MG Motor

MG Motor UK Limited (MG Motor) is a British automotive company headquartered in London, United Kingdom,and a subsidiary of SAIC Motor UK, which in turn is owned by the Shanghai-based Chinese state-owned company SAIC Motor. MG Motor designs, develops and markets cars sold under the MG marque while vehicle manufacturing takes place at its factories in China and Thailand. MG Motor is the largest importer of Chinese made cars into the United Kingdom.MG Motor UK Limited New mg


logo.pngTypeSubsidiaryIndustryAutomotiveFounded12 April 2006; 15 years ago Head quarters Maryle bone, London, United Kingdom Key people William Wang (managing director)Products Automobiles Brands MG (Introduced 1923)Operating income£15.7 million (2012)[1]Net income−£4 million (2012) Owner SAIC Motor Number of employees Approx. 100ParentSAIC Motor


Following the collapse of MG Rover in 2005, the Chinese automaker Nanjing Automobile acquired the Longbridge plant and the MG marque for £53 million ($97 million). Nanjing Automobile formally established NAC MG UK Limited as a holding company for the plant and marque on 12 April 2006. In March 2007, Nanjing Automobile unveiled the first MG vehicles manufactured in China, the MG TF, MG 3 and MG 7.Assembly of cars restarted at Longbridge in August 2007, with production of the MG TF LE500.In 2007, Nanjing Automobile was acquired by SAIC Motor,and in early 2009 NAC MG UK Limited was renamed MG Motor UK Limited.The first all-new MG-branded model for 16 years, the MG 6, was officially launched on 26 June 2011 during a visit to MG Motor’s Longbridge plant by Chinese premier Wen Jiabao.By March 2012, SAIC had invested a total of £450 million in MG Motor. Sales in the UK totalled 782 vehicles in 2012.The MG3 went on sale in the United Kingdom in September 2013.MG Motor was voted third place for the ‘Best Manufacturer’ category in the Auto Express 2014 Driver Power survey. 2014 also saw MG Motor celebrate the MG brand’s 90th birthday.

They enjoyed further celebrations with a record-breaking year that saw the company lead UK car industry growth in 2014. The brand’s sales rose by 361% during 2014 part thanks to the introduction of the MG3 to the product range, with a total of 2,326 cars sold in the UK.During 2014, MG was the fastest-growing brand in Britain as shown by official figures issued by the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders. Currently, MG Motor has the fastest-growing network of dealers in the UK.On 23 September 2016 MG Motor announced that all car production had ceased at Longbridge and henceforth MG vehicles would be imported into the 2018, SAIC Design opened a new advanced design studio in London, which deals with the advanced design of MG and Roewe vehicles.In May 2019, the company unveiled a badge engineered version of Baojun 530 SUV as MG Hector

UFO: Flying saucers seen in America? The Pentagon has not solved the mystery


The Pentagon has set up a task force to unravel the mystery of these events in the sky.PHOTO SOURCE,GETTY IMAGESThe U.S. government says more than a dozen flying saucers seen by U.S. military pilots over time have yet to unravel the mystery of the UFO.There have been a total of 144 records of pilots seeing such vessels from time to time since 2004. The Pentagon released a report on Friday (June 25). A Pentagon report states that all but one of the cases remain a mystery.The report does not rule out the possibility that the object may be extraterrestrial or extraterrestrial.The U.S. military has said it has seen a number of unidentified objects flying in the sky.

The US Congress has since demanded a report on the matter.Proceed from the YouTube post, 1Video caption,Caution: External text may contain some adsYouTube post ends, 1In August 2020, the Pentagon set up an “Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force” to investigate the record of all these incidents.The group worked to investigate and classify these incidents. The Pentagon also said it was trying to find out more about UFOs – Unidentified Flying Objects and their origins.Did anything new come out of this report?An interim report was released on Friday. Most of the 144 incidents of strangers appearing in the sky are recorded in the last 2 years.

These entries are made after the U.S. Navy devised a specific method for recording such incidents or scenes.In 143 of the 144 incidents, “we do not have enough information to link or elaborate on what these incidents are,” the report said.However, the report does not rule out the possibility that the report may have any connection to the planet.”There may be no uniform explanation for these phenomena. It could be technology from other countries, such as Russia or China, or natural phenomena like ice crystals appearing on radar systems. It could also be experiments or secret schemes run by US organizations or individuals,” the report said.The subject of UFOs has always been a subject of curiosity for Americans.

The subject of UFOs has always been a subject of curiosity for Americans.”We can say for sure about one of these incidents,” the report said. It was a large, airtight balloon, the report said.The report added that the incident was “a threat to air travel and a threat to US national security.”The task force said it was now looking into ways to gather more information about such incidents. It is also said that if more funds are available for this, more in-depth study can be done.What is the evidence?In April 2020, the U.S. Department of Defense released some videos of these events in the sky. He asserted that his confession had been obtained through torture.Two former Navy pilots participated in a 60-minute program on the US CBS News Channel. He said that while flying over the Pacific Ocean, he saw an object moving in the same direction as his movements.One of the pilots said that this small object looked like a tick-tack bullet.Video caption,The Pentagon says the video was released to dispel public confusion.”The object was exactly the same, only it was moving very fast, crazy, and we couldn’t predict exactly which way it would turn. We didn’t even know exactly how the object was being controlled, how it was moving forward,” the U.S. Navy said. Alex Dietrich, a former pilot and witness to the incident, told the BBC.”There was no smoke coming from behind the object or a propeller that would push the object forward – that is, no fan. There were no controls or direction-shifting mechanisms on its surface.”

Startup of swiggy


Swiggy is India’s largest online food ordering and delivery platform, founded in 2014. Swiggy is based in Bangalore, India, and as of March 2019, was operating in 100 Indian cities.In early 2019, Swiggy expanded into general product deliveries under the name Swiggy Stores.Swiggy Swiggy logo.svgType of business Private Available inEnglishFounded2014; 7 years ago Headquarters Bangalore, India Area served300+ cities across India Founder(s)Nandan Reddy Sriharsha Majety Rahul Jaimini Key people Sriharsha Majety (CEO)Vivek Sunder (COO)Rahul Bothra (CFO)Dale Vaz (CTO)Industry Online food ordering Services Food delivery Revenue Increase ₹ 2,776 crore (US$390 million) (2020)Profit Negative increase ₹−3,768 crore (US$−530 million) (2020) Parent Bundl Technologies Private Limited[3]URLwww.swiggy.comAdvertisingYesRegistrationOptionalCurrent status Active Native client(s) on Android, iOS, website In September 2019, Swiggy launched instant pickup/dropoff service Swiggy Go.[10] The service is used for a diverse array of items, including laundry and document or parcel deliveries to business clients and retail customers.Swiggy is operated by Bundl Technologies Private Limited.


In 2013, the two founders, Nandan Reddy and Sriharsha Majety, designed an e-commerce website called Bundl to facilitate courier service and shipping within India. Bundl was halted, and was rebranded to enter the food delivery market. At the time, the food delivery sector was in turmoil as several notable startups, such as Foodpanda (later acquired by Ola Cabs), TinyOwl (later acquired by Zomato) and Ola Cafe (later closed) were struggling. Majety and Reddy approached Rahul Jaimini, formerly with Myntra, and founded Swiggy and parent holding company Bundl Technologies in 2014.The company built a dedicated delivery network and grew rapidly, primarily driven by the focus on logistics and locking in key resources.In May 2020, Swiggy laid off 1100 employees during the COVID-19 pandemic.In August 2020, the company launched their groceries delivery platform called InstaMart.In 2021 the company announced that it would cover the vaccination cost for its delivery partners.In March Swiggy set up Health Hub across Chennai, Tamil Nadu.In June 2021, Swiggy and ANRA Technologies joined hands to introduce drone delivery trials in India.

How Does an Automatic Transmission Work?

#Autotransmission #autogear

Most automobiles use a form of automatic transmission called a hydraulic planetary automatic transmission, which is also used in a scaled-up version in some industrial and commercial equipment and heavy-duty vehicles. The friction clutch is replaced by fluid coupling and the system defines a set of gear ranges depending on the needs of the auto. When you put the vehicle in park, all the gears lock to prevent the car from rolling forward or backward.less common option is the automated manual transmission (AMT). Sometimes called a semi-automatic transmission, this model pairs the clutches and gears of a manual transmission with a set of actuators, sensors, processors, and pneumatics. AMTs operate like an automatic while providing the affordability and fuel-saving benefits of a manual transmission. With this type of transmission, the driver can manually shift gears or opt for automatic shifting. Either way, he or she does not need to use the clutch, which is operated by a hydraulic system.

History of the Automatic Transmission General Motors and REO both released semi-automatic vehicle transmissions in 1934. These models posed fewer challenges than the traditional manual transmission but still required the use of a clutch to change gears. The GM transmission was the first of its kind to use a hydraulically controlled planetary gearbox, allowing the gears to shift depending on the vehicle’s travel speed.The planetary transmission was one of the most important developments on the road to the modern automatic transmission. Although GM was the first to use the version with hydraulic controls, this technology actually dates to a 1900 invention by Wilson-Pilcher. That innovation consisted of four forward gears on two trains that could be shifted with a single lever.

Operation of an Automatic Transmission

The most common type of automatic transmission uses hydraulic power to shift gears. According to How Stuff Works, this device combines a torque or fluid coupling converter with gearsets that provide the desired range of gears for the vehicle. The torque converter connects the engine to the transmission and uses pressurized fluid to transfer power to the gears. This apparatus replaces a manual friction clutch and lets the vehicle come to a complete stop without stalling.Information from Art of Manliness depicts the operation of an automatic transmission. As the engine transmits power to the pump of the torque converter, the pump converts this power into transmission fluid that powers the turbine of the torque converter. This apparatus increases the power of the fluid and transmits even more power back to the turbine, which creates a vortex power rotation that spins the turbine and the attached central shaft. The power created by this rotation is then transmitted from the shaft to the transmission’s first planetary gear set.This type of transmission has what is called hydraulic control.

The transmission fluid is pressurized by an oil pump, which allows the speed to change depending on the vehicle’s speed, tire revolutions per minute, and other factors. The gear pump is placed between the planetary gearset and torque converter, where it pulls and pressurizers transmission fluid from a sump. The pump input leads directly to the housing of the torque converter attached to the flexplate of the engine. When the engine is not running, the transmission does not have the oil pressure needed to operate and thus the vehicle cannot be push-started.The planetary gear train is a mechanical system in which the gears are connected with a set of bands and clutches. When the driver changes gears, the bands hold one gear still while rotating another to transmit torque from the engine and increase or decrease gears.The different gears are sometimes called the sun gear, the ring gear, and the planetary gear. The arrangement of the gears determines how much power will flow from one gear to another and out to the drive train of the vehicle when you shift.

Gears of an Automatic Transmission The gears of an automatic transmission include the following:According to How a Car Works, when you shift your vehicle into drive, you engage all available forward gear ratios. This means that the transmission can move between its full range of gears as needed. Six-speed automatic transmissions are the most common number of gears, but older cars and entry-level compact cars may still have either four or five automatic gears.Third gear either locks the transmission in third gear or limits it to the first, second, and third gear ratios. This provides the power and traction needed to go either uphill or downhill or to tow a boat, RV, or trailer. When the engine reaches a designated level of revolutions per minute (RPM), most vehicles automatically drop third gear to keep the engine from harm.Second gear either locks the transmission in second gear or limits it to the first and second gear ratios. This gear is ideal for going uphill and downhill in slippery conditions as well as driving during ice, snow, and other types of inclement weather.First gear is used when you want to lock the transmission in first gear, although some vehicles will automatically switch out of this gear to protect the engine at a certain RPM. Like second and third gear, this gear is best used for towing, driving uphill or downhill, and when traveling during slippery, icy conditions.

Advantages of an Automatic Transmission According to How Stuff Works, the biggest advantage of an automatic transmission is the ability to drive without the need for a clutch as is required with a manual transmission. Individuals with many disabilities are able to drive using an automatic since operation only requires two usable limbs.

The lack of a clutch also eliminates the need to pay attention to shifting manually and monitoring the tachometer to make the necessary shifts, which gives you more attention to focus on the task of driving.

Many drivers also find it easier to control an automatic transmission at low speeds than a manual transmission. The hydraulic automatic transmission creates a phenomenon called idle creep, which encourages the vehicle to move forward even when idling.

Online education in India – the good, the bad and the ugly!


With educational institutes closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the government has been encouraging online education to achieve academic continuity. Most high-end private and public institutions have made the switch smoothly using online platforms such as Zoom, Google classrooms, Microsoft teams, etc., while many still find it a herculean task. The challenges of online education are multifaceted. It is time that we Indians, as a society, understand the realms of online education – in India, for India.

The Good

Online education allows for learning something beyond the norm. A learner has access to unlimited topics and global experts in niche subjects – something otherwise not affordable or imaginable for many. Online programs allow people of a wide age group to learn at their own pace, without inhibitions, and without compromising on their other responsibilities. With the emergence and spread of COVID-19 in India, online education has trickled down to the most basic level — schools and colleges! When asked about their experience with online teaching, a student from a college in Bengaluru said, ​“The online option is a need in this pandemic situation. It has brought education to us without us going anywhere, and it is more flexible”. Probably, students are finding it a welcome change from strict schedules and long-distance commutes to attend classes. For some others, who find learning in large classes intimidating, this may be a less stressful option. Many teachers are making the best of this situation by exploring new methods of teaching and assessment.This is encouraging. But the moment online education moves from an optional to the only form of learning, and that too long term, the bad and the ugly slowly become evident. India is beginning to get a taste of this now.

The bad

Using the internet for entertainment is common, but for online lessons is a big challenge. Teachers may not be well-versed with creating digital content, and conveying it effectively online. A sudden expectation from them to upgrade, and from students to adapt, is unfair.Body language and eye contact, which are important cues for the teacher, are difficult to perceive in an online class. ​“I do not receive continual feedback in the form of students’ reactions during online sessions, which reduces the effectiveness of teaching”, says a college teacher in suburban Mumbai. How many students have paid attention in a class? Of those, how many understood the lesson? Is the teaching pace alright? Are some students getting left behind? These questions arise even in traditional classrooms, but they are harder to address in online classes. A parent of an 8‑year-old attending a private school in Gurgaon says, ​“There shouldn’t be online classes for such young kids. Their concentration span is small and they do not pay attention after a while.” The 8‑year-old added, ​“I hate them (online classes)!”Even college students seem to value the in-class physical learning experience much more than a virtual one. Many acknowledge that phones can be very distracting. In addition, science and technology programs often include hands-on laboratory sessions, dissertation projects and field trips to complement theoretical studies. This aspect of learning is severely limited in online education.Finally, education is not just about subject knowledge but also about developing social skills and sportsmanship among the students, which is built over years. Relying solely on online education may hinder the holistic development of children, and many may underperform later in their professional and personal lives.

The Ugly

While India enjoys a wide geographic and cultural diversity, it also suffers from a huge socio-economic divide. Only a small part of the Indian population has access to online education right now. Interrupted power supply, weak or non-existent internet connectivity, and unaffordability to buy necessary devices are major concerns. ​“In a Class of 40 students, after two months of online classes, around 20 students regularly attend class with whatever device and connection they have. Around 5 – 8 students are completely absent till date and rest are fluctuating”, says a school teacher in Ratnagiri in Maharashtra. A teacher in a government-aided school from the small town of Chamba in Himachal Pradesh says, ​“It is a frustrating experience to engage students of lower classes in online mode. There are network issues on both teachers’ and students’ ends”. To deal with internet connectivity and device availability issues, ​‘classes’ in many places are happening via sharing of videos by teachers over WhatsApp or YouTube, so that students can watch them at their convenience. This too, however, comes with difficulties in understanding the lessons and promotes rote learning. The same is true of pre-recorded sessions aired on the television (e.g., Swayam Prabha DTH channels) and radio (audio lessons, through All India Radio), although they do cater to a wider student population that cannot avail live online classes.

International Music day

International Music Day or World Music Day is a concept too good to believe and the best part is that it actually exists. Yes, International Music day or the IMD was initiated on the 1st of October in 1975 by Lord Yehudi Menuhin. It was first organized by the International Music Council on 1st of October, 1975, in accordance with the resolution taken at the 15th General Assembly in Lausanne in 1973.The International Music Council (IMC) or the guardian of the IMD was founded by UNESCO in 1949. The IMC is the world’s largest network of organizations, institutions and individuals functioning in the field of music. The International Music Council encourages and fosters musical diversity, access to culture for everyone and unites organizations in some 150 countries worldwide in building peace and understanding among people cutting across class, culture and heritage.

The IMC in its bid to establish a global harmony through the music, celebrates the International Music Day and with special focus on organizing musical events, radio and television programs and press recordings. Amidst all this the onus is also on building up an environment more conducive and hospitable to music-on the practice, consumption and the general aura of music. So, an important zone of interest is also struggle against the pollution of the sound environment and quite interestingly the IMC proposes that each country should maintain a few moments of silence on the International Music Day, and use that silence to listen to music played out in main city squares.

On International Music Day, the desired aim is to create a global atmosphere of music, a platform for people to come together with their diversities and mingle to make one unified whole. Like any other artistic or cultural celebrations the day is generally to celebrate art and to successfully realize these activities, it is essential to mobilize all means at our disposal in the 21st century-the radio and television, concert societies, opera companies, amateur societies; a great many different types of localities should all be used to their best advantage.In various countries the day is the perfect opportunity to organize grand concerts by roping in the greatest musical artistes of our. Also common are random musical events and talent shows to seek out the new and emerging musical artistes- to build up a treasury of the old and new in the world of music. Music after all is the greatest unifier in humanity and all significant social events have musical pieces dedicated to it. No event is better recognized or defined than by music which defines and completes a perfect human social and aesthetic experience.



Avenue Supermarts Limited, d/b/a DMart, is an Indian retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets in India. It was founded by Radhakishan Damani in 2002, with its first branch in Powai’s Hiranandani Gardens.[3] As of 31 December 2019, it had 196 stores in 72 cities across 11 states in India including Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, National Capital Region, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Daman and Punjab.[4][5]Avenue Supermarts Limited DMart Logo.svgD-Mart Official logo Dmart tirupati.jpgDMart store in Tirupati, India Trade name DMart Type Public Traded as BSE: 540376NSE: DMARTISININE192R01011IndustryRetailFoundedMay 15, 2002; 19 years ago Founder Radhakishan Damani Head quarters Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Number of locations214[1] (June 2020)Area served India Key people Radhakishan Damani(Chairman)Ignatius Navil Noronha(CEO)Products Grocery & StaplesDaily EssentialsDairy & FrozenHome and furnitureHome AppliancesBed & BathClothingFootwearToysCrockeryLuggageHealth and beautySporting goods and fitnessGroceryFruits & Vegetables Revenue Increase ₹24,930 crore (US$3.5 billion) (2020)[2]Operating income Increase ₹1,813 crore (US$250 million) (2020)[2]Net income Increase ₹1,300 crore (US$180 million) (2020)[2]Total assets Increase ₹12,076 crore (US$1.7 billion) (2020)[2]Total equity Increase ₹10,431 crore (US$1.5 billion) (2020)[2]Number of employees9,456 permanent (2020)[2]38,952 contractual (2020)[2]Websitewww.dmartindia.comDMart is promoted by Avenue Supermarts Ltd. (ASL).[6] The company has its headquarters in Mumbai. As of 31 March 2019, DMart had a total of 7,713 permanent employees and 33,597 employees hired on contractual basis.[7]After the IPO listing (as Avenue Supermarts Ltd.), it made a record opening on the market on the National Stock Exchange. After the close of the stock on 22 March 2017, its market value rose to ₹39,988 crore. This pegged it as the 65th most valuable Indian firm, ahead of Britannia Industries, Marico and Bank of Baroda. [8]As of 21 November 2019, the market capitalization of DMart is close to ₹114,000 crore, making it the 33rd largest company listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange.

Windows 11 will finally introduce advanced multi-monitor settings

Windows 10 has been around for a while but little has been done to improve the multi-monitor experience for users. And using more than one monitor in 2021 isn’t a rare thing too. A growing number of users have asked Microsoft to do something about it in the Feedback Hub and we can finally see the company making some efforts.In the leaked Windows 11 build, there’s an option that allows the OS to remember each window location based on the monitor connection. This means that if you leave a bunch of windows opened on both monitors, once you re-connect a display or when you wake up the PC. This should potentially fix the issue of moving random windows or tabs or cramming up all the opened apps on one of the monitors.Additionally, once you disconnect one of your monitors, instead of moving the program to the still plugged monitor, the OS will minimize the app to the tray.

Don’t like exercising in a gym? Try a hiking workout instead

Hiking is not only a great way to get outside in nature, it also has plenty of physical and mental health benefits for those who take part.

Before COVID-19, the popularity of hiking was on a downward slope in both adults and children. But its popularity has spiked during the pandemic, seeing many more people taking to trails than usual. Hiking is not only a great way to get outside in nature, it also has plenty of physical and mental health benefits for those who take part.Hiking differs in many way from taking a regular stroll around your neighbourhood. Not only is the terrain on many hiking routes uneven or rocky, there’s also typically some change in elevation, such as going up or down hills. People also tend to wear different footwear – such as hiking boots – which can be heavier than what they’re used to wearing.These differences in terrain and footwear mean hiking has a higher energy expenditure (more calories burned) than walking on flat ground does. This is due to the fact that we need to use more muscles to stabilise ourselves when walking on uneven terrain.While brisk walking at a speed of around 5km/h uses up to four times as much energy as sitting down and resting, hiking through fields and hills uses over five times. This means you can achieve the recommended 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity without even needing to go for a run or head to the gym.The benefits of getting enough exercise are clear. Not only will it improve your physical health, sleep and stress management, exercise also reduces your chances of developing certain chronic diseases, such as dementia, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression and certain cancers. In older adults, some research suggests hiking may be able to improve hypertension.Hiking is also beneficial even for those with pre-existing health conditions. Research shows hiking leads to weight loss and improves cardiovascular health in pre-diabetic adults, likely reducing their risk of getting type 2 diabetes. It’s also been shown to improve other aspects of health, including muscle strength, balance and flexibility in older adults with obesity. Even those who suffer with balance issues or joint problems can hike – as trekking poles may be able to reduce the load on the legs.The popular form of hiking called Nordic walking – where participants use trekking poles to help them along – is also shown to engage the upper body and increase the intensity of the walking. Research shows this form of hiking increases cardiovascular health, weight loss, and muscle strength in people without any pre-existing health conditions, as well as those with chronic conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease.A further health benefit of hiking is that it’s classed as “green exercise”. This refers to the added health benefit that doing physical activity in nature has on us. Research shows that not only can green exercise decrease blood pressure, it also benefits mental wellbeing by improving mood and reducing depression to a greater extent than exercising indoors can.This is why some research suggests healthcare professionals should recommend hiking to patients as a low-cost way of improving health where possible. In England, there’s even an initiative being piloted by the National Health Service to assess the health impacts of green prescribing – where patients are being prescribed outdoor activities – such as hiking or gardening – to improve their mental and physical health.Get outdoors Even if you’ve never hiked before, it’s easy to get started. There are plenty of apps you can download on your phone to help you navigate and find routes. These usually work with your GPS and are even easy to follow for those who have a poor sense of direction.You can also try the 1,000 mile challenge if you want to start hiking. This encourages people to walk 1,000 miles in a year. This has helped many people – including my own parents – to be more active, especially during COVID-19

If you have a young family (or simply want to make hiking more interesting), a more interactive way of getting out into nature is geocaching. This is where you following a GPS route to a location where someone has hidden a box or trinket of some kind. You can also record what you’ve found using an app. Geocaching is a worldwide phenomenon, so can be done almost anywhere in the world.Hiking is a great way to get active and improve mental and physical wellbeing. And with many of us still likely to be vacationing locally this year, it can be a great way to get away from home and explore new sights.Lindsay Bottoms, Reader in Exercise and Health Physiology, University of Hertfordshire.

History of flipkart

Flipkart was founded in October 2007 by Sachin Bansal and Binny Bansal, alumni of the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and former Amazon employees.The company initially focused on online book sales with country-wide shipping. Flipkart slowly grew in prominence and was receiving 100 orders per day by 2008.In 2010, Flipkart acquired the Bangalore-based social book discovery service WeRead from


In 2011, Flipkart acquired the digital distribution business and the digital content library of the Bollywood portal Chakpak. Following this acquisition, Flipkart launched their DRM-free online music store Flyte in 2012. Because of competition from free streaming sites, the site was unsuccessful and shut down in June 2013.With its eyes on India’s retail market, Flipkart acquired Lets buy, an online electronics retailer, in 2012, and Myntra, an online fashion retailer, for $280 million in May 2014. Myntra continues to operate alongside Flipkart as a standalone subsidiary focusing on separate market segments. In April 2015, Flipkart acquired App iterate, a Delhi-based mobile marketing automation firm. Flipkart stated that it would use Appiterate’s technology to enhance its mobile services. In December 2015, Flipkart purchased a minority stake in the digital mapping provider Map my India. In 2016, Flipkart acquired the online fashion retailer from Rocket Internet for $70 million and the UPI mobile payments startup PhonePe. In January 2017, Flipkart made a $2 million investment in Tiny Step, a parenting information startup.Flipkart invested $35 million in Arvind Fashions Limited’s newly formed subsidiary Arvind Youth Brands for a 27% stake in the company. Arvind Youth Brands owns Flying Machine.Flipkart Wholesale recently launched a digital platform for kiranas and MSMEs.In October 2020, Flipkart acquired a 7.8% stake in Aditya Birla Fashion and Retail for $204 million


In April 2017, eBay announced that it would sell its Indian subsidiary,, to Flipkart and invest $500 million in the company. While eBay suggested that the partnership would eventually allow Flipkart to access eBay’s network of international vendors, these plans never actually came to fruition. In July 2017, Flipkart made an offer to acquire its main domestic competitor, Snapdeal, for $700–800 million. It was rejected by Snapdeal, which was seeking at least $1 billion.[38]In August 2019, Flipkart entered into a partnership with Authentic Brands to license and distribute Nautica in India.Flipkart invested $4 million in the customer engagement and rewards platform EasyRewardz on 19 November 2019.

Mobile retailing

In February 2014, Flipkart partnered with Motorola Mobility to be the exclusive Indian retailer of its Moto G smartphone.Motorola also partnered with Flipkart on the Moto E, a phone targeted primarily towards emerging markets such as India. High demand for the phone following its midnight launch on 14 May caused the Flipkart website to crash. Flipkart subsequently held exclusive Indian launches for other smartphones, including the Xiaomi Mi 3 in July 2014 (whose initial release of 10,000 devices sold out in around 5 seconds),the Redmi 1S and Redmi Note in late 2014, and Micromax’s Yu Yunique 2 in 2017. Flipkart held a 51% share of all Indian smartphone shipments in 2017, overtaking Amazon India (33%).On 6 October 2014, in honor of the company’s anniversary and the Diwali season, Flipkart held a major sale that it promoted as “Big Billion Day”. The event generated a surge of traffic, selling $100 million worth of goods in 10 hours. The event received criticism via social media over technical issues the site experienced during the event and stock shortages.In October 2015, Flipkart reprised the Big Billion Day event as a multi-day event exclusive to the Flipkart app. Flipkart bolstered its supply chain and introduced more fulfillment centers to meet customer demand. Flipkart achieved a gross merchandise volume of $300 million during the event, with the largest volumes coming from fashion sales and the largest value coming from mobiles. In 2017, Flipkart sold 1.3 million phones in 20 hours on 21 September in its Big Billion Days promotion, doubling the number sold on the first day of the same event in 2016.In March 2015, Flipkart blocked access to its website on mobile devices and began requiring that users download the site’s mobile app instead. The following month, Myntra went further and discontinued its website on all platforms, operating exclusively through its app. The “app-only” model, however, proved to be unsuccessful for Myntra, reducing its sales by 10%, and its main website was reinstated in February 2016. The experiment with Myntra led to rumors that Flipkart itself would perform a similar move, but the company did not follow suit. In November 2015, Flipkart launched a new mobile website branded as “Flipkart Lite” that provides an experience inspired by Flipkart’s app and runs in smartphone web browsers.

Xiaomi India

Xiaomi Corporation registered in Asia as Xiaomi Inc., is a Chinese multinational electronics company founded in April 2010 and headquartered in Beijing. Xiaomi makes and invests in smartphones, mobile apps, laptops, home appliances, bags, shoes, consumer electronics, and many other products.Xiaomi is also the fourth company globally after Apple, Samsung and Huawei to have self-developed mobile system-on-chip (SoC) capabilities.


Xiaomi Xiaomi logo Net income Increase US$3.11 billion (2020) Total assets Increase US$38.83 billion (2020) Total equity Increase US$18.98 billion (2019) Number of employees22,074 (31 December 2020)Xiaomi released its first smartphone in August 2011 and rapidly gained market share in China to become the country’s largest smartphone company in 2014.At the start of second quarter of 2018, Xiaomi was the world’s fourth-largest smartphone manufacturer,leading in both the largest market, China, and the second-largest market, India.Xiaomi later developed a wider range of consumer electronics, including a smart home (IoT) product ecosystem, which has connected more than 100 million smart devices and appliances. Monthly active users (MAUs) of MIUI increased to 291.6 million in September 2019.Xiaomi has 18,170 employees worldwide. It has expanded to other markets including Greater China, Singapore, Japan, South Korea, Russia, South Africa and most countries and regions in Southeast Asia and Europe. to Forbes, Lei Jun, the founder and CEO, has an estimated net worth of US$12.5 billion.Xiaomi is the world’s 4th most valuable technology start-up after receiving US$1.1 billion funding from investors, making Xiaomi’s valuation more than US$46 billion.Ranked 468th, Xiaomi is the youngest company on Fortune Global 500 list for 2019. In 2019, Xiaomi’s mobile phone shipments reached 125 million units,[20] ranking fourth globally since 2018. The company has been listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange since 2018.

Xiaomi in 2021:

In January 2021, Xiaomi launched its next midrange-flagship smartphone (Xiaomi Mi 10i 5G).[93]On 19 January, KPN, a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company, sued Xiaomi wanting financial compensation because of a patent infringement. The patents were already part of lawsuits KPN filed against Samsung in 2014 and 2015 in a court in Texas.On 25 February 2021, Xiaomi unveiled the Redmi K40 Pro+ with 108 MP camera and Snapdragon 888 chipset, along with the K40 Pro and K40.[94]On 30 March 2021, Xiaomi announced that they will invest US$10 billion in new electric vehicles for the next ten years.[95]On 31 March, Xiaomi announced a new logo for the company, designed by Kenya Hara.On 31 May, Xiaomi showed a demo of their 200W system that can fully charge a Xiaomi MI 11 Pro in just 8 minutes.

Reliance Jio and Bharti Airtel kick off 5G network trials in India

#Reliance jio #bhartiairtel

Reliance Jio has commenced 5G trials in Mumbai as it races with rival Bharti Airtel to introduce the mobile technology in India. While Jio’s trials in Mumbai are being carried out using indigenously developed technology, the company has tied up with multinational vendors, including Ericsson, Nokia, and Samsung for trials in Delhi, Pune, and Gujarat.

The Department of Telecommunications had in May allocated 5G trial spectrum in 700-megahertz (MHz), 3.2-3.6-gigahertz (GHz), and 24.25-28.5-GHz bands to Airtel, Jio, and Vodafone Idea to develop India-specific use-cases. Jio is using standalone 5G architecture for its trials and this will include testing of core and radio network for peak speed, latency, and data loads, said a source.

Tests in other cities will commence soon and will need to be completed in six months, according to the spectrum licence conditions. Last year, the Mukesh Ambani-led company had tied up with Qualcomm to develop open and interoperable interface-compliant. 5G solutions and had achieved 1 gigabits per second (Gbps) download speed during the tests. According to industry sources, Airtel too has started testing 5G trials in Gurugram in partnership with communication service provider Ericsson. The tests demonstrated a throughput of over 1 Gbps during the live trial, said sources. New postpaid fibre plans Reliance Jio on Tuesday launched its postpaid fibre plans for broadband internet with zero upfront entry cost. The plans are priced upwards of Rs 399 and are available with 6-12 month options. Customers will get a set-top box and up to 15 paid over-the-top applications on plans priced Rs 999 and above

What Is a Cell Tower and How Does a Cell Tower Work?

What is a Cell Tower?

Cell towers, also known as cell sites, are where electric communications equipment and antennae are mounted, allowing the surrounding area to use wireless communication devices like telephones and radios. Cell towers are usually built by a tower company or a wireless carrier when they expand their network coverage or capacity, providing a better reception signal in that area. Cell towers are basically everywhere across the United States, although some cities have more than others. And Millman Land was there since the late 1990s, ensuring that the cell towers are all properly inspected. There are currently more than 307,000 cell towers in the United States. Sometimes they can be spotted on tops of buildings. Other times cities require cell towers to blend into the cityscape seamlessly. Rural areas sometimes hide them in treescapes, disguising them as a tree.

Our wireless services include cell tower surveys, cell tower audits and As-builts. In this article, we aim to tell you more about cell towers and how they work. We also want to address people’s growing concerns over 5G and put to rest the rumors. How Do Cell Towers Work? cell tower in New YorkThere are over 300 million cell phones being used daily in the United States.

Whenever a cell phone is used, it emits an electromagnetic radio wave, called a radio frequency, that is received by the nearest cell tower’s antenna. Once the cell tower receives this signal, it will transmit the signals to a switching center. This allows the call to be connected to either another mobile phone or to a telephone network. It’s crazy to think all of this happens in mere seconds. Related: The Ultimate Guide to ALTA Surveys Parts of a Cell Tower The insanely fast technology of a cell tower is due to its parts. You’ll hear us mentioning cell carriers a lot in this section. That’s because a lot of the parts of a cell tower are provided by individual cell carriers, also known as wireless networks. There are four wireless networks in the United States that have the best coverage. Right now the top provider is Verizon, which has 70% 4G coverage. AT&T is in close second with 68%. T-Mobile has 62% and Spring is in fourth with 27%, a major decline in coverage. Verizon US 4G coverage cell towers in US The Tower There are actually four different types of cell towers. The first kind is known as a lattice tower. Also called a self-supporting tower, this type of tower offers incredible flexibility. It usually has three or four sides with similar shaped bases. The second type of tower is a monopole tower. This type of tower features a single steel or concrete tube tower, usually under 50 meters. It only requires one foundation. The antennas are attached to the exterior. A guyed tower is cost-effective but requires a bigger amount of land. It’s usually built 100 meters or greater, connected buy guy wires to anchor and support it. They are attached to the ground in all directions. Most radio and television towers are guyed towers. The fourth type is the stealth tower, which we briefly touched upon before. Often required by councils, these are more expensive than the other three options but aim to beautify the community they’re in. They require additional materials that help them hide in plain sight. While much more appealing, they often do not provide the same amount of capacity for tenants.

The Equipment The equipment on cell towers includes transceivers and other supporting technology. These are installed in cabinets or shelters or any other way that wireless carriers choose to protect them. Some even create outdoor cabinets on concrete pads or prefabricated equipment shelters.

The Antennas Alright, we’ve touched on antennas a lot, but what are they? There are multiple antennas attached to a cell tower, typically mounted on a head frame. Some towers even have up to 15 antennas per carrier. This number really depends on the antenna’s performance, coverage and capacity requirements. Utilities and Access Carriers will also install utilities at the cell tower site. Each carrier has power to run to the site as well as phone service. Each cell tower also requires access by the carriers for initial installation and ongoing maintenance.Cell Tower Range The aforementioned parts help determine just how far a cell tower can be a from a cell phone while still able to pick up its signal. That distance is determined by the connecting technology, landscape features (hills, trees and buildings), the power of the tower’s transmitter, the size of the cellphone network and the network’s design capacity. What’s interesting is that a cell tower will sometimes have their transmitter seat to a lower power on purpose to ensure it doesn’t interfere with neighboring cells. But even with all of those factors, the typical cell tower can provide service up to 45 miles away. That’s quite impressive! Let’s take a closer look at what various components affect a cell tower’s range and effectiveness.

What Affects a Cell Tower’s Range?

The range of a cell tower is not a fixed figure. That’s because there are so many variables when it comes to the range in which a cell tower connects a mobile device. The most common variables include:How hight the antenna is over the surrounding landscape.The frequency of the signal in use.The rated power of the transmitter.The directional characteristics of the antenna array on the site.Nearby buildings and vegetation absorbing and reflecting radio energy.The local geographical or regulatory factors and weather conditions.Cell towers are often built in areas with high population densities. That’s because these cities have the most potential cell phone users. For that reason, you’ll often find cell towers “overlapping” in more crowded areas. This helps to avoid interference problems. If you find yourself wondering why you don’t have a signal on your cell phone, it could be because you’re too far from a tower or because the cell phone signal has been decreased by hills, large buildings or other structures. You may also lose your signal if a lot of people are attempting to use the cell tower at the same time. That often leads to calls getting dropped. While driving, your phone can switch from one cell tower to the next mid-conversation. As you continue your journey, the cell phone will pick the strongest signal and release the weaker cell tower, making it available to another caller. Another factor that could affect your signal is a problem with the cell tower. With help from surveyors like Millman National Land Service, these issues can be identified so they don’t turn into a major headache. man on cell tower overlooking city dangerousIs

5G Dangerous?With the coronavirus pandemic continuing to strike fear into people all over the world, it’s no surprise that we’re seeing an abundance of conspiracy theories regarding COVID-19 and how it’s spread. One of the most bizarre are the Facebook posts claiming that 5G has created the coronavirus pandemic. While definitely a little on the radical side, there are still some health concerns about 5G that are a bit more grounded in science. But no: 5G did not cause the coronavirus. What is 5G?Big wireless carriers like AT&T, Verizon and Spring have started to implement 5G as the new wireless standard. In a year or so, 5G will be available throughout the United States. There are currently some devices that use 5G, like Samsung’s Galaxy S10, but most current phone models do not support 5G just yet. 5G will basically be a major improvement on network performance. It’s considered a huge upgrade from 4G, which debuted back in 2009. While 4G delivers 10 Mbps, 5G will deliver peak speeds between 10 and 20 Gbps. It’s also more ideal for video game streaming, downloading movies and other heavy-duty data activities since network latency will drop from 30ms to 1ms. While this is all exciting technology-wise, there are currently growing concerns over the health risks of 5G, since it’s a stronger radiofrequency. While 5G has not caused the coronavirus, are there other dangers lurking on cell towers across the United States?

How Dangerous Is Radiofrequency Radiation?So what are these Facebook conspiracy theorists claiming about 5G? There are growing concerns that 5G’s higher energy radiation will bring potentially damaging effects to human beings near the cell towers. This increase in radiofrequency radiation will supposedly lead to cancer, premature aging and disruption in cell metabolism thanks to damage done to human DNA. Is this true? Well, not to be an alarmist, but RFR can also be found in your microwave, radios and other daily activities and common household items. Even computer monitors. Because of this, it’s already been determined that RFR is not really all that dangerous unless used in certain circumstances. What are these dangerous circumstances? Well, the radiation has to be “ionizing” to be strong enough to break chemical bonds. This includes x-rays and gamma rays. Wi-fi and FM radio are “non-ionizing,” meaning they’re too weak to cause any damage. Non-ionizing RFR, like those found coming from cell towers, have no known mechanism that causes biological effects or DNA mutations. In other words, it’s completely safe. The Risks of 5GSo 5G is a new technology – a stronger technology. Should people be concerned? Currently, 5G is a non-ionizing RFR, meaning it’s not able to do any real damage. Many conspiracy theories point towards the fact that 5G will require more transmitters. Since there are more popping up in cities, towns and neighborhoods, will the dose be higher? While a reasonable question to ask, 5G cell towers are still not a threat, even when there’s more cropping up. The electromagnetic radiation you withstand by walking outside is far greater than a 5G cell tower. But what about 5G’s higher gigahertz frequency? Since it’s higher, is it more dangerous to living organisms? Currently, there’s no science supporting this. The FCC has also stated that there are no health problems currently associated with cell towers. “For 5G equipment, the signals from commercial wireless transmitters are typically far below the RF exposure limits at any location that is accessible to the public,” said Neil Derek Grace, a communications officer at the FCC.While scientists are continuing to look into 5G technology and possible health risks, there is currently nothing to support that 5G cell towers do real harm to humans or animals.

Due to this Marathi man, he gets a Sunday holiday, he got success after six years of struggle

Do you know when the Sunday holiday started in India? And who started this (Who Declared Sunday as Holiday)? What exactly is the history behind this.

On June 13 is a holiday on Sunday. People relax this day after working for a whole week. Spend time with your family and prepare yourself for the next week. People have been waiting for this one day for a whole week. However, do you know when the Sunday holiday started in India? And who started this (Who Declared Sunday as Holiday) ? What exactly is the history behind this?First of all, it is important to know that the history of this incident is very sad. Behind this is the struggle and battle of many people. Narayan Meghaji Lokhande is credited with the day we sit and relax in our house. As you know, India was ruled by the British. At this time people were being subjected to huge atrocities. During the British rule, workers had to work seven days a week without a holiday.AdvertisementNarayan Meghaji Lokhande was the leader of the workers at that time. Seeing the condition of the workers, he presented his case to the British. He also asked for permission to take one day off a week. However, the British government rejected his demand. Lokhande did not like this at all. He joined hands with the workers to oppose this. He raised his voice against this coercion of the government. Protests were staged.

It wasn’t all that easy. He made many efforts for the rights of the workers and finally his efforts were successful. Nearly seven years later, the British government issued an order on June 10, 1890. Following the issuance of this order, it was decided to grant leave on one day of the week i.e. Sunday. In addition, half an hour of rest was given every afternoon. Which means it’s about to be the most delusional time of the year, as well as the most rewarding of all the breaks we’ve ever had in the office or anywhere else.

WhatsApp Lets You Change Voice Message Playback Speed: Here’s How

If there is one messaging app Indians love is WhatsApp. And despite the privacy-policy conundrum, many individuals still prefer using WhatsApp over other alternatives due to the convenience and the unique experience that it brings to the table.PAAnd now, WhatsApp has introduced another feature with voice messages that offer more control in recording and playback of these messages. WhatsApp Voice Message Playback Speed TweakThe new update (version 2.21.101) has just started rolling out in India and the feature allows playback of the voice message at different speeds, so in case a message is too long, or if the person is speaking really slowly, one can simply increase its playback speed and not waste time in understanding what the speaker is trying to convey.

The update brings the ability to increase the playback speed by two levels — 1.5x and 2x offering the ability to playback at 50 or 100 percent faster speeds than the original file. There is a small pill-shaped button to the right that shows the playback speed. Tapping on it would allow users to toggle between different speeds to suit their liking. INDIATIMESWhile this feature surely sounds cool, we would have also loved a feature that would allow people who send voice messages to hear the message before sending it to others — something that often results in embarrassing accidental voice notes being shared. Hopefully, WhatsApp includes that feature in its future updates.

Last week, WhatsApp Chief and Facebook CEO, in a conversation with WABetaInfo revealed how they were working on soon bringing multi-device support on WhatsApp enabling users to switch between four different devices on the fly. With this feature, they also plan on bridging WhatsApp to iPad — again something several iPad users have been asking for a while now. They also announced that they would be rolling out more open beta sign-ups for iOS users soon.

How Nutella was invented

Nutella is a brand of sweetened hazelnut cocoa spread. Nutella is manufactured by the Italian company Ferrero and was first introduced in 1964, although its first iteration dates to 1963.

Pietro Ferrero owned a bakery in Alba, an Italian town known for the production of hazelnuts. In 1946, he sold the initial 300 kilograms (660 lb) batch of Pasta Gianduja, derived from Gianduja. Originally sold as a solid block, Ferrero started to sell a creamy version in 1951 as Supercrema gianduja.In 1963, Ferrero’s son Michele Ferrero revamped Supercrema gianduja with the intention of marketing it throughout Europe. Its composition was modified, and it was renamed “Nutella”. The first jar of Nutella left the factory in Alba on April 20, 1964. The product was an instant success and remains widely popular.In 2012, French senator Yves Daudigny proposed a tax increase on palm oil from €100 to €400 per tonne. At 20 percent, palm oil is one of Nutella’s main ingredients, and the tax was dubbed “the Nutella tax” in the media.On 14 May 2014, Poste italiane issued a 50th anniversary Nutella commemorative stamp. The 70 Euro cent stamp was designed by Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato and features a jar of Nutella on a golden background. Ferrero held a Nutella Day on 17 and 18 May to celebrate the anniversary.


The main ingredients of Nutella are sugar and palm oil (greater than 50%). It also contains hazelnut at 13%, cocoa solids, and skimmed milk. In the United States and the United Kingdom, Nutella contains soy products.Nutella is marketed as “hazelnut cream” in many countries. Under Italian law, it cannot be labeled as a “chocolate cream”, as it does not meet minimum cocoa solids concentration criteria. Ferrero uses 25 percent of the global supply of hazelnuts, however not all of this is used exclusively in Nutella.In November 2017, the company modified the recipe slightly, increasing the sugar and skimmed milk powder content.Since the colour of the product is lighter in tone, the Hamburg Consumer Protection Center estimated that the cocoa content was also reduced. Some news outlets reported that the modification of the recipe led to consumers’ being “outraged” or “going nuts”.The traditional Piedmont recipe, gianduja, was a mixture containing approximately 71.5% hazelnut paste and 19.5% chocolate. It was developed in Piedmont, Italy, due to a lack of cocoa beans after post-war rationing reduced availability of the raw material.Many countries have a different ingredient list for the Nutella formula.

Australia Sugar, palm oil, hazelnuts (13%), skim milk powder (8.7%) cocoa powder (7.4%), non-fat milk solids, emulsifier (soy lecithin), flavour (vanillin).

Canada Sugar, modified palm oil, hazelnuts, cocoa, skim milk powder, whey powder, lecithin, vanillin.

Germany Ferrero has confirmed that it has changed the recipe of its chocolate and hazelnut spread – sparking a huge backlash among fans of the brand.

India Sugar, palm oil, hazelnuts (13%), skim cow milk powder (8.7%), low fat cocoa powder (7.4%), emulsifier (Lecithin – INS 322), contains added flavour (nature identical flavouring substance – vanillin).

Italy Sugar, palm oil, hazelnuts (13%), fat-reduced cocoa powder (7.4%), skimmed milk powder (5%), whey powder, emulsifier (lecithins) (soy), flavourant (vanillin).

United Kingdom Sugar, palm oil, hazelnuts (13%), skimmed milk powder (8.7%), fat-reduced cocoa (7.4%), emulsifier: lecithins (soya), vanillin.

United States Sugar, palm oil, hazelnuts, cocoa, skim milk, reduced minerals whey (milk), lecithin as emulsifier (soy), vanillin: an artificial flavor

How cell phone works

How Do Cell Phones Work?

With worldwide mobile subscriptions estimated to be around 7 billion in 2014, cell phones have become a universal and indispensable tool for modern life. With a cell phone, you can talk to anybody on the planet from almost anywhere. But do you really know how your cell phone works?

In the most basic form, a cell phone is essentially a two-way radio, consisting of a radio transmitter and a radio receiver. When you chat with your friend on your cell phone, your phone converts your voice into an electrical signal, which is then transmitted via radio waves to the nearest cell tower. The network of cell towers then relays the radio wave to your friend’s cell phone, which converts it to an electrical signal and then back to sound again. In the basic form, a cell phone works just like a walkie-talkie.

In additional to the basic function of voice calls, most modern cell phones come with additional functions such as web surfing, taking pictures, playing games, sending text messages and playing music. More sophisticated smart phones can perform similar functions of a portable computer.

Radio Waves

radio waves

Cell phones use radio waves to communicate. Radio waves transport digitized voice or data in the form of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, called the electromagnetic field (EMF). The rate of oscillation is called frequency. Radio waves carry the information and travel in air at the speed of light.

Cell phones transmit radio waves in all directions. The waves can be absorbed and reflected by surrounding objects before they reach the nearest cell tower. For example, when the phone is placed next to your head during a call, a significant portion (over half in many cases) of the emitted energy is absorbed into your head and body. In this event, much of the cell phone’s EMF energy is wasted and no longer available for communication.


Cellular antenna

Cell phones contain at least one radio antenna in order to transmit or receive radio signals. An antenna converts an electric signal to the radio wave (transmitter) and vice versa (receiver). Some cell phones use one antenna as the transmitter and receiver while others, such as the iPhone 5, have multiple transmitting or receiving antennas.

An antenna is a metallic element (such as copper) engineered to be a specific size and shape for transmitting and receiving specific frequencies of radio waves. While older generation cell phones have external or extractable antennas, modern cell phones contain more compact antennas inside the device thanks to advanced antenna technologies. It’s important to understand that any metallic components in the device (such as the circuit board and the metal frame for the iPhone) can interact with the transmission antenna(s) and contribute to the pattern of the transmitted signal.

Many modern smart phones also contain more than one type of antenna. In addition to the cellular antenna, they may also have Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and/or GPS antennas.



As mentioned earlier, a cell phone is a two-way wireless communication device and needs both the inbound signal (reception) and the outbound signal (transmission) to work. The magnitude of the received signal from the cell tower is called the “signal strength”, which is commonly indicated by the “bars” on your phone. The connectivity between a cell phone and its cellular network depends on both signals and is affected by many factors, such as the distance between the phone and the nearest cell tower, the number of impediments between them and the wireless technology (e.g. GSM vs. CDMA). A poor reception (fewer bars) normally indicates a long distance and/or much signal interruption between the cell phone and the cell tower.

In order to conserve battery life, a cell phone will vary the strength of its transmitted signal and use only the minimum necessary to communicate with the nearest cell tower. When your cell phone has poor connectivity, it transmits a stronger signal in order to connect to the tower, and as a result your battery drains faster. That’s why good connectivity not only reduces dropped calls, but also saves battery life.

Internal Combustion Engine

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, a rotor, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful work. This replaced the external combustion engine for applications where weight or size of the engine is important.

Diagram of a cylinder as found in an overhead cam 4-stroke gasoline engines.:C – crankshaftE – exhaust camshaftI – inlet camshaftP – pistonR – connecting rodS – spark plugV – valves. red: exhaust, blue: intake.W – cooling water jacketgray structure – engine blockDiagram describing the ideal combustion cycle by Carnot

The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1860 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nicolaus Otto (see Otto engine).The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. Firearms are also a form of internal combustion engine, though of a type so specialized that they are commonly treated as a separate category.In contrast, in external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids for external combustion engines include air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler.ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft and boats.ICEs are typically powered by fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. Renewable fuels like biodiesel are used in compression ignition (CI) engines and bioethanol or ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) produced from bioethanol in spark ignition (SI) engines. Renewable fuels are commonly blended with fossil fuels. Hydrogen, which is rarely used, can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy.

9 Reasons the Crypto Market Is Down

1. Making money in the crypto market is less straight forward than it used to be.Early cryptocurrency adopters either capitalized on ICOs (Initial Coin Offerings) by getting in early and getting out, mining and holding cryptocurrency for long periods of time or by day trading.In today’s investment climate, none of these approaches are sure to make you a fortune. Bitcoin mining has become more difficult and more competitive, meaning that the hash rate required to mine isn’t always worth the electricity bill.The SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) has turned its attention toward prosecuting fraudulent ICOs and crafting regulations. Across the board, ICOs have received criticism for serving as a means of fundraising without giving investors anything significant in return. Of course, there are also a lot of legitimate ICOs, though these receive less media attention.And day trading is much more difficult in a bear market, especially one as unpredictable as the one we’re currently in.This isn’t to say that there isn’t another wave of opportunity coming to cryptocurrency, blockchain technology and innovative applications of both — think cannabis cryptocurrency. Crypto just needs another round of innovation for investors to make money.

2. SEC regulations have stalled.We haven’t seen another crypto market boom largely due to regulatory uncertainty. The SEC is increasingly regulating crypto, but so far, it’s been a slow process.In 2018, the SEC fined a cryptocurrency exchange and companies that launched ICOs by misrepresenting security tokens as utility tokens, two types of cryptocurrency with important legal distinctions.To date, the SEC has also denied nine Bitcoin ETFs (Exchange Traded Funds) and delayed reviewing a tenth. This has had a negative effect on the crypto market since the summer of 2018.Legalizing cryptocurrency ETFs would allow institutions and individuals to invest in cryptocurrency without buying coins or tokens. By mitigating risk in this way, ETFs would mean large scale investment and more stability.

3. Many view cryptocurrency as a short-term investment.Though institutional investing in cryptocurrency is growing, most investors are millennials who view crypto as a short term investment. Unlike other asset classes, people do not typically include cryptocurrency in their retirement plans.Instead, crypto investors tend to want a quick return, meaning that they go short rather than long. When everyone is trying to get in and out, the market becomes volatile.Related: Why Entrepreneurs Shouldn’t Panic About the Bitcoin Slump

4. Market manipulation is widespread.One way for crypto investors to turn a profit is through “pump and dump” schemes. This is cryptocurrency slang for inflating a cryptocurrency’s value only to sell it off at its peak.Pump and dumps are relatively easy to accomplish, especially with smaller market cap cryptocurrencies, because exchanges have different levels of liquidity, which impacts how they price their crypto.Cryptocurrency is, by definition, decentralized, meaning that no centralized entity like a bank or government controls it. As a result, supply and demand determine its price, and supply differs widely between exchanges. If someone buys a lot of one crypto on a smaller exchange, investors on other exchanges will notice and buy the same crypto, triggering a market-wide price increase.Larger market cap cryptocurrencies are not immune to this type of manipulation, either. For example, Bitcoin (BTC) is currently worth five dollars more on Bittrex than on Coinbase Pro, two large exchanges.

5. The Department of Justice is investigating Tether (USDT).The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) is investigating Bitcoin’s meteoric price rise in late 2017. According to some sources, Bitcoin’s price rose to nearly $20,000 due to manipulation on the cryptocurrency exchange Bitfinex.Bitfinex issues the stablecoin Tether (USDT). Researchers at the University of Texas found that every time Bitcoin’s price began to decrease, Tether had been used to buy Bitcoin on various exchanges.Now, the DOJ and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) are involved. Tether, Ltd., has also been accused of not having the funds to support its 1 to 1 USDT to USD ratio that it claims to have.The uncertainty surrounding whether Tether is actually a stablecoin and Bitcoin’s bull run have negatively affected investor confidence in the crypto market.

6. Risk diversification isn’t yet possible.When confronted with possible manipulation and market volatility, investors typically diversify their assets. Theoretically, this could mean investing in Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH) and higher risk ICOs or altcoins.But in the crypto market, diversification doesn’t work the way investors want it to. More than 50 percent of the cryptocurrency market cap is Bitcoin alone. This is because most trading occurs between BTC and altcoins since you cannot convert fiat, meaning government-backed currency like the USD, directly into most cryptocurrencies.So when Bitcoin’s price falters, investors tend to convert their cryptocurrencies into stablecoins or fiat, triggering a large-scale market decline. In other words, risk diversification doesn’t work in crypto yet.

7. Lack of liquidity deters widespread adoption.Increased liquidity would mean price stability, easier, cheaper transactions, and more investor confidence. It would also prevent Bitcoin whales, or large buys, from manipulating cryptocurrency prices.Stability and fast transactions translate to wider cryptocurrency adoption, meaning that people besides cyberpunks and techies would feel comfortable converting their U.S. dollars into cryptocurrencies knowing that they could easily convert it back without paying steep transaction fees.Today, however, exchanges do not have enough liquidity to provide these functions, despite the fact that cryptocurrency adoption is on the rise. Some suggest that the best way to increase liquidity is to create a large exchange pool used by multiple exchanges.Related: The 5 Ways Banks Must Transform to Thrive in an Era of Cryptocurrency

8. Security remains a concern for prospective investors.The crypto market has received a lot of bad press for hacks, exit scams and Ponzi schemes. For some, ICOs are synonymous with fraud, though this is far from the truth.However, cryptocurrency exchange security remains a glaring issue The fact is that $1.1 billion in cryptocurrency was hacked in 2018. In the previous year, cryptocurrency hacks rose 369 percent.This is because stealing funds from exchanges, rather than banks, is a lot easier to do. Exchanges can be small companies with inadequate security to control millions in digital assets. Though there are many secure options, exchanges are not to be trusted across the board.

9. The Bitcoin Cash hard fork destabilized the crypto market.In late 2018, Bitcoin Cash (BCH) hard forked into two separate cryptocurrencies: Bitcoin Cash SV and Bitcoin Cash ABC.What happened was that developers and miners within the Bitcoin Cash community separated into two camps, each with their own vision for the currency. Because the changes they wanted to implement were incompatible with one another — adding oracles, smart contracts, increasing block size — the cryptocurrency’s blockchain split in two.Before the split, Bitcoin Cash’s price shot up around 40 percent. This is because investors receive the same amount of each cryptocurrency when it splits it two, thereby doubling their funds.After the hard fork, prices plummeted. There is speculation that the competition between SV and ABC inspired uncertainty in the entire market. Since the hard fork on Nov. 15, the entire market has been in decline.The crypto market is down because regulation is just beginning.Cryptocurrecy’s biggest problem is also its greatest investment advantage: It’s brand new. This means that we have yet to figure out how to regulate it. For this reason, some experts say that it’s not too late to invest in cryptocurrency.Once exchanges are standardized and provide enough liquidity and security, investors will be confident enough to go long in crypto. And when it becomes possible to exchange fiat for altcoins, investors will be able to diversify their portfolios without worrying that they’ll lose everything at the first signs of a bear market.Cryptocurrencies are as real as any other asset: The more institutions and people believe in the power of instantaneous, borderless assets, the more they’ll be worth.

Effective Communication: 6 Ways to Improve Communication Skills

Effective communication skills is a straightforward process that allows you to express yourself and improve both your personal and professional relationships. Knowing how to listen well and communicate clearly will help you express yourself in job interviews, business meetings, and in your personal life as well.Jump To SectionWhat Is Effective Communication?Why Is Effective Communication Important?4 Skills That Are Necessary for Effective CommunicationHow to Improve Your Communication Skills.

What Is Effective Communication?Being an effective communicator means being able to both actively listen and clearly express yourself to those around you. Unfortunately, there is no one skill or technique that will make you a better communicator. Effective communication requires a diverse skillset that covers both verbal and nonverbal communication cues, as well as close listening.

Why Is Effective Communication Important?Effective communication is vital both in and out of the workplace because it allows you to clearly translate your intentions and feelings into easily understandable messages. Effective communication makes you a more productive worker and cuts down on unintended consequences that arise as a result of miscommunication. Developing an effective communication process helps you understand what others are saying and makes you a better collaborator and team member.

4 Skills That Are Necessary for Effective CommunicationDeveloping better communication habits requires several important skills that work in tandem with each other. Some of these skills involve the way you speak or hold your body, and others are more emotionally based interpersonal skills. Here are a few skills that good communicators possess:

Listening skills: Clear communication starts with active listening. If you’re just focused on how you are expressing yourself, chances are you are not listening or reacting to what others are bringing to the table. An effective communicator uses a variety of listening styles. They pay close attention to what’s being said and make others feel heard and considered.

Empathy: Being able to understand the feelings of those around you is an integral part of being an effective communicator. Empathizing means both understanding and relating to someone else’s feelings. Having high emotional intelligence and demonstrating an ability to empathize builds rapport between you and others and increases your ability to communicate.

Nonverbal communication skills: In addition to verbal messages, effective communication relies on nonverbal cues. Developing an awareness of your body language and tone of voice will improve your messaging and presentation skills.

Teamwork: The ability to actively engage in team-building and consistently collaborate with coworkers is an important part of building your business communication skills. The more you build strong relationships and rapport with others in the workplace, the more effectively you’ll be able to communicate with them.

How to Improve Your Communication Skills If you feel like you lack the basic skills required for good communication, there are a number of reliable ways to improve. Here are a few tips for developing your communication skills:

Practice active listening. Effective communicators are always good listeners. Active listening means engaging with what people say by giving affirmative replies and asking followup questions to show that you are paying attention.

Focus on nonverbal communication. Mastering nonverbal cues and nonverbal signals can help prevent miscommunication and signal interest to those around you. Pay attention to your facial expressions and body language when you are speaking with someone in a professional setting. Your nonverbal cues affect the first impression you make on someone. Maintaining eye contact, limiting hand gestures, and having good posture go a long way when meeting someone for the first time.

Manage your own emotions. For the sake of clear communication and your own personal wellbeing, it’s important to manage your emotions and express them appropriately in context. Allowing strong emotions to unnecessarily creep into a professional setting can lead to poor communication and conflict.

Ask for feedback. There’s no shame in asking for honest feedback on your communication skills from colleagues. Asking your peers or subordinates for their advice on improving your communication skills can help you better understand how you are coming across in your work environment. Cultivate a willingness to seek out other points of view and forge better relationships with your coworkers.

Practice public speaking. Public speaking may sound daunting, but there’s no better way to develop good communication skills than by seeking out public speaking opportunities. Great communicators are able to clearly articulate their feelings, whether they’re speaking to a large group or talking face-to-face to one other person. Regularly speaking in front of a group will magnify your strengths and weaknesses and force you to develop great communication habits.

Develop a filter. Effective communicators generally have highly developed social skills and are able to modulate how they express their thoughts and feelings to those around them. Know what’s appropriate to express in different interpersonal contexts. Developing a filter will help supplement other communication techniques and ensure that you maintain a certain level of decorum and avoid conflict in the workplace.

Jio 5G launch in India


Jio 5G India launch date is expected to be announced on June 24th at Reliance Industries Limited Annual General Meeting.RIL is developing an indigenous 5G network infrastructure in partnership with Qualcomm.We expect Reliance Jio 5G plans to be priced competitively.the next big thing in the world of telecom, looks set to become a reality in India very soon.

The Department of Telecommunications has given a go-ahead to four telecom operators in the Indian market — Airtel, Reliance Jio, VI, and MTNL — to test 5G networks in the country. However, Reliance Jio 5G network is expected to be the first to officially roll out to consumers in India. The company has been busy testing 5G equipment and setting up the infrastructure for the 5G network in the country. Thanks to the official information, leaks, and rumors, we have a pretty good idea about Jio 5G India launch date, plans, and speeds.

Let us have a look.Jio 5G launch date in India The Mukesh Ambani-backed RIL is expected to make Jio 5G launch on June 24th during its Annual General Meeting. Going by the reports online, it looks like the telecom operator will showcase the key Jio 5G features during the AGM, and the actual rollout will likely take place later in the future. It is also worth mentioning that the company is expected to launch an affordable Jio 5G smartphone at the event.Reliance-Jio-AGM-2021-Jio-5GThe Department of Telecommunications is yet to allot 5G spectrums to telecom operators in India. It is believed that the 5G spectrum will be allotted to these companies by the end of this year. So, you can expect Jio 5G network to roll out pan-India by the end of 2021 or in early 2022.Jio 5G plans Reliance could announce Jio 5G plans on June 24th during the AGM. However, that is just our speculation considering that the brand is expected to launch the Jio 5G service at the event.To recall, the entire telecom landscape in India was changed with the entry of Jio into the market. Reliance Jio offered extremely affordable cellular plans compared to the competitors. This, in turn, forced companies like Airtel and VI to drop the prices of their mobile plans.

Well, if Jio’s pricing history is anything to go by, we expect that Reliance will offer very affordable Jio 5G plans in India in order to boost adoption and keep its market share as the industry leader.Jio 5G network details Reliance Jio has been working on developing its own 5G network infrastructure (think of it as 5G equipment) instead of relying on Ericsson, Nokia, and Samsung. To achieve this feat, Reliance Jio has been working with Qualcomm to develop indigenous 5G network infrastructure and virtualized Radio Access Network (RAN).In layman terms, virtualised RAN allows the company’s 5G software to run on conventional off-the-shelf servers instead of having dedicated servers built exclusively for the job. This technology is expected to fast-track the rollout of the Jio 5G network in the country.Jio 5G speed in India As mentioned earlier, the Department of Telecommunications has given permission to Reliance to test the Jio 5G network, and the company has already commenced the Jio 5G testing in India. According to a report published by Qualcomm in 2020, Reliance managed to achieve 1Gbps speed on the Jio 5G network in the trials. Don’t get too excited though. That speed might have been achieved in lab conditions, which are very different from real-world conditions.Now, India is a thickly populated country with many closely packed buildings and civil infrastructures. This affects the penetration and ultimately the travel distance of 5G radio waves, which drastically reduces the data speed. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that we will get 1Gbps speed on the Jio 5G network in real life. Hopefully, Reliance will reveal real-life Jio 5G data speed on June 24th.

PhonePe services hit as partner Yes Bank collapses

Yes Bank crisis: On 6th March morning, PhonePe founder and CEO Sameer Nigam acknowledged that the outage was due to the RBI restrictions on Yes BankBusinessToday.In | New Delhi, Saturday, March 7, 2020 | 16:22 ISTphonepe_505_060320114152.jpg Yes Bank crisis: After banking partner Yes Bank was put under restriction by the Reserve Bank of India on Thursday evening, payments firm PhonePe suffered an outage. PhonePe users were unable to pay using the platform.

The platform acknowledged the outage and said that the services were temporarily unavailable but did not say that it was due to the restrictions on its banking partner. “We are temporarily unavailable. We are going through an unscheduled maintenance activity. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. We will be back soon,” it had stated late night on Thursday. On Friday morning, founder and CEO Sameer Nigam acknowledged that the outage was due to the RBI restrictions on Yes Bank. “Our partner bank (Yes Bank) was placed under moratorium by RBI. Entire team’s been working all night to get services back up asap,” it stated.PhonePe is a UPI-based payments system and digital wallet company based in Bengaluru. Founded in 2015, PhonePe was acquired by Flipkart in 2016 to build its payment business.On Thursday evening, RBI placed restrictions on cash withdrawal for Yes Bank customers. The apex bank capped withdrawals for depositors at Rs 50,000. RBI superseded the Yes Bank board and appointed Prashant Kumar as the administrator of the bank. The RBI stated that it is satisfied that it must issue certain directions to Yes Bank to protect the interest of the depositors.Yes Bank will also not be able to renew or grant a loan or make any investment or transfer any of its properties or assets. The apex bank also assured the depositors that their money would be fully protected. “The Reserve Bank will explore and draw up a scheme in the next few days for the bank’s reconstruction or amalgamation and with the approval of the Central Government, put the same in place well before the period of moratorium of thirty days ends so that the depositors are not put to hardship for a long period of time,” the RBI said.

Dr.A.P.J.Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam(About this sound listen); 15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian aerospace scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India’s civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India’s Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974.A. P. J. Abdul KalamA. P. J. Abdul Kalam.jpgOfficial portrait, 200211th President of India In office 25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee Manmohan Singh Vice President Krishan Kant Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Preceded byK. R. Narayanan Succeeded by Pratibha Patil Personal details Born Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam 15 October 1931Rameswaram, Madras Presidency, British India(present-day Tamil Nadu, India)Died 27 July 2015 (aged 83)Shillong, Meghalaya, India Resting place Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam Desiya Ninai vagam, Pei Karumbu, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India Nationality Indian Alma mater St. Joseph’s College, Tiruchirappalli (BEng)Madras Institute of Technology (MEng) Profession Aerospace Scientist Author Awards Full list Notable work(s)Wings of Fire, India 2020, Ignited Minds, Indomitable Spirit, Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences with Pramukh Swamiji Signature Website Official Website Scientific career Fields Aerospace Engineering Institutions Defence Research and Development Organisation Indian Space Research Organisation Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the “People’s President”,he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian honour.While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83.Thousands, including national-level dignitaries, attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameswaram, where he was buried with full state honours.

Statue of unity

The Statue of Unity is a colossal statue of Indian statesman and independence activist Vallabhbhai Patel (1875–1950), who was the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of independent India and an adherent of Mahatma Gandhi during the nonviolent Indian Independence movement. Patel was highly respected for his leadership in uniting 562 princely states of India with a major part of the former British Raj to form the single Union of India. The statue is located in the state of Gujarat, India. It is the world’s tallest statue with a height of 182 metres (597 feet).It is located on the Narmada River in the Kevadiya colony, facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the city of Vadodara and 150 kilometres (93 mi) from Surat. Kevadia railway station is located at a distance of just 5 kilometres from Statue of Unity.[5][6]Statue of Unity Statue of Unity.jpgStatue of Unity is located in GujaratStatue of Unity Location of the Statue of Unity in Gujarat Show map of Gujarat Show map of India Show allCoordinates21.8380°N 73.7191°E Location Narmada Valley Kevadiya colony, Narmada district, Gujarat, India Designer Ram V. Sutar Type Statue Material Steel framing, reinforced by concrete and brass coating, bronze cladding Height182 meters (597 ft)Visitors2.8 million (in 2018-19)Beginning date 31 October 2013Completion date 30 October 2018Opening date 31 October 2018Dedicated to Vallabhbhai PatelWebsitestatueofunity.inThe project was first announced in 2010 and the construction of the statue started in October 2013 by Larsen & Toubro, with a total construction cost of ₹2700 crore (₹27 billion; US$422 million).It was designed by Indian sculptor Ram V. Sutar, and was inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October 2018, the 143rd anniversary of Sardar Patel’s birth.


Narendra Modi first announced the project to commemorate Vallabhbhai Patel on 7 October 2013 at a press conference to mark the beginning of his 10th year as the Chief Minister of Gujarat. At the time, the project was dubbed, “Gujarat’s tribute to the nation”.A separate Society named Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Rashtriya Ekta Trust (SVPRET) was formed under the chairmanship of the Chief minister, Government of Gujarat, to execute the project.An outreach drive named the Statue of Unity Movement was started to support the construction of the statue. It helped collect the iron needed for the statue by asking farmers to donate their used farming instruments. By 2016, a total of 135 metric tonnes of scrap iron had been collected and about 109 tonnes of it was used to make the foundation of the statue after processing.A marathon titled Run For Unity was held on 15 December 2013 in Surat and Vadodara in support of the project.

History of Facebook

Facebook, American company offering online social networking services. Facebook was founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes, all of whom were students at Harvard University. Facebook became the largest social network in the world, with more than one billion users as of 2012, and about half that number were using Facebook every day. The company’s headquarters are in Menlo Park, California.

Access to Facebook is free of charge, and the company earns most of its money from advertisements on the Web site. New users can create profiles, upload photos, join a preexisting group, and start new groups. The site has many components, including Timeline, a space on each user’s profile page where users can post their content and friends can post messages; Status, which enables users to alert friends to their current location or situation; and News Feed, which informs users of changes to their friends’ profiles and status. Users can chat with each other and send each other private messages. Users can signal their approval of content on Facebook with the Like button, a feature that also appears on many other Web sites.The attractiveness of Facebook stems in part from cofounder Zuckerberg’s insistence from the very beginning that members be transparent about who they are; users are forbidden from adopting false identities. The company’s management argued that transparency is necessary for forming personal relationships, sharing ideas and information, and building up society as a whole. It also noted that the bottom-up, peer-to-peer connectivity among Facebook users makes it easier for businesses to connect their products with consumers.

In September 2004 TheFacebook added the Wall to a member’s online profile. This widely used feature let a user’s friends post information on their Wall and became a key element in the social aspect of the network. By the end of 2004, TheFacebook had reached one million active users. However, the company still trailed the then-leading online social network, Myspace, which boasted five million members.The year 2005 proved to be pivotal for the company. It became simply Facebook and introduced the idea of “tagging” people in photos that were posted to the site. With tags, people identified themselves and others in images that could be seen by other Facebook friends. Facebook also allowed users to upload an unlimited number of photos. In 2005 high-school students and students at universities outside the United States were allowed to join the service. By year’s end it had six million monthly active users.In 2006 Facebook opened its membership beyond students to anyone over the age of 13. As Zuckerberg had predicted, advertisers were able to create new and effective customer relationships. For example, that year, household product manufacturer Procter & Gamble attracted 14,000 people to a promotional effort by “expressing affinity” with a teeth-whitening product. This kind of direct consumer engagement on such a large scale had not been possible before Facebook, and more companies began using the social network for marketing and advertising.Privacy remains an ongoing problem for Facebook. It first became a serious issue for the company in 2006, when it introduced News Feed, which consisted of every change that a user’s friends had made to their pages. After an outcry from users, Facebook swiftly implemented privacy controls in which users could control what content appeared in News Feed. In 2007 Facebook launched a short-lived service called Beacon that let members’ friends see what products they had purchased from participating companies. It failed because members felt that it encroached on their privacy. Indeed, a survey of consumers in 2010 put Facebook in the bottom 5 percent of companies in customer satisfaction largely because of privacy concerns, and the company continues to be criticized for the complexity of its user privacy controls and for the frequent changes it makes to them.


Tesla, Inc. is an American electric vehicle and clean energy company based in Palo Alto, California. Tesla’s current products include electric cars, battery energy storage from home to grid-scale, solar panels and solar roof tiles, as well as other related products and services. In 2020, Tesla had the highest sales in the plug-in and battery electric passenger car segments, capturing 16% of the plug-in market (which includes plug-in hybrids) and 23% of the battery-electric (purely electric) market. Through its subsidiary Tesla Energy, the company develops and is a major installer of solar photovoltaic energy generation systems in the United States. Tesla Energy is also one of the largest global suppliers of battery energy storage systems, with 3 GWh of battery storage supplied in 2020.

Founded in July 2003 by Martin Eberhard and Marc Tarpenning as Tesla Motors, the company’s name is a tribute to inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla. Elon Musk, who contributed most of the funding in the early days, has served as CEO since 2008. According to Musk, the purpose of Tesla is to help expedite the move to sustainable transport and energy, obtained through electric vehicles and solar power. Tesla began production of their first car model, the Roadster, in 2009. This was followed by the Model S sedan in 2012, the Model X SUV in 2015, the higher volume Model 3 sedan in 2017, and the Model Y crossover in 2020. The Model 3 is the world’s all-time best-selling plug-in electric car, with more than 800,000 delivered through December 2020. Tesla’s global vehicle sales were 499,550 units in 2020, a 35.8% increase over the previous year. In 2020, the company surpassed the 1 million mark of electric cars produced.Tesla has been the subject of numerous lawsuits and controversies arising from statements and acts of CEO Elon Musk, allegations of creative accounting, allegations of whistleblower retaliation, alleged worker rights violations, and allegedly unresolved and dangerous technical problems with their products.

Comparison between Covaxin and covildshild

The COVID-19 vaccination drive has already begun in India, and many people are still unaware of how the two vaccines – Covaxin and Covishield – are different from each other.

The third phase began on April 1, in which people over the age of 18 can take life-saving shots.

Currently, the government hasn’t allowed people to decide which vaccine they want to get, but the result of the first phase clearly suggests that both the vaccines being inoculated in India are safe and effective.

Covaxin vs Covishield – Which one is better?

Well, we have compiled all the information to give you a better understanding of the formulation and every other detail about the vaccine you are going to get to stay safe from the Coronavirus. Have a look –


Covaxin has been developed by Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech International Ltd in association with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the National Institute of Virology (NIV).

Covishield has been developed by the Oxford-AstraZeneca and is being manufactured by the Serum Institute of India (SII).

Type of Vaccine

Covaxin is an inactivated viral vaccine. This vaccine is developed with Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell-derived technology. They contain inactivated viruses, which can not infect a person but still can teach the immune system to prepare a defence mechanism against the active virus.

These conventional vaccines have been in use for decades now. There are vaccines for some other diseases as well which are made using the same technology. These diseases are –

  • Seasonal influenza
  • Rabies
  • Polio
  • Pertussis, and
  • Japanese encephalitis

Covishield has been prepared using the viral vector platform which is a totally different technology.

A chimpanzee adenovirus – ChAdOx1 – has been modified to enable it to carry the COVID-19 spike protein into the cells of humans. Well, this cold virus is basically incapable of infecting the receiver but can very well teach the immune system to prepare a mechanism against such viruses.

The exact technology was used to prepare vaccines for viruses like Ebola.


There is no difference between the two vaccines in terms of dosage. Both of them are administered as 0.5ml in the upper arm region.

But, the dosing schedule for both vaccines however varies. The second dose of Covaxin is scheduled after 4-6 weeks after the first dose, while for Covishield vaccines it is 84 days or 12-16 weeks after the first dose.

Storage Guidelines

Both Covishield and Covaxin can be stored at 2-8 degrees Centigrade, which is a household refrigerator temperature. This makes both the vaccines most suited for Indian conditions as most of the vaccines here are kept at the same temperature range.

This also makes the transportation and storage of both vaccines easier.


Both the vaccines have shown more than satisfactory results ever since the inoculation started in India.

The effectiveness of the Covishield vaccine is nearly 90% as per the global reports and Covaxin’s 81% according to interim 3rd phase trial results.

Side effects

After getting vaccinated, you may experience pain at the site of injection. Some people may also experience side effects such as headache, joint pain, and may feel feverish. These side effects do not persist for long and generally go within a day or two.


Covaxin has currently been granted approval for emergency restricted use, while Covishield has been allowed for restricted use in emergency situations that can potentially prevent coronavirus infection in people aged 18 years and above.

Covaxin has begun its clinical trial in children aged above 2 years of age.

However, the Drugs Controller General of India (DGCI) has not given a market use authorization clearance to any of the vaccines till now.

Who is ratan tata

Ratan Naval Tata (born 28 December 1937) is an Indian industrialist philanthropist, and a former chairman of Tata Sons. He was also chairman of Tata Group, from 1990 to 2012, and again, as interim chairman, from October 2016 through February 2017, and continues to head its charitable trusts.He is the recipient of two of the highest civilian awards of India, the Padma Vibhushan (2008) and Padma Bhushan (2000).

Ratan Tata
Ratan Tata
BornRatan Naval Tata
28 December 1937 (age 83)
BombayBombay PresidencyBritish India (present-day Mumbai, Maharashtra, India)
Alma materCornell University (BArch)
TitleChairman Emeritus, Tata Sons and Tata Group
PredecessorJRD Tata
SuccessorCyrus Mistry (2012)
Natarajan Chandrasekaran (2017–present)
Parent(s)Naval Tata
RelativesSee Tata family
AwardsPadma Vibhushan (2008)
Padma Bhushan (2000)

Born in 1937, he is a scion of the Tata family, and son of Naval Tata who was adopted by Sir Ratan Tata son of Jamsetji Tata, the founder of Tata Group. He is an alumnus of the Cornell University College of Architecture and Harvard Business School through the Advanced Management Program that he completed in 1975. He joined his company in 1961 when he used to work on the shop floor of Tata Steel, and was the apparent successor to J. R. D. Tata upon the latter’s retirement in 1991. He got Tata Tea to acquire TetleyTata Motors to acquire Jaguar Land Rover, and Tata Steel to acquire Corus, in an attempt to turn Tata from a largely India-centrist group into a global business.

How Microsoft were found??

Microsoft is a multinational computer technology corporation. Microsoft was founded on April 4, 1975, by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, New Mexico.Its current best-selling products are the Microsoft Windows operating system; Microsoft Office, a suite of productivity software; Xbox, a line of entertainment of games, music, and video; Bing, a line of search engines; and Microsoft Azure, a cloud services platform.Logo since August 17, 2012In 1980, Microsoft formed a partnership with IBM to bundle Microsoft’s operating system with IBM computers; with that deal, IBM paid Microsoft a royalty for every sale. In 1985, IBM requested Microsoft to develop a new operating system for their computers called OS/2. Microsoft produced that operating system, but also continued to sell their own alternative, which proved to be in direct competition with OS/2. Microsoft Windows eventually overshadowed OS/2 in terms of sales. When Microsoft launched several versions of Microsoft Windows in the 1990s, they had captured over 90% market share of the world’s personal computers.As of June 30, 2015, Microsoft has a global annual revenue of US$86.83 Billion and 128,076 employees worldwide. It develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of software products for computing devices.

Founding of Microsoft:

In late 1974, Paul Allen, a programmer at Honeywell, was walking through Harvard Square when he saw the cover of the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics that demonstrated the Altair 8800, the first microcomputer. Allen bought the magazine and rushed to Currier House at Harvard College, where he showed it to high school friend Bill Gates. They saw potential to develop an implementation of BASIC for the system.Gates called Altair manufacturer Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), offering to demonstrate the implementation. Allen and Gates had neither an interpreter nor an Altair system, yet in the eight weeks before the demo, they developed an interpreter with the help of Monte Davidoff.

When Allen flew to Albuquerque to meet with MITS, the interpreter worked and MITS agreed to distribute Altair BASIC. Allen moved to Albuquerque, Gates soon quit Harvard to join him, and they co-founded Microsoft there. Revenues of the company totalled $16,005 by the end of 1976.Allen came up with the original name of Micro-Soft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software.Hyphenated in its early incarnations, on November 26, 1976, the company was registered under that name with the Secretary of State of New Mexico. The company’s first international office was founded on November 1, 1978, in Japan, entitled “ASCII Microsoft” (now called “Microsoft Japan”), and on November 29, 1979, the term, “Microsoft” was first used by Bill Gates. On January 1, 1979, the company moved from Albuquerque to a new home in Bellevue, Washington, since it was hard to recruit top programmers to Albuquerque. Shortly before the move, eleven of the then-thirteen employees posed for the staff photo on the right.

Steve Ballmer joined the company on June 11, 1980, and would later succeed Bill Gates as CEO from January 2000 until February 2014. The company restructured on June 25, 1981, to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington (with a further change of its name to “Microsoft Corporation, Inc.”). As part of the restructuring, Bill Gates became president of the company and chairman of the board, and Paul Allen became executive vice president In 1983, Allen left the company after receiving a Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis, though he remained on the board as vice-chairman.Microsoft’s early products were different variants of Microsoft BASIC which was the dominant programming language in late 1970s and early 1980s home computers such as Apple II (Applesoft BASIC) and Commodore 64 (Commodore BASIC), and were also provided with early versions of the IBM PC as the IBM Cassette BASIC.Microsoft also marketed through an Apple dealer in West Palm Beach, Florida two products for the Radio-Shack TRS-80.

One was “Typing Tutor” which led the user through learning to use a keyboard. The other was authored by a professor at the University of Hawaii called “MuMATH” and had the ability to do mathematics in long integer math to avoid floating point numbers.The first hardware product was the Z-80 SoftCard which enabled the Apple II to run the CP/M operating system, at the time an industry-standard operating system for running business software and many compilers and interpreters for several high-level languages on microcomputers. The SoftCard was first demonstrated publicly at the West Coast Computer Faire in March 1980. It was an immediate success; 5,000 cards, a large number given the microcomputer market at the time, were purchased in the initial three months at $349 each and it was Microsoft’s number one revenue source in 1980.The first operating system publicly released by the company was a variant of Unix announced on August 25, 1980.

Acquired from AT&T through a distribution license, Microsoft dubbed it Xenix, and hired Santa Cruz Operation in order to port/adapt the operating system to several platforms.This Unix variant would become home to the first version of Microsoft’s word processor, Microsoft Word. Originally titled “Multi-Tool Word”, Microsoft Word became notable for its use of “What You See Is What You Get”, or WYSIWYG pioneered by the Xerox Alto and the Bravo text editor in the 1970s.[22][23]Word was first released in the spring of 1983, and free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 issue of PC World, making it one of the first programs to be distributed on-disk with a magazine. (Earlier magazine on-disk distributions included Robert Uiterwyk’s BASIC in the May 1977 issue of Information Age.)However, Xenix was never sold to end users directly although it was licensed to many software OEMs for resale. It grew to become the most popular version of Unix, measured by the number of machines running it[26] (note that Unix is a multi-user operating system, allowing simultaneous access to a machine by several users). By the mid-1980s Microsoft had gotten out of the Unix business, except for its ownership stake in SCO.[20]IBM first approached Microsoft about its upcoming IBM Personal Computer (IBM PC) in July 1980.On August 12, 1981, after negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft to provide a version of the CP/M operating system, which was set to be used in the IBM PC. For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products for less than US$100,000, which IBM renamed to IBM PC DOS. The original CP/M was made by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. Due to potential copyright infringement problems with CP/M, IBM marketed both CP/M and PC DOS for US$240 and US$40, respectively, with PC DOS eventually becoming the standard because of its lower price. Thirty-five of the company’s 100 employees worked on the IBM project for more than a year. When the IBM PC debuted, Microsoft was the only company that offered operating system, programming language, and application software for the new computer. The IBM PC DOS is also known as MS-DOS.InfoWorld stated in 1984 that Microsoft, with $55 million in 1983 sales,is widely recognized as the most influential company in the microcomputer-software industry. Claiming more than a million installed MS-DOS machines, founder and chairman Bill Gates has decided to certify Microsoft’s jump on the rest of the industry by dominating applications, operating systems, peripherals and, most recently, book publishing. Some insiders say Microsoft is attempting to be the IBM of the software industry.In 1983, in collaboration with numerous companies, Microsoft created a home computer system, MSX, which contained its own version of the DOS operating system, called MSX-DOS; this became relatively popular in Japan, Europe and South Ame Later, the market saw a flood of IBM PC clones after Columbia Data Products successfully cloned the IBM BIOS, quickly followed by Eagle Computer and The deal with IBM allowed Microsoft to have control of its own QDOS derivative, MS-DOS, and through aggressive marketing of the operating system to manufacturers of IBM-PC clones Microsoft rose from a small player to one of the major software vendors in the home computer industry.With the release of the Microsoft Mouse on May 2, 1983, Microsoft continued to expand its product line in other markets. This expansion included Microsoft Press, a book publishing division, on July 11 the same year, which debuted with two titles: Exploring the IBM PCjr Home Computer by Peter Norton, and The Apple Macintosh Book by Cary Lu.

History of Amazon


Jeff Bezos, a young man fresh out of Princeton, the university he graduated from in 1986, he quickly began to make a name for himself in the business world, eventually becoming vice-president of the major Wall Street firm DE Shaw and Co. A position he left in 1994 to launch his own company from Seattle (Washington). After reading a report on the future of the Internet that projected annual growth of web commerce of 2,300%, in the space of a garage (Seattle in 1994), Jeff Bezos decided to build his new online company. The result of this adventure was Cadabra (the embryo of Amazon).When the company was born, it was exclusively dedicated to selling books on the Internet. “With more than three million titles for sale and available throughout the world, the books category has more articles than any other”, acknowledged the founder of the company in an interview years ago.At the same time, in his incessant quest to improve business volume, the entrepreneur soon opted to change the name of the company. Bezos selected the name of Amazon by looking at the dictionary, he chose the name because of its association with the Amazonas river and also because it began with the first letter of the alphabet. Amazon’s slogan is From A to Z.

The beginning of Amazon

Bezos decided that this new business would sell books over the Web, due to the large worldwide demand for literature, the low price that could be offered for books, and the great selection of titles that were available in website was launched on July 16, 1995, immediately beginning an exponential growth of the company and its presence on the web. After 30 days of going online and without media promotion, Amazon was selling books in all 50 US states and 45 countriesAmazon Homepage 1995Bezos wanted to work on making the website as customer-friendly as possible and relating the site to all types of customers. The company offered discounts, affordable prices, offered topic areas to browse, books recently featured, a recommendation center, access to customer reviews… And a bunch of other customer hits!Despite the quick takeoff, not everything could be pink. It wasn’t long before other companies started attacking the new company, like Walmart that accused Bezos’s business of having stolen his business idea.

Use of Remedesivir To Adults


Remdesivir is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent that has previously demonstrated antiviral activity against filoviruses (Ebola viruses, Marburg virus), coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-Co-V, SARS-CoV-2), paramyxoviruses (parainfluenza type III virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, measles, and mumps virus), and Pnemoviridae (respiratory syncytial virus) . Remdesivir was initially developed against the Ebola virus based on its antiviral properties demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in animal models but failed to demonstrate efficacy in randomized clinical trials. Remdesivir was shown to exhibit antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro studies, and it was proposed as an investigational drug early during the pandemic. However, based on data from randomized clinical trials that demonstrated superior clinical efficacy of remdesivir to placebo, remdesivir is the first and only available therapeutic drug that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use in the management of patients with severe suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19.

FDA approved indication or emergency use authorization (EUA) of Remdesivir (with clinical trial summaries)

  • Adults and pediatric patients (over age 12 years and weighing at least 40 kgs or more) hospitalized patients with COVID-19
    • Results of a randomized, open-label trial of hospitalized patients admitted with moderate COVID-19 illness who were randomized to receive a 10-day course of remdesivir(n=197), a 5-day course of remdesivir(n=199), or standard of care(n=200) reported that patient is receiving the 10-day course of remdesivir did not have a statistically significant difference in clinical status compared to patients receiving standard of care. 
    • However, patients randomized to a 5-day course of remdesivir had a statistically significant difference in the clinical status compared to standard of care.
    • Final results of another double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of remdesivir in hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 pneumonia demonstrated that remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to clinical recovery. 
    • However, results from the WHO Solidarity Trial conducted at 405 hospitals spanning across 40 countries involving 11,330 inpatients with COVID-19 who were randomized to receive remdesivir (2750), hydroxychloroquine (954), lopinavir (1411), and interferon regimens(2063), and no trial drug(4088) reported that remdesivir, hydroxy chloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon regimens had little or no effect on overall mortality, initiation of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay. 
    • Based on the encouraging data from three randomized, controlled clinical trials that purely evaluated the clinical efficacy of remdesivir in patients hospitalized with mild-to-severe COVID-19, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) approved remdesivir for treatment in adults and pediatric patients (over age 12 years and weighing at least 40 kgs or more) hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
    • Currently, remdesivir is the first and only available therapeutic drug that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use in the management of patients with severe suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection, with severity being defined as SpO 2</= 94% on room air requiring supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

Coronavirus and COVID-19: What You Should Know

What Is COVID-19?

A coronavirus is a kind of common virus that causes an infection in your nose, sinuses, or upper throat. Most coronaviruses aren’t dangerous.In early 2020, after a December 2019 outbreak in China, the World Health Organization identified SARS-CoV-2 as a new type of coronavirus. The outbreak quickly spread around the world.ADVERTISEMENTCOVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that can trigger what doctors call a respiratory tract infection. It can affect your upper respiratory tract (sinuses, nose, and throat) or lower respiratory tract (windpipe and lungs).It spreads the same way other coronaviruses do, mainly through person-to-person contact. Infections range from mild to deadly.SARS-CoV-2 is one of seven types of coronavirus, including the ones that cause severe diseases like Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and sudden acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The other coronaviruses cause most of the colds that affect us during the year but aren’t a serious threat for otherwise healthy people.Is there more than one strain of SARS-CoV-2?An early Chinese study of 103 COVID-19 cases found two strains, which they named L and S. The S type is older, but the L type was more common in early stages of the outbreak. They think one may cause more cases of the disease than the other, but they’re still working on what it all means. It is also normal for a virus to change, or mutate, as it infects people and this virus has done so. There are several variants which have been named for the regions they were first discovered but they have now spread to other areas and countries, some proving to be more contageous as well as more deadly. How long will the coronavirus last?There’s no way to tell how long the pandemic will continue. There are many factors, including the public’s efforts to slow the spread, researchers’ work to learn more about the virus, their search for a treatment, and the success of the vaccines.

Symptoms of COVID-19

The main symptoms include:Fever Coughing Shortness of breath Trouble breathing Fatigue Chills,sometimes with shaking Body aches Headache Sore throat Congestion/runny nose Loss of smell or taste Nausea Diarrhea The virus can lead to pneumonia, respiratory failure, heart problems, liver problems, septic shock, and death. Many COVID-19 complications may be caused by a condition known as cytokine release syndrome or a cytokine storm. This is when an infection triggers your immune system to flood your bloodstream with inflammatory proteins called cyt okines. They can kill tissue and damage your organs