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Law is a set of rules that are created and are enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior, with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously described as a science and as the art of justice.

6 main Sources in different legal systems:

  • Legislation (primary and secondary)
  • The case law rules of common law and equity.
  • Parliamentary conventions.
  • General customs.
  • Books of authority.


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legislation, the preparing and enacting of laws by local, state, or national legislatures. In other contexts it is sometimes used to apply to municipal ordinances and to the rules and regulations of administrative agencies passed in the exercise of delegated legislative functions.

The case law of common law and equity:

Common law, equity is the set of maxims that “reign over all the law” and “from which flow all civil laws”. The Chancery, the office of equity, was the “office that issued the writs that were the foundation of the common law system”.

Parliamentary conventions:

Features of Parliamentary Conventions. Conventions are rules that define non-legal rights, powers and obligations of office-holders in the three branches of Government, or the relations between governments or government organs.

General customs:

Customs can be described as a cultural idea that defines a regular pattern of behaviour, which is considered a characteristic of life in a social system.

Books of authority:

Books of authorities contain copies of authorities (case law, legal texts etc.) referred to in a party’s factum (written argument). This is a list of format requirements for creating paper Books of Authorities

Types of lawyers:

  • Intellectual Property Lawyer.
  • Public Interest Lawyer.
  • Tax Lawyer.
  • Corporate Lawyers.
  • Immigration Lawyers.
  • Criminal Lawyer.
  • Civil Rights Lawyer.
  • Family Lawyer.

Intellectual property lawyer:

Intellectual Property lawyers are those specialised groups of legal practitioners who help in carrying out litigation only related to intellectual property cases which may include trademark, copyright, trade secrets to that of patents and geographical indication.

Public interest lawyer:

Public interest lawyering is a process of legal empowerment aimed at capacity building of everyday people towards using the law and institutions to bring about social change. In public interest lawyering, general people and community takes the lead in an active process while working hand in hand with lawyers

Tax lawyer:

Representing clients before the Authority for Advance Ruling and the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal. Representing clients before the High Courts and the Supreme Court of India and briefing senior counsels where required

Corporate lawyers:

Corporate lawyers serve only one client – the corporation they work for. As a corporate lawyer, you will be called upon to handle a variety of legal tasks including corporate taxes, mergers and acquisitions, corporate structure issues, employment law, and government reporting.

Immigration lawyers:

An immigration lawyer is responsible for representing the individuals (clients) involved in the immigration process that includes legal, illegal citizens and refugees who want to reside in the country, start a business or get employment.

Criminal lawyers:

A Criminal Lawyer is someone who represents a party to a court of law and makes sure that the party gets justice under the various Criminal Laws and rules of a country.

Civil rights lawyer;

These professionals specialize in matters involving injustice against members of a protected group. Civil rights lawyers handle matters involving individual freedoms, like the right to freedom of expression. They draft paperwork, represent clients in court, and mediate case resolutions.

Family lawyer:

Family lawyers are involved in the personal aspects of their clients’ lives which may include divorce, child custody, alimony, abuse and neglect proceedings, successions, family partitions and so on. A family lawyer is expected to help a client resolve any issue relating to his/her family.

Law firm:

A law firm is usually a partnership between lawyers who have come together to offer their expertise to clients under one name. These partners share the profits of the firm as well as the risks (liabilities), and engage other lawyers to work with them as associates.

Objectives of lawyer;

 Provided accurate and effective legal advice to clients.

– Attended hearings at court as well as presented evidence in court to support clients in legal proceedings.

– Writing legal documents such as trusts and will besides doing out of court settlements.

Duties of lawyer:

  • Advise and represent clients in courts, before government agencies, and in private legal matters.
  • Communicate with their clients, colleagues, judges, and others involved in the case.
  • Conduct research and analysis of legal problems.
  • Interpret laws, rulings, and regulations for individuals and businesses