How was Africa chopped into states artificially created by the accident of European competition?

The continent of Africa is made up of 54 countries, each with its own unique culture, language, and history. However, the way that these countries are divided and organized is not necessarily reflective of the continent’s indigenous population or their natural boundaries. Rather, the current geopolitical landscape of Africa is a product of a complex history of colonialism and European competition for resources and territory.

The Scramble for Africa:

The “Scramble for Africa” refers to the period of rapid colonization and exploitation of the African continent by European powers in the late 19th century. This period was marked by the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, during which European powers convened to negotiate and divide up African territory among themselves. At the time, European nations had developed superior military technology and were eager to expand their empires, as well as access the continent’s abundant natural resources, including rubber, diamonds, and ivory.

The result of the Berlin Conference was a hodgepodge of borders and boundaries that were drawn up by European powers with little regard for Africa’s indigenous populations. In many cases, these borders cut across ethnic and linguistic groups, creating artificial states and perpetuating divisions that would have lasting effects on the continent.

Arbitrary Borders:

The borders that were established during the Scramble for Africa often divided groups that shared cultural, linguistic, and historical ties. For example, the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria were split across the borders of modern-day Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea, despite their shared language and cultural heritage. Similarly, the Maasai people of Kenya and Tanzania were divided by a colonial border, which made it difficult for them to continue their traditional pastoral lifestyle.

Arbitrary Borders In Africa

The arbitrary nature of these borders has contributed to conflicts and tensions between neighboring countries, as well as within countries. Ethnic groups that were divided by colonial borders may feel a stronger allegiance to their fellow kin across the border than to the national government of their own country, leading to separatist movements and calls for secession.

Impact on Development:

The artificial borders of Africa have also had a significant impact on the continent’s economic and political development. In many cases, borders were drawn to maximize the extraction of resources for European powers, rather than to create viable and sustainable states. This legacy of resource extraction has persisted into the modern era, as African countries struggle with corruption, inequality, and underdevelopment.

The arbitrary borders of Africa have also made it difficult for countries to cooperate on a regional level, which has hindered economic growth and development. Regional trade agreements, for example, are often stymied by the fact that the borders of African countries do not correspond with natural trade routes or economic zones. This has prevented African countries from harnessing the benefits of trade and integration that have been enjoyed by other regions of the world.


In conclusion, the current geopolitical landscape of Africa is a product of a complex history of colonialism and European competition for resources and territory. The arbitrary borders that were established during the Scramble for Africa have perpetuated divisions between ethnic and linguistic groups, hindered economic and political development, and contributed to conflicts and tensions on the continent. While it is impossible to undo the legacy of colonialism, there is a growing recognition among African leaders and intellectuals of the need to rethink the borders and boundaries of the continent, to create more sustainable and equitable societies.