A communication network is the path via which information travels from a sender or communicative to a receiver or communicate. This network is necessary for effective communication. The availability of a suitable network will also affect management performance.

7. Attention: The message conveyed must capture the receiver’s attention and motivate him to take appropriate action. The effective, truthful, and timely manager is successful in bringing his employees’ attention to what he is saying

The secret to being a fantastic HR

The HR department of a company ensures that everything runs smoothly and properly. This department is in charge of recruiting appropriate job candidates, retaining employees, and resolving a variety of workplace difficulties. Successful human resource managers guarantee that the HR department serves the demands of the firm in cost-effective and creative ways. In this essay, we will define an HR manager and analyze the characteristics of an effective HR manager.

What Is Human Resource Management?

A human resource (HR) manager is a human resources (HR) professional who oversees the day-to-day activities of a human resources department. They are in charge of topics such as talent acquisition, payroll, benefits, employee happiness, and compliance. HR managers are normally in charge of the following responsibilities:
• Creating and supervising the recruitment of new employees
• Interviewing job seekers and distributing their evaluations to other managers
• Orientation of new workers
• Managing any staff training that may be required
• Assisting stakeholders and workers by acting as a liaison
• Employee benefit packages are researched, compiled, implemented, and maintained.
• Organizing unique occasions and outings
• Creating and implementing company policies and procedures
• On human resource challenges, I consult with other leaders.
• Organizing and organizing vendors, specialists, and support personnel
• Conflict Resolution in the Workplace
• Employee hiring and dismissal
• ensuring an organization’s compliance
• Payroll process management
• Making suggestions on how to properly use team members
• Creating measures to boost employee job satisfaction

knowledgeable

Effective human resource managers should be well-versed in human resource terminology, methodologies, and best practises. Consider pursuing a human resource management associate, bachelor’s, or master’s degree. There are many firms that provide HR credentials via online courses. Look for programmes that have been accredited by the Society for Human Resource Management.

Ethical

HR departments are frequently in charge of implementing business policies. This means that human resource managers must be trustworthy and honest in all situations. HR managers are also in charge of handling personal and sensitive employee information, which must be kept discreet and safe. An business must rely on the HR personnel to be truthful and discrete.

Approachable

Employees frequently share sensitive issues with HR supervisors. Successful human resource managers are personable, enabling workers to discuss any professional or personal issues that may be affecting their employment. Consider implementing an open door policy in your organisation to encourage open channels of communication. Being accessible entails the following characteristics:
• Empathetic
• Understanding
• Receptive
• Organized
HR managers are in charge of a wide range of tasks, from payroll and benefits to community service programmes. The most effective human resource managers are organised, capable of tracking deadlines, managing several tasks, and swiftly locating critical information.

Capable of communicating effectively

An HR manager must have excellent communication abilities. They collaborate with people at various levels of a company to exchange information, make suggestions, and clarify policies, as well as communicate with vendors and other third parties. Human resource managers are frequently the first person’s job seekers meet, forming their initial impression of the organisation. HR managers must be able to listen well, express ideas properly, and determine the culture of the firm.
HR managers should be able to communicate effectively in the following ways:
• Direct
• Excellent writer
• Presentations to big groups should be given with ease.
• Capable of explaining technical or difficult things in layman’s terms
• Composed
HR managers may be confronted with emotionally sensitive circumstances at work. They may be required to give unfavourable news, impose disciplinary action, terminate employees, or arbitrate employee disputes. It is critical for HR professionals to remain cool in heated circumstances and to employ tactics for promptly resolving issues.
Willing to take the lead
HR managers must be capable, self-assured leaders. They oversee and supervise the HR department and are frequently in charge of special initiatives, such as service projects and team-building activities, which need them to lead other workers and function as the expert on a variety of issues. HR managers should be at ease in assuming leadership roles and acting as the primary point of contact for workers, stakeholders, and vendors.

Creative

HR managers must think of fresh methods to lead their teams, engage employees, and maintain the business desirable to job prospects. They must be willing to try new ideas and activities to determine what works best for their firm. Among the innovative HR efforts are:
• Allowing employees to use paid service days to volunteer at a place of their choice.
• Once a week, we host trivia during lunch.
• Making changes to a company’s physical environment
• Allowing pets on the job

Progressive

Effective human resource managers are forward-thinking and receptive to new ideas. They are curious in HR trends and where the industry is headed. Being progressive entails being adaptable, able to modify policies and tactics as the industry or firm develops. You are eager to learn about HR practises and initiate discussions regarding workplace reforms. Making arrangements for the unexpected is another aspect of planning for the future.

capable of problem solving

Many workplace concerns may be traced back to HR management. They must be able to think rapidly, troubleshoot problems, and propose efficient solutions while adhering to the organization’s schedule and financial policies.

technologically savvy

HR managers can be more effective when they use cutting-edge technologies. Implementing programmes and systems may aid in the streamlining of operations, increasing efficiency, and improving the security of HR data. Follow HR accounts on social media, subscribe to industry magazines, and stay up with announcements from big IT businesses to learn about available programmers.

capable of project management

Project management is an important aspect of an HR manager’s job from start to finish. You should be able to do the following:
• Communicate project concepts
• Delegate responsibilities.
• Create schedules.
• Keep track of progress.
• Updates to the report
• Respond to problems
• Meet all deadlines
• Keep a budget.
• Financially capable
HR managers should have a basic understanding of corporate finances in order to assist their firm in meeting its financial objectives. They should be familiar with budgeting, cost analysis, calculating returns on investments, and doing risk assessments.

Collaborative

Management positions are frequently the most effective when they are open to new ideas and input from a wide range of people. HR managers must be able to collaborate effectively with the HR staff, department directors, executives, and other workers, as well as be receptive to recommendations and
inquiries. HR managers may design policies and activities that are fair, inclusive, and helpful by embracing several views.

conclusion

Find the vision, which includes not just individual growth as an HR manager, but also the growth of the business as a whole as a consequence of all the  efforts. Continue to propose new ideas, learn new skills, and experiment with new techniques. It is not simple to become an exceptional human resources manager. It requires a great deal of effort, experience, and continual experimentation with new ways.

MARITAL RAPE IN INDIA

Domestic violence is a long-standing issue in India, and it has only become worse in recent years. Domestic abuse affects over 70% of women in India, according to the National Crime Records Bureau’s (NCRB) ‘Crime in India’ 2019 report. Marital rape is one symptom of domestic abuse. Marital rape, or forcing your spouse to have sex without their consent, is an unethical but widespread technique to demean and disempower women. Marital rape has already been condemned in over 100 nations, but India remains one of just 36 countries where it is still not criminalized. Despite the fact that numerous legislative changes have been made in criminal law to safeguard women, the non-criminalization of marital rape in India damages women’s dignity and human rights.


In India, what is the legal status of marital rape?


Rape is defined in Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) as any type of sexual assault that involves non-consensual contact with a woman. Exception 2 to Section 375 is responsible for the non-criminalization of marital rape in India. Exception 2 to Section 375, on the other hand, exempts unwilling sexual intercourse between a husband and a wife above the age of fifteen from Section 375’s definition of “rape,” and so protects such actions from prosecution. After entering into marital intercourse, a woman is believed to give her husband eternal agreement to have sex with her.
In India, the notion of marital rape is the pinnacle of what we term “implied consent.” Marriage between a man and a woman in this context indicates that both parties have consented to sexual intercourse, and it cannot be otherwise. Marital rape is a violation of both legal and constitutional rights. The doctrine of coverture: the non-criminalization of marital rape dates back to the British era. The ideology of blending the woman’s identity with that of her husband greatly impacted and stemmed from marital rape. A married woman was not regarded a separate legal person when the IPC was created in the 1860s. The marital exemption to the IPC’s definition of rape was designed on the basis of Victorian patriarchal traditions that did not acknowledge men and women as equals, did not allow married women to hold property, and blended husband and wife identities under the “Doctrine of Coverture. “Article 14 violation: Marital rape breaches the right to equality guaranteed by Article 14 of the Indian constitution. The Exception divides women into two classes based on their marital status and protects males from offences committed against their spouses. As a result, the Exception allows married women to be victimised for no reason other than their marital status while shielding unmarried women from the same offences. efeats the Spirit of IPC Section 375: The goal of IPC Section 375 is to protect women and punish those who indulge in the horrible act of rape.Exempting spouses from punishment, on the other hand, is diametrically opposed to that goal, because the penalties of rape are the same whether a woman is married or single. Furthermore, because they are legally and financially bound to their spouses, married women may find it more difficult to flee violent situations at home. Violation of Article 21: According to the Supreme Court’s imaginative interpretation, the rights inherent in Article 21 include, among other things, the rights to health, privacy, dignity, safe living circumstances, and a safe environment. The Supreme Court ruled in State of Karnataka v. Krishnappa that Sexual assault, in addition to being a demeaning act, is an illegal invasion of a female’s right to privacy and sanctity. In the same decision, it was determined that non-consensual sexual intercourse constitutes bodily and sexual violence.
The Supreme Court associated the freedom to make sexual activity choices with the rights to personal liberty, privacy, dignity, and physical integrity under Article 21 of the Constitution in the case of Suchita Srivastava v. Chandigarh Administration.
The Supreme Court acknowledged the right to privacy as a basic right of all people in Justice K.S. Puttuswamy (Retd.) v. Union of India. The right to privacy includes “decisional privacy indicated by the freedom to make personal decisions principally involving one’s sexual or procreative nature and decisions about intimate interactions.” In all of these decisions, the Supreme Court has recognised the right of all women, regardless of marital status, to refrain from sexual activity as a fundamental right guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution.
As a result, forced sexual cohabitation is a breach of article 21’s basic right.


The Way Forward


Violence against women is defined as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, bodily, sexual, or mental injury or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary loss of liberty, whether happening in public or private life.”

The UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) recommended to the Indian government in 2013 that marital rape be criminalised. The same was proposed by the JS Verma committee, which was formed in the aftermath of widespread demonstrations over the December 16, 2012 gang rape case. Women will be protected from violent spouses if this legislation is repealed, and they will be able to receive the support they need to recover from marital rape.
Violence against women is defined as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, bodily, sexual, or mental injury or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary loss of liberty, whether happening in public or private life.”


Conclusion

Indian law now affords husbands and wives separate and independent legal identities, and much jurisprudence in the modern era is explicitly concerned with the protection of women.Therefore, it is high time that the legislature should take cognisance of this legal infirmity and bring marital rape within the purview of rape laws by eliminating Section 375 (Exception 2) of IPC..

MENTAL HEALTH IN INDIA

Several investigations have revealed a deterioration of mental health concerns among people of all ages since the commencement of the Covid-19 epidemic. Michele Mary Bernadine investigates the situation of mental health in India, the economic burden of the mental health problem, and the extent to which legislation and current State capability are ready to manage this issue in this post.
In 2017, India’s President, Ram Nath Kovind, declared that the country was “on the verge of a mental health crisis.” According to one research, 14 percent of India’s population suffered from mental health problems in the same year, with 45.7 million suffering from depressive disorders and 49 million suffering from anxiety disorders.
The Covid-19 epidemic has exacerbated this mental health catastrophe, with reports from throughout the world indicating that the Virus and accompanying lockdowns were having a severe impact on the populace — particularly on young people.

LEGISLATION AND CONSTRUCTION CAPABILITY OF THE STATE

The Mental Healthcare Act of 2017 has numerous clauses aimed at improving India’s mental health. The Mental Healthcare Act of 1987 is repealed by this Act, which was criticised for failing to recognise the rights and agency of persons suffering from mental illness (Mishra and Galhotra 2018). This involves establishing Central and State Mental Health Authorities (SMHA), which would focus on constructing solid infrastructure, including the registration of mental health practitioners and the implementation of service-delivery guidelines. Although the Act requires states to establish an SMHA within nine months of the Act’s passage, only 19 of the 28 states had done so as of 2019.
In accordance with WHO recommendations, the National Mental Health Programme (NMHP)2 was established in 1982 to provide mental health treatments as part of the general healthcare system. Although the initiative has been effective in increasing community access to mental health treatment, resource restrictions and a lack of infrastructure have restricted its impact (Gupta and Sagar 2018).
Only a few states had a specific line item in their budgets for mental health infrastructure as of 2021. 3 Budget projections for the NMHP increased from Rs. 3.5 million in 2017-18 to Rs. 5 million in 2018-19 after the Act was passed in 2017. This number, however, was cut to Rs. 4 million in 2019-20 and has stayed at the same level in succeeding years – even in 2021-22, when various studies have suggested a worsening of mental health difficulties amid the Covid-19 epidemic. Emerging evidence suggests that during the Covid-19 pandemic, women have higher levels of psychological stress than the urban poor (Afridi et al. 2020), and households with migrant workers in rural areas – who were particularly hard hit by the lockdown restrictions – have a higher incidence of mental health issues than those without migrants (Sarin et al. 2021). The lockdowns also had a significant impact on students, who had to adjust to a new learning medium and setting, as well as raised fears about their future prospects. During the epidemic, the government launched ‘Manodarpan,’ an online portal featuring an interactive online chat option, a list of mental health practitioners, and a hotline number to give psychological assistance to students.
Developed nations spend 5-18% of their yearly healthcare expenditure on mental health, while India spends just 0.05%. (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2014). The yearly budget for 2018 and 2019 included funding for the National Institute of Mental Health Rehabilitation. The institution was established in 2018 with the goal of increasing human resource capacity and doing research in the field of mental health. Furthermore, the government yearly sponsors the Lokopriya Gopinath Borolo Regional Institute of Mental Health and NIMHANS, all of which are under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Although NIMHANS claims to offer inexpensive and accessible mental healthcare to all individuals in need, these efforts remain regionally isolated because the organisation is based in a single city (Bengaluru). Initiatives like the NIMHANS Centre for Well Being, which offers low-cost therapy sessions from experienced experts, would be a big help if they were spread to additional regions around the country, but their influence is now restricted to an urban metropolis.


CLOSING REMARKS

After the implementation of the Act, the Economic Survey of India has yet to address mental health in a substantive manner, with the only mention of mental health in this period being a cursory reference in the context of information asymmetry in healthcare and changes in the approach to medicine during the Covid-19 pandemic (Economic Survey 2020-21). In contrast to the President’s remark in 2017, the administration has recently refused to accept the severity of mental health illnesses in India as approaching a “pandemic.” Questions in parliament about efforts to improve mental health for specific demographic groups (for example, the elderly) elicit a standard response – referring to NIMHANS initiatives to improve general mental health and the NMHP/DMHP – with no mention of any targeted interventions or plans to do so. Recognizing the scope of the problem would be the first step in addressing the country’s mental health crisis. According to an Indian Psychiatry Society poll, 20 percent more individuals have suffered from poor mental health since the start of the Covid-19 epidemic.

CAN WE CURE CANCER?

Cancer is a collection of diseases that may never be totally cured, but scientists are confident that vaccinations, personalized treatment, and wise lifestyle choices can help prevent and treat a considerably larger proportion of instances than is presently the case. We questioned three cancer experts for their ideas on treating cancer: Nobel winner Professor Harald Zur Hausen, Professor Walter Ricciardi, and Dr Elisabete Weiderpass. They are all members of the EU’s Horizon Europe cancer mission board, where they will assist create a clear aim for Europe in this field over the next decade. ‘Evidence of infections linked to cancer provides promise for avoiding up to half of all malignancies,’ says one researcher. If we will ever be able to cure cancer entirely, that is a question I cannot answer. We have a strong probability of dramatically lowering cancer incidence. However, the incidence, or occurrence, of cancer is now growing internationally. Cancer patients’ mortality is marginally reducing; however the increase in incidence is not compensating for the death drop. There are still many instances reported each year, and if we truly want to do something about cancer in the future, we must halt the trend. We know that several cancer risk factors are avoidable. At the time, we also know that infections have a role in around 20% of malignancies. We can effectively immunise patients against these types of cancer and virtually eradicate it, particularly in cases where vaccines are currently available, such as Hepatitis B (a cause of liver cancer) and Human Papillomavirus (which Prof. zur Hausen discovered is linked to cervical cancer).

We think we have evidence that infectious episodes cause at least 30% of all human malignancies. This at least gives optimism that new approaches will be discovered in the near future that will lead to long-term protection from those illnesses – notably colon cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer, where evidence is emerging that specific viral episodes have a role. We just found a whole new class of infectious pathogens produced from plasmids. Plasmids are bacterial mini-chromosomes that are found in a substantial majority of colon cancer patients. These are infections that can last for decades, generating chronic inflammations, and these inflammations are the source of oxygen radicals and mutation events in cells that can lead to cancer formation. We have sequenced all of the (plasmid) genomes that we have uncovered so far, and what we discovered surprised us since it did not reflect viral or bacterial sequences. They are slightly altered bacterial plasmids that originated in certain bacteria but have learned to reproduce independently in bovine and human cells. So, in my perspective, this will hopefully allow for new methods to prevent and, in the long run, therapy of these extremely frequent malignancies. The most challenging issue is to do more fundamental research and emphasize preventative efforts to reduce the frequency of cancer occurrence by preventing cancer precursor lesions with surgical procedures. To cure cancer, we need to enhance the therapy regimen. And we need to develop some mechanism to provide long-term, lifelong patient protection. Because cancer is a broad term for various diseases, we cannot take a comprehensive approach – a cure for every form of cancer – but we may devise a broad strategy. It requires collaboration among several stakeholders, not just in the health sector, but also in the social sector, because many of the behaviours that contribute to the start of cancer are changeable via lifestyle and preventive. We must also take advantage of technological advancements. I’m optimistic we’ll find a better way to combat this sickness. We now have the ability to collect a large amount of data that, in theory, maybe tied to genome sequencing, because, as far as we know, some malignancies are genetically determined. We know that the majority are caused by five variables, four of which are behaviors – alcohol and cigarette use, eating too much and not getting enough physical activity, and pollution. Digital technology may include a large amount of data, ranging from the most general to the most detailed features of a single person.

Understanding a person’s unique traits allows us to create a more personalized and precision-targeted strategy, avoiding what happens presently, when we supply a single medicine, for example, for every type of breast cancer. We know that causes adverse effects in some women who do not benefit from the medicine. So, taking a look at a subset of women with breast cancer is the route we need to take.

Immunotherapy (in which the patient’s immune system is stimulated to target the cancer) has also shown astounding outcomes. Some malignancies, such as lung cancer and metastatic melanoma, were formerly untreatable; however, we now have the ability to treat them and, in some circumstances, provide a major cure for the disease. I believe we may be positive on this front as well. Cancer is a disease family. There are over a hundred distinct forms of cancer. Some varieties are treatable and cured, particularly when diagnosed early and in wealthier nations, while others do not know how to cure.

We already know how to identify and treat certain cancers, such as early-stage breast cancer, testicular cancer, and some forms of leukemia, and we also know how to treat them exceedingly well. There are numerous cancer forms where significant progress has been achieved, yet there are several cancer types where we don’t know what to do. . Prostate cancer is a reasonably prevalent cancer type for which we still don’t know the best approaches to identify it early or whether it’s even helpful to detect it early. We don’t have effective screening methods, and we don’t know how to tell the difference between slow-growing varieties that don’t require much intervention and fast-growing ones that do. So prostate cancer is undoubtedly one cancer that poses a significant public health problem since it affects a huge number of men. With a large rise in the number of cancer patients projected over the coming decades owing to increased life expectancy, governments are being urged to establish cancer prevention and control programmers more swiftly and rigorously, as 30-40% of malignancies are avoidable (in European countries; for other countries, the proportion of preventable cancers is even higher). What regular Europeans can do is learn the European Cancer Code. These are 12 evidence-based methods for lowering your cancer risk and detecting certain tumours early. Smoking, for example, is still responsible for half of all avoidable cancers in Europe. Other examples include an unsuitable diet that lacks fruits and vegetables and a diet that leads to obesity.

recent breakthroughs in cancer research

CAR-T TREATMENT FOR LEAUKIMIA

CAR-T treatment uses gene therapy techniques not to fix disease-causing genes but to turbocharge T cells, immune system soldiers that cancer too often can evade. Researchers filter those cells from a patient’s blood, reprogram them to harbor a “chimeric antigen receptor” or CAR that zeroes in on cancer, and grow hundreds of millions of copies. Returned to the patient, the revved-up cells can continue multiplying to fight disease for months or years.

It’s a completely different way to harness the immune system than popular immunotherapy drugs called “checkpoint inhibitors” that treat a variety of cancers by helping the body’s natural T cells better spot tumors. CAR-T cell therapy gives patients stronger T cells to do that job.

ALL ABOUT UNESCO

What is UNESCO?
UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. It seeks to build peace through international cooperation in education, sciences and culture. UNESCO’s programmes contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals defined in the 2030 Agenda, adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2015. UNESCO’s Headquarters are located in Paris and the Organization has more than 50 field offices around the world. It has 193 Members and 11 Associate Members (As of April 2020) and is governed by the General Conference and the Executive Board. Three UNESCO member states are not UN members: Cook Islands, Niue, and Palestine. While three UN member states (Israel, Liechtenstein, United States) are not UNESCO members.

UNESCO’s History

As early as 1942, in wartime, the governments of the European countries, which were confronting Nazi Germany and its allies, met in the United Kingdom for the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME). World War II was far from over, yet those countries were looking for ways and means to rebuild their education systems once peace was restored. The project quickly gained momentum and soon acquired a universal character. New governments, including that of the United States, decided to join in. Upon the proposal of CAME, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London from 1 to 16 November 1945. Scarcely had the war ended when the conference opened. It gathered together representatives of forty-four countries who decided to create an organization that would embody a genuine culture of peace. In their eyes, the new organization was to establish the “intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind” and thereby prevent the outbreak of another world war.


Objectives


UNESCO focuses on a number of goals, including:

• Providing a high-quality education to all students and promoting lifelong learning
• Mobilizing scientific knowledge and policy for long-term development
• Taking up new social and ethical concerns
• Promoting cultural variety, intercultural communication, and a peace culture
• Through information and communication, we can create inclusive knowledge societies.
• The emphasis is on global priority topics such as “Africa” and “Gender Equality.”
UNESCO’s Areas of Specialization Education Transforms Lives
Education transforms lives and is important to UNESCO’s objective of promoting peace, eradicating poverty, and promoting sustainable development.
The Organization is the only United Nations institution tasked with overseeing all sectors of education.
It has been entrusted with the leadership of the Global Education 2030 Agenda via Sustainable Development Goal – 4.
The ‘Education 2030 Framework for Action’ (Incheon Declaration) serves as a road map for achieving the global education 2030 objective. Its work ranges from early childhood education to university education and beyond Global citizenship and sustainable development, human rights and gender equality, health and HIV/AIDS, and technical and vocational skill development are among the topics covered. It is becoming increasingly clear that no progress can be long-term without a substantial cultural component. UNESCO has taken a three-pronged strategy to ensure that culture is given its proper position in development policies and processes: Leads global advocacy for culture and development. Engages the international community in order to establish clear policy and legal frameworks. On the ground, works with governments and local partners to protect heritage, boost creative enterprises, and promote cultural pluralism.
Some of UNESCO’s most important agreements and international treaties for protecting and safeguarding the world’s cultural and natural heritage:
• The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions is a treaty that aims to protect and promote the diversity of cultural expressions (2005)
• The Convention for the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)
• The Universal Declaration of Cultural Diversity is an international treaty that aims to promote cultural diversity (2001)
• The Convention for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of the Sea (2001)
• The Convention for the Protection of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage (the Convention) (1972)
• The Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Traffic in Cultural Property (Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Traffic in Cultural Property) (1970)
Science for a Better Future
Science empowers us to solve today’s urgent economic, social, and environmental concerns, as well as to achieve sustainable development and greener society.UNESCO aims to support nations in investing in Scientific, Technology, and Innovation (STI), developing national science policies, reforming science institutions, and developing ability to monitor and assess performance using STI indicators. UNESCO also collaborates with its member countries to promote informed judgments on the use of science and technology, particularly in the subject of bioethics.Humanities and Social Sciences UNESCO assists individuals in creating and using knowledge for just and inclusive communities, as well as in understanding one another and working together to establish enduring peace. It promotes mutual understanding among member states through intergovernmental programmes such as the Management of Social Transformations (MOST), the Youth Programme, and the Culture of Peace and Nonviolence Program, which include initiatives for democracy and global citizenship, intercultural dialogue, and peace-building.

Information and communication
UNESCO promotes freedom of expression and journalist safety, combats online hate speech, and disinformation and misinformation through public awareness campaigns. It also promotes open solutions, such as open educational resources, access for disadvantaged people, and multilingualism in cyberspace, to facilitate universal access to information and knowledge.
UNESCO’s Global Priorities – ‘Africa’ and ‘Gender Equality’
With a bolder and more targeted strategy, UNESCO is paying attention to 54 African nations.Adoption of the African Union Agenda 2063 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which pave the way for the African Economic Community and the African Renaissance.
Equality of Gender
As equal citizens, women and men, according to UNESCO, must have equal chances, choices, capacities, power, and knowledge. Equipping girls and boys, as well as women and men, with the information, beliefs, attitudes, and skills needed to address gender inequities is a prerequisite for creating a sustainable future for all.
The 2019 report is the first version of the annual report released in India by UNESCO.
It emphasized the triumphs and issues related to children with disabilities’ right to an education (CWDs). The 2019 State of School Report from UNESCO is designed to assist the education system in better responding to the learning requirements of CWDs. This will allow us to make considerable progress toward our united goal of leaving no one behind and providing fair opportunities for excellent learning to all children and youth.

What is the UNFCC?

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) created an international environmental convention to address “dangerous human interference with the climate system,” which includes reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. [1] It was signed by 154 governments during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), sometimes known colloquially as the Earth Summit, which took place in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to 14, 1992. It created a Secretariat in Bonn and went into effect on March 21, 1994. [2] The pact called for continuous scientific study as well as frequent meetings, talks, and future policy agreements to allow ecosystems to naturally adapt to climate change, guarantee food supply is not jeopardised, and allow economic development to occur in a sustainable way.

THE COP 26

There was a huge ambition gap heading into the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s (UNFCCC) 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26). According to the Climate Action Tracker, pre-COP26 commitments and objectives were insufficient to avoid global average temperatures from increasing by more than 1.5 degrees Celsius.

The annual Conference of the Parties is a technical procedure that cannot reduce emissions on its own; only national governments and corporations can do so.

Countries have been working for many years under the UNFCCC process to develop an international rule-based framework for regulating climate change. Now that we have it in the Paris Agreement, the character of the COP is shifting from one of rulemaking to one of implementation.

1. Green financing for a net-zero economy

$130 trillion towards net zero A noteworthy milestone at COP26 was the announcement of $130 trillion in private funding from the newly founded Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero to expedite the transition to a net-zero economy. Green financing supplied by banks, markets, insurers, and active climate-aware institutional investors will continue to play an increasingly important role in pushing climate action. It strengthens the emphasis on climate change for both public and private enterprises.

2. Private-sector disclosure and transparency

Greater transparency about climate change in the corporate sector Not only are governments’ climate promises being questioned for their veracity. The private sector is now being scrutinised by both clients and institutional investors to ensure that its net-zero pledges are similarly strong and credible. As a result, the new criteria proposed at COP26 for all listed firms in the UK to develop net-zero transition plans by 2023 are very welcome. The new regulations will improve openness and scrutiny of corporations’ net-zero initiatives. It’s also possible that this will be the start of a global movement toward net-zero target transparency. Clearer rules for assessing private-sector net-zero pledges António Guterres, the UN Secretary-General, has announced the formation of a “group of specialists” to develop clear rules for monitoring and analysing net-zero pledges by non-state entities. This will result in: set worldwide net zero criteria for all firms (which do not presently exist under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) identify greenwashing and praise those who have implemented solid and legal net-zero plans.

3. Accelerating the implementation of the Paris Agreement

One of the major achievements of COP26 was the agreement “to revisit and strengthen the 2030 targets in their nationally determined contributions…by the end of 2022,” as well as the establishment of a new annual high-level ministerial meeting beginning in 2022 and a leader’s summit beginning in 2023. This will put pressure on nations to maintain their desire to meet the Paris Agreement’s temperature target at a quicker rate than specified in the Paris Agreement. The ‘rulebook’ of the Paris Agreement Furthermore, significant work was made on the Paris Agreement’s ‘rulebook’ for Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which deals with carbon markets and accounting. . The now-approved rules will open the door to market and non-market methods to climate change mitigation and adaptation by ensuring operational transparency and certainty.

COP26’s Shortcomings

  • Failure to reach the 1.5°C goal
  • Perhaps most importantly, the UK COP26 leadership failed to reach its stated objective of “consigning coal to history” by obtaining an agreement in the closing Glasgow Climate Pact that phases coal “down” rather than “out.” Furthermore, the phrase “phasing out fossil fuel subsidies” was changed to “inefficient fossil fuel subsidies.” This puts the Paris Agreement’s temperature objective of much below 2°C in jeopardy. However, we are on course for a 2.4°C rise. According to the International Energy Agency, new national commitments to zero net emissions might be sufficient to keep global warming to 1.8°C. However, Climate Action Tracker discovered that we are still on course for 2.4°C warming due to a “huge credibility, action, and commitment gap,” since many of the promises have minimal specifics on near-term issues. Despite being exceedingly concerning, this represents improvement in comparison to COP21 (2015) in Paris, when the world was on course for 3–4°C warming. Although the revised objectives fall short of earlier forecasts, they show that states can reduce global warming through aggressive collective action supported by the COPs.
  • Not securing $100 billion climate finance
  • Further, COP26 did not manage to secure the $100 billion per year in climate finance by 2020 as promised at COP15 (2009) in Copenhagen, instead delaying the finance to 2023.
  • This not only fails to urgently provide resources to countries most vulnerable to climate change, but also logically raises the question as to whether similar long-term commitments made at COP26 will be delivered on time

Important goals from cop26

  • According to the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero (GFANZ), more than $130 trillion (£95 trillion) in private money has already been “committed to reforming the economy” toward the Paris climate goal of 1.5°C by using a science-based strategy with near-term and long-term ambitions. However, there are still concerns about how this enormous sum will be used in actuality.
  • The First Movers group brings together multinational firms with supply networks in carbon-intensive industries. They would pool their purchasing power to create market conditions for new solutions in the heavy carbon industry.
  • Major international banks have pledged to halt all international public financing of new unabated coal power plants by the end of 2021.
  • multilateral development banks: Nature, People, Planet formed a commitment to connect their portfolios with the Paris Agreement aims as well as nature.
  • Nearly 100 nations have agreed to reduce methane emissions by 30% by 2030, compared to 2020 levels. Methane is responsible for around 0.5°C of the world’s current warming of 1.1°C–1.2°C.
  • Six world leaders from 110 countries have signed a statement pledging to cease and reverse deforestation and land degradation by 2030.
  • There is a new need for listed firms in the UK to have net zero transition strategies in place by 2023.
  • A new International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) has been established which will increase the global focus on climate risk disclosure and reporting.
  • The Glasgow Breakthroughs are The Breakthrough Agenda’s first set of global leader-led objectives. By 2030, the Breakthrough Agenda promises to reduce the cost of sustainable solutions such as clean energy, electric cars, green steel, sustainable agriculture, and hydrogen manufacturing.
  • At least 23 countries have pledged to phase out coal power in the 2030s for leading nations and the 2040s for the rest of the globe, including five of the world’s top 20 coal-using countries.

ALL ABOUT BLOCKCHAIN

What Exactly Is a Blockchain?

A blockchain is a distributed database that is shared across computer network nodes. A blockchain, like a database, saves information electronically in digital format. Blockchains are well recognised for their critical function in cryptocurrency systems such as Bitcoin in keeping a secure and decentralised record of transactions. The blockchain’s novelty is that it ensures the accuracy and security of a data record and produces trust without the requirement for a trusted third party.

The way data is organised differs significantly between a traditional database and a blockchain. A blockchain accumulates information in groupings known as blocks, which store sets of data.

Blocks have specific storage capabilities and, when full, are closed and connected to the previously filled block, producing the blockchain, a data chain. All new information that follows that newly added block is assembled into a newly formed block, which is then added to the chain once it is complete. A database typically organises its data into tables, but a blockchain, as the name suggests, organises its data into pieces (blocks) that are connected together. When implemented decentralizedly, this data structure creates an irreversible temporal line of data. When a block is completed, it is set in stone and becomes a part of this timeline. When a block is added to the chain, it is given a specific time stamp.

IMPORTANT TAKEAWAYS

Blockchain is a sort of shared database that differs from traditional databases in the way data is stored; blockchains store data in blocks that are then connected together using encryption. As new data arrives, it is added to a new block. Once the block has been filled with data, it is chained onto the preceding block, resulting in the data being chained together in chronological sequence. A blockchain may hold several sorts of data, but its most popular application to date has been as a transaction ledger. In the case of Bitcoin, blockchain is employed in a decentralised manner, such that no single person or organisation has power—rather, all users keep control collectively. Because decentralised blockchains are unchangeable, the data entered is irreversible. In the case of Bitcoin, this implies that all transactions are permanently recorded and accessible to anybody.

How Does a Blockchain Function?

Blockchain’s purpose is to enable digital information to be recorded and disseminated, but not modified. A blockchain, in this sense, serves as the foundation for immutable ledgers, or records of transactions that cannot be changed, erased, or destroyed. As a result, blockchains are often referred to as distributed ledger technology (DLT). The blockchain idea, initially suggested as a research project in 1991, before its first broad use in use: Bitcoin 

Since then, the usage of blockchains has grown exponentially, thanks to the development of multiple cryptocurrencies, decentralized finance (DeFi) apps, non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and smart contracts.

Assume a corporation runs a server farm with 10,000 machines that are utilized to manage a database that contains all of its clients’ account information. This corporation owns a warehouse facility that houses all of these computers under one roof and has complete control over each of these systems and all of the information they hold. However, this creates a single point of failure. What happens if the power goes out at that location? What happens if its Internet connection is lost? What if it catches fire and burns to the ground? What if a malicious actor deletes everything with a single keystroke? The data is either lost or damaged in either situation.

A blockchain allows the data in that database to be distributed across several network nodes in different places. This not only adds redundancy but also ensures the integrity of the data contained in the database—if someone tries to change a record in one instance of the database, the other nodes are not affected, preventing a bad actor from doing so. If a single user tampers with Bitcoin’s transaction record, the other nodes will cross-reference each other and readily identify the node with inaccurate information. This approach aids in the establishment of a precise and visible order of occurrences. As a result, no one node in the network may modify the information contained inside it. As a result, information and history (such as cryptocurrency transactions) are irreversible. Such a record might be a list of transactions (like with cryptocurrencies), but it is also feasible for a blockchain to store additional information such as legal contracts, state identifications, or a company’s goods inventory. To validate new entries or records to a block, a majority of the processing power in the decentralised network must agree. Blockchains are protected by a consensus method such as proof of work (PoW) or proof of stake to prevent bad actors from confirming bogus transactions or duplicate spending (PoS). These techniques allow for consensus even when there is no one node in command.

Transparency

Because of the decentralised structure of Bitcoin’s blockchain, all transactions can be transparently watched by owning a personal node or utilising blockchain explorers, which allow anybody to witness transactions taking place in real time. Every node maintains its own copy of the chain, which is updated as new blocks are confirmed and added. This means that you could follow Bitcoin wherever it went if you wanted to. Exchanges, for example, have been hacked in the past, and customers who stored Bitcoin on the exchange lost everything. While the hacker may be completely anonymous, the Bitcoins they obtained are easily traceable. It would be known if the Bitcoins stolen in some of these attacks were relocated or spent someplace.

Of course, the Bitcoin blockchain (as well as the majority of others) stores records that are encrypted. This implies that only the record’s owner may decode it and disclose their identity (using a public-private key pair). As a consequence, blockchain users may stay anonymous while maintaining transparency.

Is Blockchain Trustworthy?

In numerous ways, blockchain technology delivers decentralised security and trust. To begin, new blocks are always kept in a linear and chronological order. That is, they are always added to the blockchain’s “end.” It is exceedingly difficult to go back and change the contents of a block once it has been added to the end of the blockchain unless a majority of the network has achieved a consensus to do so. This is due to the fact that each block has its own hash, as well as the hash of the block before it and the previously mentioned time stamp. A mathematical function converts digital information into a string of numbers and letters to generate hash codes. If that information is changed in any manner, the hash code will change as well. Assume a hacker, who also operates a node on a blockchain network, wishes to change a blockchain and steal bitcoin from everyone else. If they changed their single copy, it would no longer be in sync with everyone else’s copy. When everyone else compares their copies to each other, this one copy will stand out, and the hacker’s version of the chain will be discarded as invalid.

To be successful in such a hack, the hacker must simultaneously possess and change 51 percent or more of the copies of the blockchain, so that their new copy becomes the majority copy and, thus, the agreed-upon chain. . Such an assault would also need a massive amount of money and resources, since they would have to repeat all of the blocks due to the varied time stamps and hash codes. Because of the scale of many cryptocurrency networks and how quickly they are developing, the expense of accomplishing such a feat would very certainly be unattainable. This would be not only exceedingly costly, but also likely futile. Such an action would not go unnoticed by network members, who would detect such substantial changes to the blockchain. Members of the network would then hard fork off to a new version of the chain that was not impacted. This would lead the value of the attacked version of the token to collapse, rendering the attack ultimately futile because the bad actor now controls a worthless asset. The same thing would happen if a bad actor attacked the next Bitcoin fork. It is designed in this manner so that participating in the network is significantly more economically encouraged than attacking it.

Blockchain vs. Bitcoin

Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta, two researchers who aimed to develop a system where document time stamps could not be manipulated with, proposed blockchain technology in 1991. But it wasn’t until nearly two decades later, with the introduction of Bitcoin in January 2009, that blockchain saw its first real-world implementation. A blockchain serves as the foundation for the Bitcoin protocol. Bitcoin’s pseudonymous developer, Satoshi Nakamoto, described the digital currency in a research paper as “a new electronic cash system that’s totally peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.” 2

The crucial point to remember here is that while Bitcoin utilises blockchain to transparently record a ledger of payments, blockchain may theoretically be used to immutably store any amount of data items. As previously said, this might take the shape of transactions, election votes, goods inventories, state identifications, deeds to residences, and much more. Currently, tens of thousands of initiatives are attempting to use blockchains in ways other than transaction recording to benefit society—for example, as a secure means of voting in democratic elections. Because of the immutability of blockchain, fraudulent voting would become much more difficult. A voting system, for example, may be designed such that each citizen of a country receives a separate coin or token. Each candidate would then be assigned a unique wallet address, and voters would transmit their token or cryptocurrency to the address of the candidate for whom they wanted to vote.

THE NFT MANIA

what is an NFT?

NFTs are tokens that may be used to indicate ownership of one-of-a-kind goods. They allowed us to tokenize items such as art, valuables, and even real estate. They can only have one official owner at a time and are protected by the Ethereum blockchain — no one can change the record of ownership or create a new NFT.

NFT is an abbreviation for non-fungible token. Non-fungible is an economical word that can be used to items such as your furniture, a song file, or your computer. Because of their distinct features, some goods cannot be substituted with others.

On the other hand, Fungible goods may be swapped since their worth, rather than their unique features, identifies them. NFTs and Ethereum address some of the issues that plague the internet today. As everything becomes increasingly digital, there is a greater need to imitate physical attributes such as scarcity, uniqueness, and evidence of ownership. Not to add that digital objects frequently only function inside the context of their offering.

Characteristics of NFTs

  • NFTs are digitally unique; no two NFTs are the same.
  • Every NFT must have an owner and this is of public record and easy for anyone to verify.
  • NFTs are compatible with anything built using Ethereum. An NFT ticket for an event can be traded on every Ethereum marketplace, for an entirely different NFT. You could trade a piece of art for a ticket!
  • Content creators can sell their work anywhere and can access a global market.
  • Creators can retain ownership rights over their own work and directly claim resale royalties.

Examples of NFT

The realm of NFT is still in its infancy. In principle, NFTs can cover everything that is unique and requires verifiable ownership. Here are some current examples of NFTs to help you grasp the idea:

  • An original piece of digital art
  • A one-of-a-kind shoe from a limited-edition fashion brand
  • An item in the game
  • A paper

How do NFTs function?

NFTs vary from ERC-20 tokens such as DAI or LINK in that each token is totally unique and cannot be divided. NFTs enable the assignment or claim of ownership of any unique piece of digital data, which may be tracked using Ethereum’s blockchain as a public ledger. An NFT is a digital item that is minted as a representation of digital or non-digital assets. An NFT might, for example, represent:

  • GIFs and Collectibles: Digital Art
  • Music \videos
  • Items from the Real World:
  • Tickets to a real-world event Deeds to an automobile
  • Invoices with tokens
  • Documents of legal significance
  • Signatures

At any one moment, an NFT can only have one owner. They are not convertible with other tokens on a 1:1 basis. For example, one ETH is the same as another ETH. This is not true of NFTs. Each token has a unique owner, which is easily verified. They are Ethereum-based and may be purchased and traded on any Ethereum-based NFT exchange.

To put it another way, if you own an NFT:

You can simply demonstrate that you own it. Establishing ownership of an NFT is quite similar to proving ownership of ETH in your account. Assume you buy an NFT, and ownership of the one-of-a-kind token is transferred to your wallet through your public address. The token verifies that your digital file copy is the original. Your private key is proof that you possess the original.

The public key of the content producer serves as a certificate of authenticity for that specific digital artefact.

The public key of the originator is basically a permanent part of the token’s history. The creator’s public key can prove that the token you own was generated by a certain person, adding to its market value (vs a counterfeit).

Another technique to demonstrate ownership of the NFT is to sign messages to demonstrate ownership of the private key underlying the address.

As previously stated, your private key serves as proof of ownership of the original. A signed message may be used to prove that you control your private keys without disclosing them to anyone, as well as that you own the NFT! It cannot be manipulated in any manner. You can sell it, and in some situations, the original inventor will get resale royalties. Alternatively, you can keep it indefinitely, confident in the knowledge that your asset is protected by your Ethereum wallet. In addition, if you build an NFT:

  • You may simply demonstrate that you are the creator.
  • Scarcity is determined by you.
  • You can earn royalties on each sale.
  • You may sell it on any NFT or peer-to-peer market. You’re not tied to any platform, and you don’t require someone to act as an intermediary.
  • Scarcity
  • The creator of an NFT has the authority to determine the scarcity of their asset.

Consider purchasing a ticket to a sporting event. The author of an NFT can pick how many replicas exist, much as an event producer can choose how many tickets to sell. These are sometimes exact copies, such as 5000 General Admission tickets. Occasionally, numerous tickets that are extremely similar but somewhat different are minted, such as a ticket with an allocated seat. In another example, the designer may choose to make an NFT of which only one is minted as a very rare collectable. In these instances, each NFT would still have a unique identity (similar to a bar code on a typical “ticket”) and would be owned by a single person. The desired scarcity of the NFT is important and is entirely up to the designer. A developer may seek to make each NFT fully unique in order to promote scarcity, or he or she may have motives to build thousands of clones. Keep in mind that all of this information is available to the public.

Royalties

When some NFTs are sold, they will automatically pay royalties to their inventors. This is a new notion, yet it is one of the most powerful. Every time an Euler Beats Original is sold, the original owner earns an 8% royalty. Furthermore, certain sites, such as Foundation and Zora, provide royalties for its artists. This is entirely automated, allowing authors to just sit back and receive royalties as their work is sold from person to person. Currently, calculating royalties is difficult. At the moment, calculating royalties is highly laborious and inaccurate — many creators are not paid what they deserve. You’ll never miss out if your NFT has a royalty built in. At the moment, calculating royalties is highly laborious and inaccurate — many creators are not paid what they deserve. You’ll never miss out if your NFT has a royalty built in. What is the purpose of NFTs?

Here’s additional information on some of the more established use-cases and ideas for Ethereum-based NFTs.

  • Items of digital gaming content
  • Names of domains
  • Items of physical nature
  • Capital and collateral
  • Earnings maximisation for creators

The most common use of NFTs nowadays is in the world of digital material. This is because the industry is now broken. Platforms are consuming content providers’ income and earning potential. An artist who publishes work on a social network generates revenue for the podium, which sells advertisements to the artist’s fans. They receive exposure in exchange, but exposure does not pay the bills. NFTs enable a new creative economy in which producers do not give up control of their material to the platforms that publicise it. Ownership is embedded in the material. Ethereum’s carbon footprint will be 99.95% lower once enhanced, making it more energy-efficient than many existing businesses.

To clarify further, we’ll have to get a bit more technical, so please bear with us…

Don’t blame the NFTs.

Because Ethereum is decentralised and safe, the whole NFT ecosystem functions. Decentralized means that you and everyone else can both confirm that you own anything. All without relying on or providing custody to a third party who may impose their own regulations whenever they choose. It also means that your NFT is adaptable to a wide range of products and markets. Secure means that no one can copy/paste or steal your NFT. Because of Ethereum’s characteristics, it is feasible to digitally own unique goods and receive a fair price for your content. When they sell their stuff, the money goes straight to them. If the new owner then sells the NFT, the original developer may be entitled to royalties. Because the creator’s address is part of the token’s information — metadata that cannot be changed – this is ensured every time it is sold.

NFTs’ environmental effect

NFTs are becoming more popular, which means they are being scrutinized more closely, particularly in terms of their carbon footprint.

To be clear on a couple of points:

NFTs have no direct impact on Ethereum’s carbon footprint. Ethereum’s present method of securing your cash and assets is energy-intensive, but it is going to change. But it comes at a price. Blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum are energy heavy since it requires a lot of energy to maintain these properties. If it were simple to modify Ethereum’s past in order to steal NFTs or money, the system would collapse.

The labour involved in minting your NFT

A couple things must happen when you mint an NFT:

  • It must be verified as an asset on the blockchain.
  • The owner’s account balance must be adjusted to reflect the addition of that asset. This enables it to be exchanged or verifiably “owned” in the future.
  • The above-mentioned transactions must be added to a block and “immortalized” on the chain.
  • As a result, the block must be verified by everyone in the network.

The Chernobyl nuclear disaster

On April 26, 1986, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union) erupted, resulting in what many believe to be the world’s greatest nuclear accident.

Even after many years of scientific inquiry and government investigation, many issues surrounding the Chernobyl disaster remain unresolved, particularly about the long-term health effects of the large radioactive release on people who were exposed.

WHERE IS CHERNOBYL?

According to the World Nuclear Association, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is located about 81 miles (130 kilometres) north of the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, and about 12 miles (20 kilometres) south of the border with Belarus.

 It is composed of four reactors that were planned and constructed in the 1970s and 1980s. To provide cooling water for the reactor, a man-made reservoir around 8.5 square miles (22 square kilometres) in size and supplied by the Pripyat River was built.

Pripyat, created in 1970, was the closest town to the power plant, located little under 2 miles (3 kilometres) distant, and contained about 50,000 people in 1986. Chernobyl, a smaller and older town with a population of roughly 12,000 people, located about 9 miles (15 km) distant. The rest of the area was mostly farmland and forest.

Chernobyl vs. Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

The Chernobyl facility employed four Soviet-designed RBMK-1000 nuclear reactors, a design that is now widely acknowledged to be fundamentally defective. According to the World Nuclear Association, RBMK reactors were pressure tube designs that used enriched U-235 uranium dioxide fuel to heat water, generating steam that powers the reactors’ turbines and generates electricity.

According to the World Nuclear Association, water is also utilised in most nuclear reactors as a coolant and to regulate the reactivity of the nuclear core by eliminating excess heat and steam. The RBMK-1000, on the other hand, employed graphite to regulate the core’s reactivity and maintain a continuous nuclear reaction in the core.

As the nuclear core heated and created more steam bubbles, the core grew more reactive, not less, resulting in a positive-feedback loop known as a “positive-void coefficient” by engineers.

WHAT TOOK PLACE DURING THE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION?

According to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the explosion happened on April 26, 1986, during a regular maintenance inspection (UNSCEAR). Operators intended to test the electrical systems when they shut off critical control systems, violating safety requirements. As a result, the reactor’s power and stability became dangerously unstable.

According to the Nuclear Energy Agency, Reactor 4 was shut down the day before to complete maintenance checks on safety systems during anticipated power shortages (NEA). While the exact origin of the explosions is still debated, it is widely assumed that the first was caused by an excess of steam and the second was impacted by hydrogen. The excess steam was produced by a drop in cooling water, which allowed steam to build up in the cooling pipes — the positive-void coefficient — resulting in an immense power surge that the operators were unable to shut down.

According to the NEA, the explosions happened at 1:23 a.m. on April 26, demolishing reactor 4 and igniting a raging fire. Radioactive fuel and nuclear components rained down on the region, and a fire spread from the building holding reactor 4 to surrounding structures. The blowing wind transported toxic fumes and dust, as well as fission products and the noble gas inventory of naturally occurring odourless and colourless gases.

FALLOUT FROM RADIOACTIVES

The blasts killed two workers at the company, the first of numerous who died within hours of the catastrophe. As rescue crews worked furiously to put out the fires and radiation leaks, the death toll increased as plant workers succumbed to severe radiation illness over the next few days.

The original fire was put out by 5 a.m., but the subsequent graphite-fueled fire took 10 days and 250 firemen to put out, according to the NEA. Toxic pollutants, however, continued to be blasted into the atmosphere for an extra ten days. The majority of the radiation emitted by the failed nuclear reactor came from fission products such as iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137. According to UNSCEAR, iodine-131 has a relatively short half-life of eight days, but it is rapidly inhaled through the air and tends to localise in the thyroid gland. Cesium isotopes have longer half-lives (cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years) and pose a risk to the environment for many years after they are released into the environment.

Evacuations in Pripyat began on April 27, around 36 hours after the tragedy. Many residents were already complaining of vomiting, headaches, and other symptoms of radiation illness at the time. By May 14, officials had blocked off an 18-mile (30-kilometer) radius surrounding the facility, evacuating a further 116,000 people. . According to the World Nuclear Association, 220,000 more households will be urged to relocate to less hazardous places during the following few years.

EFFECTS ON HEALTH

According to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), 28 Chernobyl employees perished in the first four months after the catastrophe, including several courageous workers who knew they were exposing themselves to lethal amounts of radiation in order to protect the site against additional radioactive breaches. Because the predominant winds were from the south and east at the time of the disaster, much of the radioactive plume drifted northwest toward Belarus. Nonetheless, Soviet officials were sluggish to communicate information to the outside world about the magnitude of the calamity. However, when radiation levels raised concerns in Sweden three days later, experts were able to determine the approximate site of the nuclear accident based on radiation levels and wind directions, prompting Soviet officials to expose the entire nature of the situation, according to the UN.

According to the NRC, 31 persons died as a result of radiation exposure or other direct repercussions of the Chernobyl catastrophe within three months of the event. According to a 2018 UNSCEAR study, as many as 20,000 instances of thyroid cancer were discovered in individuals under the age of 18 in 1986 between 1991 and 2015. While there may be additional cancer cases among emergency responders, evacuees, and residents over the course of their lives, the known total incidence of cancer deaths and other health problems directly connected to Chernobyl’s radioactive release is lower than was previously predicted. According to an NRC report, “the bulk of the five million individuals residing in polluted regions… got relatively tiny radiation doses equivalent to natural background levels (0.1 rem per year).” “As of now, the data does not firmly link the event to radiation-induced increases in leukaemia or solid cancers other than thyroid cancer.”

According to some analysts, the unfounded fear of radiation exposure caused more pain than the real calamity. According to the World Nuclear Association, many doctors throughout Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union advised pregnant women to have abortions in order to avoid having children with birth defects or other disorders, even though the actual level of radiation exposure these women experienced was likely too low to cause any problems. According to the head of UNSCEAR, the United Nations produced a study on the impacts of the Chernobyl disaster in 2000 that was “full of baseless allegations that have no validity in scientific evaluations,” and was subsequently ignored by most authorities.

IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT

The trees in the adjacent forests were destroyed by significant amounts of radioactivity shortly after the Chernobyl radiation releases occurred. Because the dead trees developed a vivid ginger hue, this area became known as the “Red Forest.” According to the National Science Research Laboratory at Texas Tech University, the trees were finally destroyed and buried in ditches. According to the NRC, the damaged reactor was quickly enclosed in a concrete sarcophagus meant to confine the leftover radiation. However, there is ongoing scientific dispute over how effective this sarcophagus has been and will be in the future. After stabilising the old sarcophagus, development on the New Safe Confinement structure began in late 2006. According to World Nuclear News, the new building is 843 feet (257 metres) broad, 531 feet (162 metres) long, and 356 feet (108 metres) tall, and is planned to totally contain reactor 4 and its surrounding sarcophagus for at least the next 100 years.

According to World Nuclear News, despite the pollution of the site and the inherent hazards of running a reactor with significant design defects, the Chernobyl nuclear facility continued to operate to supply Ukraine’s electricity demands until its final reactor, reactor 3, was shut down in December 2000. Reactors 1 and 2 were decommissioned in 1991 and 1996, respectively. The site’s deactivation is planned to be finished by 2028.

The plant, the abandoned towns of Pripyat and Chernobyl, and the surrounding countryside form a 1,000-square-mile (2600-square-kilometer) “exclusion zone” that is off-limits to almost everyone save scientists and government officials. Despite the hazards, numerous residents returned to their houses soon after the accident, with some sharing their experiences with news organisations such as the BBC, CNN, and The Guardian. In 2011, Ukraine opened the region to tourists who wanted to view the disaster’s aftermath firsthand.

isro history and development

Our country’s space research operations began in the early 1960s, when satellite applications were still in the experimental phases even in the United States. With the live broadcast of the Tokyo Olympic Games across the Pacific by the American satellite ‘Syncom-3,’ Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the founding father of India’s space programme, instantly saw the possibilities of space technology for India.

The Genesis – St. Mary Magdelene Church in Thiruvanathapuram’s fishing town of Thumba

Dr. Sarabhai was convinced and envisioned that the resources in space had the capacity to answer man’s and society’s actual issues. As Director of the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in Ahmedabad, Dr. Sarabhai assembled an army of capable and talented scientists, anthropologists, communicators, and engineers.. The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established in 1962 under the Department of Atomic Energy to drive space research operations. In August 1969, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was founded in place of INCOSPAR. In June 1972, the Government of India formed the Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS), and in September 1972, ISRO was transferred to DOS.

Since its start, India’s space programme has been well-coordinated, with three different elements: communication and remote sensing satellites, a space transportation system, and application programmes. The first ‘Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station (ESCES)’ was operationalized in Ahmedabad in 1967, and it also served as a teaching facility for Indian and international scientists and engineers. ISRO was clear that it did not need to wait for its own satellites to begin application development, and that foreign satellites may be utilised in the early phases to demonstrate that a satellite system can contribute to national development. However, before embarking on a full-fledged satellite system, it was determined that certain controlled experiments to demonstrate the usefulness of television as a medium for national development were required. As a result, the TV show ‘Krishi Darshan’ on agricultural information for farmers was launched, and it had a positive reaction.

The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), dubbed “the greatest social experiment in the world” during 1975-76, was the next logical step. This initiative benefitted over 200,000 people by covering 2400 communities across six states and transmitting development-oriented programmes via the American Technology Satellite (ATS-6). SITE is credited with teaching 50,000 primary school science teachers in a single year.

The Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Effort (STEP), a cooperative project of ISRO and the Post and Telegraphs Department (P&T) in 1977-79, used the Franco-German Symphonie satellite. STEP was conceived as a follow-up to SITE, which concentrated on television experimentation. STEP’s goal was to provide a system test of using geosynchronous satellites for domestic communications, to improve capabilities and experience in the design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of various ground segment facilities, and to build the necessary indigenous competence for the country’s proposed operational domestic satellite system, INSAT.  SITE was followed by the ‘Kheda Communications Project (KCP),’ which served as a field laboratory for need-based and location-specific programme transmission in Gujarat State’s Kheda area. In 1984, the KCP received the UNESCO-IPDC (International Programme for the Development of Communication) award for rural communication efficiency.

During this time, the first Indian spacecraft, ‘Aryabhata,’ was built and launched with the help of a Soviet launcher. Another significant milestone was the creation of the first launch vehicle, the SLV-3, which could place 40 kg in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and made its first successful flight in 1980.  Competence was developed for overall vehicle design, mission design, material, hardware manufacturing, solid propulsion technologies, control power plants, avionics, vehicle integration checkout, and launch operations during the SLV-3 programme. The development of multistage rocket vehicles with sufficient control and guidance systems to orbit a satellite was a significant milestone in our space programme.

During the experimental phase in the 1980s, end-to-end capability demonstration in the design, development, and in-orbit management of space systems, as well as the accompanying ground systems for users, was performed. The Bhaskara-I and II missions were pioneering advances in remote sensing, whilst the ‘Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE)’ served as a predecessor for future communication satellite systems. The sophisticated Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) development also exhibited innovative technology such as the utilisation of strap-on, bulbous heat shield, closed loop guidance, and digital autopilot. This paved the door for understanding numerous aspects of launch vehicle design for complicated missions, eventually leading to the realisation of operational launch vehicles like the PSLV and GSLV.

During the operational period in the 1990s, important space infrastructure was built in two categories: one for communication, broadcasting, and meteorology via a multi-purpose Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), and the other for Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS). During this period, important milestones were the development and operationalization of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the development of the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

 It wasn’t until 1992 that the ASLV was successfully launched for the first time. At this point, the launch vehicle, which could only transport extremely modest payloads into orbit, had completed its mission. By 1993, the PSLV’s maiden flight had arrived. The initial launch was a failure. The first operational launch occurred in 1994, and since then, the PSLV has been a workhorse launch vehicle, putting in orbit both remote sensing and communications satellites, building the world’s biggest cluster, and providing unique data to Indian industry and agriculture. Since then, continuous performance enhancements have significantly increased the rocket’s payload power. Glavkosmos, under duress, prohibited the relocation of associated manufacturing and design technology to India. Until then, ISRO has been free of technology transfer restraints thanks to Sarabhai’s strategic acumen in indigenizing technology. However, in preparation for the Russian contract, ISRO management abandoned domestic cryogenic programmes. Instead of terminating the deal, Russia chose to send fully completed engines, and India began constructing an indigenous cryogenic engine to replace them in the GSLV-II.

There is also substantial controversy concerning the acquisition of cryogenic engines, with many citing the choice to abandon indigenous initiatives as a major blunder: if indigenous manufacture had commenced from the start, India would almost certainly have had a truly indigenous engine functioning. Despite this one unusual hiccup in an otherwise extremely successful programme, and the decade-long absence of future payload capabilities that followed as a result, ISRO persisted.

The most powerful Indian launch vehicle currently in use; the maiden GSLV production flight took place in 2001. The program’s gains were evaluated as a result of recurrent payload reductions and delays. The indigenous cryogenic engine was tested for the GSLV’s upper stage in 2007. ISRO reassessed the GSLV’s usefulness for the 2000-2010 decade and began work on an indigenous and new GSLV III heavy launch vehicle. The latter is unrelated to the GSLV-I/II and will use the tried-and-true configuration of two solid strap-on boosters and liquid main stages. It will be similar to the Ariane 5 and other contemporary launchers, with plenty of manned spaceflight payload capacity. The maiden flight is scheduled for 2008.

Chandrayaan 2008: ISRO intends to launch a tiny robotic spacecraft into lunar orbit atop a modified PSLV. It will examine the moon’s surface in more detail than ever before in order to discover tools. Countries including as the United States have indicated an interest in attaching the mission to their payloads. ISRO and NASA have agreed to send two NASA probes as payload.

AVATAR Scramjet: This is a long-term project aiming at developing a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) for satellite launches. In theory, AVATAR will be a low-cost small-satellite launch vehicle and, as a result, an economically feasible launch system. A scaled-down demonstration of the technology is scheduled for around 2008. ISRO recently successfully tested a scramjet air-breathing engine capable of reaching Mach 6 for seven seconds. ISRO will commence research on the usage of scramjets in RLVs after 2010.

ISRO has joined the competitive market for launching payloads with other nations. The Israel Space Agency, the TecSAR espionage satellite, and the Israeli Tauvex-II satellite module were all launched. CARTOSAT-2, which launched in July 2006, carried a 56 kilogramme Indonesian payload.

ISRO cooperated with Tata engines to produce a prototype hydrogen passenger vehicle for the Indian market, which is slated to hit the road by the end of 2008. ISRO used its cryogenic technology expertise to design hydrogen fuel cells for hydrogen storage and management.

On November 15, 2007, ISRO scored a significant milestone with the successful test of the indigenously constructed Cryogenic Stage, which would serve as the top stage of India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). The test was conducted on November 15, 2007, at the Liquid Propulsion test site in Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu, for a total flight time of 720 seconds. This test has completely trained the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage on the ground. The flying stage is being prepared for the next GSLV (GSLV-D3) launch in 2008.

On April 28, 2008, ISRO successfully launched ten satellites in a single mission, enhancing its space capacity. This includes the 690 kg CARTOSTAT-2 and another 83 kg Indian mini satellite, IMS-1, as well as eight other university-based nanosatellites and research and development institutions in Canada and Germany that were provided at a reduced cost as part of the Indian Department of Space’s goodwill gesture

Anna University Satellite (ANUSAT) (20th April 2009) (Death Date: April 18, 2012): It was conceived, manufactured, and integrated by Aerospace Engineering at Madras Institute of Technology (MIT), Chromepet, Anna University. Performs amateur radio and electronics demonstration testing

GSAT-8 / INSAT-4G (May 21st, 2011): An Indian communication satellite. GAGAN’s first payload carrier satellite. Satellite for Indian communication.

RISAT-1 (Radar Imaging Satellite) (April 26, 2012): An Indian remote sensing satellite. It is India’s heaviest earth observation satellite to date.

SARAL (ARGOS and ALTIKA satellite) (February 25th, 2013): The Satellite of ARGOS and ALTIKA is a joint Indo-French satellite programme (SARAL). It takes altimetric readings to analyse ocean circulation and the level of the water’s surface.

IRNSS-1B (Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System) was launched on April 4, 2014, to offer routing, monitoring, and mapping services. The satellite is powered by two solar panels that have a ten-year lifetime and can provide up to 1,660 watts of power. Astrosat (September 28, 2015): India’s first multi-wavelength space observatory spacecraft. It uses a single satellite to take multi-wavelength measurements of several celestial objects at the same time.

SathyabamaSat (June 22nd, 2016): The Indian micro experimental satellite was constructed by students and staff at Sathyabama University in Chennai. Launched in order to collect statistics on greenhouse gas emissions.

ISRO Nano Satellite 1A (INS-1A) (15th February 2017): PSLV-launched satellites that will be followed by bigger satellites. The Surface BRDF Radiometer (SBR) and the Distressed Control Single Case were both carried as payloads (SEUM). An Indian nanosatellite produced by ISRO.

HySIS (November 29th, 2018): HysIS is an earth observation spacecraft built on ISRO’s Mini Satellite-2 (IMS-2) bus. It was launched to study the earth’s surface in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared areas of the electromagnetic spectrum This information will also be available to India’s military forces.

RISAT-2BR1 (11th December 2019): Earth Observation Radar Imaging Satellite. It offers a 0.35-meter resolution improvement.

INDIAN CONTRACT ACT 1872

INTRODUCTION

What is a contract? According to section 2(h) of the Indian contract, the definition of a contract is as follows- “An agreement enforceable by law is a contract” Now as students of law, we have all heard this statement several times, but what does it imply? We can break it down into two things: first, there should be an agreement in the first place, and second, it should be enforceable by law. Another assertion that can be made from this definition of a contract is the result of an agreement. Since an agreement has to be enforceable by law to be a contract, all agreements are not contracts as they are not enforceable by law. Still, all contracts are agreements as contracts have come into existence as they are enforceable by law, or we could say that the word “contract” itself means that it has been a result of an agreement that was enforceable by law. For example, an agreement to sell a car may be a contract, but an agreement to go out for dinner is just an agreement and not enforceable by law. So we have a simple equation or a formula for a contract – contract = agreement + enforceability at law.

Agreement and enforceability by law

But what is an agreement in the first place? The answer to that is found In section 2(e) of the Act, which defines an agreement as ‘every promise and every set of promises forming the consideration for each other is an agreement’[1] In an agreement there is a consideration from both sides for example A promises to sell his bike to B and B promises to pay a certain sum in return. The promise is the result of offer or proposal by one party to its acceptance by the other. so having discussed what an agreement means Here both are promised something is return, a contract is essentially like a symbiotic or interdependent relation where one cannot exist without the other and they are mutually benefitted by each other[2]. consideration is an essential element of a contract, it is defined in section 2(d); “when at the desire of the promisor, the promise or any other person has done something or abstained from doing, or does or abstains from doing or promises to do or to abstain from doing something, such act or abstinence or promise is called consideration for the promise.”[3] Thus we can say that agreement = offer + consideration + acceptance. Now let us look at enforceability by law. It implies that the consenting parties must be entitled to uphold their contractual rights or seek remedy in case of breach of contract; if the agreement wasn’t necessitated to be enforceable by law, it could have been enforced by illegal means like coercion, extortion, or battery, Now for an agreement to be enforceable it has to meet certain essential conditions which have been defined in section 10 of the Indian contract act in the following words, “All agreements are contracts, which are made by the free consent of the parties, competent to contract, for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object and not expressly declared to be void”,

The conditions are

  1. The agreement, i.e., offer and acceptance
  2. Capacity or competent to contract
  3. Free consent
  4. Lawful object and consideration
  5. Not expressly declared to be void

Offer and acceptance

Offer or proposal and its acceptance is the preliminary and most fundamental step to forming a contract; An offerer has to make an offer to the concerned party where he talks about his willingness to perform something or abstain from doing something to obtain the offeree’s consent. The exact definition of the term offer is given in section 2(a) of the Act- “when a person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing something, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other person to such act or abstinence, he is said to propose.” [4]The offer must be communicated in a clear and specific manner, i.e., there shouldn’t be any ambiguity or vagueness in the offer. It may for example, be done by words or by mouth, writing or conduct. This covers not only their acts but also their omissions[5]. It is also essential to distinguish between a offer and an invitation to make an offer, invitation to offer is a  step before the actual offer itself, like advertisements in the newspapers; here, it is not an offer yet; it is up to the seller to accept or not to accept, it can also be drawn from this that offers are of two types, specific and general as the name suggests a particular offer is one which is made to a particular person or party, whereas an available offer is something which is made to the public at large.

Contractual intention

Another critical factor that exists while making an offer is an intention to contract; this means that the two parties entering into a contract must have the legal choice to do so. The intent of the parties is to be naturally ascertained from the terms of the agreement and the surrounding circumstances. To test contractual intention, the courts use an objective method in which they judge the situation based on reasonable prudence or, to put it simply, what a person with good judgment and common sense would have done. Generally, in the case of social agreements, it is understood that the two parties have no intention of entering into a contract, and it is merely s social obligation. On the other hand, the parties almost always have a legal intention to contract in business matters[6].

Acceptance

Acceptance is the step following a proposal; acceptance has been defined in section 2(b) in the following words “when the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted”[7]. An accepted proposal becomes a contract. For an acceptance to be valid, it must fulfill certain conditions.

 It must be absolute and unqualified, meaning the offeree has to accept the terms as they are and not change them or come up with a counteroffer, as a counteroffer doesn’t give rise to the contractual binding.

The offeree should make communication of acceptance to the offeror. The offeror has to know whether his offer has been accepted or rejected. However, this is not necessary every time as in certain cases merely acting on the terms of the offer acts as an acceptance to the same. For examples an announcement to pay a reward for finding a dog is an example of this, here the person who decided to act on the offer and find the dog doesn’t have to communicate to the offeror his acceptance explicitly. Acceptance should be made in the manner the offeror prescribes, and if it remains unspecified, it must be made reasonably. Approval must also be made within the stipulated time frame or in reasonable time, it also draws from common sense that acceptance of the offer should be communicated before the bid is revoked, as once the offer is withdrawn, the approval becomes nullified.

Consideration

We have looked at how consideration is defined in section 2(d) of the Indian contract act earlier but let us dissect it further. The first sentence of this definition gives rise to a key element of consideration: it is done at the desire of the promisor.  As established earlier, consideration is like an interdependent relationship, where there is something in return for both parties, so here it moves at the desire of the promisor. For example, if A says to B; I will pay you ₹500 for this t-shirt, so in this case, the consideration for A was the shirt. Since the promisor is making the offer, he will decide what he wants in return; if B had given him a pair of socks in this scenario, the proposal wouldn’t stand since that is not what A or the promisor wanted.

The second element is that consideration can come from the promise or any other person. An excellent example of this is when we shop online from sites like Amazon and Flipkart. A buys a Samsung phone from Amazon, but the phone delivered to him is not by Amazon itself but through the third party seller here, Samsung. This element was laid down in the landmark judgment of Chinnaya vs. Ramaya.[8] It was held that although the plaintiff was a stranger to the consideration since he was a party to the contract, he could enforce the promise to the promisor.

Consideration must be real

Some other essential elements are that consideration must be real and not illusionary; for example, a promise to make the sunrise from the west for ₹ one crore is illusionary and not feasible. It need not be adequate; for example, A contracts to sell his car to B for just ₹ 10,000, and B accepts it now. This price is grossly low and disproportionate for a car, but this is a valid consideration as long as the consent of the promisor is freely given.

Consideration can be past, present, or future

Another key aspect is that consideration includes both Act and omission, and it involves past, present and future, making it very vast and all-encompassing.

When the promisor has done or abstained from doing something, this is past consideration. For example, A finds B’s purse and returns it to him. B later promises to give A ₹ 50, here the promisor has done something in the past and later is rewarded for it.

Does or abstain from doing something, the consideration is in the present, and consideration can also be for the future. Consideration must be of some value: it should be quantifiable and actionable. Something which has value in the eyes of the law shouldn’t be immoral or opposed to public policy.

CAPACITY TO CONTRACT

The next element is free consent. The definition of “capacity to contract” is given in section 11and interpreting it can be concluded that there are three categories of people who are not competent to contract.

  1. A person who has not attained the age of majority.
  2. A person of unsound mind.
  3. A person who has been prohibited or disqualified from contracting by some law.[9]

Consent is a crucial element in forming a contract. The parties must freely consent to the agreement, i.e., it must be devoid of coercion, fraud, undue influence, misrepresentation, and mistake.

Lawful object and consideration

The consideration in an agreement is lawful unless

  1. It is forbidden by law
  2. It is of such nature that, if permitted, would defeat the provisions of law
  3. Is fraudulent
  4. Involves or implies injury to the person or property
  5. The court regards it as immoral or opposed to public policy

For example, if A promises to drop a prosecution, he has instituted against B for robber, and B promises to restore the value of the things taken. The agreement is void as the object here is unlawful.

Section 2(h) of the Act make an excellent attempt to define the word contract, to when we go on to fully understand it we see that each word has been comprehensively covered in the other sections of the Act. From agreement to enforceability by law to what constitutes an agreement, Offer and acceptance, free consent, competency to contract, and lawful consideration, all of which is clearly laid out, here every possible scenario is considered for example, what if acceptance is communicated in a manner not specified by the offeror; the solution to that can also be found in the Act itself which says that when an acceptance is communicated to the offeror in the manner not prescribed by them, then the duty is cast on the offeror to reject such acceptance in a reasonable time. And if he fails to do so, the contract becomes binding. This is an example of how holistic and well-drafted the Act is as it considers and provides a solution for every possibility. Another example of this is how silence doesn’t amount to fraud. A sells, by auction, to B, a horse that A knows to be unsound. A says nothing to B about the horses’ unsoundness. This is not fraud; but it does give room to certain circumstances where silence does amount to fraud cases where the promisor must speak, say in the above example, if the promisor and promise had been related B is A’s daughter and has just come of age. Here, the relation between the parties would make it A’s duty to tell B if the horse is unsound. this proves that the various sections of the act are in perfect harmony and cater to everything


[1] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008

[2] Fazaladdin Mandal vs. Panchanan Das, AIR 1957 Cal 92

[3] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008.

[4] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008

[5] Coffee Board v. Commr. of Commercial Taxes, (1988) 3 SCC 263

[6] Rose and Frank Co v JR Crompton & Bros Ltd, [1925] AC 445, [1924] All ER Rep 245, 132 LT 641

[7] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008

[8] L. Chinnayya vs K. Ramanna on 10 March, (1915) ILR 38 Mad 203

[9] Avtar Singh. Law of Contract (a Study of the Contract Act, 1872) and Specific Relief. 12th ed. Lucknow: Eastern Book Co., 2008

EUTHANSIA IN INDIA: HISTORY AND LAWS

INTRODUCTION

The painless killing of any person suffering from an incurable and painful disease or an irreversible coma can be defined as Euthanasia. Different practices fall under the label of “Euthanasia,” mercy killing, assisted suicide fall under the same. Here are some distinctions demarcating different versions:

Active Euthanasia: This means killing a person by active means, such as injecting a lethal drug dose. It is also known as “Aggressive Euthanasia.” Today, this practice is illegal in most countries, including India.

Passive Euthanasia: It is letting the person die by intention. It includes the removal of artificial life support. This type of Euthanasia has been declared legal in India.

Euthanasia can also be classified as:

 Voluntary Euthanasia: It means giving Euthanasia with the consent of the patient. ‘Living will’ is a written statement provided by the patient before the treatment starts to provide direction for future events they might not express. Many other times, when a person is in an inadequate space and wants to end their life, they ask for Euthanasia. 

Non-voluntary Euthanasia: It means giving Euthanasia without knowing the wishes of the person. In this situation, the decision is taken by the patient’s family. They have to sign a written contract with the hospital, and after fulfilling other formalities, Euthanasia is granted.

There can be different combinations of the types as mentioned above. This type of Euthanasia may sound morally wrong, but it is provided to end the long ordeal that the person is going through. [1]

In the early 1940s, Adolf Hitler carried out a program about exterminating children with disabilities to reduce the cost of society and improve the Aryan “race.” It is known as involuntary Euthanasia, which is performed against the will of a person.

CONTENTS

In ethics, ‘consequentialism’ is the doctrine that says actions should be judged as right or wrong based on their consequences. According to consequentialism, it is not necessary to focus on actions every time. It focuses more on the outcomes. The simplest form of consequentialism is old-style utilitarianism, which affirms that an activity is right or wrong as indicated by whether it maximizes the net equilibrium of joy over torment in the universe.

The consequentialism of G.E. Moore, known as “ideal utilitarianism,” recognizes beauty and friendship, as well as pleasure, as intrinsic goods that one’s action should aim to maximize. As indicated by the “preference utilitarianism” of R.M. Hare, activities are correct if they maximize the fulfillment of inclinations or wants, regardless of the preferences they may be for. Consequentialists, likewise, vary about whether every individual action ought to be decided based on its results or irrespective of whether rather general principles of lead ought to be agreed along these lines and individual actions judged simply by whether they accord with a general rule. The former groups are known as “act-utilitarians” and the latter as “rule-utilitarians.”[2] Bentham’s utilitarianism theory focuses on which actions most likely make people happy; he also developed a calculator to determine which activities were better or worse, known as the ‘felicific calculus.

‘When we look at Euthanasia in the context of consequentialism, there are two aspects to it. This is because consequentialism is a result-based ethical theory. The first aspect is from the patient’s point of view. Giving Euthanasia will hold good as it maximizes the net pleasure, the patient is relieved from all the prolonged suffering and agony; The second aspect is from the patient’s family. They have lost a loved one. It is an irreplaceable loss. Consequentialism, on this side, would hold Euthanasia as a way of relief but entangled with sadness.

Physician-assisted suicide or PAS is another type of Euthanasia where a person is assisted in committing suicide by a medical practitioner with certain drugs or appropriate medication on the person’s demand. One of the most landmark case laws relating to suicide is ‘Gian Kaur vs. the State of Punjab, ‘ where Gian Kaur and her husband, Harband Singh[3], were convicted for abetment to suicide. Here, the previous ruling of P. Rantinam’s case, which dealt with section 309 of the IPC, was overruled, and it said that the right to life does not include the right to death. The Court further defended the sanctity of life, stating that the unnatural taking of life can never be justified. Constitutionalizing both Section 309 and 306 of the IPC, although attempt to commit suicide and abetment to it, is criminalized. Still, under the Mental Healthcare Act 2017, several restrictions have been put on section 306, essentially decriminalizing it.[4]

Mercy killing, i.e., Euthanasia though seems to be justified morally and is practiced in many countries like the Netherlands, Belgium, Australia, etc., because the suffering and pain of a patient due to illness is given priority over the patient’s life.[5] Still, no law can indeed provide a guarantee over the abuse concerning the lives of critically ill patients who do not desire to end their lives. 

In the Common Cause vs. Union of India[6]  the Supreme Court of India ruled that any individual has a right to die with dignity as a part of their right to life and personal liberty under Article 21 of the Indian Constitution[7]. This ruling,[8] thus, permits the removal of life-support systems for the terminally ill or those suffering from incurable comas, thus proving the concept of consequentialism. The Court further allowed individuals to decide against artificial life support and recognized the need for creating a living will.

In this particular case, the Court further laid down certain propositions regarding the procedure for execution of Advance Directives and provided the guidelines thereof to effect passive Euthanasia. This verdict added on and made clarifications on the 2011 verdict of the ‘Aruna Shanbaug vs. Union of India[9]‘ case where passive Euthanasia was legalized in two cases: 1) where the patient was in a permanent vegetative state and 2) where the said patient was brain dead, and so they can be let off the ventilator, also giving the concept of next friend. According to this concept, if any family member is absent, a third person close to the patient can be the next friend. In this case, the king’s Edward memorial hospital nurse, who had attended to her after she had gone into a coma, took the position of next friend and performed the duties.[10] Appling consequentialism here, we conclude that since Aruna Shanbaug was in a coma for 42 years, it was ethically correct to relieve her of all her sufferings prolonging the life of a person who is not capable of being conscious is not only painful for the individual but for their family and close ones as well, as they are watching a loved one in such pain.[11] So, isn’t ending her life the correct thing as the consequence of this would maximize happiness for everyone? “Aruna’s prolonged existence violates her right to live with dignity.” This later expanded to include the right to die with dignity. Although Aruna died of natural death, this case clarified the issues revolving around Euthanasia in India and laid down guidelines concerning passive Euthanasia. 

Conclusion

“Tube fed for almost a year, feels like a dog with a leash,” said an elderly man suffering from cancer in Belgium. Belgium is one of the countries which are very liberal regarding Euthanasia. It is considered that pain is the ultimate reason that urges a patient to ask for Euthanasia, but only 1/3 times the cause is pain. Terminally ill people can have their quality of life severely damaged. There can be physical conditions such as incontinence, nausea, paralysis, and difficulty in swallowing. “I don’t want to die in a place which smells like piss,” another lady said. People don’t want the disease to take charge of when they would die; they want to take the decision by themselves.

The intention is never to put someone on the machine and run it forever. It is life support, not prevention of death[12]. We support life because we think one day it will recover and be ALIVE. But, what is to be done when life is not manifested by the body? When consequentialism comes in, how to handle this type of situations cannot be given as it is, because there are individual sensitivities. There is no particular way to act. But all we can do is let all the doors be open, judge the consequences, and take a decision accordingly. Because as Rajesh Khanna said, “Prolong life is not what matters, but the quality of life does.”  


[1]Medicine.missouri.eduhttps://medicine.missouri.edu/user/login?destination=/centers-institutes-labs/health-ethics/faq/euthanasia, (October 20, 2021)

[2]  britannica.com://www.britannica.com/topic/consequentialism ( October 18, 2021)

[3] Gian Kaur v. State of Punjab, (1996) 2 SCC 648

[4] Legalservicesindia.comhttps://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-4135-the-status-of-euthanasia-under-the-light-of-aruna-ramchandra-shanbaug-vs-union-of-india-ors-.html( October 19, 2021)

[5]bnblegal.comhttps://bnblegal.com/article/right-to-die-with-dignity-euthanasia/](october20 2021)

[6] Common Cause (A Registered Society) v. Union of India, (1996) 2 SCC 752

[7]nhrc.nic.inhttps://nhrc.nic.in/press-release/important-judgment-supreme-court-india-1#:~:text=215%20of%202005%20%2D%20Common%20Cause,execute%20an%20advance%20medical%20directive.&text=The%20judgment%20has%20paved%20the,under%20a%20%22living%20will%22. ( October 20, 2021)

[8] Vini Singh,on advance directives and attorney authorisations – an analysis of the judgment of the supreme court in common cause (a regd. society) v. union of India, CALQ Vol. 4.2,(2018),http://docs.manupatra.in/newsline/articles/Upload/E4A68ACB-DCC1-4003-88DC-F41D7AA65A59.pdf

[9] Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug v. Union of India, (2011) 15 SCC 480

[10]Economictimes.indiatimes.com thttps://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/the-aruna-shanbaug-case-which-changed-euthanasia-laws-in-india/a-landmark-verdict/slideshow/63231071.cms  (October 19, 2021)

[11]Thehindu.comhttps://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/should-euthanasia-be-allowed/article22524514.ece(october17,2021)

[12]Legalservicesindia.comhttps://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-3563-euthanasia-right-to-die-with-dignity.html    (October 21, 2021) 

HOW THE LAW CAUSES SOCIAL CHANGE

INTRODUCTION

The only stable state is the one in which all men are equal before the law- Aristotle

Law is fundamental to any society. Since time immemorial, some of the other forms of law have always governed Society. From the Vedic civilization during ancient times to the modern-day legal system and thus it is evident that law interlinks with Society. It is rooted in social institutions and socio-economic networks. In such a dynamic and multicultural society like India, the judiciary has always played a vital role. Particularly in the post-independence era, when the British had left the country in shreds and an immediate and effective set of laws was the need of the hour as several issues such as food shortage and poverty needed redressal.

There are several functions of law. One of its objectives is to keep up stability and afford orderly life in Society. The law is an essential social control tool. The rule of law is the underpinning of democracy in any constitution. It is a tool for social control since it instills a sense of fear and obligation in people, and their behavior in a society is governed by law.  They become aware of their duties and responsibilities as a result of the use of force. Laws are in place to prevent individuals from being exploited. They protect individuals. The Indian Constitution, criminal, civil, and other laws are all geared to achieve this purpose. Laws give a framework and set of rules to assist in the resolution of specific conflicts. Individuals can bring their disputes before an unbiased fact-finder, such as a judge or jury, under the law. Here we will explore why law causes social change and how it does, with the help of several examples and supporting evidence.

ARGUMENTS

Law is responsible for social change as law or the legal framework is progressive, and ahead of its time, there are several instances where laws put in place have changed Society for the better. Let us take examples from when India was under British rule when the abhorrent practice of sati was abolished in 1829. This was one of the first primary social reform legislation[1].  Law is based on impartiality or being unbiased, and this is another primary reason why law changes Society. As it does not differentiate between anyone regardless of caste, creed, and colour and everyone is equal in its eyes, it changes Society. Since the dawn of civilization, women have been at a disadvantage, having to always depend on men and not having much freedom of their own. They have been subject to harassment, abuse, and moral policing, with society always controlling their lives. However, due to laws such as the equal remuneration act (1976) and the POSH (prevention of sexual harassment in the workplace) Act, women now stand at a much better place. After the advent of the equal remuneration Act,[2] women have been able to sue for malpractices prevailing in their workplace and get closure. Under the Act, the employer must ensure no bias while hiring, and women are at par with their male counterparts. The Act has bought about significant social change wherein awareness spread, and people realized that sexual harassment at the workplace is wrong.

Another example of this is the dowry prevention act of 1961,[3] An Act under which Any person who demands dowry, directly or indirectly, from the parents, other relatives, or guardians of an As the case may be, will be punished by imprisonment for a term of not less than six months, but not more than two years, and a fine of not less than ten thousand rupees.

Abortion laws are one of the best examples that prove that law changes Society. The medical termination of pregnancy act 2021[4] is a landmark and revolutionary step that indicates evolving social norms. The Act came into force on September 24. The Act amends the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (MTP Act) stipulates the conditions under which medical termination of pregnancy can be pursued. The primary amendments extend the upper limit of the gestation from twenty to twenty-four weeks for special categories of women, including survivors of rape, victims of incest, and other vulnerable women (differently-abled women, minors, among others). Another key amendment is the confidentiality clause. The name and other particulars of a woman whose pregnancy has been terminated cannot be revealed except to a person authorized by law. The Amendment reflects the change in definition from “pregnant married woman” to “pregnant woman” and from “her husband” to “her partner,” thereby destigmatizing pregnancies outside of marriage, changing Society for the better.

Law changes Society because it changes or has a direct effect on the lifestyle of people. Laws on pollution, narcotics, and tobacco use are some of them.  The example that comes to light here is the nationwide ban on smoking in public areas under the Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules, 2008 and COTPA[5], 2003(the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act) and Anybody who violates this law is charged with a sum of ₹5000. The sale of tobacco products within 100 yards of educational institutions is also prohibited. Hasn’t this law fundamentally caused social change? Before the advent of this law, smoking or tobacco use was highly prevalent. It was even seen as a fashion statement and was deemed “cool” even. The general public often became subjected to or became the victim to smoking and dealt with the indirect severe health risks.

Legislations on pollution are again an example of the law changing lifestyles and causing social change, The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,[6] under which the state’s Pollution Control Board (SPCB)have the power to control and regulate emissions from automobiles, industries or for the discharge of any pollutant into the atmosphere. The law also gave states the right to inspect, examine and enforce air quality regulations set by their Pollution Control Boards. By setting these rules and regulations laws change and have a direct impact on our lifestyles. They control the way we go about our day-to-day life.

Laws lead to social change in every sector snd sphere of life. They protect the minority or vulnerable groups from exploitation and also uplift them. The Untouchability (Offences) Act and, prevention of atrocities against the SC-ST[7] Act are great examples. The caste system or stratification has existed been in existence for more than 2000 years. The present-day scheduled castes and tribes were referred to as the depressed classes and have faced gross discrimination. Ill-treatment Untouchability was the inter-human relationship between Caste Hindus and Scheduled Castes since the latter was polluting them. Such Cast discrimination has existed in our country for centuries, becoming more stratified during the colonial era. Adding on to the protection of the weaker and underprivileged sections of Society, the constituent assembly provided 22.5 %( 15%SC and 7.5%ST) reservation for the Dalits ( earlier called 87mmdepressed classes) and Adivasis or tribals[8]. The impact of this reservation has been substantial “representation of SCs/ STs has increased in all the Groups viz. A, B, C and D during last six decades.At the dawn of independence representation of SCs/STs in services was very little. As per available information, the representation of SCs in Groups A, B, C and D as on 1.1.1965 was 1.64%, 2.82%, 8.88%, and 17.75%, respectively which has increased to 12.5%, 14.9%, 15.7%, and 19.6% respectively as on 1.1.2008. Likewise while representation of STs as on 1.1.1965 in Group A, B, C and D was 0.27%, 0.34%, 1.14% & 3.39% respectively, it has increased to 4.9%, 5.7%, 7.0% and 6.9% respectively as on 1.1.2008. Total representation of SCs and STs as on 1.1.1965 was 13.17% and 2.25% respectively, which has increased to 17.51% and 6.82% respectively on 1.1.2008.”[9]

The Right to Education Act 2009,[10] also known as the RTE Act 2009, was enacted by the Parliament of India on August 4 2009. an example where the law has directly changed Society. It describes modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children aged between 6-14 years in India under Article 21 (A) of the Constitution of India. This Act came into effect on April 1 2010 and made India one of the 135 countries to have made education a fundamental right for every child; here the law has caused social change by stressing the value of education in children. In addition to making education a fundamental right, another one that follows is the Child labor prohibition and regulation act 1986 under this Act employing children below the age of 14 is declared illegal. Legally, the definition of a child is someone who has not completed the age of fourteen is a child. Adolescents aged between 14-18 can be employed, except in some hazardous occupations defined in the Act such as mining, slaughterhouses, Manufacturing of fireworks or inflammable substances, etc. such acts in place directly prove that laws change Society. The child marriage prevention 1929 act is also a great example of legislation in favour of children. The definition of “child” pertaining to this Act is a male under twenty-one years of age and a female under or has not completed eighteen years of age. Any male above eighteen but under twenty-one who contracts a child marriage will be imprisoned for up to 15 days or a fine up to rupees one thousand or both.

We have looked at several reasons as to why law changes Society. now let us take a different approach and prove how Society doesn’t change the law. Society in the first place exists because of laws. If there were no laws there would be no order and stability. There would be no difference between humans and animals. If laws didn’t exist, we would quite literally lead our lives like animals. People would cause harm to get money, resort to unfair and horrible practices, and be complete chaos. It is next to impossible to change the way people think and see the world. Especially in a country like ours which is deep-rooted in tradition and what has been taught to them, they are reluctant to change. So the argument that a change in people’s mindset and mentality is causing laws to change or develop the law is incorrect. Their thinking and mindset never fundamentally change. For example, let us look at female feticide and infanticide; why do people do this? They do it as they think that a female child is of no use and she will just have to be married off and won’t earn for them, becoming a liability. However, in the present times female infanticide and feticide rates have reduced significantly; why is that? Is it because people have realized that it is wrong to do so? That a daughter can also earn and support them? No. it is not because of a shift in the mentality of the public; it is only because laws have been put in place, the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994[11], which bans the use of ultrasound, amniocentesis and other such methods to determine the sex of the fetus. The strict implementation of this legislation has led to significant improvement of sex ratios throughout the country. This is just one of the many examples that prove that Society doesn’t change the law, but law does.

Another example is the legislation passed for women in the armed forces. The Supreme Court of India, in a historic moment for the Indian military, on February 17, 2020, allowed women officers in the Army to compete for command positions on equal ground with male officers, proving that the army’s stand was “discriminatory,” “disturbing,” and based on stereotypes.[12] The Court also stated that all women would be eligible for Permanent Commission regardless of their years of service. This shows how even when Society was backward or narrow-minded in their thinking law intervened and led to significant social change, getting rid of gender-based discrimination in the armed forces. Adding on to this is the very recent order passed by the supreme Court by which females are now allowed to sit for the NDA exams and get admission into the national defense academy. The Bench stated that this policy choice is based on “gender discrimination” and expressed displeasure with a persisting regressive mindset, clearly showing that law changes society and not vice-versa.

CONCLUSION

Laws change Society, it is not immediate, but it is persistent, but even though laws don’t change Society immediately, they at least set preconditions for social change, set a benchmark which is to be reached, for people will not accept laws that are progressive and ahead of their times. But with time, the law will eventually lead to the desired change. The Court has taken up the fight for social justice proactively and zealously, even going so far as to articulate fresh social rights such as banning the use of misogynistic practices such as the instant triple talaq or talaq-e-biddat and decriminalizing homosexuality. The Supreme Court has taken a proactive role in the social development of languishing masses. It has undoubtedly functioned as a catalyst in the process of people’s social development. It is also crucial to understand that India is still a developing country and has a lot to work on in terms of social change. Laws take time for effective enforcement and implementation. Our country is at a stage where the population is still in the process of learning how to obey laws. Given the massive population we have, it is an arduous process. Still, nonetheless, it has undoubtedly functioned as a catalyst in people’s social development, with notable examples including the dilution of caste inequities and protection measures for the weak and vulnerable.


[1] https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sati

[2] https://labour.gov.in/sites/default/files/equal_remuneration_act_1976_0.pdf

[3] https://wcd.nic.in/act/dowry-prohibition-act-1961

[4]https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1705381

[5] https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/files/live/India/India%20-%20COTPA%20-%20national.pdf

[6] https://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/A1981-14.pdf 

[7]https://clpr.org.in/blog/the-sc-st-prevention-of-atrocities-act-1989-dilution-by-the-courts/#:~:text=

[8]  1. CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS Articles 341 and 342 of the Constitution of India define as to who would be Scheduled Castes and Sc 

[9] https://persmin.gov.in/DOPT/Brochure_Reservation_SCSTBackward/Ch-01_2014.pdf 

[10] https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/readersblog/igoravsharma/what-is-right-to-education-act-rte-act-32034/

[11]. http://www.ncpcr.gov.in/view_file.php?fid=434

[12] https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/permanent-commission-to-women-implement-order-instead-of-seeking-clarifications-says-sc-to-govt-101627929389758.html

contemporary surrogacy laws in India: A critical analysis

DESCRIPTION OF THEME TO BE INVESTIGATED:

Nature has endowed every woman with the beautiful ability to generate life, and every woman treasures the experience of motherhood. However, due to specific physiological abnormalities, some mothers cannot give birth to their children. Alternative alternatives such as Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) and In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) are being sought by them. In vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine injections (IUI), and other fertility treatments have given hope to many infertile couples. Who wants for a child of their own medical science and technology have progressed to the point, particularly in assisted reproductive technologies, which has seen the introduction of treatments such as donor conception?  Insemination, embryo transfer procedures, and other reproductive technologies transform the reproductive environment.

A surrogate mother is a woman who agrees to have an embryo generated from the sperm of a man who is not her husband, and the oocyte for another woman implanted in her to carry the pregnancy to term and hand over the child to the person or persons for whom she is acting as surrogate; and a surrogate mother is a woman who agrees to have an embryo generated from the sperm of a man who is not her husband, and the oocyte for another woman (s).

Surrogacy has converted a natural biological function of a woman’s body into a business transaction. Surrogacy’s commercialization has sparked suspicions of a criminal market, baby selling and breeding farms, underprivileged women becoming baby producers, and selective breeding for a fee. Surrogacy turns a pregnancy into a service and a child into a commodity. As with any other business transaction, the ‘consumer’ establishes his or her terms before purchasing the items.

Surrogacy has converted a natural biological function of a woman’s body into a business transaction. Surrogacy’s commercialization has sparked suspicions of a criminal market, baby selling and breeding farms, underprivileged women becoming baby producers, and selective breeding for a fee. Surrogacy turns a pregnancy into a service and a child into a commodity. As with any other business transaction, the ‘consumer’ establishes his or her terms before purchasing the items. India is slowly but steadily gaining favour as a surrogacy destination for many wealthy foreigners. India’s inexpensive medical costs, superior reproductive technology, and poor socioeconomic conditions, along with a lack of regulating legislation, have made it a tempting alternative in this regard. In India, the women who perform these duties are mainly from the lower-to-lower middle classes, married, and frequently need money. As a result of competition, childless couples may usually negotiate a better price due to their financial need. The compensation given to a surrogate mother in India may appear minor from a rational standpoint; yet, it may serve as the family’s economic lifeblood, and will be spent on the family’s needs (a house, children’s education, medical treatment). These are the fundamental needs. These basic requirements may appear insignificant to affluent westerners, but they are essential. Even though a rising number of childless couples from abroad are flocking to India, legal experts have expressed reservations. Many people believe that there will be difficulties when the child is born, and that surrogacy should be carefully studied. Given that there are currently a number of clinics that provide similar services – gauged It is simple to choose a product based on the number of advertisements in local media and on the Internet. clinic. However, the true issue emerges once the child is born. In India, , Due to the lack of rules on the subject, immigrants are unable to obtain legal aid to take their children out of the country. The trade is thought to be worth over $500 million, and the number of surrogacy cases is steadily increasing. Typically, women from rural communities are chosen for pregnancy outsourcing.[1] Many couples from India and outside travel to areas like Anand, Surat, Jamnagar, Bhopal, and Indore to realise their yearning for a child. Several American, Russian, and British women have signed up for the surgery at the Akanksha Clinic in Anand and the Bhopal Test Tube Baby Centre.

Statement of problem

Lacunae in The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020

  1. focuses only on married couples

The Bill restricts surrogacy to married couples and, as a result, excludes members of the LGBTQ community, live-in couples, and single, divorced, or bereaved parents, thus criminalising their right to reproductive choice. The right to equality is guaranteed under Article 14 of the Constitution. The bill limits and conditions surrogacy to married Indian couples exclusively, and disqualifies ot

hers based on nationality, sexual orientation, marital status, and/or age. This fails the Article’s equality requirement as well as the reasonable categorization test

  1. infringement of the right to life

While the Bill’s positives are few, its drawbacks are numerous. The right to reproductive autonomy, which includes the freedom to conception and parenthood, is enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution. Interfering with basic rights is not the state’s domain. It is up to the individual to choose the mode of parenthood, i.e., whether to have a kid born naturally or through surrogacy.

  1. Lack of awareness and Information Access:

The awareness of a right is the first and most important need for asserting it., general legal knowledge is low, This illustrates the depressing state of legal rights awareness in India, particularly among vulnerable groups such as women. Furthermore, because traditional Indian society requires women to leave their parents’ home to live with their spouse, daughters have little or no access to knowledge about their inheritance and privilege

relevance of the theme:

Surrogacy can be divided into three categories:

  1. Surrogacy determined by genetics
  2. total surrogacy
  3. gestational surrogacy

Surrogacy is traditionally accomplished by artificial insemination, in which the surrogate uses her own egg and another man’s sperm. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is used for gestational surrogacy, in which fertilised eggs from another woman are put into the surrogate’s uterus. deciding which One of the most crucial and early considerations is the path to pursue. a surrogate mother and the intended father parents will have to make some decisions. A child’s commerce is difficult to envision since a child is a sign of love, not of money, and having a child is a perspective away from the notion of marketing activities. Surrogacy, on the other hand, has become a lucrative business in countries like India. Surrogacy’s commercialization has now become a political issue in Indian culture. The surrogacy market is quickly expanding and becoming quite substantial. In a nation like India, there are “N” numbers of potential parents who want to hire other women to birth their kid. Surrogacy has grown from a simple biotic function of a woman’s body into a business contract, and as a result, surrogate services are now widely advertised. Surrogates are being recruited, and the running agencies benefit handsomely. Surrogacy is currently referred to in India as a commercial contract for a woman’s regular biological function. The reason for the burgeoning surrogacy sector in India is because surrogate women are readily accessible in a nation like India, and the whole cost of the surrogacy process is far lower than in other countries Surrogacy instances have increased dramatically in the last few years.

On September 14, 2020, the Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2020 was introduced in the Lok Sabha. The bill aims to regulate Assisted Reproductive Technology services throughout the country.[2]

Assisted Reproductive Technology or (ART): The bill defines ART as any process for obtaining a pregnancy by manipulating sperm or oocytes (immature egg cells) outside the human body and transferring the gamete or embryo into a woman’s reproductive system. Gamete (sperm or oocyte) donation, in-vitro fertilisation (fertilising an egg in a lab), and gestational surrogacy are examples of ART services (the child is not biologically related to surrogate mother).[3]

Regulation of ART clinics: ART clinics and banks must be registered with the National Registry of Banks and Clinics of India, according to the bill. The Bill establishes the National Registry, which will serve as a single database containing information on all ART clinics and banks. To make the registration procedure easier, state governments will appoint registration authorities. Clinics and banks will be allowed to register if they meet specific criteria (specialised workforce, physical infrastructure, and diagnostic facilities). The registration will be valid for five years, with the option to renew for another five. If an entity violates the Bill’s terms, its registration may be revoked or suspended.

Gamete donation and supply: its conditions: Only a registered ART bank can screen gamete donors, collect and store semen, and provide oocyte donors. Males between the ages of 21 and 55 can donate semen, while females between 23 and 35 can donate oocytes. An oocyte donor should be a happily married lady with at least one living child (minimum three years of age). A woman can only contribute one oocyte once throughout her life, and she can only have seven oocytes extracted from her. A single donor’s gamete cannot be sent to more than one commissioning couple by a bank (couple seeking services).

On July 15, 2019, the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 was introduced in the Lok Sabha. 

Regulation of surrogacy: Commercial surrogacy is prohibited under the bill; however altruistic surrogacy is permitted. In an altruistic surrogacy, the surrogate mother receives no monetary compensation other than medical expenses and insurance coverage during the pregnancy. Commercial surrogacy refers to surrogacy or similar operations conducted for a financial benefit or reward (in cash or kind) above minimum medical expenses and insurance coverage.

Why is surrogacy permitted: Surrogacy is legal for the following reasons: Surrogacy is legal if it is used for the following reasons: I intended couples with proven infertility; (ii) altruistic; (iii) not for commercial purposes; (iv) not to produce children for sale, prostitution, or other forms of exploitation; and (v) any condition or disease specified by regulations.

The intended couple must have a ‘certificate of essentiality’ and a ‘certificate of eligibility’ from the competent authority.

Essential conditions for prospective couple: A certificate of essentiality will be issued if the following conditions are met: I a certificate of proven infertility from a District Medical Board for one or both members of the intending couple; (ii) a Magistrate’s court order of parentage and custody of the surrogate child; and (iii) insurance coverage for the surrogate for a period of 16 months covering postpartum delivery complications for the surrogate. The certificate of eligibility is given to the intending couple if they meet the following criteria: I they are Indian citizens and have been married for at least five years; (ii) they are between the ages of 23 and 55 (wife) and 26 to 55 (husband); (iii) they do not have any surviving child (biological, adopted, or surrogate); and (iv) they do not have a child who is mentally or physically challenged or suffers from a life-threatening disorder

Conditions to be met for becoming a surrogate mother: The surrogate mother must be: I a close relative of the intending couple; (ii) a married woman with a child of her own; (iii) 25 to 35 years old; (iv) a surrogate only once in her lifetime; and (v) have a certificate of medical and psychological suitability for surrogacy; and (iv) be a surrogate just once in her life. Surrogate mothers are also unable to donate their own gametes for surrogacy.

Authorities responsible: Within 90 days of the Bill becoming an Act, the federal and state governments must nominate one or more appropriate authorities. The competent authority’s responsibilities include: I issuing, suspending, or cancelling surrogacy clinic registration; (ii) enforcing surrogacy clinic standards; (iii) investigating and taking action against violations of the Bill’s provisions; and (iv) suggesting rule and regulation changes. Surrogacy clinics must be registered with the relevant authority before they can perform surrogacy treatments. Clinics have 60 days from the date of the appropriate authority’s appointment to apply for registration.

National and State Surrogacy Boards: The federal and state governments will create the National Surrogacy Board (NSB) and State Surrogacy Boards (SSB), respectively. I advising the central government on surrogacy policy, (ii) developing a code of conduct for surrogacy clinics, and (iii) regulating the functioning of SSBs are all tasks of the NSB.The federal and state governments will establish the National Surrogacy Board (NSB) and State Surrogacy Boards (SSBs). The NSB’s responsibilities include: I advising the central government on surrogacy policy; (ii) establishing a code of conduct for surrogacy clinics; and (iii) overseeing the operation of SSBs. The SSBs’ responsibilities include I monitoring the Act’s implementation and (ii) examining the activities of the appropriate authorities at the state/union territory level.

Termination of pregnancy of surrogate child: A child born through a surrogacy procedure is considered the biological child of the intended couple. The surrogate mother’s written consent and the authorised authority’s approval are required for the surrogate child’s abortion. In order for this authorization to be valid, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 must be followed. Furthermore, the surrogate mother will have the option to withdraw from surrogacy before the embryo is implanted in her womb.

Punishments and offences:[4]

abandoning or exploiting children born through ART, (ii) selling, purchasing, trading, or importing human embryos or gametes, (iii) obtaining donors through intermediaries, (iv) exploitation of the commissioning couple, woman, or gamete donor in any form, and (v) transferring the human embryo into a male or an animal. The first breach of these offences will result in a punishment of between five and 10 lakh rupees. For repeated infractions, these offences will be punished by imprisonment for a period of eight to twelve years, as well as a fine of ten to twenty lakh rupees. Any clinic or bank that promotes or sells sex-selective ART faces a five- to ten-year jail sentence, a fine of Rs 10 lakh to Rs 25 lakh, or both. The decision to use surrogacy has no bearing on whether or not a child is aborted Abortion of the surrogate child requires the surrogate mother’s written agreement and the approval of the authorised authority. According to the bill, no one can force the surrogate mother to terminate the foetus. The kid is considered the biological child of the intending couple after delivery, and they are responsible for raising the child. Only the surrogate mother’s consent will be required to abort a child born through a surrogacy arrangement if the kid is at risk of physical or mental defects. This is a decision that will be made without the input of the intended couple. Abortion is permitted in such instances under the MTP Act of 2021, with the agreement of the ‘pregnant lady.

Literature review

Every day, around 259,200 children are born. That’s nearly three children per second. For all those concerned, the birth of a new born child is frequently a highly special and interesting occasion. Unfortunately, some couples are unable to have children of their own owing to physiological issues. About one out of every six couples struggles with infertility. This encompasses both people who have been unable to conceive after a year of trying and those who have been unable to carry a pregnancy to term. Infertile marriages have been more common since the 1970s (Winston & Bane, 1993. Social attitudes on medical procedures such as IVF have evolved throughout time. As a result, infertile couples are less hesitant to seek aid.

Infertility impacts many infertile people’s most basic thoughts about who they are and what their position in the family is. It has an impact on one’s own identity. the degree to which a goal has been met as a result, infertility is considered a serious health issue. It’s also explaining why people who are unable to produce children naturally seek for alternative methods to take up the role of a parent In the past, couples who were unable to conceive were expected to pursue adoption as a means of achieving their goals.  Parental aspirations There are several choices available today for infertile couples, as well as singles and single parents who desire to start a family. The desire to be a parent drives people to seek out alternate answers. Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), and Intrauterine Injections are just a few examples (IUI).

Despite many news articles emerging in both national and international media on commercial surrogacy in India, according to Prof. Amrita Pandey’s[5] book (Who Owns These Nine Months—- 2008), Amrita talks of little attention on the difficult problems that surround this booming sector. Most news headlines, she claims, are about “outsourcing of pregnancy” in impoverished Anand, life tales of poor, illiterate women and their inebriated husbands, and the cost disparities in surrogacy in India and the United States, as well as their win-win endings. Surrogacy is a multibillion-dollar business in India and an ever-growing medical tourism sector, she argues, yet there are no regulations regulating or controlling commercial surrogacy. She wonders why there isn’t a legislation since surrogacy is such a big business. Is it because uncontrolled surrogacy is a lucrative industry because there are no laws? Surrogacy supporters say that the arrangements benefit all parties involved since the needs of two desperate women are satisfied. The phrase “the barren gets a kid, the broke gets a bonus” is commonly used to describe the surrogacy arrangement. Surrogate moms frequently put the money they earn to good use.

Others argue that the right to procreate is a crucial one. In the United States, for example, the Constitution protects this right (Field, 1990). Given their infertility, the couple may use their right in the most feasible way possible. However, according to Cline (2008), this right is not explicitly stated in the constitution. Margaret Jane Radin (1988) claims that if males may contribute sperm and be compensated for it, then surrogacy should be permitted as a similar trade for women.

Some authors make the economic argument that free trade would increase efficiency. When there are parents who want children and women who want to be surrogates, this will happen. However, underground markets will emerge once this transaction in parental rights is forbidden. According to Posner (1987), difficult adoption procedures in many nations cause people to go to other countries to avoid the regulations, resulting in a massive black market. As a result, acknowledging the existence of such a market is preferable to better controlling and optimising it.

Surprisingly, there are strong feminists on both sides of the debate. some claim that feminists who support full legalisation of surrogacy argue that the world isn’t perfect. Men and women are not equal, and women have been restricted to a distinct domain at home, away from the marketplace, for many years. This has rendered women helpless, as the marketplace, which is dominated by males, is the source of power. Men have been liberated as a result of this power. Women, too, desire to attain this. They don’t want guys telling them what will and won’t sell. Whether or whether child sale and surrogacy are ethically reprehensible should be judged by the women themselves. Many feminists utilise this logic to support the legalisation of surrogacy. Other feminists, on the other hand, agree that women have been kept out of the market for a long time, but women have also been perceived (and treated) as baby-producing machines in the past.

Surrogacy, according to Kimbrell (1988), abuses women economically, emotionally, and physically. One key element is that the majority of women who become surrogates do it for financial reasons. Because they are in severe need of funds to keep their family afloat. Furthermore, agents are Contracts of dubious legality are frequently engaged and arranged. The ladies are obligated to do certain tasks under the terms of their contracts go through all of the tribulations of childbirth, and finally have to give the kid away (Kembrell,1988). Surrogate mothers are frequently uninformed of their legal rights and, because to their financial situation, are unable to exercise them. They cannot afford to hire an attorney in this scenario. When the surrogate mother signs the contract They will not be able to flee because of the contract.


[1] Munjal-Shankar, D. (2016). COMMERCIAL SURROGACY IN INDIA: VULNERABILITY CONTEXTUALISED. Journal of the Indian Law Institute, 58(3), 350–366. http://www.jstor.org/stable/45163396

[2] https://indianexpress.com/article/india/cabinet-approval-to-bill-for-regulation-of-reproductive-technology-6276607

[3] https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/bills-on-assisted-reproductive-technology-surrogacy-passed/article37904427.ece

[4] THE SURROGACY (REGULATION) BILL, 2020

[5] Pande, A. (2010). Commercial Surrogacy in India: Manufacturing a Perfect Mother‐Worker. Signs, 35(4), 969–992.

WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION

Introduction

The World Commerce Agency (WTO) is an international organisation that was founded to oversee and liberalize global trade. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the successor of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was established in 1947 with the intention that it would be quickly replaced by a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) known as the International Trade Organization (ITO). Although the ITO never materialized, the GATT was a huge success in liberalising global commerce during the next five decades. By the late 1980s, there were proposals for a more powerful multilateral agency to oversee trade and settle trade disputes. The World Trade Organization (WTO) commenced operations on January 1, 1995, following the conclusion of the Uruguay Round of international trade talks (1986–94).

origin

The ITO, together with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, was initially envisioned as one of the fundamental pillars of post-World War II reconstruction and economic development. The UN Conference on Trade and Employment finalised a draught charter for the ITO, known as the Havana Charter, in Havana in 1948, which would have established broad laws covering trade, investment, services, and business and employment practises. The agreement, however, was not ratified by the United States. Meanwhile, on January 1, 1948, the GATT entered into force as an agreement negotiated by 23 nations in Geneva in 1947 to phase out the use of import quotas and lower tariffs on merchandise trade.

During the last round of talks in 1994, the original GATT and any revisions made previous to the Uruguay Round were called GATT 1947. This group of agreements differed from GATT 1994, which included the changes and clarifications made during the Uruguay Round (referred to as “Understandings”), as well as a dozen additional multilateral agreements on merchandise trade. GATT 1994 formed a fundamental component of the agreement that founded the World Trade Organization. 

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which attempted to supervise and liberalise trade; the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which sought to improve intellectual property protection across borders; the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, which established rules for resolving conflict between members; and the Trade Policy Review Mechanism, which dovetailed with the GATS (though the latter two were terminated at the end of 1997 with the creation of related WTO committees). These agreements were signed in April in Marrakech, Morocco.By the 2020s the WTO had more than 160 members. 

Goals and operations

The WTO has six primary goals: (1) to establish and enforce international trade rules, (2) to provide a forum for negotiating and monitoring further trade liberalisation, (3) to resolve trade disputes, (4) to increase the transparency of decision-making processes, (5) to collaborate with other major international economic institutions involved in global economic management, and (6) to assist developing countries in fully benefiting from the global trading system. Although these aims were shared by the GATT, the WTO pursued them more completely in practise. For example, although the GATT was almost entirely focused on products (albeit most agriculture and textiles were exempt), the WTO includes all goods, services, intellectual property, and some investment regulations.

Furthermore, the permanent WTO Secretariat, which took over from the temporary GATT Secretariat, has reinforced and codified systems for assessing trade policy and resolving disputes. Because the WTO covers many more items than the GATT, and because the number of member nations and the scope of their involvement has constantly increased—the combined share of international commerce of WTO members currently approaches 90% of the world total—open access to markets has risen significantly. Both the GATT and the WTO rules fulfil at least three functions. To begin, they seek to defend the interests of small and weak countries against the unfair trade practises of large and powerful countries.

The WTO’s most-favored-nation and national-treatment provisions require each WTO member to provide equal market access to all other members, as well as to treat local and international suppliers similarly. Second, the rules compel members to regulate trade solely through tariffs and to give market access equal to or better than that established in their schedules (i.e., the commitments that they agreed to when they were granted WTO membership or subsequently). Third, the laws are intended to assist governments in resisting lobbying efforts by domestic interest groups demanding preferential treatment. Although there have been notable exceptions to the standards, their inclusion and repetition in the fundamental WTO accords were designed to guarantee that the greatest abuses be avoided. The WTO was expected to improve economic wellbeing and lessen political tensions by giving greater clarity and predictability to international markets.

Trade Dispute Resolution

The GATT offered a forum for settling trade disputes, a role that was significantly expanded under the WTO. Members have agreed not to take unilateral action against one another. They are instead required to seek redress through the WTO’s dispute-resolution system and to follow its rules and judgments. The GATT’s dispute settlement procedures have been automated and considerably simplified, and the timeframe has been tightened. Dispute resolution begins with bilateral meetings facilitated by the director-mediation, general’s or “good offices.” If this does not work, an impartial panel is formed to hear the disagreement.

The panel sends a secret draught report to the parties for feedback, and then revises it before revealing it to the whole WTO membership. In contrast to the IMF and World Bank, which both employ weighted voting, each WTO member has only one vote. However, most decisions are taken by agreement, just as they were in the previous GATT system. After 60 days, unless one or both parties file a notice of appeal or the WTO members reject the report, it is automatically approved and legally binding. The procedure is expected to take nine months, and if an appeal is filed, the WTO Appellate Body will hear and rule on any claim of legal mistake within 60 days.

The WTO also aims to raise awareness about the scope and impact of trade-distorting measures, which it does through yearly notification requirements and a policy-review system. All changes in a member’s trade and trade-related policies must be announced and made available to trading partners. This requirement was a significant step toward more transparent government for many developing nations and countries whose economy were formerly centrally managed. The WTO evaluates the trade policies of the world’s four major traders (the European Union, the United States, Japan, and China) every two years, the policies of the next 16 largest traders every four years, and the policies of the world’s smallest traders every year.

Following thorough talks with the member countries under review, the WTO Secretariat releases its evaluation, along with a companion report from the government. As a result, the process checks how well members are achieving their obligations and gives information on freshly expanded markets. It also offers a more solid foundation for forthcoming trade discussions and trade dispute settlement.

Assessment

The rate of worldwide economic integration through the GATT and WTO global trade agreements has been slower and less thorough than some members would want. Some have proposed deeper integration within subgroups of (typically neighbouring) member economies, such as those parties to the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement (which has since been supplanted by the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, signed in 2018). for political, military, or other reasons—as well as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Despite the most-favored-nation clauses in the WTO’s founding agreements, the organisation does permit such preferential integration under specific situations. Despite the fact that many such integration agreements arguably do not cover “substantially all trade”—the WTO’s core condition—there has been little disagreement on the formation of free-trade zones and customs unions. Politically sensitive areas, such as agriculture, are the most prevalent exclusions from such accords. Beginning in the late 1990s, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was the object of harsh criticism. Opponents of economic globalisation (see antiglobalization), particularly those opposed to the rising influence of multinational companies, stated that the WTO violates national sovereignty and favours huge businesses at the expense of smaller local firms striving to compete with imports. Environmental and labour organisations (particularly those from wealthier nations) have complained that trade liberalisation hurts the environment and the interests of low-skilled unionised employees. Protests by these and other groups at WTO ministerial meetings, such as the 1999 demonstrations in Seattle, Washington, United States, which drew approximately 50,000 people, grew larger and more frequent, in part due to the development of the Internet and social media, which made large-scale demonstrations possible.

In response to such criticism, WTO advocates said that regulating trade is ineffective at protecting the environment and labour rights. Meanwhile, some WTO members, particularly developing nations, have resisted efforts to implement rules that would allow for fines against countries that fail to satisfy high environmental and labour standards, alleging that such regulations would amount to disguised protectionism.

Despite these objections, WTO membership remained appealing to nonmembers, as indicated by the expansion in membership after 1995. Most notably, China joined the WTO in 2001 following years of talks. The conditions for Chinese membership were in some ways more restrictive than those for developing countries, reflecting the concerns of some WTO members that the admission of such a large and still somewhat planned economy might have an overall negative effect on free trade.

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION

Beginnings

It is commonly stated that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in reaction to the Soviet Union’s threat. This is just partly correct. In truth, the formation of the Alliance was part of a larger strategy to dissuade Soviet expansionism, prevent the return of nationalist militarism in Europe by a strong North American presence on the continent, and encourage European political unification.

Much of Europe was destroyed in the aftermath of World War II in ways that are now impossible to imagine. The conflict had killed around 36.5 million Europeans, 19 million of whom were civilians. Rationing and refugee camps ruled daily life. In certain locations, infant mortality was one in every four. Millions of orphans roamed the charred remains.

Furthermore, Communists assisted by the Soviet Union were posing a danger to democratically elected governments throughout Europe. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia ousted the democratically elected government in that nation in February 1948, with clandestine support from the Soviet Union. In response to West Germany’s democratic consolidation, the Soviets blockaded Allied-controlled West Berlin in an attempt to strengthen their grip on the German capital. The courage of the Berlin Airlift brought some satisfaction to future Allies, but poverty remained a serious danger to democracy and security.

Fortunately, at that time, the United States had abandoned its customary policy of diplomatic isolationism. Aid supplied by the US-funded Marshall Plan (also known as the European Recovery Program) and other ways aided in the restoration of economic stability. However, before European countries could start talking and dealing with one another, they needed to be confident in their security. Military cooperation, as well as the security it would provide, would have to evolve in tandem with economic and political advancement. With this in mind, numerous Western European democracies joined together to pursue a variety of programmes aimed at increasing military cooperation and collective defence, including the establishment of the Western Union in 1948, subsequently renamed the Western European Union in 1954. In the end, only a genuinely transatlantic security accord might deter Soviet invasion while also avoiding the return of European militarism and creating the framework for political union.

As a result, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed on April 4, 1949, after considerable discussion and controversy. According to the Treaty’s legendary Article 5, the new Allies agreed that “an armed assault on one or more of them… must be regarded an attack against them all,” and that in the aftermath of such an attack, each Ally would take “such measures as may be necessary.”

Significantly, Articles 2 and 3 of the Treaty served essential functions that were not directly related to the prospect of assault. Article 3 set the groundwork for the Allies’ collaboration in military readiness, while Article 2 gave them some latitude in non-military cooperation. While the North Atlantic Treaty established Allies, it did not establish a military system capable of successfully coordinating their activities. This began to change when mounting concerns about Soviet intentions culminated in the Soviet testing of an atomic weapon in 1949 and the commencement of the Korean War in 1950. The impact on the Alliance was significant. NATO quickly established a unified command structure, with a military headquarters in the Paris neighbourhood of Rocquencourt, near Versailles. 

This was the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, or SHAPE, and the first Supreme Allied Commander Europe, or SACEUR, was US General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Soon after, the Allies formed a permanent civilian secretariat in Paris and appointed Lord Ismay of the United Kingdom as NATO’s first Secretary General.

Political stability was gradually restored to Western Europe as a result of aid and a security umbrella, and the post-war economic miracle started. Greece and Turkey joined the Alliance in 1952, and West Germany in 1955. The first tentative moves toward European political union were taken. In response to West Germany’s NATO membership, the Soviet Union and its client nations in Eastern Europe founded the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Europe fell into an uneasy truce, symbolised by the 1961 erection of the Berlin Wall.

NATO established the strategic doctrine of at the time “”Massive Retaliation” — if the Soviet Union launched an assault, NATO would react with nuclear weapons. The doctrine’s intended impact was to dissuade either side from taking risks, because any strike, no matter how little, might have resulted in a complete nuclear exchange. Concurrently, “Massive Retaliation” enabled Alliance members to concentrate their efforts on economic expansion rather than the maintenance of huge conventional armies. The Alliance also made its initial steps toward a political and military role. The smaller Allies, in particular, had urged for deeper non-military collaboration since the Alliance’s inception, and the Suez Crisis in the fall of 1956 exposed the lack of political consultation that had split certain members.

The Foreign Ministers of Norway, Italy, and Canada – the “Three Wise Men” – delivered a report to the North Atlantic Council recommending more robust consultation and scientific cooperation within the Alliance, and the report’s conclusions led, among other things, to the establishment of the NATO Science Programme.

Détente

This unhappy but steady status quo began to shift in the 1960s. As Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and US President John F. Kennedy narrowly escaped confrontation in Cuba, and as American participation in Vietnam grew, Cold War tensions resurfaced. Despite this unfavourable start, by the end of the decade, what had been essentially a defense-based organisation had come to represent a new phenomenon: détente, a reduction of tensions between the Western and Eastern blocs driven by a reluctant acceptance of the status quo. NATO and SHAPE unexpectedly relocated during this decade. France expressed its desire to withdraw from NATO’s integrated military command structure in March 1966, and demanded that all Allied headquarters be removed from French territory.

Significantly, France remained a member of the Alliance and continuously stated its determination to stand alongside its allies in the event of war. During following peacekeeping missions, France proved to be one of the Alliance’s most important force contributions. Flexibility has always been critical to NATO’s success, and France’s resignation from NATO’s integrated military command structure indicated that, unlike the Warsaw Pact, NATO could accept various points of view among its members.

As a reminder of this point, in August 1968, the Soviet Union led an invasion of Czechoslovakia that put an end to a period of political liberalisation in that country known as the Prague Spring. Like a similar invasion of Hungary in 1956 and military repression in Berlin in 1953, Soviet actions demonstrated what became known as the Brezhnev Doctrine: given the choice between short-term control of Eastern European client states and long-run political and economic reform, the Soviet Union would choose to maintain short-term control. The end of this policy would await a Soviet leader willing to choose long-run reform.Détente had many faces. West German Chancellor Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik sought to encourage European stability through closer relations between Eastern and Western Europe. US President John F. Kennedy’s strategy of “Flexible Response” sought to replace Massive Retaliation’s absolute dichotomy of peace or total nuclear war. Adopted in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Flexible Response enhanced NATO’s conventional defence posture by offering military responses short of a full nuclear exchange in the event of conflict. Also during this time, a report entitled “The Future Tasks of the Alliance”, delivered in December 1967 to the North Atlantic Council by Belgian Foreign Minister Pierre Harmel, recommended that NATO should have a political track promoting dialogue and détente between NATO and Warsaw Pact countries. The role of NATO had become not merely to preserve the status quo, but to help change it.

The Harmel Report helped to lay the foundation for the convening of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe in 1973. Two years later, the Conference led to the negotiation of the Helsinki Final Act. The Act bound its signatories – including the Soviet Union and members of the Warsaw Pact – to respect the fundamental freedom of their citizens, including the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief. Soviet rulers internally played down these clauses within the Act, attaching more importance to the Western recognition of the Soviet role in Eastern Europe. Eventually, however, the Soviets came to learn that they had bound themselves to powerful and potentially subversive ideas.

The cold war

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, as well as the deployment of SS-20 Saber ballistic missiles in Europe, resulted in the suspension of détente. To counter the Soviet deployment, the Allies decided to deploy nuclear-capable Pershing II and ground-launched cruise missiles in Western Europe while continuing talks with the Soviets. The deployment was not supposed to start until 1983. Meanwhile, the Allies intended to reach an agreement on armaments control that would eliminate the need for the weapons. Lacking the hoped-for agreement with the Soviets, NATO countries endured internal conflict when deployment began in 1983. Following the ascent of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet Premier in 1985, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces

Lacking the hoped-for agreement with the Soviets, NATO countries endured internal conflict when deployment began in 1983. Following the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as Soviet Premier in 1985, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces. This is now considered the first sign that the Cold War was coming to an end. The 1980s also saw NATO’s first new member since 1955 join. A newly democratic Spain joined the transatlantic Alliance in 1982.

By the mid-1980s, most international observers believed that Soviet Communism had lost the intellectual battle with the West. Dissidents had dismantled the ideological supports of Communist regimes, a process aided in retrospect by the Soviet Union’s own ostensible adherence to human rights principles outlined by the Helsinki Final Act. By the late 1980s, the communist government of Poland found itself forced to negotiate with the formerly repressed independent trade union “Solidarity” and its leader, Lech Wałęsa. Soon other democratic activists in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union itself would begin to demand those very rights.

By this time, command economies in the Warsaw Pact were disintegrating. The Soviet Union was spending three times as much as the United States on defence with an economy that was one-third the size. Mikhail Gorbachev came to power with the intention of fundamentally reforming the communist system. When the East German regime began to collapse in 1989, the Soviet Union did not intervene, reversing the Brezhnev Doctrine. This time, the Soviets chose long-run reform over a short-run control that was increasingly beyond their capabilities, setting in motion a train of events that led to the break-up of the Warsaw Pact.

NATO endured because while the Soviet Union was no more, the Alliance’s two other original if unspoken mandates still held: to deter the rise of militant nationalism and to provide the foundation of collective security that would encourage democratisation and political integration in Europe. The definition of “Europe” had merely expanded eastward. Before the consolidation of peace and security could begin, however, one spectre haunting European politics remained to be exorcised. Since the Franco-Prussian War, Europe had struggled to come to terms with a united Germany at its heart. The incorporation of a re-unified Germany into the Alliance put this most ancient and destructive of dilemmas to rest.

Reform

In 1991 as in 1949, NATO was to be the foundation stone for a larger, pan-European security architecture. In December 1991, the Allies established the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, renamed the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997. This forum brought the Allies together with their Central European, Eastern European, and Central Asian neighbours for joint consultations. Many of these newly liberated countries – or partners, as they were soon called – saw a relationship with NATO as fundamental to their own aspirations for stability, democracy, and European integration. Cooperation also extended southward. In 1994, the Alliance founded the Mediterranean Dialogue with six non-member Mediterranean countries: Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia, with Algeria also joining in 2000. The Dialogue seeks to contribute to security and stability in the Mediterranean through better mutual understanding.

This fledgling cooperation was soon put to the test. The collapse of Communism had given way to the rise of nationalism and ethnic violence, particularly in the former Yugoslavia. At first, Allies hesitated to intervene in what was perceived as a Yugoslav civil war. Later the conflict came to be seen as a war of aggression and ethnic cleansing, and the Alliance decided to act. Initially, NATO offered its full support to United Nations efforts to end war crimes, including direct military action in the form of a naval embargo. Soon the enforcement of a no-fly zone led to airstrikes against heavy weapons violating UN resolutions. Finally, the Alliance carried out a nine-day air campaign in September 1995 that played a major role in ending the conflict. In December of that year, NATO deployed a UN-mandated, multinational force of 60 000 soldiers to help implement the Dayton Peace Agreement and to create the conditions for a self-sustaining peace. In 2004, NATO handed over this role to the European Union.

By the end of 1998, over 300 000 Kosovar Albanians had fled their homes during conflict between Albanian separatists in Kosovo and Serbian military and police. Following the failure of intense international efforts to resolve the crisis, the Alliance conducted air strikes for 78 days and flew 38 000 sorties with the goal of allowing a multinational peacekeeping force to enter Kosovo and cease ethnic cleansing in the region. On 4 June 1999, NATO suspended its air campaign after confirming that a withdrawal of the Serbian army from Kosovo had begun, and the deployment of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) followed shortly thereafter. Today, KFOR troops are still deployed in Kosovo to help maintain a safe and secure environment and freedom of movement for all citizens, irrespective of their ethnic origin.

Conclusion

The 21st century will not be all about peacebuilding, however. Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014 and its aggressive actions against Ukraine have been a sobering reminder of the importance of NATO’s core task: collective defence. This, coupled with the Syrian conflict, the rise of ISIL and terrorism (and often home-bred terrorism), has become a brutal reality across many continents. Meanwhile, tensions rise as migrants seek refuge from conflict in countries that are struggling with the weight of ethnic and religious strife, demographic pressures and economic underperformance. Cyberattacks are becoming ever more frequent and ever more destructive. And through social media and other means, the opponents of liberal open societies are spreading disinformation and propaganda that seek to undermine the values that NATO has always sought to protect and promote. Altogether, the complexity of the current security environment is such that NATO’s flexibility is, yet again, put to the test.

Since its founding in 1949, the transatlantic Alliance’s flexibility, embedded in its original Treaty, has allowed it to suit the different requirements of different times. In the 1950s, the Alliance was a purely defensive organization. In the 1960s, NATO became a political instrument for détente. In the 1990s, the Alliance was a tool for the stabilization of Eastern Europe and Central Asia through the incorporation of new Partners and Allies. In the first half of the 21st century, NATO faces an ever-growing number of new threats. As the foundation stone of transatlantic peace and freedom, NATO must be ready to meet this challenge.

The Russia and Ukraine conflict: explained.

INTRODUCTION

The Russia-Ukraine Border Conflict has been smouldering for over two months, with diplomatic efforts to address the matter showing little headway. Russia has over 100,000 troops stationed along its border with Ukraine, prompting Western predictions of an impending invasion. Meanwhile, NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg expressed worry that Russia will build up personnel numbers around Ukraine’s borders, especially in Belarus.

BACKGROUND

The Ukrainian border dispute began in November 2013 with protests in Kyiv over Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych’s decision to reject an agreement for closer economic integration with the European Union. President Yanukovych departed the nation in February 2014, after a harsh response by state security forces accidentally drew an even more significant number of protestors and intensified the crisis.

Russian soldiers seized control of Ukraine’s Crimean peninsula in March 2014 before legally annexing the peninsula after Crimeans decided to join the Russian Federation in a contentious local referendum. Russian President Vladimir Putin emphasised the importance of defending the rights of the Russian people and Russian speakers in Crimea and southeast Ukraine. The border war exacerbated ethnic tensions, and two months later, the pro-Russian sentiment was on the rise.

When a Malaysian Airlines aircraft was shot down over Ukrainian airspace in July 2014, the situation in Ukraine escalated into an international crisis, putting the United States and the European Union (EU) at odds with Russia.

Ukraine and the West accused Russia of providing troops and weapons to the insurgents, which Russia denied. On the other hand, Russia has sharply criticised the United States and NATO for supplying Ukraine with weaponry and conducting joint military exercises. President Putin, too, has expressed alarm over plans by certain NATO countries to create military training centres in Ukraine, which will allow military presence in the region even if Ukraine does not join NATO.

Russia stated in its security demands that it does not want Ukraine to be a member of NATO and wants all NATO drills along its borders to halt and the evacuation of NATO forces from Central and Eastern Europe. It should be mentioned that Ukraine’s accession to NATO would need the unanimous agreement of the NATO member states.

Furthermore, Russia regards Ukraine as a territory inside its “sphere of influence” rather than an independent state. However, the United States and NATO have rejected Russia’s requests. The West is backing Ukraine and has threatened Russia with financial repercussions if its forces march into Ukraine.

ROOTS OF THE CRISIS

When the Soviet Union disintegrated in the early 1990s, Ukraine, a former Soviet country, held the world’s third-biggest nuclear arsenal. The US and Russia worked with Ukraine to de-nuclearize the nation, and in a series of diplomatic deals, Kyiv handed up hundreds of atomic weapons to Russia in exchange for security assurances that Russia would not attack it.

When Russia invaded Ukraine in 2014, such guarantees were tested. Russia seized the Crimean Peninsula and sponsored a separatist insurrection in the eastern Donbas area led by pro-Russian rebels. (Too far, the violence in east Ukraine has killed over 14,000 people.)On March 18, 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin and the Russian-installed leader of Crimea, Sergei Kasyanov, far right, attended a rally in Red Square in Moscow, Russia, following Putin’s annexation of Crimea from Ukraine

Russia’s offensive stemmed from widespread demonstrations in Ukraine that deposed the country’s pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych (partially over his abandonment of a trade agreement with the European Union). US officials visited the protests in symbolic acts that irritated Putin even more.

President Barack Obama, wary of further escalation of relations with Russia, was sluggish to assemble a diplomatic reaction in Europe and did not immediately deploy offensive weaponry to Ukrainians.

KEY EVENTS OF THE RUSSIA-UKRAINE BORDER CONFLICT

November 2021

Satellite footage indicates a massive build-up of Russian troops on Ukraine’s border, and Kyiv claims Moscow has mobilised 100,000 soldiers, tanks, and other military gear.

December 7, 2021

US Vice President Joe Biden has warned Russia that if it invades Ukraine, it will face severe economic consequences

December 17, 2021

Russia makes explicit security demands to the West, including the cessation of all NATO military activities in eastern Europe and Ukraine and the alliance’s refusal to admit Ukraine or other former Soviet republics as members.

January 3, 2022

Joe Biden promises Ukraine’s President Volodymyr Zelenskyy that the US will “act strongly if Russia invades Ukraine.”

January 10, 2022

Officials from the United States and Russia are meeting in Geneva for diplomatic talks, but tensions remain unsolved as Moscow reiterates security concerns that Washington refuses to accept.

January 24, 2022

NATO places soldiers on alert and strengthens its military presence in Eastern Europe with more ships and fighter planes. Some Western countries have begun removing non-essential diplomatic personnel from Kyiv. The United States deploys 8,500 troops on alert.

January 26, 2022

Washington issues a formal answer to Russia’s security requests, reiterating NATO’s “open-door” policy while providing a “principled and pragmatic assessment” of Moscow’s concerns.

January 27, 2022

Joe Biden predicts a Russian invasion in February. China lends its diplomatic weight to Russia, telling the United States that Moscow’s “legitimate security concerns” should be “considered seriously.”

January 28, 2022

Russian President Vladimir Putin claims that Russia’s primary security needs have not been met, but Moscow is willing to negotiate.

January 31, 2022

At a special private session of the UN Security Council, the United States and Russia dispute over the Ukraine situation.

February 1, 2022

Putin rejects any plans for an invasion and accuses the United States of disregarding his country’s security requests.

February 6, 2022

According to unidentified US sources reported in US media, Russia has completed 70% of the military preparations required to launch a full-scale invasion of Ukraine.

February 8, 2022

French President Emmanuel Macron meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow and promises reporters that Russia will not aggravate the Ukraine situation. On the other hand, the Kremlin denied that Macron and Putin reached an agreement to de-escalate the conflict. Dmitry Peskov, a Kremlin spokesperson, stated that “given the current environment, Moscow and Paris cannot make any agreements.”

February 10, 2022

In vain, foreign Secretary Liz Truss of the United Kingdom and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov meet.

February 11, 2022

According to Jake Sullivan, Biden’s national security advisor, US information indicates that a Russian invasion may begin within days before the Beijing Olympics conclude on February 20.

The United States and the United Kingdom have urged their people to flee Ukraine. President Biden announces the deployment of an additional 2,000 US soldiers to Poland.

February 12, 2022

Biden and Putin communicate via video conference. The US president stated that a Russian invasion of Ukraine would result in “widespread human misery” and that the West was dedicated to negotiation to settle the problem but was also “equally prepared for alternative possibilities.”

In the call, Putin complained that the US and NATO had not reacted adequately to Russian demands that Ukraine be barred from joining the military alliance and NATO withdraw.

February 17, 2022

Ukrainians rejected Moscow’s demands with a national display of flag-waving solidarity, as the US warned that Russia had deployed up to 7,000 troops near Ukraine’s borders, despite Kremlin declarations that forces were being withdrawn from the region.

February 18, 2022

While officials from the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization assured that communication was still possible, Russia expelled the United States’ second-highest diplomat in Moscow.

WOMEN’S ROLE IN THE ECONOMY.

INTRODUCTION

Women have faced enormous obstacles in their pursuit of opportunities to put themselves on an equal footing with men. Inequality between men and women was abundantly visible a quarter-century ago—in university courses, the workplace, and even in households. In many ways, the lives of women and girls throughout the world have improved considerably since then. Most people in most nations, wealthy and poor, go to school more, live longer, find better employment, and gain legal rights and protections.

However, significant gender disparities persist. Women and girls are more likely to die than men and boys in numerous low- and middle-income nations than in affluent countries. Almost everywhere, women earn less and are less economically productive than men. Women have fewer opportunities than males to control their lives and make decisions.

Closing gender disparities is essential for development and policymaking, according to the World Bank’s 2012 World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development. Greater gender equality can boost economic output, better development outcomes for future generations, and make institutions and policies more representative.

Why women’s role in the economy is critical

  • Economic empowerment is critical to achieving women’s rights and gender equality. Women’s economic empowerment includes the ability of women to participate equally in existing markets, access to and control over productive resources, access to decent work, control over their own time, lives, and bodies, and increased voice, agency, and meaningful participation in economic decision-making at all levels, from the household to international institutions.
  • Empowering women in the economy and closing gender gaps in the workplace is critical to achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development [1] and the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly Goal 5, which promotes gender equality, and Goal 8, which supports full and productive employment and decent work for all; as well as Goal 1 on ending poverty and Goal 2 on food security.

Every aspect of gender equality—access to education and health, economic opportunities, and voice within households and society—has experienced a mixed pattern of change over the past quarter-century. In some areas, such as education, the gender gap has closed for almost all women; but progress has been slower for the poor and faces other disadvantages, such as ethnicity. In other areas, the opening has been slow to close—even among well-off women and countries that have otherwise developed rapidly.

The gender gap has closed in almost all countries in primary education, and it is shrinking quickly in secondary education. Indeed, girls now outnumber boys in secondary schools in nearly one-third of developing countries. There are more young women than men in universities in two-thirds of the countries for which there are data: women today represent 51 percent of the world’s university students (see Chart 1). Yet more than 35 million girls do not attend school in developing countries, compared with 31 million boys, and two-thirds of these girls are members of ethnic minorities.

Women have been living longer than males in all regions of the world since 1980. However, in all developing nations, women, and girls continue to die at a younger age than men and boys, compared to affluent ones. As a result of this “excess female mortality,” around 3.9 million girls and women under the age of 60 go “missing” in underdeveloped nations each year (see table). Two-fifths are never born, one-sixth die in infancy and more than one-third die within their reproductive years. Female mortality increases in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among women of reproductive age and in nations most impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  • Increasing women’s and girls’ educational attainment contributes to economic empowerment and more inclusive economic growth. Education, upskilling, and re-skilling over the life course – especially to keep pace with rapid technological and digital transformations affecting jobs—are critical for women’s and girls’ health and well-being and their income-generation opportunities and participation in participation in the formal labor market. Increased educational attainment accounts for about 50 percent of the economic growth in OECD countries over the past 50 years.[ But, for the majority of women, significant gains in education have not translated into better labor market outcomes.
  • Women’s economic equality is good for business. Companies greatly benefit from increased employment and leadership opportunities for women, which is shown to increase organizational effectiveness and growth. It is estimated that companies with three or more women in senior management functions score higher in all dimensions of organizational performance.

Gender equality and progress

Gender equality is vital in and of itself. Development is a process of increasing freedoms for all individuals, male and female (Sen, 2009). Closing the gender disparity in well-being is as important to development as lowering income poverty. Greater gender equality promotes economic efficiency and other development benefits. It accomplishes this in three significant ways:

  • First, with women currently accounting for 40% of the global workforce and more than half of all university students, total production will rise if their abilities and talents are adequately used. For example, if women farmers had equal access to productive resources like land and fertilizers as males, agricultural productivity in developing nations might increase. Eliminating obstacles to women working in specific industries or occupations might boost production by increasing women’s involvement and labour productivity by up to 25% in some countries through better allocation of their skills and ability).
  • Second, women’s increased control over household resources, whether through their earnings or monetary transfers, might improve countries’ economic prospects by shifting expenditure in favour of children. Evidence from Brazil, China, India, South Africa, and the United Kingdom suggests that when women control more household money, whether, through their employment or monetary transfers, children benefit from increased expenditure on food and education (World Bank, 2011).
  • lastly, it can make institutions more representative of a range of voices. In India, giving power to women at the local level led to the more excellent provision of public goods, such as water and sanitation, which mattered more to women (Beaman and others, 2011).

Gender disparities in legislation

Gender disparities in legislation influence both emerging and developed economies and women in all areas. Over 2.7 billion women worldwide are legally barred from having the same work options as males. Of the 189 economies reviewed in 2018, 104 still have laws prohibiting women from working in specified occupations, 59 have no laws prohibiting sexual harassment in the workplace, and husbands can legally restrict their wives from working in 18 economies. [8] Women continue to be less likely than males to engage in the world’s labor market. The labour force participation rate for women aged 25-54 is 63%, compared to 94% for males. [9] In 2018, when younger (aged 15 and up) and older (aged 55 and up) women are included,

Policy factors

To achieve gender equality, policymakers must prioritise the following actions: reducing the excess mortality of girls and women; eliminating remaining gender disadvantages in education; increasing women’s access to economic opportunity and thus earnings and productivity; providing women with an equal voice in households and societies; and limiting the transmission of gender inequality across generations.

To minimise the excess mortality of girls and women, attention must be paid to the underlying reasons at each age. Given girls’ increased sensitivity (compared to boys’) to waterborne infectious illnesses in infancy and early childhood, increasing water supply and sanitation, as Vietnam has done, is critical to lowering excess female mortality in this age range (World Bank, 2011) and improving access to health care for the underserved.

Broader access to antiretroviral medications and lowering the frequency of new infections must be prioritised in Sub-Saharan Africa’s worst afflicted areas by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. To offset sex-selective abortions, which result in fewer female births, particularly in China and northern India, the societal worth of girls must be increased, as Korea has done.

Barriers to access due to poverty, race, or location must be removed to close education inequalities in nations where they exist. More schools in remote locations, for example, can help to close the gender gap in areas where distance is a major issue (such as rural districts of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan). When tailored solutions are difficult to execute or too expensive, demand-side interventions, such as cash transfers tied to school attendance might be used. Such conditional financial transfers have been successful in raising females’ enrollment rates in nations ranging from Mexico to Turkey to Pakistan (World Bank, 2011)

CONCLUSION.

A mix of measures is required to increase women’s access to economic opportunity, hence lowering the male-female inequality in incomes and economic production. Solutions include freeing up women’s time so they can work outside the home, such as through subsidised child care in Colombia; improving women’s credit access, such as in Bangladesh; and ensuring access to productive resources, particularly land, as in Ethiopia, where joint land titles are now granted to wives and husbands. Addressing a lack of knowledge on women’s productivity in the workplace and reducing institutional prejudices against women, such as instituting quotas that favour women or job placement programmes,  as in Jordan, will also open up economic opportunities to women.

Vaccine bonanza: The magic behind and various kinds

What are vaccines?

Vaccines are classified into several categories, however they all act on the same premise. This is done to prime the immune system to recognise a pathogen (a disease-causing organism) or a component of a pathogen. If the immune system is educated to recognise this, the pathogen will be expelled from the body if it is subsequently exposed to it. The immune system recognises foreign ‘antigens,’ which are pathogen elements on the surface or inside the pathogen that are not ordinarily found in the body. To create protection, the earliest human vaccines against viruses used weakened or attenuated viruses. Cowpox was included in the smallpox vaccine because it was similar enough to smallpox to protect against it but did not generally cause major sickness. Rabies was the first virus to be attenuated in a lab and used to develop a vaccine for people.

Types of vaccines

Whole virus vaccines

Vaccines Topics Four images working 02

1) Viral Vectored Vaccines

Unlike most traditional vaccinations, viral vector-based vaccines do not include antigens but instead employ the body’s own cells to manufacture them. They accomplish this by delivering genetic code for antigen, in this case COVID-19 spike proteins present on the virus’s surface, into human cells via a modified virus (the vector). The vaccine simulates what happens during natural infection with some pathogens, particularly viruses, by infecting cells and commanding them to produce huge amounts of antigen, which then triggers an immune response. This has the benefit of inducing a significant cellular immunological response by T cells as well as antibody production by B cells. The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine against Ebola is an example of a viral vector vaccine.

ADVANTAGES  

  • Technology that is well-established
  • A powerful immunological reaction
  • B and T cells are involved in the immune response.

DISADVANTAGES

  • Prior exposure to the vector may limit its efficacy.
  • Manufacturing is rather difficult.
  • Replicating

When utilised as a vaccine delivery platform, replicating viral vectors maintain the potential to generate new viral particles in addition to delivering the vaccination antigen. As with live attenuated entire pathogen vaccinations, this has the natural benefit of providing a continuous source of vaccine antigen over a prolonged length of time compared to non-replicating vaccines, and hence is likely to induce a higher immune response. A single vaccination may be sufficient to provide protection. Replicating viral vectors are often chosen such that the viruses themselves are innocuous or attenuated, so that they cannot cause illness while infecting the host

Non-replicating

During the process of delivering the vaccination antigen to the cell, non-replicating viral vectors lose their ability to generate new viral particles. This is due to the removal of crucial viral gene that allow the virus to proliferate in the lab. This has the advantage of preventing illness and reducing unpleasant outcomes associated with viral vector proliferation. However, vaccine antigen can only be generated when the first vaccination is still present in infected cells (a few days). 

VACCINE which used viral vector technique: astra Zeneca and johnson and johnson

 2) inactivated Vaccine

The first step in creating a vaccine is to inactivate or kill the disease-carrying virus or bacteria, or one that is substantially similar to it, using chemicals, heat, or radiation. This strategy employs technology that has been shown to be effective in humans – this is how flu and polio vaccinations are produced – and vaccines can be produced on a reasonable scale. However, it takes sophisticated laboratory equipment to safely cultivate the virus or bacteria, can take a relatively lengthy time to produce, and will almost certainly require two or three doses to be delivered.

example is India’s covaxin

3) Vaccine with live attenuation

A live-attenuated vaccine employs an alive but weakened form of the virus, or one that is extremely close to it. This type of vaccination includes the (MMR) vaccine as well as the chickenpox and shingles vaccine. This method, like the inactivated vaccine, employs comparable technology and can be produced on a large scale. However, such vaccinations may not be appropriate for those with impaired immune systems.

4) Subunit vaccines

Vaccines Topics Four images working 03

Subunit vaccines include purified fragments of a pathogen that have been particularly chosen for their capacity to activate immune cells rather than injecting the entire pathogen to elicit an immune response. Subunit vaccinations are regarded extremely safe since these pieces are incapable of producing illness.

There are various varieties: Polysaccharide vaccines comprise sequences of sugar molecules present in the cell walls of some bacteria; conjugate subunit vaccines attach a polysaccharide chain to a carrier protein to try to increase the immune response. Other subunit vaccinations are already being used widely. The hepatitis B and acellular pertussis vaccines, the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and the MenACWY vaccine (polysaccharides are examples

Vaccines based on Recombinant Proteins

Recombinant vaccines are created by employing bacterial or yeast cells to produce the vaccine. A little bit of DNA from the virus or bacteria that we wish to preserve is extracted and put into the producing cells. To manufacture the hepatitis B vaccine, for example, a portion of the hepatitis B virus’s DNA is incorporated into the DNA of yeast cells. These yeast cells may then manufacture one of the hepatitis B virus’s surface proteins, which is purified and utilised as the active element in the vaccine. These polysaccharides or proteins are known as antigens because they are recognised as ‘foreign’ by our immune system.

Even if the vaccine only contains a few of the thousands of proteins found in a bacteria, they are sufficient to elicit an immune response that can protect against the disease.

Toxoid vaccines

When some bacteria assault the body, they release toxins (poisonous proteins), and it is the toxins, not the germs, that we wish to be protected against. The immune system recognises these toxins in the same way that it recognises other antigens on the bacteria’s surface and can develop an immunological response to them. Inactivated forms of these toxins are used in several vaccinations. Toxoids are so-called because they resemble toxins but are not harmful. They elicit a powerful immunological response.

vaccines which use protein subunits are novovax

 ADVANTAGES

  • Technology that is well-established
  • Appropriate for persons with weakened immune system
  • no living components, there is no possibility of the vaccination causing illness.
  • stable

DISADVANTAGES

  • Manufacturing is rather difficult.
  • It is possible that adjuvants and booster injections will be necessary.
  • It takes time to find the ideal antigen mix.

5) Nucleic acid vaccines

Nucleic acid vaccines employ genetic material from a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, to induce an immune response against it. Depending on the vaccination, the genetic material might be DNA or RNA; in all cases, it offers instructions for producing a specific pathogen protein that the immune system will recognize as alien (an antigen). When this genetic information is injected into host cells, it is read by the cell’s own protein-making machinery and utilised to produce antigens, which subsequently activate an immune response.

Vaccines Topics Four images working 05 DNA RNA v2

ADVANTAGES

  • immune response involves B cells and T cells
  • No live components, so no risk of the vaccine triggering disease
  • Relatively easy to manufacture

DISADVANTAGES

  • Some RNA vaccines require ultra-cold storage
  • Never been licensed in humans
  • Booster shots may be required

RNA vaccines

mRNA (messenger RNA) is used inside a lipid (fat) membrane in RNA vaccinations. This fatty coating both protects the mRNA when it initially enters the body and assists it in entering cells by bonding with the cell membrane. Once within the cell, machinery inside the cell converts the mRNA into the antigen protein. This mRNA normally lasts a few days, but enough antigen is produced during that period to induce an immunological response. The body then naturally breaks it down and eliminates it. RNA vaccines do not have the ability to combine with the human genetic code (DNA).

RNA vaccines are used in both the Pfizer BioNTech and the Moderna .

DNA vaccines

Because DNA is more stable than mRNA, it does not require the same level of protection at the start. DNA vaccines are often delivered via an electroporation approach. This method employs low-level electrical waves to allow the DNA vaccination to be absorbed by the body’s cells. Before DNA can be translated into protein antigens that elicit an immune response, it must first be translated to mRNA within the cell nucleus. There are presently no licenced DNA vaccines, although many are in the works.

BRAIN DRAIN IN INDIA: the phenomenon.

What is brain drain?

The movement of educated people from one nation to another is known as brain drain.

When human resources leave their home nation to work in industrialised countries such as Europe, North America, and Australia, this is referred to as primary external brain drain.

Secondary external brain drain happens when human resources leave their home nation to work in another location.

Internal brain drain happens when human resources are not employed in their fields of competence in their home nation, or when human resources transfer from the public to private sectors or within a sector.

According to the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), over six lakh Indians have abandoned their citizenship in the last five years. Up till September 30, 2021, around 1,11,287 Indians had renounced their citizenship. Except for the 2008 financial crisis and in 2020-21 owing to Covid-19-related travel limitations, there has been a constant emigration of Indians during the last two decades. India has emerged as a significant exporter of healthcare personnel to industrialised countries, notably the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Europe, and other English-speaking countries. According to OECD data, around 69,000 Indian-trained doctors worked in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and Australia in 2017. In the same year, 56,000 Indian-trained nurses worked in these four nations. As a result, there is a large-scale exodus of Indian health personnel.

Recently, a considerable number of High-Net-Worth Individuals (HNWIs) have begun to relocate abroad. According to a Morgan Stanley bank analysis from 2018, 23,000 Indian billionaires have fled India since 2014. According to a recent Global Wealth Migration Review study, approximately 7,000 millionaires, or 2% of the total number of HNWIs in India, departed the nation in 2019, costing the country billions in lost tax income. Furthermore, the growing “brain drain” problem has resulted in an exodus of talented workers and professionals. According to a study published in Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, a peer-reviewed orthopedic magazine, around 30% of physicians in the National Health Services in England are of Indian heritage.

In 5 years, 5 lakh Indians gave up citizenship - Times of India

Why are Indians moving abroad?

Indian expertise, language aptitude, and a higher level of education are just a few of the draws for nations that have relaxed immigration policies in order to recruit talent. As possibilities grow increasingly rare in India, other nations are becoming more aware of the multi-talented Indian engineers, surgeons, and scientists who also speak English.

The reasons for this brain drain can be substantiated into a few key categories-

Factors that contribute to brain drain include:

  • Inadequate access to higher education: Access to higher education in India is becoming increasingly difficult due to rising cut-offs and a plethora of competitive exams. In terms of abilities and knowledge, they have an advantage over students from other nations when studying abroad. According to a study by news station WION, more than half of the top scorers in the 10th and 12th board examinations between 1996 and 2015 – the finest Indian brains – went overseas and are still employed there. In the Budget 2019-20, India committed Rs 6.43 lakh crore of public funding to education, a portion of which was used to subsidise the studies of talented emigrant Indians.
  • In this sense, investment in the Indian educational system indirectly helps to the advancement of other countries. “Padhega India, Badhega America!” is a famous social media meme that puts a hilarious spin on this underappreciated topic.
  • Lack of financial support for research: For years, India’s Gross Domestic Spending on Research has remained constant at 0.7 percent of GDP. Among the BRICS countries, India has one of the lowest GERD/GDP ratios. As a result, R&D experts tend to relocate to other nations to continue their research. In February 2020, the government said, “Out of total 103 senior research associateships awarded by the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research in 2019, 28 per cent (29) were awarded to young Indian researchers who had been working abroad.”
  • Lower-income: Developed countries pay higher wages in fields such as health care, research, and information technology. One of the primary reasons for departure from India is a lack of income.
  • Non-recognition of talents: In a population this huge, and with norms favouring the glamour world over academic aptitude, the odds of getting acknowledged in one’s specialty are slim; bright minds choose foreign nations where their work is better valued.
In 5 years, 5 lakh Indians gave up citizenship - Times of India

Why does brain drain happen?

  • Superior living standards: The industrialised nations give better living standards, incomes, tax breaks, and so on, which is a big draw for emigrants.
  • Improved quality of life: It is unarguable that the amenities offered outside have yet to be matched by developing nations, and hence migrations will continue until that level of living quality is realised.
  • Societal pressure: Indian young are growing more liberal and personal with their lives, and society has yet to adjust to this new way of life. As a result, the pressure to live a specific way in Indian culture is limiting today’s teenagers’ freedom of choice, prompting them to seek western nations where society is more liberal and non-interfering.
  • Easy migration policy: Developed countries are relaxing migration regulations in order to recruit talent and grow their economies. They especially target Asians for intellectual labour.
  • Greater remuneration: Of course, the better salary and living standards given by emerging nations are the primary reasons for emigration.

Brain Gain

The transnational migration of skilled employees signifies brain gain for the nations that reap their abilities. The young people who travel overseas have a relatively restricted skill base. They hone their abilities overseas via further education and work experience, so that when they return, they bring brainpower with them. Some call it Brain Circulation as well. Then, as a result of internal migrations of both skilled and unskilled workers, important industrial and technological centres have emerged.

Reverse brain drain

Reverse Brain Drain occurs when experts return to their home country after a few years of experience to create a business, join a research university, or work for a multinational corporation (MNC). When human capital travels in reverse order from a more developed country to a less developed or fast emerging country, this is referred to as reverse brain drain. These migrants save money, known as remittances, and learn skills that they may employ in their native country. India has a sizable diaspora all over the world. Indian skilled professionals who have been trained and located in other countries are increasingly returning home to take advantage of the country’s favourable economic growth and STEM job prospects. Various governments have encouraged Indians to go overseas, including to take up employment, over the years. Governments have taken satisfaction in the existence of a thriving 3.2 billion-strong diaspora comprised of non-resident Indians (NRIs) and Indians.

Government’s stance on Brain drain:

India does not offer dual citizenship hence people seeking citizenship in other countries must give up their Indian passport. However, Indians who renounce citizenship can still apply for an Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) card, which gives them the benefit of residing and even running a business in India. The Indian government has a simple online process for citizenship renouncing, making it clear that they are much worried about the outflow of the talented population.

schemes by the government to bring back Indian scientists like-

  • ‘The Ramanujan Fellowship, Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) Programme’ to encourage scientists and engineers of Indian origin from all over the world to take up scientific research positions in India, especially those scientists who want to return to India from abroad.
  • The Ramalingaswamy Fellowship, for providing a platform for scientists who are willing to return and work in India.
  • Vaishvik Bharatiya Vaigyanik (VAIBHAV) summit: Under this, Numerous overseas Indian-origin academicians and Indians participated to form ideas on innovative solutions to several challenges.

Suggestions and recommendations

India needs systematic adjustments to create an overall atmosphere that is favourable to the gifted enough to inspire them to stay in the country. The government should concentrate on developing policies that encourage circular migration and return migration. Policies that encourage professionals to return home after completing their training or studies, for example, would be appreciated. India might also conduct negotiations to develop bilateral agreements for a “brain-share” strategy between sending and receiving countries.

ABORTION LAWS IN INDIA: history and development

India's 'Conditional' Right to Abortion, Health News, ET HealthWorld

abstract

abortion, a subject that has become very popular throughout the world in recent times, is the termination of pregnancy before the completion of the gestation period. With its diversity and the astounding socio-economic differences that exist in its population, India has often struggled with law implementation. The woman in this country is at a disadvantage as access to abortion facilities proves to be complicated. The author critically analyses various abortion laws dating from pre-independence to modern-day India and people’s changing attitudes. In the end, the paper suggests remedies that the government can do to improve the lack of abortion facilities.

Introduction

Women in impoverished nations face severe public health problems due to unsafe abortion complications. Abortion is permitted in India for a variety of medical and social reasons. Officially, women can obtain safe abortion services from skilled medical experts at registered institutions, and minors must obtain parental approval. In practice, women are denied safe abortion services due to a lack of access to authorised abortion providers, the threat of forced contraceptive acceptance, the financial costs of legal abortion, the stigma associated with induced abortion, and a lack of awareness about the procedure’s legality. As a result, women frequently turn to inexperienced clandestine practitioners practising in hazardous conditions. The implications of such abortions range from life-threatening to chronic reproductive system morbidities such as infections, permanent incapacity, and infertility. Every year in India, an estimated 453 women die due to maternal causes for every 100,000 live births (UNFPA 1997). This statistic obscures the wide disparity across states. While national and state figures are imperfect, they can depict certain tendencies. In 1992, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh had 738 and 711 maternal fatalities per 100,000 births.

Laws in the pre-independence era

The Indian Penal Code 1862 and the Code of Criminal Procedure 1898, which sprang from the British Offences Against the Person Act 1861, made abortion a felony punishable for both the woman and the abortionist unless done to preserve the woman’s life. Abortion laws were liberalised across Europe and the Americas in the 1960s and 1970s, and this trend continued in many other areas of the world into the 1980s.  Abortion legislation liberalisation in India began in 1964 in response to increased maternal mortality due to unsafe abortion. Doctors regularly encountered seriously sick or dying women who had resorted to unsafe abortions performed by inexperienced practitioners. 

Post independence era

medical termination of pregnancy act(MTP) 1971

the Government of India established a committee in 1964 led by Shanti Lal Shah. The primary purpose of constituting that group was to examine the challenges associated with the liberalisation of abortion legislation and offer ways to enhance the present law. After the committee delivered its findings, the Government of India introduced the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill in Parliament in 1970. The Medical Termination Pregnancy Act, 1971 is based on the British Legislation of Abortion, 1968, although the basic notion of liberalising abortion law originated from the family planning board. The legislation has three basic goals

  • When the mother’s life is in danger or the women’s bodily or mental health is jeopardised.
  • When the pregnancy is the result of rape or intercourse with a mad lady. (Humanitarian ground)
  • When there is a chance that the child may be born with sickness or deformity.

The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971 is divided into eight sections. This was a ground-breaking step because it would liberate women from exploiting women and society. They can also have a role outside the house. This act will assist them in making decisions for themselves rather than those of their family and society. It is entirely up to her whether or not she wants to bear the kid. Aside from the prohibition of illegal abortions, another major goal of the legislation is to give women the right to privacy.  The government is also attempting to reduce the population with this act, as people can now abort the pregnancy if they so want. The eight sections of this act contain various vital points and rules such as when pregnancy can be terminated by medical practitioners, where it can be terminated, and no legal proceedings will lie against any registered medical practitioner who acted in good faith or did not intend to do the act in any wrong sense.

shortcomings of the MTP act of 1971

For a variety of reasons, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act has been challenged. Its significant medical learning was a major source of criticism. Mid-level health providers and practitioners of alternative systems of medicine are excluded from the “physicians only” regulation for abortion providers. The necessity for a second medical opinion for a second-trimester abortion further restricts access, as rural regions are under-equipped and few physicians. Furthermore, the twenty-week restriction for abortions has been called into question, since legal and practical obstacles have created delays in many circumstances. In extreme instances, the Supreme Court has permitted termination of a pregnancy after 20 weeks. Another major issue is that no express provision or literature in the code allows unmarried girls/widows to have abortions.  Even though the MTP legislation does not restrict unmarried women or widows from having abortions, the abortion carriers’ social, ethical, and moral views provide a slew of problems for abortion seekers. Except in the event of a lunatic or a girl under the age of 18, abortion providers are not permitted to seek the approval of parents or guardians. However, abortion providers harass a young unmarried woman who attempts to have an abortion with their express agreement

The medical termination of pregnancy (amendment) bill 2021

On March 16, 2021, the Rajya Sabha adopted the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which amends the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The bill’s main focus is the change to the clause allowing abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. The Bill governs the condition of pregnancy, emphasizing extending the time limit for abortion. Before the legislation, abortion after 12 weeks of pregnancy needed the approval of two doctors. The new law enables abortion up to 20 weeks if just one qualified medical practitioner agrees. The recent amendment also gives state governments the authority to decide whether a pregnancy can be terminated after 24 weeks due to fetal abnormalities. To assess fetal abnormalities, the state must establish a medical board comprised of a pediatrician, radiologist/sinologist, gynecologist, and others. Furthermore, under the most recent modification, the identity and other details of a woman whose pregnancy has been terminated should not be divulged except to a person authorized by legislation for the time being in effect. Another significant issue is the failure of the contraceptive provision to give access to safe abortion based on a woman’s decision, regardless of marital status. Section 3 of the Act has been changed due to the alteration. Instead of ‘married lady and her husband,’ the new amendment substitutes the phrase ‘woman and her partner.’

flaws in the amendment bill 2021

One of the most severe criticisms has been the inability to address sex-selective abortions. Many women in India have sex-selective abortions as a result of family or spouse pressure. A woman is compelled to contain but cannot communicate her grief or disinterest in continuing with the pregnancy. Another difficulty in drafting abortion legislation is that they overlap with the POSCO statute. As previously stated, the MTP statute has a confidentiality clause that protects an individual’s identity, but POSCO does the exact reverse. There is a required duty under POSCO to report sexual assaults against children, including females who can provide consent. 

Conclusion

Abortion legislation in India has gone a long way. The progression from criminalising abortion to lawfully allowing abortion for unmarried women is admirable. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021 was an essential modification in the contemporary era. However, one might infer that the government’s legislative process has been abhorrent. The MTP (amendment) law was enacted seven years after the health, and family welfare ministry recommended it. The MTP statute was approved seven years after the Shanti Law Shah committee was formed. This demonstrates a delay in the implementation of legislation. The government must take the initiative and identify the issues. The medical termination of pregnancy (amendment) bill 2021 is forward-thinking and protects women’s rights. It is worth noting that no legislation or policy is immune to criticism. The establishment of medical boards was essential since seeking higher courts for approval to terminate in each case would result in delay and expense. The issue of accessibility for the rural population is now legitimate and significant. Rather than criticising and defending the legislation, the best path forward is to strive toward improved execution.

The government must take note of the POSCO and MTP dispute, and it is reasonable to foresee a formal change in POSCO in the future years. India has a population of around 130 million people. It isn’t easy to introduce legislation, mainly dealing with people’s ethical, moral, and ideological views. With the resurgence of contemporary culture and the enduring roots of historical traditions, a delicate balance must be struck between the two. A famous example is the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act 2021. The law is planned, sensible, and scalable. It has made a powerful statement to stand the test in a neo-traditional country like India.