What is success to you? How to be successful in life?

To some, when they think of success, they imagine wealth; others want power; some just want to make a positive impact on the world.All of these are perfectly valid, indeed success is a concept that means different things to different people. Though no matter what success is to you, it almost certainly isn’t something will come easily.

There are countless guides and books to being successful, however, as success is personal and unique to each individual. The advice contained in these books can often not be relevant. Therefore following the advice of a single individual can often be unhelpful.

With this in mind, considering the advice of a great many people, people whose ideas of success were different both to each other, and quite possibly, to you can be a good alternative.

What follows is a list of 13 of the best pieces of advice from some of the most successful people who have ever lived. If you want to learn how to be successful, these tips are essential:

1. Think Big:

“The greater danger for most of us lies not in setting our aim too high and falling short; but in setting our aim too low, and achieving our mark.”

There are few artists as influential as Michaelangelo. Today centuries after his death, his work still inspires and connects to people. His work is world famous, just think of his statue of David, or the Mural in the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

Imagine then, if he decided not to work as an artist.Being a successful artist has always been extremely difficult, imagine if he decided to give up this ambition in favour of something easier?

Oftentimes, people often decided to put their dreams aside for something more “realistic”. To give up their dream for something easier. This quote teaches us the danger of such a point of view.Instead be ambitious.

2. Find What You Love to Do and Do It:

“You know you are on the road to success if you would do your job and not be paid for it.”

This is a good quote to remember and think about when you’re at work.Imagine being as successful as possible in your current job. Ultimately you’ll probably find yourself working extremely hard and this it will take up much of your time.If it’s a job you hate, then being successful at it might only mean filling your life with something you hate to do. What’s the sense in this?

Instead, why not focus on doing something you love? When you’ve found what you’re passionate about, you get the motivation to keep you moving. Success at this means the fulfilment of your dreams.

Not sure what your passion is yet? You should learn about your Motivation Engine first. To discover your own Motivation Engine, join Lifehack’s free Fast-Track Class – Activate Your Motivation. In this intensive session, you will dig deep into your inner drive and passion and build a unique Motivation Engine based on it, so you will never lose motivation again even when times get tough. Join this fast-track class for free here.

Even if you’re not successful, you still filled your time with something you love to do. Many successful musicians spent years of their lives doing unpaid performances, the only reason they kept playing was because they loved to perform.

3. Learn How to Balance Life:

“There is an immutable conflict at work in life and in business, a constant battle between peace and chaos. Neither can be mastered, but both can be influenced. How you go about that is the key to success.”

All too often, people think that to be successful, they need to make the object of their success their life.

If a person thinks their job will lead them to success, then they may spend countless hours per day, and well into the evening working hard.

However this comes at the cost of rest, your health and having an enjoyable life. Ultimately they may burn out and cease to be successful at their job anyway.

If success comes from having a strong social life and a good group of friends, their job may suffer; meaning that they may lose their job, and then be unable to afford going out with friends.

In these ways, success, as Phil Knight says above, is helped by balance. Think of it as a balance between rest and work, or work and play.To achieve that balance, this Ultimate Guide to Prioritizing Your Work And Life can help you.

4. Do Not Be Afraid of Failure:

“Failure is simply the opportunity to begin again, this time more intelligently.”

There is a story, it’s unconfirmed whether it actually happened, yet the message within is none the less true:

Thomas Edison inventing the lightbulb was the result of several hundred failed attempts. In an interview, he was asked “How do you feel after all of your failed attempts?”

His response was great, “I didn’t fail, I learned hundreds of ways not to invent the lightbulb”

He saw each “failure” as a lesson. From that lesson he learned what won’t work, and also might work instead.

Each failed attempt, each rejection, were key steps on his path to success. It is easy to feel like you should give up after a failure. But perhaps in that failure is a lesson.

Pay attention to your failures, study them. Perhaps then you’ll learn how to succeed.

5. Have an Unwavering Resolution to Succeed

“I made a resolve then that I was going to amount to something if I could. And no hours, nor amount of labor, nor amount of money would deter me from giving the best that there was in me. And I have done that ever since, and I win by it. I know.”

This, in many ways relates to the above quote about learning from your failures.

It’s the easiest thing in the world to give up from a failure. The only way to push on is if you have the true burning desire to succeed, to not be moved or dissuaded from your goals.

If you are not truly dedicated towards success, then each failure will hurt more, each set back will slow you down.

Success is hard; without the unwavering desire to succeed, this difficulty may seem insurmountable. With the desire, it is merely an obstacle to go through.

6. Be a Person of Action:

“It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things.”

Though it was said hundreds of years ago, it works just as much today as it ever had. It applies to literally any successful person.

Think about it, picture someone like William Shakespeare:

When we think of the time he lived in, we think of the time in a way shaped by him. When we think of Renaissance era Italy, we think of Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci. Or think about the present day, Bill Gates or Steve Jobs. Our current way of life would simply be incomparably different if they didn’t accomplish what they did.

You’re probably reading this article on a device by a company that they either founded or companies influenced by them.

All these figures were proactive, they saw ways to do things differently and did them. If they let the world shape them, then they’d simply fit into the background. Instead they shaped the world.

7. Cultivate Positive Relationships:

The most important single ingredient in the formula of success is knowing how to get along with people.”

The best leaders and some of the most influential people (and Theodore Roosevelt is one of the best leaders and one of the most influential people to have lived) were not those who caused commotions, who fought with people or disregarded people; but were people who were friendly to those around them.People liked them. They wanted them to do well.

It’s logical. If someone likes you, they want to help you; if you give them a suggestion, they’ll gladly follow through with it.

But if someone doesn’t like you, they may either refuse to help or actively get in your way.

What’s more, it’s always a good idea to cultivate good relationships. You can never tell who will prove to become someone who’ll be able to help you in a big way, or even be a good and supportive friend.As such, help people and they may help you; and be good to people, and they my be good to you.

8. Don’t Be Afraid of Introducing New Ideas:

“A person with a new idea is a crank until the idea succeeds.”

It is an unfortunate truth that those with the boldest ideas are often disregarded.Most of us are taught from an early age to think and do things similarly to everyone else. This can be great to fill an existing role. But to truly do things differently (and all successful people did things differently), you need to think differently.

If you have a new idea, don’t throw it away because it’s new and different; instead, celebrate it. Your strange new idea might one day be the one that leads you to success.

9. Believe in Your Capacity to Succeed:

“If you can dream it, you can do it.”

Success has to be something you can imagine yourself achieving.It is possible that you will come across those who doubt you and your ability to succeed. You must not become one of these people because the moment you cease believing and dreaming is the moment these dreams fall away.

10. Always Maintain a Positive Mental Attitude:

“Nothing can stop the man with the right mental attitude from achieving his goal; nothing on earth can help the man with the wrong mental attitude.”

Like the above quote says, you need to trust in your ability to succeed. This is the only way to cultivate the right mindset.

Replace negative thoughts with the positive ones. You need to approach problems, not as obstacles stopping you, but merely tasks that need to be completed for you to keep going.If you stay positive and think like this, setbacks won’t affect you so much, people’s doubts won’t impact you and even the biggest obstacles will seem like minor problems.However with the wrong mindset of doubt, you’ll be much easier to stop.

11. Don’t Let Discouragement Stop You from Pressing On:

“Let no feeling of discouragement prey upon you, and in the end you are sure to succeed.”

It is an unfortunate fact of human nature — all of us in some way, doubt ourselves. This can be made far worse if others doubt us too.When surrounded by doubts, giving up can actually seem like a good idea. Don’t pay attention to the doubts. If you are discouraged, ignore it.Watch this video and learn what to do even when others don’t believe that you’ll succeed:

12. Be Willing to Work Hard:

“Unless you are willing to drench yourself in your work beyond the capacity of the average man, you are just not cut out for positions at the top.”

You might have heard the quote that “success is 1% inspiration, 99% perspiration” or you may have heard about the 10,000 hours idea.Whichever way you frame it, they say one thing:True success comes from work.You’ll never become successful if you don’t work towards your goal in life and keep working towards it.

13. Be Brave Enough to Follow Your Intuition:

“Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.”

In ancient Greece, there was a group of Oracles who lived in Delphi. Everyone who needed advice or to know their future visited them, from the poorest of society to kings. Above the doorway of the temple were the words “know thyself”.

If you strongly believe and desire something, chances are that you already have an idea how to get there. If not, you may naturally know what things will help you and what things will slow you down.It’s like how your body can detect danger even when things seem safe.Ultimately then, you need to trust your own instincts.


10 Tips to Manage Stress:


Working out regularly is one of the best ways to relax your body and mind. Plus, exercise will improve your mood. But you have to do it often for it to pay off.week?Work up to 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderately intense exercise like brisk walks or 75 minutes of a more vigorous exercise like swimming laps, jogging or other sports.Focus on setting fitness goals you can meet so you don’t give up. Most of all remember that doing any exercise is better than none at all.

2.Relax Your Muscles:

When you’re stressed, your muscles get tense. You can help loosen them up on your own and refresh your body by:

Stretching Enjoying a massage. Taking a hot bath or shower Getting a good night’s sleep.

3.Deep Breathing:

Stopping and taking a few deep breaths can take the pressure off you right away. You’ll be surprised how much better you feel once you get good at it.

Sit in a comfortable position with your hands in your lap and your feet on the floor. Or you can lie down.

Close your eyes.

Imagine yourself in a relaxing place. It can be on the beach, in a beautiful field of grass, or anywhere that gives you a peaceful feeling.

Slowly take deep breaths in and out.

Do this for 5 to 10 minutes at a time.

4.Eat Well:

Eating a regular, well-balanced diet will help you feel better in general. It may also help control your moods. Your meals should be full of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and lean protein for energy. And don’t skip any. It’s not good for you and can put you in a bad mood, which can actually increase your stress.

5.Slow Down:

Modern life is so busy, and sometimes we just need to slow down and chill out. Look at your life and find small ways you can do that. For example:Set your watch 5 to 10 minutes ahead. That way you’ll get places a little early and avoid the stress of being late.When you’re driving on the highway, switch to the slow lane so you can avoid road rage.Break down big jobs into smaller ones. For example, don’t try to answer all 100 emails if you don’t have to — just answer a few of them.

6.Take a Break:

You need to plan on some real downtime to give your mind time off from stress. If you’re a person who likes to set goals, this may be hard for you at first. But stick with it and you’ll look forward to these moments. Restful things you can do include:Meditation,Yoga,Tai chi, Prayer,Listening to your favorite music,Spending time in nature.

7.Make Time for Hobbies:

You need to set aside time for things you enjoy. Try to do something every day that makes you feel good, and it will help relieve your stress. It doesn’t have to be a ton of time — even 15 to 20 minutes will do. Relaxing hobbies include things like:


KnittinDoing an art project

Playing golf

Watching a movie

Doing puzzles

Playing cards and board games.

8.Talk About Your Problems:

If things are bothering you, talking about them can help lower your stress. You can talk to family members, friends, a trusted clergyman, your doctor, or a therapist.

And you can also talk to yourself. It’s called self-talk and we all do it. But in order for self-talk to help reduce stress you need to make sure it’s positive and not negative.So listen closely to what you’re thinking or saying when you’re stressed out. If you’re giving yourself a negative message, change it to a positive one. For example, don’t tell yourself “I can’t do this.” Tell yourself instead: “I can do this,” or “I’m doing the best I can.”

9.Go Easy On Yourself:

Accept that you can’t do things perfectly no matter how hard you try. You also can’t control everything in your life. So do yourself a favor and stop thinking you can do so much. And don’t forget to keep up your sense of humor. Laughter goes a long way towards making you feel relaxed.

10.Eliminate Your Triggers:

Figure out what are the biggest causes of stress in your life. Is it your job, your commute, your schoolwork? If you’re able to identify what they are, see if you’re able to eliminate them from your life, or at least reduce them.If you can’t identify the main causes of your stress, try keeping a stress journal. Make note of when you become most anxious and see if you can determine a pattern, then find ways to remove or lessen those triggers.


A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

On Earth, volcanoes are most often found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-ocean ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the crust’s plates, such as in the East African Rift and the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and Rio Grande Rift in North America. Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 kilometers (1,900 mi) deep in the Earth. This results in hotspot volcanism, of which the Hawaiian hotspot is an example. Volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another.

Large eruptions can affect atmospheric temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the Sun and cool the Earth’s troposphere. Historically, large volcanic eruptions have been followed by volcanic winters which have caused catastrophic famines.

Volcanic activity:

Volcanoes vary greatly in their level of activity, with individual volcanic systems having an eruption recurrence ranging from several times a year to once in tens of thousands of years.[50] Volcanoes are informally described as active, dormant, or extinct, but these terms are poorly defined.


There is no consensus among volcanologists on how to define an “active” volcano. The lifespan of a volcano can vary from months to several million years, making such a distinction sometimes meaningless when compared to the lifespans of humans or even civilizations. For example, many of Earth’s volcanoes have erupted dozens of times in the past few thousand years but are not currently showing signs of eruption. Given the long lifespan of such volcanoes, they are very active. By human lifespans, however, they are not.

Dormant and reactivated:

It is difficult to distinguish an extinct volcano from a dormant (inactive) one. Dormant volcanoes are those that have not erupted for thousands of years, but are likely to erupt again in the future.[52][53] Volcanoes are often considered to be extinct if there are no written records of its activity. Nevertheless, volcanoes may remain dormant for a long period of time. For example, Yellowstone has a repose/recharge period of around 700,000 years, and Toba of around 380,000 years.[54] Vesuvius was described by Roman writers as having been covered with gardens and vineyards before its eruption of 79 CE, which destroyed the towns of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Before its catastrophic eruption of 1991, Pinatubo was an inconspicuous volcano, unknown to most people in the surrounding areas. Two other examples are the long-dormant Soufrière Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat, thought to be extinct before activity resumed in 1995 (turning its capital Plymouth into a ghost town) and Fourpeaked Mountain in Alaska, which, before its September 2006 eruption, had not erupted since before 8000 BCE and had long been thought to be extinct.


Extinct volcanoes are those that scientists consider unlikely to erupt again because the volcano no longer has a magma supply. Examples of extinct volcanoes are many volcanoes on the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain in the Pacific Ocean (although some volcanoes at the eastern end of the chain are active), Hohentwiel in Germany, Shiprock in New Mexico, US, Zuidwal volcano in the Netherlands, and many volcanoes in Italy such as Monte Vulture. Edinburgh Castle in Scotland is located atop an extinct volcano, called Arthur’s Seat. Whether a volcano is truly extinct is often difficult to determine. Since “supervolcano” calderas can have eruptive lifespans sometimes measured in millions of years, a caldera that has not produced an eruption in tens of thousands of years may be considered dormant instead of extinct.

Volcanic-alert level:

The three common popular classifications of volcanoes can be subjective and some volcanoes thought to have been extinct have erupted again. To help prevent people from falsely believing they are not at risk when living on or near a volcano, countries have adopted new classifications to describe the various levels and stages of volcanic activity.Some alert systems use different numbers or colors to designate the different stages. Other systems use colors and words. Some systems use a combination of both.

History of volcanology:

Many ancient accounts ascribe volcanic eruptions to supernatural causes, such as the actions of gods or demigods. To the ancient Greeks, volcanoes’ capricious power could only be explained as acts of the gods, while 16th/17th-century German astronomer Johannes Kepler believed they were ducts for the Earth’s tears.One early idea counter to this was proposed by Jesuit Athanasius Kircher (1602–1680), who witnessed eruptions of Mount Etna and Stromboli, then visited the crater of Vesuvius and published his view of an Earth with a central fire connected to numerous others caused by the burning of sulfur, bitumen and coal.

Various explanations were proposed for volcano behavior before the modern understanding of the Earth’s mantle structure as a semisolid material was developed. For decades after awareness that compression and radioactive materials may be heat sources, their contributions were specifically discounted. Volcanic action was often attributed to chemical reactions and a thin layer of molten rock near the surface.


Neurologists diagnose, treat and manage disorders that affect the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (nerves and muscles which activate movement and transmit sensation from all parts of the body to the brain).

Nature of the work:

Neurologists treat any disease of the body’s systems that affects neurological function. High blood pressure, for example, is a cardiac problem, but if it causes a stroke (a sudden loss of blood supply to the brain) the problem becomes a neurological one as well.

Neurologists also treat infectious disease such as meningitis which can cause brain damage and lead to complications like epilepsy.

They also treat peripheral nerve diseases which may result in weakness or sensory impairment.

In many cases, the diagnosis of new patients with neurological problems is by clinical assessment alone (taking a thorough history of the symptoms and physical examination), though in others there may be a need for further investigation such as blood tests, scans (CT or MRI) and electrical tests which measure peripheral nerve and muscle function.

Patients are followed up either to clarify the diagnosis or alternatively to manage longer term problems. Examples of conditions which require long term follow-up are epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease.

The process of diagnosis is becoming ever more sophisticated with improved imaging and other types of tests including genetic testing. Available treatments are broadening too with improvements in existing therapy as well as new treatments such as those to modify the disease in multiple sclerosis.

Neurologists treat conditions such as:

multiple sclerosisheadaches blackoutsperipheral neuropathy (disease affecting the nerves) including chronic neuropathic painParkinson’s disease and other movement disorders (eg tremor)Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) also known as motor neuron disease. MND (causing weakness and muscle wasting due to nerve degeneration)epilepsy spinal cord diseases muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy (causing weakness of muscle fibres)myasthenia gravis (where the muscles become weak and tire easily) and related disorders brain tumours functional disorders (symptoms which cannot be explained by neurological damage).

Common procedures/interventions:

Electroencephalography (EEG) to look for signs of epilepsy Nerve conduction tests (neurophysiology)injections for the treatment of patients with dystonia (abnormal muscle contractions)rarely, muscle or nerve biopsies.

Common reasons to visit a neurologist:

A thorough neurological exam is the most important tool I have as a neurologist,” Dr. Bruce explains. “It can help differentiate and localize the causes of common complaints.”

Chronic or severe headaches:

If you get migraine headaches, you should probably make an appointment with a neurologist, especially when the symptoms are associated with neurological deficits or tried treatments prove ineffective.


Experiencing vertigo (feeling like you’re spinning) or having difficulty keeping your balance could be a sign of something more serious.

Numbness or tingling:

Numbness or tingling, especially when it occurs on one side of the body or comes on suddenly, could be a sign of a stroke or other serious condition.

Movement problems:

Difficulty walking, shuffling your feet, tremors and unintentional jerks, can all be signs of a nervous system problem.

Memory problems or confusion:

Worsening memory problems, personality changes or mixing up words could be signs of Alzheimer’s disease.

What is Functional Neurology?

Functional Neurology is a new concept for many people. In essence, functional neurology, also called chiropractic neurology, is the clinical evaluation and treatment method for the central and peripheral nervous system. Very basically, functional neurology can be thought of as exercise for the brain. Just like training a muscle makes it stronger, training your brain will make it stronger.

What does it mean to make the brain stronger? By this, we mean improve the function of the brain. This can be achieved by making positive neuroplastic changes. Neuroplasticity is the term that describes the brains ability to make new connections in order to achieve a new function. Think about a developing child learning to walk or talk or write. It takes practice, but once the task is learned, it is hard wired. Through trauma, degeneration, or a developmental obstacle, the brain may not be wired correctly or it may have a weak or broken wire. A functional neurological treatment is one that promotes rewiring and/or strengthening a connection that is already in place.

Functional neurology is brain training. Smell, taste, sound, balance, vision, movement, and touch are utilized in specific ways to promote neuroplastic changes. Making a positive neuroplastic change requires specificity. Treatment needs to be specific for the part of the brain requiring change and then the treatment intensity needs to be done within the brain’s metabolic capacity. When working with fragile or broken wires (neurons), it is easy to cause more damage if the ‘weight’ of the treatment is not closely monitored.

Functional neurology does not include surgery or pharmaceutical solutions, but may employ some combination of chiropractic manipulation, various therapies, and recommended lifestyle changes.

The explanation which functional neurology provides for neurological disorders is still a hypothesis and difficult to convey in plain language, but here’s the short version based on a recent review of functional neurology.

Functional neurology treats the source of a patient’s ailments as “functional aberrations of the neuraxis” — meaning, clusters of neurons which aren’t working together in the way they are supposed to — in various locations throughout the central nervous system.

Functional neurologists attempt to assess the “central integrative state,” or CIS, of functional units of neurons within the nervous system to determine where those functional aberrations are. The CIS is essentially how they refer to the current healthiness of those neurons.

Functional neurologists believe functional aberrations come from lesions, which are the result of some deficiency — perhaps there are dead cells (worst case scenario), or maybe they aren’t getting enough oxygen or nutrition.

Whatever the case, these aberrations cause communication snafus throughout the central nervous system and lead to hyper- or hypo-functional areas of the brain. In turn, this situation results in “diverse motor, sensory, visceral, or cognitive symptoms”.

Many functional neurologists are also interested in fatigability (can you maintain a healthy response to a certain stimulus?) and hemisphericity (the belief that neurological symptoms come from some imbalance between the two halves of the brain or an area therein).

While their treatment protocols are highly varied, many functional neurologists base treatment on the idea that stimulation of an area is enough to engage the brain’s inherent neuroplasticity, which is its ability to heal itself from certain injuries and conditions.

For the purposes of this piece, we will assume that functional neurologists begin with chiropractic training. Chiropractors spend years learning about the central nervous system and the spine. They spend more time during diagnosis and treatment looking at whole-body care and the effects of lifestyle on health than do most neurologists.

To become a chiropractic neurologist, they complete additional coursework on neurological disorders and the functional neurology approach to treating them.Functional neurologists are in their element while treating symptoms of unknown cause, especially if they are related to the vestibular (balance) system. They can also help patients with neck soreness, back pain, and other symptoms relating to the spine because of their chiropractic training.


What Is a Debit Card?

Debit cards offer the convenience of a credit card but work differently. Debit cards draw money directly from your checking account when you make the purchase. They do this by placing a hold on the amount of the purchase. Then the merchant sends in the transaction to their bank, and it is transferred to the merchant’s account. It can take a few days for this to happen, and the hold may drop off before the transaction goes through.

You will have a personal identification number (PIN) to use with your debit card at stores or ATMs. However, you can also use your debit card without a PIN at most merchants. You will sign the receipt like you would with a credit card. Below are some other facts regarding debit cards.

You won’t pay interest on your purchases.Your credit history will be unaffected by debit card spending.Paying with debit will take the money from your account pretty much immediately.

What Is a Credit Card?

A credit card is a card that allows you to borrow money against a line of credit, otherwise known as the card’s credit limit.3 You use the card to make basic transactions, which are reflected on your bill; the bank pays the merchant, and later, when you receive your bill, you pay the bank.

You will be charged interest on your purchases. To avoid paying interest, don’t carry a balance over from month to month. Credit cards have high interest rates, and your credit card balance and payment history can affect your credit score.

Advantages of credit card:

Convenience: Credit cards eliminate the need for carrying cash all the time. You can use the card for payment in most places.

Future loans: If you plan to opt for any loan in the future but have a low credit score, the card will help you improve it.

Rewards: Using a credit card enables you to receive many rewards in the form of points, cash back, and other facilities.

Spending flexibility: Unlike debit cards, a credit card’s spending limit does not depend on your bank balance. This flexibility is helpful when you need to make significant purchases and do not have enough money in your account.

Disadvantages of credit card:

Transaction charge: When you use the card in a shop or restaurant, the credit card company charges the establishment a transaction fee. The business includes this charge in your bill; so, eventually, you end up paying it.

Maintenance charge and other fees: Some credit card companies charge you a flat annual maintenance fee. They also charge a minimum spending fee if you do not spend a fixed minimum amount in a year. Additionally, you need to pay a 3.5% cash advance fee when using the card to withdraw cash from ATMs. Moreover, they charge interest on the withdrawn amount per day until you pay the credit card bill.

Minimum payment amount: Credit card bills come with a ‘minimum amount due’ option. But, if you pay only the minimum amount, the company will charge you interest on the remaining balance next month. Suppose your credit card bill amount is ₹10,000 and the minimum amount due is ₹500 (5% of the total due). If you pay only the minimum amount, the company will charge you a 3% interest on the remaining ₹9,500. So, you would have to pay an additional amount of ₹285 in the following month. If you keep paying only the minimum due amount every month, it will take you 34 years to pay off the bill! The total amount will be ₹23,254 (₹10,000 + interest).


When it comes to making a choice out of laptop and desktop computer, you need to consider several important factors and make a decision according to your needs. Here we have listed the advantages and disadvantages of the laptop over the desktop computer that will allow you to make an informed decision.

Advantages of Laptop Over Desktop Computer:

1. Portability:

Laptops are highly portable on the virtue of their compact size. They can be easily taken from one place to another in a carrying case or backpack. This is what makes them a highly convenient device that you can carry even while traveling. You don’t need to worry about delays in submitting your work reports or sending an important file from your system as you can very much do it using laptops while on the go.

On the other hand, desktop computers come in large size and they are assembled from multiple components. Though it is possible to take desktop computers from one place to another, the overall process is quite burdensome. They are specially designed to be used in one location rather than constantly moving them from one place to another.

2. The convenience of assembly:

The laptop is extremely user-friendly as it needs only a few minutes to start running. You can simply take it out of your bag and press the power key to start the system. Within only a few minutes, your system is good to go. On the other hand, desktop computers require a bit of time to install and begin use. They also require a larger space to set up as compared to laptops. The laptop allows you to do your work while keeping them on the lap, while desktop computers require a formal table or specific furniture to complete the setup.

3. Power usage:

A laptop consumes less power as compared to a desktop computer on the virtue of its smaller components that require minimal power to keep running. Laptop computers also feature battery which means there is no work loss because of fluctuations in power or accidentally shutting down of the system. In the case of desktop computers, power fluctuations can cause a risk of losing your current work files if they are not saved properly.

4. Dimensions & Weight:

The laptop contains similar components that desktop components have but they weigh only around 2-3 kgs thereby making it easy for you to carry it even in one hand. While desktop computers are known for their bulky appearance and you can’t even carry them in both hands. Laptops are slimmer than desktop computers and you can keep them even in a highly congested place.

5. Information at your fingertips:

Another key benefit of the laptop over desktop computers is that they give you access to unlimited information at your fingertips. If you are traveling or away from your home or office then you will require a laptop to get hold of all your vital information from a place of your choice. No matter where you are, you can switch on your system and get access to your data or even try the internet using laptops.

Advantages of Desktop Computer over Laptop:

1. Cost:

Desktop computers offer you a wide variety of options when choosing different components that make a device highly powerful. On the other hand, laptops come with few limitations while choosing the components and sometimes you need to compromise with an average device. In order to achieve the ideal configuration of your desktop, you don’t need to pay a very high price. In the case of the laptop, you need to create a big hole in your pocket to avail a highly powerful system that is equipped with massive storage space, outstanding graphics, and higher speed.

2. Processor:

Desktop computers have the luxury of installing powerful processors than laptop computers. In fact, any of the recently launched processors you will find in the market, are more compatible with a desktop computer than laptops. You can easily run high graphics games on desktop computers, while laptops may face a few performance issues when running powerful games.

3. Screen size:

Desktop computers are available in a wide range of sizes and you even have the flexibility to enjoy the high-user experience that you can avail yourself with your home theatre or TVs. You also have an option to connect your CPU to a projector or larger screen to enjoy a better viewing experience. This is not the optimal case with laptops as they are manufactured considering the portability aspect in mind and you rarely get a screen size of more than 19 inches in laptops. Although, you can connect your laptop to external monitors or projectors if you are willing to do so.

4. Keyboard:

Desktop computers feature full-size keyboards that also include a number pad and you don’t have any limitations while accessing specific keys offering unique functionality. On the other hand, laptops with larger sizes also struggle to offer you an all-inclusive keyboard and you have limitations on accessing the functionality directly through shortcut keys.

5. Convenience in upgrading:

Most of the key components of desktop computers can be removed easily and they are very convenient to upgrade. Desktop cases also come in a large size that facilitates easy upgrading. In the case of laptops, you will find hard drive and memory are the only components that can be upgraded easily. The rest of the components in the laptop are either non-removable or built-in that makes upgrading almost impossible. If you need to upgrade any specific component of your laptop other than hard drive and memory, then you need to purchase a laptop with the latest configuration.

6. Easy maintenance:

Repairing your desktop computer is quite easy as most of the replacement parts are easily available in local computer shops. In the case of laptops, opening your device for repair is quite a cumbersome task. Besides this, some of the replacement parts of laptops can be purchased only from the manufacturer or any other online platform that demands a significant amount of money and time from your side. As each of the laptop models has its unique design and structure, they are quite hard to upgrade and incur a high cost for maintenance purposes.

7. Video cards:

Desktop computers can easily run video cards that demand efficiency in heat dissipation and require higher power. Most desktop computers are capable of managing extreme power supply which means you can easily run multiple video cards on your device at the same time. In the case of laptops, you face a lot of limitations when it comes to graphics capabilities. The heat reduction efficiency is also quite less on laptops when compared with desktop computers.

8. Health issues:

The elongated use of laptops on a user’s lap can cause health issues as the device becomes warm after prolonged use. The integrated display of the laptop also persuades users to search for the perfect view which may cause spinal or neck injuries in the long term.

While using desktop computers, you need to achieve a perfect sitting position on a chair which means you will be facing fewer body issues. When you are using desktop computers, a distance of more than 2ft is automatically maintained between your eyes and screen.

While in the case of laptops, this distance is less than 2ft which means you have a higher risk of damaging your eyesight with laptops as compared to desktop computers.


Information technology has deeply penetrated many areas of our lives. Almost any modern person can hardly imagine himself without such devices as a smartphone, a computer, a laptop, etc. And if only recently, a stationary computer was the limit of dreams, now this area has expanded enormously. The era of portable devices, such as laptops, has come and it’s absolutely not surprising. If you look at the statistics, then the notebook market is developing much faster than the computer and technology, and the filling of modern models, and the demand for them, the market is being improved very quickly.

However, life in modern cities simply boils down to the key, and most people become more active they are striving to receive new relevant information. Be aware of the latest developments in public and political life, have a source of new impressions, the opportunity to communicate with friends, and maintain business ties in a chronic lack of time. Therefore, laptops are the best innovative tool to accomplish all their requirements.

Every technology product of today’s time is excelling in some of the key parameters while showing limitations in other parameters. The same is the case with laptops that come with strengths as well as weaknesses. So before start shopping for any of your favorite laptop model available in the market, it is necessary to make yourself well versed with its unique features and limitations. Here we have made a list of the advantages and disadvantages of laptops that will allow you to make a better comparison.

Advantages of Laptops:

1. Mobility:

The first and main advantage of a laptop, in comparison with a stationary computer, is its mobility. The lightweight, compact size, the built-in battery in the laptop allowing it to easily move from one place to another. Many models can be worn at all times, used in a park, cafe, or carted in a car. Thanks to this mobility, you can quickly access the necessary data wherever you are.

2. Finished product:

The laptop is easy to use without any additional devices. It has everything such as its own keyboard, built-in mouse (touchpad), built-in speakers, built-in microphone, many laptops have a built-in camera, and even there are options with 2 built-in cameras on both sides of the laptop cover.

3. Internet access:

Internet access is the second advantage for the rise in demand for the laptop because it provides the ability to access the Internet through wireless technology Wi-Fi. However, this possibility can be on a stationary computer, but you can only connect to the network at home. The laptop can be taken with you to any cafe, restaurant, park, or another public place, where there is Wi-Fi coverage, and connect to the Internet. Moreover, some laptops allow you to install SIM cards for access to the mobile Internet 3G or 4G.

4. Offline operation:

The laptop is also convenient to use for all kinds of presentations. In this case, you do not depend on the technical equipment of the venue. Even the connection to the mains is not necessary since the laptop can work offline from its battery (with proper use). True, batteries have their lifespan, they are not eternal.

Disadvantages of Laptops:

1. Sensitivity:

Laptops are easier to damage as compare to ordinary computers. For example, it is not uncommon for a laptop to drop, fall with rain, sit on it, etc. All this leads to a breakdown of the device. And the repair of portable computers is much more expensive than an ordinary computer.

2. Unpredictable battery:

Often, the battery pack built into the laptop breaks down because it is not eternal, and it needs to be operated according to strict rules. In addition, many users have a habit of operating a laptop in exactly the same way as a stationary PC by enacting with power while using that is the foremost reason for damaging the battery.

3. Reinstalling the native operating system:

A very important point is that laptops really do not like reinstalling the operating system. The native system that comes with the laptop works with it in the best possible way. However, it is necessary to switch to another operating system, problems with function keys, with device drivers of the laptop, etc., can begin.


The Importance of the English Language:

Nowadays, more and more people are dedicating time to studying English as a second language. Many countries include English in their school syllabus and children are starting to learn English at a younger and younger age. But what is the true value of learning English?

Whether you are looking for a new job or planning to travel the world, studying English can help you progress in life both personally and professionally. You can compete in the global job market, increase your career skills and start to meet people around the world.

However, do you know why learning English is so important? Here are ten good reasons to take an English language course.

Why did English become important?

It’s easy to see just how important English is around the world. Many international businesses conduct meetings in English, universities teach courses in English and, around the world, tourists and travellers use English as a common language.

But how did English become so important? Well, it all goes back to the British Empire, which at its peak covered 25% of the earth’s surface. During colonial times, British rulers often obliged the people in those countries to speak English rather than their native language. Although the origins of English as a global language has a complicated past, the language has left an important mark on media, trade and business. If you’re still not sure about whether to learn the language, then check out the reasons below.

Reasons to Learn English:

1. English is a global language:

English is the most commonly spoken language in the world. One out of five people can speak or at least understand English!

2. Studying English can help you get a job:

English is the language of science, aviation, computers, diplomacy, and tourism. Knowing English increases your chances of getting a good job in a multinational company within your home country or of finding work abroad.

3. Learning English can help you meet new people:

English is the official language of 53 countries and is used as a lingua franca (a mutually known language) by people from all around the world. This means that whether you’re working in Beijing, or travelling in Brazil, studying English can help you have a conversation with people from all over the world.

4. Many scientific papers are written in English:

In the last century, the number of scientific papers written in English has started to outweigh the number of papers written in the native language of the researcher. In the Netherlands, for example, the ratio is a surprising 40 to 1. For this reason, having a knowledge of English is incredibly important to those working in the scientific field.

5. English is the language of the media industry:

Because of the prominence of Hollywood in global media, an enormous amount of films, TV shows and popular songs are written in English. If you speak English, you won’t need to rely on translations and subtitles anymore to enjoy your favourite books, songs, films and TV shows.

6. English is the language of the Internet:

English is a particularly important language online with more than half the content on the internet written in English. As well as this, some of the world’s largest tech companies are based in English speaking countries.

7. Travelling is a lot easier with a good knowledge of English:

Imagine you’re a Spanish person on holiday in Thailand, while your hotel receptionist might not be able to answer your question in Spanish, it’s likely they will be able to answer your question in English.

8. English is one of the most important languages for business:

Whether you’re a business owner, student or employee, English is incredibly important in the business world. English is considered to be one of the most important business languages due to being the de facto language of the United States and the official language of the UK, Canada, India and South Africa.

9. With English, you can study all over the world:

Since English is spoken in so many different countries there are thousands of schools and universities around the world that offer programmes in English. If you speak good academic English, there’re lots of opportunities for you to find an appropriate school and course to suit your needs. Find out about going to university in an English speaking country.

10. English gives you access to multiple cultures:

Good knowledge of English will allow you to access films, music and literature from hundreds of countries around the globe. Not to mention the fact that numerous books from across the world are translated into English. Few experiences will make you grow as a person more than learning the values, habits and way of life in a culture that is different from yours.

11.English is the Language of International Communication:

HomeBook Now Search NowELC Brighton students4 reasons why learning English is so importantOur coursesEnglish courses in BrightonEnglish courses in ChesterEnglish courses in EastbourneWhy is Learning English is so Important?English is the language of science, of aviation, computers, diplomacy, and tourism. Knowing English increases your chances of getting a good job in a multinational company within your home country or for finding work abroad. It’s also the language of international communication, the media and the internet, so learning English is important for socialising and entertainment as well as work!ELC Students visit LewesLet’s look at the top 4 reasons why studying English is so important:1. English is the Language of International Communication English may not be the most spoken language in the world, but it is the official language of 53 countries and spoken by around 400 million people across the globe. Being able to speak English is not just about being able to communicate with native English speakers, it is the most common second language in the world. If you want to speak to someone from another country then the chances are that you will both be speaking English to do this.

The British Council projects that by 2020 two billion people in the world will be studying English. Learning English is important as it enables you to communicate easily with your fellow global citizens. When you study English at ELC schools, you will be making friends with people from lots of different countries, using English as your common language!

12. English is the Language of Business:

HomeBook Now Search NowELC Brighton students4 reasons why learning English is so importantOur coursesEnglish courses in BrightonEnglish courses in ChesterEnglish courses in EastbourneWhy is Learning English is so Important?English is the language of science, of aviation, computers, diplomacy, and tourism. Knowing English increases your chances of getting a good job in a multinational company within your home country or for finding work abroad. It’s also the language of international communication, the media and the internet, so learning English is important for socialising and entertainment as well as work!ELC Students visit LewesLet’s look at the top 4 reasons why studying English is so important:1. English is the Language of International Communication English may not be the most spoken language in the world, but it is the official language of 53 countries and spoken by around 400 million people across the globe. Being able to speak English is not just about being able to communicate with native English speakers, it is the most common second language in the world. If you want to speak to someone from another country then the chances are that you will both be speaking English to do this.The British Council projects that by 2020 two billion people in the world will be studying English. Learning English is important as it enables you to communicate easily with your fellow global citizens. When you study English at ELC schools, you will be making friends with people from lots of different countries, using English as your common language!2. English is the Language of BusinessEnglish is the dominant business language and it has become almost a necessity for people to speak English if they are to enter a global workforce. Research from all over the world shows that cross-border business communication is most often conducted in English and many international companies expect employees to be fluent in English.

The importance of learning English in the international marketplace cannot be understated – learning English really can change your life.

13. Speaking English gives you Access to a World of Entertainment:

Many of the world’s top films, books and music are published and produced in English. Therefore, by learning English you will have access to a great wealth of entertainment and will be able to have a greater cultural understanding.

If you speak English, you won’t need to rely on translations and subtitles anymore to enjoy your favourite books, songs, films and TV shows. Watching movies and television programmes in the English language is also a great and fun way to learn it!

At ELC we encourage students to participate in the social programme to practice English outside a class environment. Activities include watching popular English films, sports, art galleries, museums, trips and excursions to local and historical areas. The programme is designed to encourage students to use and learn English in British culture.

14.Learning English gives you Access to more of the Internet:

According to a report by Education First, English is the language of the internet. An estimated 565 million people use the internet every day, and an estimated 52 percent of the world’s most visited websites are displayed in the English language.

Learning English is important as it gives you access to over half the content on the internet. Knowing how to read English will allow you access to billions of pages of information which may not be otherwise available!


Sports and games are not mere physical activities alone. They play a more significant role in making people confident, adaptable, alert, and happy but in most of our schools, the games period is for relaxation.

It is for breaking the humdrum of academic lessons. A sport as a career choice is still not a lucrative option for many in our country.

We perform poorly in international sports events like the Olympics despite having a demographic advantage. It is not that we are not capable enough. We lack awareness, and our players don’t get the required encouragement and support.

1.Physical benefits:

Sports and games make you more fit. They make your muscles stronger and keep the bones, heart, and lungs in good condition. When you play sports regularly, you use up the fatty molecules. It implies that you have less chance of blood clotting and heart attack. Physical games are the natural healer for the obesity menace. At least now, we should make sports a mandatory part of the curriculum in schools and colleges. Once people enjoy playing, they may not go for exercise routines to decrease weight. Children who learn to play sports become active adults.

2. Sports make you a moral human being:

Sports teach many life skills required for good conduct in society. When you play sports, you imbibe qualities such as honesty, teamwork, leadership, and strategic planning. These skills will be helpful in every walk of life. Children in sports learn to follow the rules and respect teammates and opponents. As adults, they will not readily resort to dubious and corrupt practices.

3. Sports help in enhancing your EQ:

Players are not afraid of losing a game. Sportspeople can accept rejections and defeats better. Similarly, they do not get carried away by their victories. They understand that success and failure are both part of the game. Life becomes a lot easier when a similar thought process is applied to all aspects.

4. Sports can boost academics:

Playing games increase concentration power. The more you practice, the higher the potential of your brain. You become good at decision making. You are ready to take up challenging subjects. Therefore, sportspeople can study faster and are good at solving logical and analytical problems. Moreover, sports teach you the value of time. Students who play sports do not waste their precious time in gossiping and fault-finding.

5. Sports help in healthy socializing:

One of the main problems in the present hyper-connected world is loneliness. Our social media presence seems dubious, and people have fake friendliness. While playing, people have a delightful time together and develop a healthy social life too.

6. Sports – an excellent stress-buster:

For students, sports are a source of recreation. They help in breaking the monotony of academic studies. Serious sports require intense training. Thus, sportspeople have a proper way to channelize their energy. By actively participating in games, one can balance his mood well and is likely to experience less stress in life.

7. Sports inculcates adventure spirit:

People who play in national teams, often travel abroad for their games. They get to experience different cultures and have a broader mind. They become more exploring in nature. These qualities can make you a global citizen. With more people in sports, our communities are more open to experiments. From a business point of view, it makes the country more attractive to foreign investors.

Builds a sense of teamwork:

Some sports need individual participation, while some require teamwork. Thus sports enlists teamwork in a person. Which is essential in every fieldwork. A company can only run by working together and not individually. So it is important for a person to know how to work together in a team. Only then you can achieve the desired goal.

National Development:

The main contribution of sports to nation building is by fostering feelings of unity and national pride. Students learn to be mutually loving and peaceful citizens. Team-building and cooperation are values built up by sporting activities in school. Sports help develop character and increase confidence levels in youth.

Sports also help build a good health status of the citizens of a country. Good health contributes to the high standards of living. Sports encouragethe growth of sports-related industries, which brings employment opportunities and booststhe economy.

These are all some top facts about the utility of sports in the school curriculum,which even the best schools in Lebanon swear by. In the era of budget cuts in schools, decision-makers must realize the importance of sports for all kinds of benefits.

Social and Personality Development:

Sports not only contribute to physical health but also enhance social and personality development. They helpin enhancing leadership skills and in improving capacity for goal setting and character building. A student, who is active in sports, will naturally have greater self-esteem, improved social interaction, and a more positive outlook on life.

Sports activities make children acquire ethics, values, responsibility, discipline, and a sense of confidence and mutual trust. The sportsmanship spirit helps a person deal more gracefully with the ups and downs of life. He/she will lead his/her life with good morals and a positive attitude and is thus less likely to be a victim of social evils. As per some studies, students, who compete in sports get better grades, have more confidence and graduate at higher rates. The majority of them avoid evils,such as drugs, unplanned pregnancies, obesity, suicide, and depression.

Importance for Health:

By indulging in sports, you can get the best exercises, which help maintain youroverall fitness. Regular sporting activities can prevent chronic diseases and help develop healthy heart, strong bones, and enhanced lung function. Sports help control diabetes, manage weight, enhance blood circulation, and manage levels of stress. Through sports, there is a good balance of physical and mental growth, which helps tone muscles and makes bones strong.

Sports inculcates in students the importance of a healthy lifestyle. Sports help in preventing obesity and in encouraging healthy eating habits. Young people involved in sports typically consume more fruits and vegetables, have less chance to be obese, and are more likely to become physically active adults.

Regular sports and physical activity help prevent communicable and non-communicable diseases. Hence, sports are cost-effective methods to help improve the health of the general public in developed and developing countries.


In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation.

In other definitions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation.


An instruction set architecture (ISA) is the interface between the computer’s software and hardware and also can be viewed as the programmer’s view of the machine. Computers do not understand high-level programming languages such as Java, C++, or most programming languages used. A processor only understands instructions encoded in some numerical fashion, usually as binary numbers. Software tools, such as compilers, translate those high level languages into instructions that the processor can understand.

Besides instructions, the ISA defines items in the computer that are available to a program—e.g., data types, registers, addressing modes, and memory. Instructions locate these available items with register indexes (or names) and memory addressing modes.

The ISA of a computer is usually described in a small instruction manual, which describes how the instructions are encoded. Also, it may define short (vaguely) mnemonic names for the instructions. The names can be recognized by a software development tool called an assembler. An assembler is a computer program that translates a human-readable form of the ISA into a computer-readable form. Disassemblers are also widely available, usually in debuggers and software programs to isolate and correct malfunctions in binary computer programs.

ISAs vary in quality and completeness. A good ISA compromises between programmer convenience (how easy the code is to understand), size of the code (how much code is required to do a specific action), cost of the computer to interpret the instructions (more complexity means more hardware needed to decode and execute the instructions), and speed of the computer (with more complex decoding hardware comes longer decode time). Memory organization defines how instructions interact with the memory, and how memory interacts with itself.

During design emulation, emulators can run programs written in a proposed instruction set. Modern emulators can measure size, cost, and speed to determine whether a particular ISA is meeting its goals.

Computer organization:

Computer organization helps optimize performance-based products. For example, software engineers need to know the processing power of processors. They may need to optimize software in order to gain the most performance for the lowest price. This can require quite a detailed analysis of the computer’s organization. For example, in an SD card, the designers might need to arrange the card so that the most data can be processed in the fastest possible way.

Computer organization also helps plan the selection of a processor for a particular project. Multimedia projects may need very rapid data access, while virtual machines may need fast interrupts. Sometimes certain tasks need additional components as well. For example, a computer capable of running a virtual machine needs virtual memory hardware so that the memory of different virtual computers can be kept separated. Computer organization and features also affect power consumption and processor cost.


Once an instruction set and micro-architecture have been designed, a practical machine must be developed. This design process is called the implementation. Implementation is usually not considered architectural design, but rather hardware design engineering. Implementation can be further broken down into several steps:

Logic implementation designs the circuits required at a logic-gate level.

Circuit implementation does transistor-level designs of basic elements (e.g., gates, multiplexers, latches) as well as of some larger blocks (ALUs, caches etc.) that may be implemented at the logic-gate level, or even at the physical level if the design calls for it.

Physical implementation draws physical circuits. The different circuit components are placed in a chip floorplan or on a board and the wires connecting them are created.

Design validation tests the computer as a whole to see if it works in all situations and all timings. Once the design validation process starts, the design at the logic level are tested using logic emulators. However, this is usually too slow to run a realistic test. So, after making corrections based on the first test, prototypes are constructed using Field-Programmable Gate-Arrays (FPGAs). Most hobby projects stop at this stage. The final step is to test prototype integrated circuits, which may require several redesigns.

For CPUs, the entire implementation process is organized differently and is often referred to as CPU design.

Computer Architects:

Computer architects oversee the implementation of architecture strategies and policies within companies. They create computer models and standard solutions that save costs, increase capabilities and align with business needs. Their architectural solutions must deliver stability, availability and sustainability. Computer architects may deal with server storage, data backup, virtual recovery and internal applications. In order to produce efficient systems, they must stay up to date on the latest computer, programming and technology trends.

Computer architects formulate strategies that evolve compute architecture, leverage new features, explore new capabilities and improve user friendliness. They may be expected to manage and maintain enterprise-wide architecture patterns, offerings and policies. They may partner with peers and vendors regarding the integration, alignment and convergence of architectural strategies and standards. Computer architects may create communications and presentations that articulate the logic behind programming and production changes.

The Challenge of Architecting:

Creating a computer’s architecture, framework and infrastructure can be quite challenging. Computer architects must be able to present and drive the alignment and adoption of system evolution to programmers, engineers, designers and leaders. This means that they must be able to gain support and elicit alignment for project funding, strategies and recommendations. Computer architects may perform root cause analysis to understand and eliminate reoccurring incidents that impact the architectural structure and performance.

Senior computer architects may update, maintain and create system architectures that support product lines and business goals. They may review, modify and approve existing architectural designs through careful comparative research. Senior computer architects may communicate architecture strategies in order to convince executive management, technical teams and third-party vendors. Senior computer architects must have significant experience in the design, development and deployment of enterprise solutions. They should fully understand computer infrastructure, middleware and integration.

Computer architecture involves the broad infrastructure of modern PCs. All modern computers, mobile devices and similar technology rely on this architectural knowledge. Anyone who wants to become a computer architect should consider becoming an electrical, software or computer hardware engineer.


The hill stations are high-altitude towns for recreation, enjoyment and used as a place of refuge to escape the blistering heat in India during summertime. As India is a vast peninsular country with limited amounts of the coastal area most of its towns and districts face continental type of climate with summer being very hot so hill stations (as situated on high altitude due to which it faces low temperature) becomes an excellent spot to escape such hot and humid conditions as well as a place of enjoyment to spent quality time with your family and partner during summer break.

The Indian subcontinent has seven principal mountain ranges and the largest of all is the Himalayas that lies in the northern part of India. The famous peaks and ranges include the Kangchenjunga range in the Eastern Himalayas which frames the hill stations of Darjeeling and Gangtok as well as the Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand. The Shivalik range that also lies within the same region also has some famous hill stations that include Mussoorie, Drass, Dalhousie, Kullu, Shimla, Nainital and many more.

Most of the hill stations in India were developed by the British around a central mall to get respite from the oppressive summer heat. Many have picturesque lakes as their focal point, making them excellent places for boating activities.

Most of the hill stations in India are located in Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Meghalaya in the Himalayas and in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Kerala, and Tamilnadu in Western ghats.[2] Some are located in Eastern ghat Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal. Some of the hill stations in India are listed below by state.

Since a number of these hill stations attract large numbers of tourists in summer as well as other times of the year, they are well connected by rail, road, and air services to major Indian cities.

The Most Popular Hills In India are: 1.Shivalik Hills 2.Anamalai Hills 3.Ashambu Hills 4.Cardamom Hills 5.Biligiriranga Hills 6.Palani Hills 7.Nilgiri Hills 8.Nallamala Hills 9.Lushai Hills 10.Garo-Khasi-Jainitia Hills.

Hill stations in India were established for a variety of reasons. After the revolt of 1857 the “British sought further distance from what they saw as a “disease-ridden” land by escape to the Himalayas in the north and Nilgiri Hills in the south”, a pattern which started even before 1857. Other factors included anxieties about the dangers of life in India, among them “fear of degeneration brought on by too long residence in a debilitating land.” The hill stations were meant to reproduce the home country, illustrated in Lord Lytton’s statement about Ootacamund, in the 1870s, “such beautiful English rain, such delicious English mud.”[3] Shimla was officially made the “summer capital of India” in the 1860s and hill stations “served as vital centers of political and military power, especially after the 1857 revolt.

Dane Kennedy, following Monika Bührlein, identifies three stages in the evolution of hill stations in India: high refuge to hill station, and hill station to town. The first settlements started in the 1820s, primarily as sanitoria. In the 1840s and 1850s, there was a wave of new hill stations, with the main impetus being “places to rest and recuperate from the arduous life on the plains”. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a period of consolidation with few new hill stations. In the final phase, “hill stations reached their zenith in the late nineteenth century. The political importance of the official stations was underscored by the inauguration of large and costly public-building projects.”


The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world’s oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or 19.8% of the water on Earth’s surface.[5] It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use.[6] Along its core, the Indian Ocean has some large marginal or regional seas such as the Arabian Sea, the Laccadive Sea, the Somali Sea, Bay of Bengal, and the Andaman Sea.

Location – South and Southeast Asia, Western Asia, Northeast, East and Southern Africa and Australia

Max. length -9,600 km (6,000 mi) (Antarctica to Bay of Bengal)

Max. width-7,600 km (4,700 mi) (Africa to Australia)

Surface area -70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi)

Average depth-3,741 m (12,274 ft)

Max. depth -7,258 m (23,812 ft)

Shore length1 -66,526 km (41,337 mi)


The Indian Ocean, together with the Mediterranean, has connected people since ancient times, whereas the Atlantic and Pacific have had the roles of barriers or mare incognitum. The written history of the Indian Ocean, however, has been Eurocentric and largely dependent on the availability of written sources from the colonial era. This history is often divided into an ancient period followed by an Islamic period; the subsequent periods are often subdivided into Portuguese, Dutch, and British periods.

A concept of an “Indian Ocean World” (IOW), similar to that of the “Atlantic World”, exists but emerged much more recently and is not well established. The IOW is, nevertheless, sometimes referred to as the “first global economy” and was based on the monsoon which linked Asia, China, India, and Mesopotamia. It developed independently from the European global trade in the Mediterranean and Atlantic and remained largely independent from them until European 19th-century colonial dominance.

The diverse history of the Indian Ocean is a unique mix of cultures, ethnic groups, natural resources, and shipping routes. It grew in importance beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and, after the Cold War, it has undergone periods of political instability, most recently with the emergence of India and China as regional powers.

First settlements:

Pleistocene fossils of Homo erectus and other pre-H. sapiens hominid fossils, similar to H. heidelbergensis in Europe, have been found in India. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, a supereruption c. 74000 years ago at Lake Toba, Sumatra, covered India with volcanic ashes and wiped out one or more lineages of such archaic humans in India and Southeast Asia.

The Out of Africa theory states that Homo sapiens spread from Africa into mainland Eurasia. The more recent Southern Dispersal or Coastal hypothesis instead advocates that modern humans spread along the coasts of the Arabic Peninsula and southern Asia. This hypothesis is supported by mtDNA research which reveals a rapid dispersal event during the Late Pleistocene (11,000 years ago). This coastal dispersal, however, began in East Africa 75,000 years ago and occurred intermittently from estuary to estuary along the northern perimeter of the Indian Ocean at a rate of 0.7–4.0 km (0.43–2.49 mi) per year. It eventually resulted in modern humans migrating from Sunda over Wallacea to Sahul (Southeast Asia to Australia).[67] Since then, waves of migration have resettled people and, clearly, the Indian Ocean littoral had been inhabited long before the first civilisations emerged. 5000–6000 years ago six distinct cultural centres had evolved around the Indian Ocean: East Africa, the Middle East, the Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia, the Malay World, and Australia; each interlinked to its neighbours.

Food globalisation began on the Indian Ocean littoral c. 4.000 years ago. Five African crops — sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, cowpea, and hyacinth bean — somehow found their way to Gujarat in India during the Late Harappan (2000–1700 BCE). Gujarati merchants evolved into the first explorers of the Indian Ocean as they traded African goods such as ivory, tortoise shells, and slaves. Broomcorn millet found its way from Central Asia to Africa, together with chicken and zebu cattle, although the exact timing is disputed. Around 2000 BCE black pepper and sesame, both native to Asia, appear in Egypt, albeit in small quantities. Around the same time the black rat and the house mouse emigrate from Asia to Egypt. Banana reached Africa around 3000 years ago.

At least eleven prehistoric tsunamis have struck the Indian Ocean coast of Indonesia between 7400 and 2900 years ago. Analysing sand beds in caves in the Aceh region, scientists concluded that the intervals between these tsunamis have varied from series of minor tsunamis over a century to dormant periods of more than 2000 years preceding megathrusts in the Sunda Trench. Although the risk for future tsunamis is high, a major megathrust such as the one in 2004 is likely to be followed by a long dormant period.

A group of scientists have argued that two large-scale impact events have occurred in the Indian Ocean: the Burckle Crater in the southern Indian Ocean in 2800 BCE and the Kanmare and Tabban craters in the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia in 536 CE. Evidences for these impacts, the team argue, are micro-ejecta and Chevron dunes in southern Madagascar and in the Australian gulf. Geological evidences suggest the tsunamis caused by these impacts reached 205 m (673 ft) above sea level and 45 km (28 mi) inland. The impact events must have disrupted human settlements and perhaps even contributed to major climate changes.


The history of the Indian Ocean is marked by maritime trade; cultural and commercial exchange probably date back at least seven thousand years.Human culture spread early on the shores of the Indian Ocean and was always linked to the cultures of the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. Before c. 2000 BCE, however, cultures on its shores were only loosely tied to each other; bronze, for example, was developed in Mesopotamia c. 3000 BCE but remained uncommon in Egypt before 1800 BCE.During this period, independent, short-distance oversea communications along its littoral margins evolved into an all-embracing network. The début of this network was not the achievement of a centralised or advanced civilisation but of local and regional exchange in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the Arabian Sea. Sherds of Ubaid (2500–500 BCE) pottery have been found in the western Gulf at Dilmun, present-day Bahrain; traces of exchange between this trading centre and Mesopotamia. The Sumerians traded grain, pottery, and bitumen (used for reed boats) for copper, stone, timber, tin, dates, onions, and pearls.Coast-bound vessels transported goods between the Indus Valley Civilisation (2600–1900 BCE) in the Indian subcontinent (modern-day Pakistan and Northwest India) and the Persian Gulf and Egypt.

The Red Sea, one of the main trade routes in Antiquity, was explored by Egyptians and Phoenicians during the last two millennia BCE. In the 6th century, BCE Greek explorer Scylax of Caryanda made a journey to India, working for the Persian king Darius, and his now-lost account put the Indian Ocean on the maps of Greek geographers. The Greeks began to explore the Indian Ocean following the conquests of Alexander the Great, who ordered a circumnavigation of the Arabian Peninsula in 323 BCE. During the two centuries that followed the reports of the explorers of Ptolemaic Egypt resulted in the best maps of the region until the Portuguese era many centuries later. The main interest in the region for the Ptolemies was not commercial but military; they explored Africa to hunt for war elephants.

The Rub’ al Khali desert isolates the southern parts of the Arabic Peninsula and the Indian Ocean from the Arabic world. This encouraged the development of maritime trade in the region linking the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf to East Africa and India. The monsoon (from mawsim, the Arabic word for season), however, was used by sailors long before being “discovered” by Hippalus in the 1st century. Indian wood have been found in Sumerian cities, there is evidence of Akkad coastal trade in the region, and contacts between India and the Red Sea dates back to 2300 B.C. The archipelagoes of the central Indian Ocean, the Laccadive and Maldive islands, were probably populated during the 2nd century B.C. from the Indian mainland. They appear in written history in the account of merchant Sulaiman al-Tajir in the 9th century but the treacherous reefs of the islands were most likely cursed by the sailors of Aden long before the islands were even settled.

Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, an Alexandrian guide to the world beyond the Red Sea — including Africa and India — from the first century CE, not only gives insights into trade in the region but also shows that Roman and Greek sailors had already gained knowledge about the monsoon winds.[72] The contemporaneous settlement of Madagascar by Austronesian sailors shows that the littoral margins of the Indian Ocean were being both well-populated and regularly traversed at least by this time. Albeit the monsoon must have been common knowledge in the Indian Ocean for centuries.

The Indian Ocean’s relatively calmer waters opened the areas bordering it to trade earlier than the Atlantic or Pacific oceans. The powerful monsoons also meant ships could easily sail west early in the season, then wait a few months and return eastwards. This allowed ancient Indonesian peoples to cross the Indian Ocean to settle in Madagascar around 1 CE.

In the 2nd or 1st century BCE, Eudoxus of Cyzicus was the first Greek to cross the Indian Ocean. The probably fictitious sailor Hippalus is said to have learnt the direct route from Arabia to India around this time.[78] During the 1st and 2nd centuries AD intensive trade relations developed between Roman Egypt and the Tamil kingdoms of the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas in Southern India. Like the Indonesian people above, the western sailors used the monsoon to cross the ocean. The unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describes this route, as well as the commodities that were traded along various commercial ports on the coasts of the Horn of Africa and India circa 1 CE. Among these trading settlements were Mosylon and Opone on the Red Sea littoral.

Unlike the Pacific Ocean where the civilization of the Polynesians reached most of the far-flung islands and atolls and populated them, almost all the islands, archipelagos and atolls of the Indian Ocean were uninhabited until colonial times. Although there were numerous ancient civilizations in the coastal states of Asia and parts of Africa, the Maldives were the only island group in the Central Indian Ocean region where an ancient civilization flourished.Maldivians, on their annual trade trip, took their oceangoing trade ships to Sri Lanka rather than mainland India, which is much closer, because their ships were dependent of the Indian Monsoon Current

Arabic missionaries and merchants began to spread Islam along the western shores of the Indian Ocean from the 8th century, if not earlier. A Swahili stone mosque dating to the 8th–15th centuries has been found in Shanga, Kenya. Trade across the Indian Ocean gradually introduced Arabic script and rice as a staple in Eastern Africa.Muslim merchants traded an estimated 1000 African slaves annually between 800 and 1700, a number that grew to c. 4000 during the 18th century, and 3700 during the period 1800–1870. Slave trade also occurred in the eastern Indian Ocean before the Dutch settled there around 1600 but the volume of this trade is unknown.From 1405 to 1433 admiral Zheng He said to have led large fleets of the Ming Dynasty on several treasure voyages through the Indian Ocean, ultimately reaching the coastal countries of East Africa.The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope during his first voyage in 1497 and became the first European to sail to India. The Swahili people he encountered along the African east coast lived in a series of cities and had established trade routes to India and to China. Among them, the Portuguese kidnapped most of their pilots in coastal raids and onboard ships. A few of the pilots, however, were gifts by local Swahili rulers, including the sailor from Gujarat, a gift by a Malindi ruler in Kenya, who helped the Portuguese to reach India. In expeditions after 1500, the Portuguese attacked and colonised cities along the African coast.

European slave trade in the Indian Ocean began when Portugal established Estado da Índia in the early 16th century. From then until the 1830s, c. 200 slaves were exported from Mozambique annually and similar figures has been estimated for slaves brought from Asia to the Philippines during the Iberian Union (1580–1640)

The Ottoman Empire began its expansion into the Indian Ocean in 1517 with the conquest of Egypt under Sultan Selim I. Although the Ottomans shared the same religion as the trading communities in the Indian Ocean the region was unexplored by them. Maps that included the Indian Ocean had been produced by Muslim geographers centuries before the Ottoman conquests; Muslim scholars, such as Ibn Battuta in the 14th Century, had visited most parts of the known world; contemporarily with Vasco da Gama, Arab navigator Ahmad ibn Mājid had compiled a guide to navigation in the Indian Ocean; the Ottomans, nevertheless, began their own parallel era of discovery which rivalled the European expansion.

The establishment of the Dutch East India Company in the early 17th century lead to a quick increase in the volume of the slave trade in the region; there were perhaps up to 500,000 slaves in various Dutch colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries in the Indian Ocean. For example, some 4000 African slaves were used to build the Colombo fortress in Dutch Ceylon. Bali and neighbouring islands supplied regional networks with c. 100,000–150,000 slaves 1620–1830. Indian and Chinese slave traders supplied Dutch Indonesia with perhaps 250,000 slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries.

The East India Company (EIC) was established during the same period and in 1622 one of its ships carried slaves from the Coromandel Coast to Dutch East Indies. The EIC mostly traded in African slaves but also some Asian slaves purchased from Indian, Indonesian and Chinese slave traders. The French established colonies on the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in 1721; by 1735 some 7,200 slaves populated the Mascarene Islands, a number which had reached 133,000 in 1807. The British captured the islands in 1810, however, and because the British had prohibited the slave trade in 1807 a system of clandestine slave trade developed to bring slaves to French planters on the islands; in all 336,000–388,000 slaves were exported to the Mascarene Islands from 1670 until 1848.

In all, European traders exported 567,900–733,200 slaves within the Indian Ocean between 1500 and 1850 and almost that same amount were exported from the Indian Ocean to the Americas during the same period. Slave trade in the Indian Ocean was, nevertheless, very limited compared to c. 12,000,000 slaves exported across the Atlantic.

Modern era:

Scientifically, the Indian Ocean remained poorly explored before the International Indian Ocean Expedition in the early 1960s. However, the Challenger expedition 1872–1876 only reported from south of the polar front. The Valdivia expedition 1898–1899 made deep samples in the Indian Ocean. In the 1930s, the John Murray Expedition mainly studied shallow-water habitats. The Swedish Deep Sea Expedition 1947–1948 also sampled the Indian Ocean on its global tour and the Danish Galathea sampled deep-water fauna from Sri Lanka to South Africa on its second expedition 1950–1952. The Soviet research vessel Vityaz also did research in the Indian Ocean.[1]The Suez Canal opened in 1869 when the Industrial Revolution dramatically changed global shipping – the sailing ship declined in importance as did the importance of European trade in favour of trade in East Asia and Australia.[86] The construction of the canal introduced many non-indigenous species into the Mediterranean. For example, the goldband goatfish (Upeneus moluccensis) has replaced the red mullet (Mullus barbatus); since the 1980s huge swarms of scyphozoan jellyfish (Rhopilema nomadica) have affected tourism and fisheries along the Levantian coast and clogged power and desalination plants. Plans announced in 2014 to build a new, much larger Suez Canal parallel to the 19th-century canal will most likely boost the economy in the region but also cause ecological damage in a much wider area.

Throughout the colonial era, islands such as Mauritius were important shipping nodes for the Dutch, French, and British. Mauritius, an inhabited island, became populated by slaves from Africa and indenture labour from India. The end of World War II marked the end of the colonial era. The British left Mauritius in 1974 and with 70% of the population of Indian descent, Mauritius became a close ally of India. In the 1980s, during the Cold War, the South African regime acted to destabilise several island nations in the Indian Ocean, including the Seychelles, Comoros, and Madagascar. India intervened in Mauritius to prevent a coup d’état, backed up by the United States who feared the Soviet Union could gain access to Port Louis and threaten the U.S. base on Diego Garcia.[88]Iranrud is an unrealised plan by Iran and the Soviet Union to build a canal between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf.Testimonies from the colonial era are stories of African slaves, Indian indentured labourers, and white settlers. But, while there was a clear racial line between free men and slaves in the Atlantic World, this delineation is less distinct in the Indian Ocean — there were Indian slaves and settlers as well as black indentured labourers. There were also a string of prison camps across the Indian Ocean, from Robben Island in South Africa to Cellular Jail in the Andamans, in which prisoners, exiles, POWs, forced labourers, merchants, and people of different faiths were forcefully united. On the islands of the Indian Ocean, therefore, a trend of creolisation emerged.

On 26 December 2004 fourteen countries around the Indian Ocean were hit by a wave of tsunamis caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. The waves radiated across the ocean at speeds exceeding 500 km/h (310 mph), reached up to 20 m (66 ft) in height, and resulted in an estimated 236,000 deaths

In the late 2000s, the ocean evolved into a hub of pirate activity. By 2013, attacks off the Horn region’s coast had steadily declined due to active private security and international navy patrols, especially by the Indian Navy.

Malaysian Airlines Flight 370, a Boeing 777 airliner with 239 persons on board, disappeared on 8 March 2014 and is alleged to have crashed into the southern Indian Ocean about 2,500 km (1,600 mi) from the coast of southwest Western Australia. Despite an extensive search, the whereabouts of the remains of the aircraft is unknown.

The Sentinelese people of North Sentinel Island, which lies near South Andaman Island in the Bay of Bengal, have been called by experts the most isolated people in the world.

The sovereignty of the Chagos Archipelago in the Indian Ocean is disputed between the United Kingdom and Mauritius.[94] In February 2019, the International Court of Justice in The Hague issued an advisory opinion stating that the UK must transfer the Chagos Archipelago to Mauritius.


Seeing the popularity and power of Social Media Channels, businesses and marketers look for different types of Social Media networks that they can use to target and convert their audiences.General people are only aware of Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram sorts of social channels.

Social media will help you build up loyalty of your current customers to the point that they will willingly, and for free, tell others about you.

Over 88% of the companies are now marketing on Social Media.But for a marketer or any brand, many other types of Social Media channels are there to explore, as they play a significant role in targeting and converting prospects.

Different Types of Social Media Networks:

1. Social Networks: Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn:

Such types of Social Media are used to associate with individuals (and brands) on the web. They help your business via branding, social awareness, relationship building, customer service, lead generation, and conversion.You can channelize different types of Social Media campaigns on these networks that will help you widen your reach. Some of the benefits of these Social Marketing Networks are-(i) They encourage individuals and businesses to interact online and share data and thoughts for ensuring mutually productive relationships.

(ii) In case you are searching for the best ways to optimize current marketing campaigns then you will discover a variety of organic and paid ways to do this on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn sorts of social networks.

2. Media Sharing Networks: Instagram, Snapchat, YouTube:

Media sharing types of Social Media are used to find and share photographs, live video, video and other kinds of media on the web.They are also going to help you in brand building, lead generation, targeting and so on. They give individuals and brands a place to discover and share media so the target audiences can be targeted and converted into a convincing and result-driven way possible.Social networks nowadays also offer these features, however, for Media Sharing Networks, sharing of media is their basic role.(i) Starting with image or video on Instagram, YouTube and Snapchat types of media sharing networks would be more beneficial for you.(ii) To decide whether you should use these networks for your business or not, you should consider your resources and target audiences. These channels will help you run well-planned campaigns to generate leads and widen your audience base.

3. Discussion Forums: Reddit, Quora, Digg:

Such types of Social Media channels are used for finding, sharing and discussing different kinds of information, opinions, and news.They help businesses by being a top-notch resource for doing immaculate market research. These forums are the oldest ways of running Social Media Marketing campaigns.Before the entry of popular Social Media players like Facebook, these forums were the places where professionals, experts and enthusiasts used to do different kinds of discussions concerning a variety of fields.(i) These discussion forums have a massive number of users and it ensures unprecedented reach for your business. These are the places that provide the answers to different queries of any domain.(ii) In case your business needs deep customer research then these places would the most befitting one for your business.(iii) Along with sharing information and knowing answers, these places are very impactful in advertising as well.

4. Bookmarking & Content Curation Networks: Pinterest, Flipboard:

Opting for such types of Social Media will help you find out, share, discuss and save a variety of latest content and media that are trending as well.They are very helpful in channelizing brand awareness for your business, plus, choosing this one to run different types of Social Media Marketing campaigns will help you generate website traffic and customer engagement.In case you want to run some out of the box highly creative campaigns that can not only inform your audience and but also attract them then this one is the best fit.(i) To run a Social Media campaign on Pinterest, you need to have a site that is bookmark-friendly. You should optimize headlines and images for the feeds that Bookmarking and Content Curation Networks use for accessing and sharing your content.(ii) Flipboard lets you create your own Flipboard magazine by using most engaging content and then you can showcase that to your audiences.

5. Consumer Review Networks: Yelp, Zomato, TripAdvisor:

Using Customer Review networks will help you find out, share and review different information about a variety of products, services or brands.When a business has positive reviews on these networks, their claims turn more credible because reviews on these networks act as Social Proof.For running a successful Social Media Marketing Campaigns, it is very important for today’s businesses to have positive reviews on these sites.In addition, resolving all the issues that your customers are posting on these Review platforms is another thing that is going to be very important for the positive and productive outcomes for your business.(i) These networks offer a place to users for reviewing different kinds of products and services that they have used.(ii) Review content adds great value to any brand because it will influence more and the number of new buyers to attempt your services.(iii) Yelp and Zomato are the types of social media platforms that offer location-based review services that will help you run location-based social campaigns.

6. Blogging & Publishing Networks: WordPress, Tumblr, Medium:

You should choose these types of Social Media networks for publishing, discovering and commenting on articles, social media blogs and other content on the web.Content marketing is one of the most powerful ways to target, attract, engage and convert a target audience. It is going to be the base of successful online marketing campaigns that play the most important role in conversion funnels of Digital Marketing campaigns.WordPress and Blogger are the traditional blogging platforms while Tumblr (micro-blogging service) and Medium (Social Publishing Platform) is the latest blogging and publishing networks.(i) These networks are must for the businesses that want to effectively use Content Marketing, plus, you can share this content on a variety of Social Networks like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc.(ii) Content that you use on these networks will also help you create a niche for your business and audiences who are in search of information concerning that niche will for sure visit your blog or site.

7. Social Shopping Networks: Polyvore, Etsy, Fancy:

Want to find out all the latest trends in the marketing or crave to know the shopping tips then such types of Social Media channels are for you.In addition, they help you follow different brands, share interesting things and make a purchase on these Social Shopping networks.Businesses can use such types of Social Media Platforms for creating brand awareness, boosting engagement and selling products on some new and effective platforms. These channels transform e-commerce by making them more engaging via some interesting social elements.(i) To use these networks effectively you should create a site that integrates shopping experience with social experience.(ii) These networks are very result-driven for small businesses and startups as they can sell their products without any land-based office or store.

8. Interest-Based Networks: Goodreads, Houzz,

You can use such types of Social Media networks for connecting with other people who have the same sorts of hobbies or interests.You can easily find the audiences who are interested in knowing more and more about the kinds of products and services that you offer.This makes it one of the best networks for engaging with your audience and creating exclusive brand awareness online. Compared to big social networks, using Interest-based networks would help you run a more targeted campaign.(i) Choosing these networks will help you focus solely on a single product or service related to any particular subject, for instance, home décor, Digital Marketing Training, Music, Books, etc.(ii) These networks are the best places to engage with the audiences of a particular niche.


Environment studies is all about learning the way we should live and how we can develop sustainable strategies to protect the environment. It helps individuals to develop an understanding of living and physical environment and how to resolve challenging environmental issues affecting nature. In addition to studying the physical aspects of the environment, it also emphasizes the need to conserve biodiversity and adopt a more sustainable lifestyle and utilize resources in a responsible way. To create awareness among today’s generation on pressing environmental problems, the University Grants Commission (UGC) has made it mandatory for the universities to introduce a course in environmental studies and teach students about the eco-system, pollution and problems concerned with the environment. Let us discuss the dire need to include environmental studies in the course curriculum.

Learn how to use resources sustainably: With natural resources such as air, water, oil, minerals are getting depleted rapidly, the environmental studies course can help students understand the importance of these resources and how we can improve the situation by taking appropriate actions in our regular lives to preserve these resources.

Create awareness about preserving the environment: Whether it is spreading awareness against plastic use or air pollution, universities can conduct various beyond-the-classroom activities as a part of this course to make students understand the significance of protecting the environment. Activities such as conducting awareness programs and rallies can prevent the degradation of the environment.

Participate in the mass movement to protect nature: While pursuing a course in environmental studies, students can be a part of mass public awareness movements and encourage their fellow batchmates to participate. Whether it is taking an initiative by planting trees in the campus, conducting workshops on various pressing issues or joining an NGO that supports environmental conservation, students can learn about various ways of protecting and conserving the environment.

Foster a healthy learning environment:Such important non-academic courses empower students to take a lead in creating a healthier, greener and sustainable learning environment where students understand the importance of saving the environment and take necessary steps to conserve the natural resources. Environment studies also help them develop the knowledge and skills required to address challenging environmental issues.

Pursue a full-time career in environment studies: Career opportunities in environmental studies are thriving with multiple options in the energy industry, animal conservation and more. You can prepare yourself for a fulfilling career that will include everything from conducting research, protecting the environment, crunching statistics, analyzing data, working in the field, interviewing people about disaster management and drafting policies with lawmakers to conserve the planet.To sum up the importance of introducing environment studies in course curriculum, the objectives are mainly to help students realize the significance of natural resources and learn to develop solutions to pressing environmental problems. The aim should be developing a world where every individual is aware of and concerned about environmental issues and work towards creating sustainable strategies for the current situation and preventing future problems.


Why are typing skills important?

Typing is a necessary skill for today’s students. In today’s ever-evolving world, a student’s ability to type fluently enables them to focus on what they’re typing vs. how to type. Being able to quickly share thoughts and send them to their teacher from any location is much more efficient than using paper and pencil.

Why is it important for a medical assistant to document properly?

A medical assistant will still need to become familiar with important paper documents and their uses. The medical assistant is responsible for accurate documentation and maintenance of patient medical records. Without accurate and complete patient medical records, the patient can receive inadequate treatment.

How has typing helped you perform better?

If a lot of your time sitting at your desk is spent typing, you might be able to improve your posture and your health by increasing your typing speed. This will mean less time spent typing at your desk, and that will lead to more time spent standing up and stretching so as not to hurt your back, neck, and shoulders.

What is the importance of typing rhythm?

At any time while learning typing it is very important to keep a pace or rhythm in typing. This enables to achieve speed in considerable time. Pushing your limits for speed but at the same time keeping a pace in the speed you have achieved in typing is a real must.

What is the best typing method?

Sit straight and remember to keep your back straight.Keep your elbows bent at the right angle.Face the screen with your head slightly tilted forward.Keep at least 45 – 70 cm of distance between your eyes and the screen.Еxpose the shoulder, arm, and wrist muscles to the least possible strain.

What is the use of typing?

Typing is the process of writing or inputting text by pressing keys on a typewriter, computer keyboard, cell phone, or calculator. It can be distinguished from other means of text input, such as handwriting and speech recognition. Text can be in the form of letters, numbers and other symbols.

What jobs can you get with typing skills?

5 Jobs requiring typing. skillsData Entry. Freelance Transcription. Assistant and Secretarial Work. Journalism and Content-Creation. Copy-editing.

What are the 4 benefits of using touch typing?

Speed. This is going to be the first and most obvious benefit of learning to touch type.

Accuracy. One of the most important things to learn no matter how hard you type is to type accurately.




Job Prospects.



Is touch typing a skill?

Why Touch-Typing Is Important Touch-typing is a skill that everyone should have. It allows you to work faster and spend less time doing your homework, project, work items, and more. Plus, you do not have to think about the keys.

How touch typing is helpful to new learners?

Your fingers learn where each key is placed and are able to find them without assistance from your eyes. Once you can find each key without looking at the keyboard, you’ll find your typing speed increases exponentially, and the more you practice, the faster you will get. Reward yourself!

What are the rules for typing?

Computer Tutoring suggests 7 Rules for Touch Typing:

1 Never look at the keyboard. Even with those awkward symbols and especially with UPPER and lower case letters.

2 Focus on Accuracy.

3 Find the Index Keys.

4 Practise, practise and practise some more.

5 Sit Straight.

6 Look Straight.

7 Take a Break.

What are the typing techniques?

Touch Typing. It is the most common and most efficient method to type.Hunt & Peck. Hunt & Peck is a typing technique where the person types each key one after another.Hybrid. This technique is a mix of Touch Typing and Hunt & Peck method.Buffering.Thumbing.

What is the most important part of keyboarding?

Although not classified as a true keyboarding technique, the student’s striking of each keyboard key with the correct finger is the basis of a productive touch keying skill–and thus the most important objective of keyboarding instruction.

How does typing help students?

It frees up cognitive energy so you focus on the ideas instead of just the language required to articulate them. Moreover, learning keyboarding improves accuracy and can help with decoding and sight-reading skills for children and adults who struggle with specific learning difficulties. Learn more about the benefits.

What is the goal of keyboarding?

The goal of teaching keyboarding is to help students become more comfortable using the computer to gather information, solve problems, and communicate their knowledge. Students are encouraged to practice keyboarding at home as well as in school.

What is data entry and keyboarding skills?

DATA ENTRY AND KEYBOARDING SKILLS. Typing and deleting text. For typing text in a document you should • click on the letters on the keyboard. For deleting text in a document you should • use the backspace key or the delete key. The backspace key will remove text from behind (to the left of) your cursor position.

What kind of job can I get with typing skills?

Transcriptionist. Transcriptionists translate audio recordings into typed documents.

Journalism. Regardless of what sort of journalistic endeavors you pursue, fast typing is a must for a few reasons.


Data Entry.


Personal Assistant.

Court Reporter.



Home Main navigation Jobs Career advice Recruiting Work for us About Contact Job match Search Job interview tips Aptitude test: What you can expect in an interview process An aptitude test is a way for employers to assess a candidate’s abilities through a variety of different testing formats. Aptitude tests will test your ability to perform tasks and react to situations at work. This includes problem-solving, prioritisation and numerical skills, amongst other things. The psychometric tests are multiple-choice and there is only ever one correct answer, your score is then marked and your level is compared against other candidates who have taken the same test as you. There are free tests online that you can take to gauge what sort of questions to expect when taking an aptitude test.Our recruitment consultants are here to help you to prepare for every stage of the interview process, including the aptitude test. In the world of work today, organisations typically run multiple interview stages to make sure that the candidate they hire is the perfect person for the role.

Why and how do you take an aptitude test?

Aptitude tests are a great way for a hiring manager to gauge a candidate’s suitability to a role. They are a tool used to see how candidates might deal with the challenges of the role they are interviewing for.

Aptitude tests are usually done via an online platform, however, businesses may invite you into the office to take these tests too. This depends on their recruitment processes.

Types of aptitude tests:

There are a number of aptitude tests that a business can administer to candidates.

Diagrammatic Reasoning – Tests your ability of logical reasoning, using diagrams and flowcharts.

Numerical Reasoning – Tests your mathematical ability through percentages, averages and the like.

Verbal Reasoning – Assesses you on your ability to assess verbal logic.

Inductive Reasoning – Tests your ability to see patterns and analyse data, in a pressurised environment.

Situational Judgement – Tests your problem-solving ability.

Logical Reasoning – Tests your ability to recognise patterns, sequences or relationships between shapes and imagery.

Abstract Reasoning – These are similar to IQ tests and assess general knowledge, and ability to utilise your knowledge in new situations.

Aptitude test questions :

The questions that you will be asked in an aptitude test will vary based on the type of role you are applying for. They may ask you to identify a missing number, shape or image at the end of a series, or they might give you a written scenario that you will answer questions from. Verbal aptitude tests are formatted with ‘true’, ‘false’ and ‘can’t say’ as the answers.Whether the questions are mathematical or problem-solving based, they are designed to test your ability to process information quickly. This can be useful for hiring managers who are looking for data analysts across all levels.

Preparing for an aptitude test:

The best advice we can give you if you know that you will be required to take an aptitude test is to practice beforehand. Ask your recruitment consultant or the organisation you are interviewing for what type of aptitude test it is you will be taking, then practice these online. It is never certain what questions you will be asked throughout the testing process, however, if you become familiar with the types of questions you will be presented with alongside the time constraints, we believe you will be best prepared to ace your aptitude test and land your dream job.

If you are preparing for an interview yourself, why not browse the job interview tips section of our website, our recruitment consultants have provided expert advice from experience, to help you in your job search. Alternatively, get in touch with one of our specialist recruitment consultants today.

Advantages of Aptitude Tests:

1. Standardization:

Aptitude tests are standardized and are great for the reliability and validity of results. Hence, it is difficult to challenge the results of an aptitude test, making it practical to use during the recruitment process.

2. Cost-effective:

it is easy to administer aptitude tests, as they are outsourced and carried out on laptops and computers. It also accelerates the grading process and expedites the recruitment process for a company.

3. Analysis of the individual:

An aptitude test will determine an individual’s weaknesses, which will help a company and a school to determine the training programs needed to implement for individuals to improve those specific skills.

Importance of Aptitude Test in Career Decisions:

Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions of our life and it is natural to feel confused or even stressed about it. We are constantly bugged by relatives, parents and friends firing the same question day after day, “What after 10th class?” or “What after 12th class?” or even the famous “Which stream will you be selecting after 10th?” This blog talks about the importance of aptitude test in making career decisions.

It is one of those decisions that stick with us throughout our lives and has a really huge impact on our outlook towards life itself. It helps in shaping up the life that we want to create. Considering the heavy weightage attached to this decision, it becomes rather imperative that deciding on a career option is not something that can be done half-heartedly or under the influence of friends and family. It is something that requires thought and planning.

To understand the importance of aptitude test, it is crucial to understand that choosing a career does not simply mean deciding upon the ultimate career profile which will guide you through the gates of success and fame; rather it means that a person should have the potential to grow with that career and achieve success through his/her decision.

That is why it is very important for every student to understand what is embodied within the word Aptitude and why an Aptitude Test for career selection is important when tracing your path towards success and growth. Every career option requires a particular aptitude combination that should match with the individual’s potential ability to grow with that career.



Personality development is about building your capacities, nurturing your talent, enhancing new skill sets, working on your weaknesses, and transforming them into strengths.You, as an individual, have unique skill sets. Your potential is multi-faceted, and investing in personality development enables you to harness your strengths. Focusing on individual personality development adds to your capabilities and helps your dreams and aspirations turn into a reality.To be a more charismatic person, you have to develop your inner self as well as your outer self. The importance of personality development is undisputed in personal and professional life.Take Rajesh, a lawyer who had a meteoric rise to the top of his firm. His colleagues always wondered how he managed to climb the success ladder so fast. But only his boss knew how hard he had worked to better himself. He had stepped out of his comfort zone to become a better version of himself. Rajesh had understood the importance of personality development.There is no substitute for hard work when it comes to personality development. The sooner you understand it, the better for you. Think about how to develop personality, chalk out a plan, set a goal, and work towards it every day.


Let’s look at the reasons why it is important to develop one’s personality:Personality development enables you to discover your qualitiesIt empowers you to make the right decisions and to choose wiselyIt builds that one winning quality in you- confidence. Confident people are more equipped to succeed in the long runIt assists you in communicating clearly, convincingly, and precisely Once you know how to develop personality, you will be seen as a leader by your peers and colleagues.


Your personality is not static and unchangeable. You can develop it for the better. Play to your strengths and work on your weaknesses.So are you ready to start creating a roadmap to becoming your best version? Here are some tips for personality development.


Come out of your shell and explore the world. A comfort zone is limiting. Staying in the comfort zone will make one miss out on the opportunity to try new things and discover themselves. The next time you meet a group of people, try engaging with them more. Introduce yourself to someone and have a conversation with them. Don’t stay in the corner or play with your phone. Interact with people.


Plan your time management strategy and make it stronger day by day. Begin your days right. Every morning take time out to read something inspirational. Chalk out what you are going to do that day. Keep in mind your larger goal and select activities accordingly.Challenge yourself from time to time. Learn something new. Be creative. Do what you are passionate about. Take risks. Do not fear failure.Remember the words of performance coach Dale Carnegie: “Today is life-the only life you are sure of. Make the most of today. Get interested in something. Shake yourself awake. Develop a hobby. Let the winds of enthusiasm sweep through you. Live today with gusto.”


Define what you want to excel in and develop relevant skill sets. Maximize your time, energy, and resources to achieve the desired result. Say you want to be a video jockey. Seek personality development tips from a successful VJ and work on your communication skills.

Define what you want to excel in and develop relevant skill sets. Maximize your time, energy, and resources to achieve the desired result. Say you want to be a video jockey. Seek personality development tips from a successful VJ and work on your communication skills.


Learn to look at the future with positivity. Being optimistic will help you identify opportunities and work towards them. Optimistic people know how to see failures as setbacks. Even when there are challenges and setbacks, optimistic people work on finding a solution.


Some people are extremely popular at work. You may wonder what their magic formula is for being constantly appreciated by their superiors. It’s not magic. They simply focus on following tips for personality development such as seeking feedback, correcting mistakes, helping people, and solving problems.Self-evaluation at regular intervals helps improve one’s personality. Evaluate your skills and areas of improvement by asking yourself: Is your public speaking effective? Are your confidence levels high? Is your behavior pleasant and co-operative? Start observing yourself, make notes, and identify the qualities you need to acquire.


One of the best tips for personality development is to network. Networking has been made much easier by interactive and intelligent social media. So go ahead, create a network of dependable people who trust you, inspire you, lead you.Meeting new people is helpful in many ways. It widens your horizons. You get a chance to observe the good qualities of several dynamic personalities and learn different ways to behave and interact.


Have you read The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho? Regarded as a classic personal development novel, it takes you on an enchanting journey of self-discovery with a young shepherd who undertakes a heroic journey to find a treasure he’s been dreaming about.Books such as The Power of Now by Eckhart Tolle, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey, Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach, Inspiring Thoughts by Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam, contain time-tested personality development tips and lessons.


you in a better light. Ensure that your standing and sitting position is upright. Make eye contact while speaking.It is true that factors such as heredity, family upbringing, peer group influencers, societal culture do play a role in shaping your personality. But with proper tips for personality development and sincere efforts, you can bring a holistic change in your personality.Finding your signature voice is important. This process of self-grooming almost always turns out to be the most rewarding enterprise and enriching experience of your life. Harappa’s Building Presence course teaches you to use nonverbal cues. They are the body language techniques that help you exude confidence at work.Building your personal brand and giving your brand a vision is also important for personal growth and professional success. Learn how to do this from our experts. Now that you have read some personality development tips are you ready for the journey? We bet it will be delightful.


What Is Motivation?

Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what causes you to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge

Motivation involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term “motivation” is frequently used to describe why a person does something. It is the driving force behind human actions.Motivation doesn’t just refer to the factors that activate behaviors; it also involves the factors that direct and maintain these goal-directed actions (though such motives are rarely directly observable). As a result, we often have to infer the reasons why people do the things that they do based on observable behaviors.1What exactly lies behind the motivations for why we act? Psychologists have proposed different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory, and humanistic theory (such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs). The reality is that there are many different forces that guide and direct our motivations.

Types of Motivation:

Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic:

Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition, or praise.

Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated crossword puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a problem.


There are many different uses for motivation. It serves as a guiding force for all human behavior, but understanding how it works and the factors that may impact it can be important in a number of ways.Understanding motivation can:

Help improve the efficiency of people as they work toward goals. Help people take action. Encourage people to engage in health-oriented behaviors. Help people avoid unhealthy or maladaptive behaviors such as risk-taking and addiction. Help people feel more in control of their lives.Improve overall well-being and happiness.


Anyone who has ever had a goal (like wanting to lose 20 pounds or run a marathon) probably immediately realizes that simply having the desire to accomplish something is not enough. Achieving such a goal requires the ability to persist through obstacles and endurance to keep going in spite of difficulties.There are three major components of motivation: activation, persistence, and intensity.

Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class.

Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist. An example of persistence would be taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy, and resources.

Intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal.4 For example, one student might coast by without much effort, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions, and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class. The first student lacks intensity, while the second pursues their educational goals with greater intensity.

The degree of each of these components of motivation can impact whether or not you achieve your goal. Strong activation, for example, means that you are more likely to start pursuing a goal. Persistence and intensity will determine if you keep working toward that goal and how much effort you devote to reaching it.


All people experience fluctuations in their motivation and willpower. Sometimes you might feel fired up and highly driven to reach your goals, while at other times you might feel listless or unsure of what you want or how to achieve it.

Even if you’re feeling low on motivation, there are steps you can take that will keep you moving forward. Some things you can do include:Adjust your goals to focus on things that really matter to youIf you’re tackling something that is just too big or too overwhelming, break it up into smaller steps and try setting your sights on achieving that first step toward progress.Improve your confidence.Remind yourself about what you achieved in the past and what where your strengths lie.If there are things you feel insecure about, try working on making improvements in those areas so that you feel more skilled and capable.

History of Motivation:


The instinct theory of motivation suggests that behaviors are motivated by instincts, which are fixed and inborn patterns of behavior.5 Psychologists including William James, Sigmund Freud, and William McDougal have proposed a number of basic human drives that motivate behavior. Such instincts might include biological instincts that are important for an organism’s survival such as fear, cleanliness, and love.

Drives and Needs:

Many of your behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sleeping are motivated by biology. You have a biological need for food, water, and sleep. Therefore, you are motivated to eat, drink, and sleep. Drive theory suggests that people have basic biological drives and that behaviors are motivated by the need to fulfill these drives.

Arousal Levels:

The arousal theory of motivation suggests that people are motivated to engage in behaviors that help them maintain their optimal level of arousal.3 A person with low arousal needs might pursue relaxing activities such as reading a book, while those with high arousal needs might be motivated to engage in exciting, thrill-seeking behaviors, such as motorcycle racing.



Self-confidence is an attitude about your skills and abilities. It means you accept and trust yourself and have a sense of control in your life. You know your strengths and weakness well, and have a positive view of yourself. You set realistic expectations and goals, communicate assertively, and can handle criticism.On the other hand, low self-confidence might make you feel full of self-doubt, be passive or submissive, or have difficulty trusting others. You may feel inferior, unloved, or be sensitive to criticism. Feeling confident in yourself might depend on the situation. For instance, you can feel very confident in some areas, such as academics, but lack confidence in others, like relationships.Having high or low self-confidence is rarely related to your actual abilities, and mostly based on your perceptions. Perceptions are the way your think about yourself and these thoughts can be flawed.Low self-confidence might stem from different experiences, such as growing up in an unsupportive and critical environment, being separated from your friends or family for the first time, judging yourself too harshly, or being afraid of failure. People with low self-confidence often have errors in their thinking.

How To Increase Your Self-Confidence:

Recognize and emphasize your strengths. Reward and praise yourself for your efforts and progress.When you stumble on an obstacle, treat yourself with kindness and compassion. Don’t dwell on failure.Set realistic and achievable goals. Do not expect perfection; it is impossible to be perfect in every aspect of life.Slow down when you are feeling intense emotions and think logically about the situation.Challenge making assumptions about yourself, people and situations.Recognize that past negative life experiences do not dictate your future.Express your feelings, beliefs and needs directly and respectfullyLearn to say no to unreasonable requests.

6 Ways to Build Your Self-Confidence:

Stop Comparing Yourself to Others:

Whether you compare how you look to your friends on Facebook or you compare your salary to your friend’s income, comparisons aren’t healthy. In fact, a 2018 study published in Personality and Individual Differences found a direct link between envy and the way you feel about yourself.3Researchers found that people who compared themselves to others experienced envy. And the more envy they experienced, the worse they felt about themselves.If you’re feeling envious of someone else’s life, remind yourself of your own strengths and successes. Consider keeping an ongoing gratitude journal to help you focus on your own life and not the lives of others.When you notice you are drawing comparisons, remind yourself that doing so isn’t helpful. Everyone is running their own race and life isn’t a competition.

Surround Yourself With Positive People:

Pay attention to how your friends make you feel. Do your friends lift you up or bring you down? Are they constantly judging you or do they accept you for who you are? The people you spend time with influence your thoughts and attitudes about yourself more than you think. If you feel bad about yourself after hanging out with a particular person, it may be time to say goodbye.

Take Care of Your Body:

It’s hard to feel good about yourself if you’re abusing your body. On the other hand, if you practice self-care, you know you’re doing something positive for your mind, body, and spirit, and you’ll naturally feel more confident.Here are a few self-care practices linked to higher levels of self-confidence:Diet: Eating well comes with many benefits, including higher levels of self-confidence and self-esteem. When you fuel your body with the right foods, you feel healthier, stronger, and more energized, which can result in feeling better about yourself.Exercise: Studies consistently show physical activity boosts confidence. A 2016 study published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment found that regular physical activity improved participants’ body image. And when their body image improved, they felt more confident.4Meditation: More than just a relaxation practice, meditation can help boost self-confidence in several ways. For one, it helps you to recognize and accept yourself. Meditation also teaches you to stop negative self-talk and disconnect from any mental chatter interfering with your self-confidence.Sleep: Skimping on sleep can take a toll on your emotions, whereas good, quality sleep has been linked with positive personality traits, including optimism and self-esteem.

Be Kind To Yourself:

Self-compassion involves treating yourself with kindness when you make a mistake, fail, or experience a setback. It’s a way of relating to yourself that allows you to become more emotionally flexible and better able to navigate challenging emotions, and enhances your connection to self and others. Researchers have linked the ability to relate to ourselves in a compassionate way to self-confidence.A 2009 study published in the Journal of Personality found that self-compassion contributes to more consistent confidence.6 So the next time you’re in a challenging situation, recognize that being imperfect or falling short at times is a part of living. Do your best to navigate these experiences with self-compassion.

Practice Positive Self-Talk:

Using self-talk that is optimistic can help you foster self-compassion, overcome self-doubt, and take on new challenges. On the other hand, negative self-talk can limit your abilities and lessen your confidence by convincing your subconscious that you “can’t handle it” or that something is “too hard” and you “shouldn’t even try.”7The next time you begin to think that you have no business speaking up in a meeting or that you are too out of shape to work out, remind yourself that your thoughts aren’t always accurate.Here are a few examples of how to challenge pessimistic self-talk and reframe your thoughts into a more positive way of thinking:Instead of telling yourself “I can’t handle this,” or “This is impossible,” try reminding yourself that “You can do it,” or “all I have to do is try.”Instead of telling yourself “I can do nothing right” when you make a mistake, remind yourself “I can do better next time,” or “at least I learned something.”Instead of saying you “hate” public speaking, use a milder word like “don’t like,” and remind yourself that “everyone has strengths and weaknesses.”

Face Your Fears:

Stop putting things off (like asking someone on a date or applying for a promotion) until you feel more confident. The best way to build your confidence is by facing your fears head-on.Practice facing some of your fears that stem from a lack of self-confidence.8 If you’re afraid you’ll embarrass yourself or you think that you’re going to mess up, try it anyway. Tell yourself it’s just an experiment and see what happens.You might learn that being a little anxious or making a few mistakes isn’t as bad as you thought. And each time you move forward, you can gain more confidence in yourself, which in the end, will help prevent you from taking any risks that will result in any major negative consequences.


What Is Air Pollution?

Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air—pollutants which are detrimental to human health and the planet as a whole. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), each year air pollution is responsible for nearly seven million deaths around the globe. Nine out of ten human beings currently breathe air that exceeds the WHO’s guideline limits for pollutants, with those living in low- and middle-income countries suffering the most. In the United States, the Clean Air Act, established in 1970, authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to safeguard public health by regulating the emissions of these harmful air pollutants.

What Causes Air Pollution?

“Most air pollution comes from energy use and production,” says John Walke, director of the Clean Air Project, part of the Climate and Clean Energy program at NRDC. “Burning fossil fuels releases gases and chemicals into the air.” And in an especially destructive feedback loop, air pollution not only contributes to climate change but is also exacerbated by it. “Air pollution in the form of carbon dioxide and methane raises the earth’s temperature,” Walke says. “Another type of air pollution, smog, is then worsened by that increased heat, forming when the weather is warmer and there’s more ultraviolet radiation.” Climate change also increases the production of allergenic air pollutants, including mold (thanks to damp conditions caused by extreme weather and increased flooding) and pollen (due to a longer pollen season).“We’ve made progress over the last 50 years improving air quality in the United States thanks to the Clean Air Act,” says Kim Knowlton, senior scientist and deputy director of the NRDC Science Center. “But climate change will make it harder in the future to meet pollution standards, which are designed to protect health.”

Effects of Air Pollution:

The effects of air pollution on the human body vary depending on the type of pollutant and the length and level of exposure—as well as other factors, including a person’s individual health risks and the cumulative impacts of multiple pollutants or stressors

Smog and soot:

These are the two most prevalent types of air pollution. Smog (sometimes referred to as ground-level ozone) occurs when emissions from combusting fossil fuels react with sunlight. Soot (also known as particulate matter) is made up of tiny particles of chemicals, soil, smoke, dust, or allergens—in the form of either gas or solids—that are carried in the air. The sources of smog and soot are similar. “Both come from cars and trucks, factories, power plants, incinerators, engines, generally anything that combusts fossil fuels such as coal, gas, or natural gas,” Walke says.Smog can irritate the eyes and throat and also damage the lungs, especially those of children, senior citizens, and people who work or exercise outdoors. It’s even worse for people who have asthma or allergies: these extra pollutants can intensify their symptoms and trigger asthma attacks. The tiniest airborne particles in soot, whether gaseous or solid, are especially dangerous because they can penetrate the lungs and bloodstream and worsen bronchitis, lead to heart attacks, and even hasten death. In 2020 a report from Harvard’s T. H. Chan School of Public Health showed COVID-19 mortality rates in areas with more soot pollution were higher than in areas with even slightly less, showing a correlation between the virus’s deadliness and long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and illuminating an environmental justice issue.Because highways and polluting facilities have historically been sited in or next to low-income neighborhoods and communities of color, the negative effects of this pollution have been disproportionately experienced by the people who live in these communities. In 2019 the Union of Concerned Scientists found that soot exposure was 34 percent higher for Asian Americans, on average, than for other Americans. For Black people, the exposure rate was 24 percent higher; for Latinos, 23 percent higher.

Hazardous air pollutants:

A number of air pollutants pose severe health risks and can sometimes be fatal even in small amounts. Almost 200 of them are regulated by law; some of the most common are mercury, lead, dioxins, and benzenes.

Traffic-Related Air Pollution (TRAP), from motor vehicle emissions, may be the most recognizable form of air pollution. It contains most of the elements of human-made air pollution: ground-level ozone, various forms of carbon, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine particulate matter.

Ozone, an atmospheric gas, is often called smog when at ground level. It is created when pollutants emitted by cars, power plants, industrial boilers, refineries, and other sources chemically react in the presence of sunlight.

Noxious gases, which include carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur oxides (SOx), are components of motor vehicle emissions and byproducts of industrial processes.

Particulate matter (PM) is composed of chemicals such as sulfates, nitrates, carbon, or mineral dusts. Vehicle and industrial emissions from fossil fuel combustion, cigarette smoke, and burning organic matter, such as wildfires, all contain PM.

PM 2.5) is 30 times thinner than a human hair. It can be inhaled deeply into lung tissue and contribute to serious health problems. PM 2.5 accounts for most health effects due to air pollution in the U.S.

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) vaporize at or near room temperature—hence, the designation volatile. They are called organic because they contain carbon. VOCs are given off by paints, cleaning supplies, pesticides, some furnishings, and even craft materials like glue. Gasoline and natural gas are major sources of VOCs, which are released during combustion.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen. Of more than 100 PAHs known to be widespread in the environment, 15 are listed in the Report on Carcinogens. In addition to combustion, many industrial processes, such as iron, steel, and rubber product manufacturing, as well as power generation, also produce PAHs as a by-product. PAHs are also found in particulate matter.

Whom does air pollution affect the most?

ChildrenThe NIEHS-funded Children’s Health Study at the University of Southern California is one of the largest studies of the long-term effects of air pollution on children’s respiratory health. Among its findings:Higher air pollution levels increase short-term respiratory infections, which lead to more school absences.Children who play several outdoor sports and live in high ozone communities are more likely to develop asthma.Children living near busy roads are at increased risk for asthma.Children with asthma who were exposed to high levels of air pollutants were more likely to develop bronchitis symptoms.Living in communities with higher pollution levels can cause lung damage.

Other studies on women and children:

NIEHS-funded researchers from the University of California, Davis, Environmental Health Sciences Center are conducting the Bio-Specimen and Fire Effects (B-SAFE) Study. This ongoing project seeks to discover if and how recent wildfires and their smoke affected pregnant women and their babies. Begun in 2017, study participants are pregnant women who were living in Northern California when the 2018, 2019, or 2020 wildfires occurred there.Breathing PM 2.5, even at relatively low levels, may alter the size of a child’s developing brain, which may ultimately increase the risk for cognitive and emotional problems later in adolescence.Prenatal exposure to PAHs was associated with brain development effects, slower processing speed, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and other neurobehavioral problems in urban youth.In New York City, prenatal exposure to air pollution may play a role in childhood ADHD-related behavior problems.Prenatal exposure to particulate matter was associated with low birth weight.Women exposed to high levels of fine particulate matter during pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester, may have up to twice the risk of having a child with autism.Second and third trimester exposure to PM 2.5 might increase the chance of those children having high blood pressure in early life.In California’s agricultural San Joaquin Valley, women who were exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, or nitrogen dioxide during their first 8 weeks of pregnancy were more likely to have a baby with neural tube defects.In Marietta, Ohio, home to a ferromanganese refinery, manganese concentrations in blood and hair, a biomarker of air pollution exposure, were associated with lower child IQ scores.

Older adults:

Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias are a public health challenge for aging populations. NIEHS-funded researchers at the University of Washington identified a link between air pollution and dementias. This well-conducted study adds considerable evidence that ambient air fine particles increase risk of dementias.Air pollution was linked to a greater chance of developing several neurological disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and other dementias. Hospital admissions data from 63 million older adults in the U.S., obtained over 17 years (2000-2016), was analyzed along with estimated PM 2.5 concentrations by zip code to conduct the study.In older adults, long-term exposure to TRAP may significantly hasten physical disabilities. The risk is more pronounced among racial minorities and lower-income people.PM 2.5 air pollution is also associated with accelerated memory problems and Alzheimer’s-like brain declines, which was seen among women 65 years of age and older.Nutrients may counter some harmful effects from air pollution. A 2020 study found omega-3 fatty acids, obtained by eating certain fish, may protect against PM 2.5-associated brain shrinkage in older women.

Rural dwellers:

An NIEHS-funded study found that concentrations of PM 2.5 in rural Washington State were comparable to urban Seattle. In this study, as regional PM 2.5 increased, there were increased asthma symptoms, such as limitation of activities, more wheezing, and more nighttime waking, in rural children.In the rural U.S., large-scale animal feeding operations might compromise regional air quality through emission of pollutants, such as ammonia gas. A study found acute lung function problems in children with asthma in such areas.

Different genes:

Your genes play a role in respiratory health. NIEHS-funded research discovered that people with specific gene variants, which made them more likely to have lung inflammation, had a greater chance of suffering from asthma if they lived close to major roadways.

Why improving air quality matters:

Among children in Southern California, decreases in ambient nitrogen dioxide and PM 2.5 were associated with fewer cases of asthma.An NIEHS-funded study found that a mixture of several B vitamins may protect DNA from changes attributable to PM 2.5 air pollution.Bronchitis symptoms declined as pollution levels dropped in the Los Angeles region.Improving air quality may improve cognitive function and reduce dementia risk, according to studies supported in part by NIH and the Alzheimer’s Association.When fossil-fuel power plants close, nearby air pollution is reduced. A study found the incidence of preterm births went down within 5 kilometers of retired coal and oil-powered plant locations.


Having knowledge and skills above and beyond the basics of your field can give you a professional advantage. Here are eight ways to keep your job skills and knowledge up-to-date.

1. Take Professional Development Courses:

Professional development courses can help you expand your professional skill set, learn something new, or even earn academic credit to put towards a degree. Online training courses are particularly convenient because they are affordable and flexible. Just be careful to do your homework—evaluate instructor bios, read reviews, and check the syllabus carefully before putting down your credit card. You can also find professional development courses through vendor-taught classes, traditional universities, and training institutions.

2. Use Online Resources:

The Internet is a limitless source of free information and educational resources. Attend educational webinars, follow the blogs or social media accounts of industry experts, or bookmark and regularly check industry news sites and online forums to stay current on the latest trends. If you haven’t already, sign up for news alerts for your inbox (Google Alerts works well) or set up an RSS feed like to easily put all of your industry news in one place.

3. Attend Professional Events:

Professional events are valuable ways to learn about growth and development in your industry. Local companies, business associations, and professional groups often host seminars, forums, or workshops that can give you direct access and insight to experts in your profession. Treat these events as constructive networking opportunities to brainstorm and share ideas with colleagues who can provide fresh insight and perspective.

4. Network Online:

As an independent consultant, you know the importance of building and maintaining a list of contacts to ensure a steady flow of work. Use LinkedIn to connect with high-ranking people at companies you’re interested in working with. Employ social media platforms to promote your own service or brand, network with industry experts, and keep in touch with former and current clients.Start by finding which social site works best for you—connect with fans and followers on Facebook, creatively network and share news on Twitter, or utilize blogging to boost your online credibility, and connect with potential clients.

5. Invest in Continuing Education and Certifications:

While continuing education and certification programs typically require a more intensive time and financial obligation, they can help boost reliability, and demonstrate a commitment to your profession. Becoming proficient in a new software platform before it becomes mainstream, committing to upholding industry standards through a certification program, or staying on top of market trends by taking a class can increase your income and position you competitively within your line of business.

6. Follow Thought Leaders on Social Media:

Social media platforms have given thought leaders a new outlet for sharing valuable information, insights, and practical advice. Seek out and follow both industry leaders in verticals you specialize in and those who specialize in skill areas you have or want to build. By reading regular posts, you can not only gain additional knowledge, but you can also build relationships by commenting and reacting to posts and increase visibility of your business and skills by sharing their content.

7. Read White Papers and Case Studies:

Top companies, consulting organizations, agencies, and think tanks regularly publish white papers and case studies on industry trends and often offer them for download at no cost. Stay up to date on industry and business trends by taking advantage of these resources.

8. Determine Hard and Soft Skills to Develop:

Conducting a self-assessment to determine your hard and soft skills and target those you want to develop should be a core activity in your professional development. A self-assessment test such as CliftonStrengths Assessment will measure your natural ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving, and you’ll get access to personalized reports that help you better understand what makes you unique and how to use your strengths to reach your full potential.Maintaining enhanced knowledge and skills in your field shows clients you are well informed and dedicated. Set yourself up for success by investing in your job skills and knowledge today.


The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). The trachea (windpipe) conducts inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, called bronchi. The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller branches (bronchioles), finally becoming microscopic.

The bronchioles eventually end in clusters of microscopic air sacs called alveoli. In the alveoli, oxygen from the air is absorbed into the blood. Carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, travels from the blood to the alveoli, where it can be exhaled. Between the alveoli is a thin layer of cells called the interstitium, which contains blood vessels and cells that help support the alveoli.The lungs are covered by a thin tissue layer called the pleura. The same kind of thin tissue lines the inside of the chest cavity — also called pleura. A thin layer of fluid acts as a lubricant allowing the lungs to slip smoothly as they expand and contract with each breath.

Lung Conditions:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Damage to the lungs results in difficulty blowing air out, causing shortness of breath. Smoking is by far the most common cause of COPD.

Emphysema: A form of COPD usually caused by smoking. The fragile walls between the lungs’ air sacs (alveoli) are damaged, trapping air in the lungs and making breathing difficult.Chronic bronchitis: Repeated, frequent episodes of productive cough, usually caused by smoking. Breathing also becomes difficult in this form of COPD.

Pneumonia: Infection in one or both lungs. Bacteria, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, are the most common cause, but pneumonia may also be caused by a virus.

Asthma: The lungs’ airways (bronchi) become inflamed and can spasm, causing shortness of breath and wheezing. Allergies, viral infections, or air pollution often trigger asthma symptoms.Acute bronchitis: An infection of the lungs’ large airways (bronchi), usually caused by a virus. Cough is the main symptom of acute bronchitis.Pulmonary fibrosis: A form of interstitial lung disease. The interstitium (walls between air sacs) become scarred, making the lungs stiff and causing shortness of breath.

Pulmonary fibrosis: A form of interstitial lung disease. The interstitium (walls between air sacs) become scarred, making the lungs stiff and causing shortness of breath.Sarcoidosis: Tiny areas of inflammation can affect all organs in the body, with the lungs involved most of the time. The symptoms are usually mild; sarcoidosis is usually found when X-rays are done for other reasons.Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Extra weight makes it difficult to expand the chest when breathing. This can lead to long-term breathing problems.Pleural effusion: Fluid builds up in the normally tiny space between the lung and the inside of the chest wall (the pleural space). If large, pleural effusions can cause problems with breathing.

Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining of the lung (pleura), which often causes pain when breathing in. Autoimmune conditions, infections, or a pulmonary embolism may cause pleurisy.Bronchiectasis: The airways (bronchi) become inflamed and expand abnormally, usually after repeated infections. Coughing, with large amounts of mucus, is the main symptom of bronchiectasis.Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): A rare condition in which cysts form throughout the lungs, causing breathing problems similar to emphysema. LAM occurs almost exclusively in women of childbearing age.

Cystic fibrosis: A genetic condition in which mucus does not clear easily from the airways. The excess mucus causes repeated episodes of bronchitis and pneumonia throughout life.Interstitial lung disease: A collection of conditions in which the interstitium (lining between the air sacs) becomes diseased. Fibrosis (scarring) of the interstitium eventually results, if the process can’t be stopped.Lung cancer: Cancer may affect almost any part of the lung. Most lung cancer is caused by smoking.Tuberculosis: A slowly progressive pneumonia caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chronic cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats are common symptoms of tuberculosis.

Lung cancer: Cancer may affect almost any part of the lung. Most lung cancer is caused by smoking.Tuberculosis: A slowly progressive pneumonia caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chronic cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats are common symptoms of tuberculosis.Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): Severe, sudden injury to the lungs caused by a serious illness. Life support with mechanical ventilation is usually needed to survive until the lungs recover.Coccidioidomycosis: A pneumonia caused by Coccidioides, a fungus found in the soil in the southwestern U.S. Most people experience no symptoms, or a flu-like illness with complete recovery.Histoplasmosis: An infection caused by inhaling Histoplasma capsulatum, a fungus found in the soil in the eastern and central U.S. Most Histoplasma pneumonias are mild, causing only a short-lived cough and flu-like symptoms.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (allergic alveolitis): Inhaled dust and other substances cause an allergic reaction in the lungs. Usually this occurs in farmers or others who work with dried, dusty plant material.Influenza (flu): An infection by one or more flu viruses causes fever, body aches, and coughing lasting a week or more. Influenza can progress to life-threatening pneumonia, especially in older people with medical problems.Mesothelioma: A rare form of cancer that forms from the cells lining various organs of the body with the lungs being the most common. Mesothelioma tends to emerge several decades after asbestos exposure.Pertussis (whooping cough): A highly contagious infection of the airways (bronchi) by Bordetella pertussis, causing persistent cough. A booster vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for adolescents and adults to prevent pertussis.Pulmonary hypertension: Many conditions can lead to high blood pressure in the arteries leading from the heart to the lungs. If no cause can be identified, the condition is called idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot (usually from a vein in the leg) may break off and travel to the heart, which pumps the clot (embolus) into the lungs. Sudden shortness of breath is the most common symptom of a pulmonary embolism.Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): A severe pneumonia caused by a specific virus first discovered in Asia in 2002. Worldwide prevention measures seem to have controlled SARS, which has caused no deaths in the U.S.SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: The coronavirus that led to a worldwide pandemic beginning in 2019 can lead to pneumonia that affects both lungs, filling them with fluid and making it difficult to breathe. COVID-19 can lead to long-term lung damage and other respiratory conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pneumothorax: Air in the chest; it occurs when air enters the area around the lung (the pleural space) abnormally. Pneumothorax can be caused by an injury or may happen spontaneously.

Lung Tests:

Chest X-ray: An X-ray is the most common first test for lung problems. It can identify air or fluid in the chest, fluid in the lung, pneumonia, masses, foreign bodies, and other problems.Computed tomography (CT scan): A CT scan uses X-rays and a computer to make detailed pictures of the lungs and nearby structures.Pulmonary function tests (PFTs): A series of tests to evaluate how well the lungs work. Lung capacity, the ability to exhale forcefully, and the ability to transfer air between the lungs and blood are usually tested.

Spirometry: Part of PFTs measures how fast and how much air you can breathe out.Sputum culture: Culturing mucus coughed up from the lungs can sometimes identify the organism responsible for a pneumonia or bronchitis.Sputum cytology: Viewing sputum under a microscope for abnormal cells can help diagnose lung cancer and other conditions.Lung biopsy: A small piece of tissue is taken from the lungs, either through bronchoscopy or surgery. Examining the biopsied tissue under a microscope can help diagnose lung conditions.Flexible bronchoscopy: An endoscope (flexible tube with a lighted camera on its end) is passed through the nose or mouth into the airways (bronchi). A doctor can take biopsies or samples for culture during bronchoscopy.

Rigid bronchoscopy: A rigid metal tube is introduced through the mouth into the lungs’ airways. Rigid bronchoscopy is often more effective than flexible bronchoscopy, but it requires general (total) anesthesia.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan): An MRI scanner uses radio waves in a magnetic field to create high-resolution images of structures inside the chest.

Lung Treatments:

Lung TreatmentsThoracotomy: A surgery that enters the chest wall (thorax). Thoracotomy may be done to treat some serious lung conditions or to obtain a lung biopsy.Video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS): Less-invasive chest wall surgery using an endoscope (flexible tube with a camera on its end). VATS may be used to treat or diagnose various lung conditions.Chest tube (thoracostomy): A tube is inserted through an incision in the chest wall in order to drain fluid or air from around the lung.Pleurocentesis: A needle is placed into the chest cavity to drain fluid that’s around the lung. A sample is usually examined to identify the cause.Antibiotics: Medicines that kill bacteria are used to treat most cases of pneumonia. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses.Antiviral drugs: When used soon after flu symptoms start, antiviral medicines can reduce the severity of influenza. Antiviral drugs are not effective against viral bronchitis.Bronchodilators: Inhaled medicines can help expand the airways (bronchi). This can reduce wheezing and shortness of breath in people with asthma or COPD.Corticosteroids: Inhaled or oral steroids can reduce inflammation and improve symptoms in asthma or COPD. Steroids can also be used to treat less common lung conditions caused by inflammation.Mechanical ventilation: People with severe attacks of lung disease may require a machine called a ventilator to assist breathing. The ventilator pumps in air through a tube inserted into the mouth or the neck.Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP): Air pressure applied by a machine through a mask keeps the airways open. It is used at night to treat sleep apnea, but it is also helpful for some people with COPD.Lung transplant: Surgical removal of diseased lungs and replacement with organ donor lungs. Severe COPD, pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary fibrosis are sometimes treated with lung transplant.Lung resection: A diseased portion of the lung is removed through surgery. Most often, lung resection is used to treat lung cancer.Vasodilators: People with some forms of pulmonary hypertension may require long-term medicines to lower the pressure in their lungs. Often, these must be taken through a continuous infusion into the veins.Chemotherapy and radiation therapy: Lung cancer is often not curable with surgery. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can help improve symptoms and sometimes extend life with lung cancer.


Chambers of the Heart:

The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a fist, located just behind and slightly left of the breastbone. The heart pumps blood through the network of arteries and veins called the cardiovascular system.

The heart has four chambers:

The right atrium receives blood from the veins and pumps it to the right ventricle.

The right ventricle receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs, where it is loaded with oxygen.

The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the left ventricle.

The left ventricle (the strongest chamber) pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body. The left ventricle’s vigorous contractions create our blood pressure.

The coronary arteries run along the surface of the heart and provide oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. A web of nerve tissue also runs through the heart, conducting the complex signals that govern contraction and relaxation. Surrounding the heart is a sac called the pericardium.

Heart Conditions:

Coronary artery disease: Over the years, cholesterol plaques can narrow the arteries supplying blood to the heart. The narrowed arteries are at higher risk for complete blockage from a sudden blood clot (this blockage is called a heart attack).

Stable angina pectoris: Narrowed coronary arteries cause predictable chest pain or discomfort with exertion. The blockages prevent the heart from receiving the extra oxygen needed for strenuous activity. Symptoms typically get better with rest.

Unstable angina pectoris: Chest pain or discomfort that is new, worsening, or occurs at rest. This is an emergency situation as it can precede a heart attack, serious abnormal heart rhythm, or cardiac arrest.

Myocardial infarction (heart attack): A coronary artery is suddenly blocked. Starved of oxygen, part of the heart muscle dies.

Arrhythmia (dysrhythmia): An abnormal heart rhythm due to changes in the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart. Some arrhythmias are benign, but others are life-threatening.

Congestive heart failure: The heart is either too weak or too stiff to effectively pump blood through the body. Shortness of breath and leg swelling are common symptoms.Cardiomyopathy: A disease of heart muscle in which the heart is abnormally enlarged, thickened, and/or stiffened. As a result, the heart’s ability to pump blood is weakened.Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle, most often due to a viral infection.Pericarditis: Inflammation of the lining of the heart (pericardium). Viral infections, kidney failure, and autoimmune conditions are common causes.Pericardial effusion: Fluid between the lining of the heart (pericardium) and the heart itself. Often, this is due to pericarditis.Atrial fibrillation: Abnormal electrical impulses in the atria cause an irregular heartbeat. Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias.Pulmonary embolism: Typically a blood clot travels through the heart to the lungs. Heart valve disease: There are four heart valves, and each can develop problems. If severe, valve disease can cause congestive heart failure.Heart murmur: An abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart with a stethoscope. Some heart murmurs are benign; others suggest heart disease.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining or heart valves of the heart. Usually, endocarditis is due to a serious infection of the heart valves.Mitral valve prolapse: The mitral valve is forced backward slightly after blood has passed through the valve. Sudden cardiac death: Death caused by a sudden loss of heart function (cardiac arrest).Cardiac arrest: Sudden loss of heart function.

Heart Tests:

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A tracing of the heart’s electrical activity. Electrocardiograms can help diagnose many heart conditions.Echocardiogram: An ultrasound of the heart. An echocardiogram provides direct viewing of any problems with the heart muscle’s pumping ability and heart valves.Cardiac stress test: By using a treadmill or medicines, the heart is stimulated to pump to near-maximum capacity. This may identify people with coronary artery disease.

Cardiac catheterization: A catheter is inserted into the femoral artery in the groin and threaded into the coronary arteries. A doctor can then view X-ray images of the coronary arteries or any blockages and perform stenting or other procedures.Holter monitor: If a doctor suspects an arrhythmia, a portable heart monitor can be worn. Called a Holter monitor, it records the heart’s rhythm continuously for a 24 hour period.Event monitor: If a doctor suspects an infrequent arrhythmia, a portable heart monitor called an event monitor can be worn. When you develop symptoms, you can push a button to record the heart’s electrical rhythm.

Heart Treatments:

Exercise: Regular exercise is important for heart health and most heart conditions. Talk to your doctor before starting an exercise program if you have heart problems.Angioplasty: During cardiac catheterization, a doctor inflates a balloon inside a narrowed or blocked coronary artery to widen the artery. A stent is often then placed to keep the artery open.Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): Angioplasty is sometimes called a PCI or PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) by doctors.Coronary artery stenting: During cardiac catheterization, a doctor expands a wire metal stent inside a narrowed or blocked coronary artery to open up the area. This lets blood flow better and can abort a heart attack or relieve angina (chest pain).Thrombolysis: “Clot-busting” drugs injected into the veins can dissolve a blood clot causing a heart attack. Thrombolysis is generally only done if stenting is not possible.Lipid-lowering agents: Statins and other cholesterol (lipid) lowering drugs reduce the risk for heart attack in high-risk people.Diuretics: Commonly called water pills, diuretics increase urination and fluid loss. This reduces blood volume, improving symptoms of heart failure.Beta-blockers: These medicines reduce strain on the heart and lower heart rate. Beta-blockers are prescribed for many heart conditions, including heart failure and arrhythmias.Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors): These blood pressure medicines also help the heart after some heart attacks or in congestive heart failure.Aspirin: This powerful medicine helps prevent blood clots (the cause of heart attacks). Most people who have had heart attacks should take aspirin.Clopidogrel (Plavix): A clot-preventing medicine that prevents platelets from sticking together to form clots. Clopidogrel is especially important for many people who have had stents placed.Antiarrhythmic medications: Numerous medicines help control the heart’s rate and electrical rhythm. These help prevent or control arrhythmias.AED (automated external defibrillator): If someone has sudden cardiac arrest, an AED can be used to assess the heart rhythm and send an electrical shock to the heart if necessary.ICD (Implantable cardioverter defibrillator): If a doctor suspects you are at risk for a life-threatening arrhythmia, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator may be surgically implanted to monitor your heart rhythm and send an electrical shock to the heart if necessary.Pacemaker: To maintain a stable heart rate, a pacemaker can be implanted. A pacemaker sends electrical signals to the heart when necessary to help it beat properly.


What is the brain?

The brain is a complex organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, temperature, hunger and every process that regulates our body. Together, the brain and spinal cord that extends from it make up the central nervous system, or CNS.

What is the brain made of?

Weighing about 3 pounds in the average adult, the brain is about 60% fat. The remaining 40% is a combination of water, protein, carbohydrates and salts. The brain itself is a not a muscle. It contains blood vessels and nerves, including neurons and glial cells.

What is the gray matter and white matter?

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas (the round central cell bodies), and white matter is mostly made of axons (the long stems that connects neurons together) wrapped in myelin (a protective coating). The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

How does the brain work?

The brain sends and receives chemical and electrical signals throughout the body. Different signals control different processes, and your brain interprets each. Some make you feel tired, for example, while others make you feel pain.Some messages are kept within the brain, while others are relayed through the spine and across the body’s vast network of nerves to distant extremities. To do this, the central nervous system relies on billions of neurons (nerve cells).

Main Parts of the Brain and Their Functions:

At a high level, the brain can be divided into the cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum.


The cerebrum (front of brain) comprises gray matter (the cerebral cortex) and white matter at its center. The largest part of the brain, the cerebrum initiates and coordinates movement and regulates temperature. Other areas of the cerebrum enable speech, judgment, thinking and reasoning, problem-solving, emotions and learning. Other functions relate to vision, hearing, touch and other senses.

Cerebral Cortex:

Cortex is Latin for “bark,” and describes the outer gray matter covering of the cerebrum. The cortex has a large surface area due to its folds, and comprises about half of the brain’s weight.The cerebral cortex is divided into two halves, or hemispheres. It is covered with ridges (gyri) and folds (sulci). The two halves join at a large, deep sulcus (the interhemispheric fissure, AKA the medial longitudinal fissure) that runs from the front of the head to the back. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, and the left half controls the right side of the body. The two halves communicate with one another through a large, C-shaped structure of white matter and nerve pathways called the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is in the center of the cerebrum.


The brainstem (middle of brain) connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. The brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.

Midbrain. The midbrain (or mesencephalon) is a very complex structure with a range of different neuron clusters (nuclei and colliculi), neural pathways and other structures. These features facilitate various functions, from hearing and movement to calculating responses and environmental changes. The midbrain also contains the substantia nigra, an area affected by Parkinson’s disease that is rich in dopamine neurons and part of the basal ganglia, which enables movement and coordination.

Pons. The pons is the origin for four of the 12 cranial nerves, which enable a range of activities such as tear production, chewing, blinking, focusing vision, balance, hearing and facial expression. Named for the Latin word for “bridge,” the pons is the connection between the midbrain and the medulla.

Medulla. At the bottom of the brainstem, the medulla is where the brain meets the spinal cord. The medulla is essential to survival. Functions of the medulla regulate many bodily activities, including heart rhythm, breathing, blood flow, and oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. The medulla produces reflexive activities such as sneezing, vomiting, coughing and swallowing.

The spinal cord extends from the bottom of the medulla and through a large opening in the bottom of the skull. Supported by the vertebrae, the spinal cord carries messages to and from the brain and the rest of the body.


The cerebellum (“little brain”) is a fist-sized portion of the brain located at the back of the head, below the temporal and occipital lobes and above the brainstem. Like the cerebral cortex, it has two hemispheres. The outer portion contains neurons, and the inner area communicates with the cerebral cortex. Its function is to coordinate voluntary muscle movements and to maintain posture, balance and equilibrium. New studies are exploring the cerebellum’s roles in thought, emotions and social behavior, as well as its possible involvement in addiction, autism and schizophrenia.

Brain Coverings:

The outermost layer, the dura mater, is thick and tough. It includes two layers: The periosteal layer of the dura mater lines the inner dome of the skull (cranium) and the meningeal layer is below that. Spaces between the layers allow for the passage of veins and arteries that supply blood flow to the brain.The arachnoid mater is a thin, weblike layer of connective tissue that does not contain nerves or blood vessels. Below the arachnoid mater is the cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF. This fluid cushions the entire central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and continually circulates around these structures to remove impurities.The pia mater is a thin membrane that hugs the surface of the brain and follows its contours. The pia mater is rich with veins and arteries.

Lobes of the Brain and What They Control:

Frontal lobe. The largest lobe of the brain, located in the front of the head, the frontal lobe is involved in personality characteristics, decision-making and movement. Recognition of smell usually involves parts of the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe contains Broca’s area, which is associated with speech ability.

Parietal lobe. The middle part of the brain, the parietal lobe helps a person identify objects and understand spatial relationships (where one’s body is compared with objects around the person). The parietal lobe is also involved in interpreting pain and touch in the body. The parietal lobe houses Wernicke’s area, which helps the brain understand spoken language.

Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.Temporal lobe. The sides of the brain, temporal lobes are involved in short-term memory, speech, musical rhythm and some degree of smell recognition.

Deeper Structures Within the Brain:

Pituitary Gland:

Sometimes called the “master gland,” the pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure found deep in the brain behind the bridge of the nose. The pituitary gland governs the function of other glands in the body, regulating the flow of hormones from the thyroid, adrenals, ovaries and testicles. It receives chemical signals from the hypothalamus through its stalk and blood supply.

Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is located above the pituitary gland and sends it chemical messages that control its function. It regulates body temperature, synchronizes sleep patterns, controls hunger and thirst and also plays a role in some aspects of memory and emotion.

AmygdalaSmall: almond-shaped structures, an amygdala is located under each half (hemisphere) of the brain. Included in the limbic system, the amygdalae regulate emotion and memory and are associated with the brain’s reward system, stress, and the “fight or flight” response when someone perceives a threat.

Hippocampus: A curved seahorse-shaped organ on the underside of each temporal lobe, the hippocampus is part of a larger structure called the hippocampal formation. It supports memory, learning, navigation and perception of space. It receives information from the cerebral cortex and may play a role in Alzheimer’s disease.

Pineal Gland :

The pineal gland is located deep in the brain and attached by a stalk to the top of the third ventricle. The pineal gland responds to light and dark and secretes melatonin, which regulates circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle.

Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid Deep: in the brain are four open areas with passageways between them. They also open into the central spinal canal and the area beneath arachnoid layer of the meninges.The ventricles manufacture cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, a watery fluid that circulates in and around the ventricles and the spinal cord, and between the meninges. CSF surrounds and cushions the spinal cord and brain, washes out waste and impurities, and delivers nutrients.

Blood Supply to the Brain:

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

Cranial Nerves:

Inside the cranium (the dome of the skull), there are 12 nerves, called cranial nerves:Cranial nerve 1: The first is the olfactory nerve, which allows for your sense of smell.Cranial nerve 2: The optic nerve governs eyesight.Cranial nerve 3: The oculomotor nerve controls pupil response and other motions of the eye, and branches out from the area in the brainstem where the midbrain meets the pons.Cranial nerve 4: The trochlear nerve controls muscles in the eye. It emerges from the back of the midbrain part of the brainstem.Cranial nerve 5: The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the cranial nerves, with both sensory and motor function. It originates from the pons and conveys sensation from the scalp, teeth, jaw, sinuses, parts of the mouth and face to the brain, allows the function of chewing muscles, and much more.Cranial nerve 6: The abducens nerve innervates some of the muscles in the eye.Cranial nerve 7: The facial nerve supports face movement, taste, glandular and other functions.Cranial nerve 8: The vestibulocochlear nerve facilitates balance and hearing.Cranial nerve 9: The glossopharyngeal nerve allows taste, ear and throat movement, and has many more functions.Cranial nerve 10: The vagus nerve allows sensation around the ear and the digestive system and controls motor activity in the heart, throat and digestive system.Cranial nerve 11: The accessory nerve innervates specific muscles in the head, neck and shoulder.Cranial nerve 12: The hypoglossal nerve supplies motor activity to the tongue.The first two nerves originate in the cerebrum, and the remaining 10 cranial nerves emerge from the brainstem, which has three parts: the midbrain, the pons and the medulla.

Solar Energy

solar energy, radiation from the Sun capable of producing heat, causing chemical reactions, or generating electricity. The total amount of solar energy incident on Earth is vastly in excess of the world’s current and anticipated energy requirements. If suitably harnessed, this highly diffused source has the potential to satisfy all future energy needs. In the 21st century solar energy is expected to become increasingly attractive as a renewable energy source because of its inexhaustible supply and its nonpolluting character, in stark contrast to the finite fossil fuels coal, petroleum, and natural gas.

SOLAR ENERGYHomeScienceAstronomysolar energy BY S. Ashok View Edit HistoryFULL ARTICLEsolar energy, radiation from the Sun capable of producing heat, causing chemical reactions, or generating electricity. The total amount of solar energy incident on Earth is vastly in excess of the world’s current and anticipated energy requirements. If suitably harnessed, this highly diffused source has the potential to satisfy all future energy needs. In the 21st century solar energy is expected to become increasingly attractive as a renewable energy source because of its inexhaustible supply and its nonpolluting character, in stark contrast to the finite fossil fuels coal, petroleum, and natural panelsSolar PanelsSee all mediaKey People: Paul Beattie MacCready Mária TelkesRelated Topics: Smart grid Solar wind power satellite Solar constant Solar radiation Wind energyThe Sun is an extremely powerful energy source, and sunlight is by far the largest source of energy received by Earth, but its intensity at Earth’s surface is actually quite low. This is essentially because of the enormous radial spreading of radiation from the distant Sun. A relatively minor additional loss is due to Earth’s atmosphere and clouds, which absorb or scatter as much as 54 percent of the incoming sunlight. The sunlight that reaches the ground consists of nearly 50 percent visible light, 45 percent infrared radiation, and smaller amounts of ultraviolet and other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

The potential for solar energy is enormous, since about 200,000 times the world’s total daily electric-generating capacity is received by Earth every day in the form of solar energy. Unfortunately, though solar energy itself is free, the high cost of its collection, conversion, and storage still limits its exploitation in many places. Solar radiation can be converted either into thermal energy (heat) or into electrical energy, though the former is easier to accomplish.

Thermal energy:

Among the most common devices used to capture solar energy and convert it to thermal energy are flat-plate collectors, which are used for solar heating applications. Because the intensity of solar radiation at Earth’s surface is so low, these collectors must be large in area. Even in sunny parts of the world’s temperate regions, for instance, a collector must have a surface area of about 40 square metres (430 square feet) to gather enough energy to serve the energy needs of one person.

The most widely used flat-plate collectors consist of a blackened metal plate, covered with one or two sheets of glass, that is heated by the sunlight falling on it. This heat is then transferred to air or water, called carrier fluids, that flow past the back of the plate. The heat may be used directly, or it may be transferred to another medium for storage. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used for solar water heaters and house heating.The storage of heat for use at night or on cloudy days is commonly accomplished by using insulated tanks to store the water heated during sunny periods. Such a system can supply a home with hot water drawn from the storage tank, or, with the warmed water flowing through tubes in floors and ceilings, it can provide space heating. Flat-plate collectors typically heat carrier fluids to temperatures ranging from 66 to 93 °C (150 to 200 °F).The efficiency of such collectors (i.e., the proportion of the energy received that they convert into usable energy) ranges from 20 to 80 percent, depending on the design of the collector.

Another method of thermal energy conversion is found in solar ponds, which are bodies of salt water designed to collect and store solar energy. The heat extracted from such ponds enables the production of chemicals, food, textiles, and other industrial products and can also be used to warm greenhouses, swimming pools, and livestock buildings. Solar ponds aresometimes used to produce electricity through the use of the organic Rankine cycle engine, a relatively efficient and economical means of solar energy conversion, which is especially useful in remote locations. Solar ponds are fairly expensive to install and maintain and are generally limited to warm rural areas.

On a smaller scale, the Sun’s energy can also be harnessed to cook food in specially designed solar ovens. Solar ovens typically concentrate sunlight from over a wide area to a central point, where a black-surfaced vessel converts the sunlight into heat. The ovens are typically portable and require no other fuel inputs.

Electricity generation:

Solar radiation may be converted directly into electricity by solar cells (photovoltaic cells). In such cells, a small electric voltage is generated when light strikes the junction between a metal and a semiconductor (such as silicon) or the junction between two different semiconductors. (See photovoltaic effect.) The power generated by a single photovoltaic cell is typically only about two watts. By connectinglarge numbers of individual cells together, however, as in solar-panel arrays, hundreds or even thousands of kilowatts of electric power can be generated in a solar electric plant or in a large household array. The energy efficiency of most present-day photovoltaic cells is only about 15 to 20 percent, and, since the intensity of solar radiation is low to begin with, large and costly assemblies of such cells are required to produce even moderate amounts of power.

Small photovoltaic cells that operate on sunlight or artificial light have found major use in low-power applications—as power sources for calculators and watches, for example. Larger units have been used to provide power for water pumps and communications systems in remote areas and for weather and communications satellites. Classic crystalline silicon panels and emerging technologies using thin-film solar cells, including building-integrated photovoltaics, can be installed by homeowners and businesses on their rooftops to replace or augment the conventional electric supply.

Concentrated solar power plants employ concentrating, or focusing, collectors to concentrate sunlight received from a wide area onto a small blackened receiver, thereby considerably increasing the light’s intensity in order to produce high temperatures. The arrays of carefully aligned mirrors or lenses can focus enough sunlight to heat a target to temperatures of 2,000 °C(3,600 °F) or more. This heat can then be used to operate a boiler, which in turn generates steam for a steam turbine electric generator power plant. For producing steam directly, the movable mirrors can be arranged so as to concentrate large amounts of solar radiation upon blackened pipes through which water is circulated and thereby heated.

Solar energy is also used on a small scale for purposes other than those described above. In some countries, for instance, solar energy is used to produce salt from seawater by evaporation. Similarly, solar-powered desalination units transform salt water into drinking water by converting the Sun’s energy to heat, directly or indirectly, to drive the desalination process.

Solar technology has also emerged for the clean and renewable production of hydrogen as an alternative energy source. Mimicking the process of photosynthesis, artificial leaves are silicon-based devices that use solar energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen, leaving virtually no pollutants. Further work is needed to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of these devices for industrial use.


What is a computer?

A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or data. It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You may already know that you can use a computer to type documents, send email, play games, and browse the Web. You can also use it to edit or create spreadsheets, presentations, and even videos.

Hardware vs. software:

Before we talk about different types of computers, let’s talk about two things all computers have in common: hardware and software.

Hardware is any part of your computer that has a physical structure, such as the keyboard or mouse. It also includes all of the computer’s internal parts.

Software is any set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do and how to do it. Examples of software include web browsers, games, and word processors.

Everything you do on your computer will rely on both hardware and software. For example, right now you may be viewing this lesson in a web browser (software) and using your mouse (hardware) to click from page to page. As you learn about different types of computers, ask yourself about the differences in their hardware. As you progress through this tutorial, you’ll see that different types of computers also often use different types of software.

What are the different types of computers?

Desktop computers:

Many people use desktop computers at work, home, and school. Desktop computers are designed to be placed on a desk, and they’re typically made up of a few different parts, including the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse.

Laptop computers:

The second type of computer you may be familiar with is a laptop computer, commonly called a laptop. Laptops are battery-powered computers that are more portable than desktops, allowing you to use them almost anywhere.

Tablet computers:

Tablet computers—or tablets—are handheld computers that are even more portable than laptops. Instead of a keyboard and mouse, tablets use a touch-sensitive screen for typing and navigation. The iPad is an example of a tablet.


A server is a computer that serves up information to other computers on a network. For example, whenever you use the Internet, you’re looking at something that’s stored on a server. Many businesses also use local file servers to store and share files internally.

Other types of computers:

Many of today’s electronics are basically specialized computers, though we don’t always think of them that way. Here are a few common examples.

Smartphones: Many cell phones can do a lot of things computers can do, including browsing the Internet and playing games. They are often called smartphones.

Wearables: Wearable technology is a general term for a group of devices—including fitness trackers and smartwatches—that are designed to be worn throughout the day. These devices are often called wearables for short.

Game consoles: A game console is a specialized type of computer that is used for playing video games on your TV.

TVs: Many TVs now include applications—or apps—that let you access various types of online content. For example, you can stream video from the Internet directly onto your TV.

PCs and Macs:

Personal computers come in two main styles: PC and Mac. Both are fully functional, but they have a different look and feel, and many people prefer one or the other.


This type of computer began with the original IBM PC that was introduced in 1981. Other companies began creating similar computers, which were called IBM PC Compatible (often shortened to PC). Today, this is the most common type of personal computer, and it typically includes the Microsoft Windows operating system.


The Macintosh computer was introduced in 1984, and it was the first widely sold personal computer with a graphical user interface, or GUI (pronounced gooey). All Macs are made by one company (Apple), and they almost always use the Mac OS X operating system.

The Bad Effects Of Eating Junk Food

What you eat and drink each day effects your health and wellbeing, both physically and mentally. Good nutrition, along with regular exercise will help you maintain a healthy weight, while reducing your risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease. However, consuming regular amounts of fast and junk food will impact your quality of health, and will have negative effects on your body.

The Negative Side Of Junk And Fast Food:

Junk foods are food and drinks with low nutritional value (e.g. vitamins, minerals and fibre) and high in kilojoules, fat, sugars and/or salt. On the other hand, fast foods are a type of food you get from a restaurant designed to be delivered to you in the quickest way possible. Some fast foods can be healthy, but typically most fast foods are junk food. For example, salad, sushi and sandwiches are healthy forms of fast food. However, most fast food restaurants, such as McDonalds or KFC serve unhealthy junk food. In Australia, 35% of an average adult’s daily energy intake and 41% of children’s daily energy intake comes from junk food.While the occasional night of junk food won’t hurt much, eating Junk foods regular has been shown to lead to increased risks of obesity and chronic diseases. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and some cancers all have causes in excessive junk food consumption. Further, the specific content of many fast foods can have negative side effects for your body;Junk food high in sodium can lead to increased headaches and migraineJunk food high in carbs can trigger outbreaks of acneEating excessive amounts of junk food may increase your risk of depressionThe carbs and sugar in fast foods can lead to dental cavitiesFried foods are filled with trans fats which raise LDL cholesterol levelsFast food is filled with empty carbohydrates, which can lead to increased blood sugar and insulin resistanceIncreased sodium levels can lead to your body retaining excessive water, leading to bloating.

The Key To A Healthy Diet | The Bad Effects Of Eating Junk Food:

To avoid the negative health risks to your, your diet needs to be nutritional and diverse. Small changes to your diet can make an immense difference to your health. It’s easier than you think, especially if you follow at least six of the eight goals outlined below.

Make half your plate fruits and vegetables: The more colourful you plate, the more likely you are to get the vitamins, minerals and fibre your body needs, so be sure to choose a variety of red, orange and green vegetables (such as tomatoes, sweet potatoes and broccoli).

Make half the grains you eat whole grains: eating whole grain foods such as whole-wheat bread will help you avoid processed grains high in empty carbohydrates. Look for whole wheat, brown rice, bulgur, buckwheat, oatmeal, rolled oats, quinoa or wild rice.

Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk: Fat free and low fat milk contains the same amount of calcium and other nutrients as whole milk, but contains fewer calories and less saturated fat.

Choose a variety of lean protein foods: Lean meats (meat with lower fat content) are far better than meat with large amounts of fat content. Select leaner cuts of beef, turkey breast of chicken breast.

Compare sodium in foods: Use the nutritional facts included in the labels on food packaging to select foods containing low levels of sodium. Choose canned foods with labels stating low sodium, reduced sodium or no salt added.

Drink water instead of sugary drinks: By drinking water or unsweetened, you can cut your calories substantially. Sodas and energy drinks are high in added sugar and calories, so be sure to avoid these. If you seek added flavor, try adding a slice of lemon, lime or watermelon to your glass of water.

Eat some seafood: Seafood such as fish and shellfish are high in protein, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids (healthy fat). Try eating at least eight ounces of seafood a week if you are an adult.

Cut back on solid fats: Major sources of solid fats are cakes, cookies, ice cream and processed meat. Try to avoid these to cut back on your solid fat intake. By following the above eight goals, you will help your body get the nutrients it needs, while cutting back on unhealthy content. If you combine a healthy diet with regular physical exercise, your physical and mental health with begin to improve immensely.


A satellite is a moon, planet or machine that orbits a planet or star. For example, Earth is a satellite because it orbits the sun. Likewise, the moon is a satellite because it orbits Earth. Usually, the word “satellite” refers to a machine that is launched into space and moves around Earth or another body in space.Earth and the moon are examples of natural satellites. Thousands of artificial, or man-made, satellites orbit Earth. Some take pictures of the planet that help meteorologists predict weather and track hurricanes. Some take pictures of other planets, the sun, black holes, dark matter or faraway galaxies. These pictures help scientists better understand the solar system and universe.Still other satellites are used mainly for communications, such as beaming TV signals and phone calls around the world. A group of more than 20 satellites make up the Global Positioning System, or GPS. If you have a GPS receiver, these satellites can help figure out your exact location.

Why Are Satellites Important?

The bird’s-eye view that satellites have allows them to see large areas of Earth at one time. This ability means satellites can collect more data, more quickly, than instruments on the ground.Satellites also can see into space better than telescopes at Earth’s surface. That’s because satellites fly above the clouds, dust and molecules in the atmosphere that can block the view from ground level.Before satellites, TV signals didn’t go very far. TV signals only travel in straight lines. So they would quickly trail off into space instead of following Earth’s curve. Sometimes mountains or tall buildings would block them. Phone calls to faraway places were also a problem. Setting up telephone wires over long distances or underwater is difficult and costs a lot.With satellites, TV signals and phone calls are sent upward to a satellite. Then, almost instantly, the satellite can send them back down to different locations on Earth.

What Are the Parts of a Satellite?

Satellites come in many shapes and sizes. But most have at least two parts in common – an antenna and a power source. The antenna sends and receives information, often to and from Earth. The power source can be a solar panel or battery. Solar panels make power by turning sunlight into electricity.Many NASA satellites carry cameras and scientific sensors. Sometimes these instruments point toward Earth to gather information about its land, air and water. Other times they face toward space to collect data from the solar system and universe.

How Do Satellites Orbit Earth?

Most satellites are launched into space on rockets. A satellite orbits Earth when its speed is balanced by the pull of Earth’s gravity. Without this balance, the satellite would fly in a straight line off into space or fall back to Earth. Satellites orbit Earth at different heights, different speeds and along different paths. The two most common types of orbit are “geostationary” (jee-oh-STAY-shun-air-ee) and “polar.”A geostationary satellite travels from west to east over the equator. It moves in the same direction and at the same rate Earth is spinning. From Earth, a geostationary satellite looks like it is standing still since it is always above the same location.Polar-orbiting satellites travel in a north-south direction from pole to pole. As Earth spins underneath, these satellites can scan the entire globe, one strip at a time.

Why Don’t Satellites Crash Into Each Other?

Actually, they can. NASA and other U.S. and international organizations keep track of satellites in space. Collisions are rare because when a satellite is launched, it is placed into an orbit designed to avoid other satellites. But orbits can change over time. And the chances of a crash increase as more and more satellites are launched into space.In February 2009, two communications satellites – one American and one Russian – collided in space. This, however, is believed to be the first time two man-made satellites have collided accidentally.

What Was the First Satellite in Space?

Sputnik 1 was the first satellite in space. The Soviet Union launched it in 1957.

What Is the History of NASA Satellites?

NASA has launched dozens of satellites into space, starting with the Explorer 1 satellite in 1958. Explorer 1 was America’s first man-made satellite. The main instrument aboard was a sensor that measured high-energy particles in space called cosmic rays.The first satellite picture of Earth came from NASA’s Explorer 6 in 1959. TIROS-1 followed in 1960 with the first TV picture of Earth from space. These pictures did not show much detail. But they did show the potential satellites had to change how people view Earth and space.

How Does NASA Use Satellites Today?

NASA satellites help scientists study Earth and space.Satellites looking toward Earth provide information about clouds, oceans, land and ice. They also measure gases in the atmosphere, such as ozone and carbon dioxide, and the amount of energy that Earth absorbs and emits. And satellites monitor wildfires, volcanoes and their smoke.All this information helps scientists predict weather and climate. The information also helps public health officials track disease and famine; it helps farmers know what crops to plant; and it helps emergency workers respond to natural disasters.Satellites that face toward space have a variety of jobs. Some watch for dangerous rays coming from the sun. Others explore asteroids and comets, the history of stars, and the origin of planets. Some satellites fly near or orbit other planets. These spacecraft may look for evidence of water on Mars or capture close-up pictures of Saturn’s rings.


10 Crazy Facts You Didn’t Know About Space:

There is so much about space, our solar system, and the galaxy that we still don’t know! Space is vast. With billions of galaxies and stars, and planets in our own solar system yet to be fully explored or understood, scientists’ knowledge of space is always evolving. There are, however, some really cool things we know about space right now! We’ve compiled a list of what we think are ten stellar facts that we hope you’ll think are out of this world!


There is no atmosphere in space, which means that sound has no medium or way to travel to be heard.


Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system and has an average surface temperature of around 450° C. Did you know that Venus isn’t the closest planet to the sun? That is Mercury. You would think that Mercury would then be the hottest, but Mercury has no atmosphere (which regulates temperature), resulting in big fluctuations.


While the entire suit costs a cool $12m, 70% of that cost is for the backpack and control module. However, the space suits that NASA uses were built in 1974. If these were priced by today’s pricing, they would cost an estimated 150 million dollars!


The Sun accounts for 99.86% of the mass in our solar system with a mass of around 330,000 times that of Earth. Did you know that the Sun is made up of mostly hydrogen (three quarters worth) with the rest of its mass attributed to helium. If the Sun had a voice would it be high and squeaky from all that helium?


The Sun is large enough that approximately 1.3 million Earths could fit inside (if squashed in) or if the Earths retained their spherical shape then 960,000 would fit. But can you visualise that number of Earths?


There are about three trillion trees on Planet Earth, and between 100-400 billion stars, approximately, in the galaxy.


Just as colors are made more dramatic in sunsets on Earth, sunsets on Mars, according to NASA, would appear bluish to human observers watching from the red planet. Fine dust makes the blue near the Sun’s part of the sky much more visibilke, while normal daylight makes the Red Planet’s familiar rusty dust color the most perceptible to the human eye.


The universe extends far beyond our own galaxy, The Milky Way, which is why scientists can only estimate how many stars are in space. However, scientists estimate the universe contains approximately 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 stars, or a septillion. While no one can actually count every single grain of sand on the earth, the estimated total from researchers at the University of Hawaii, is somewhere around seven quintillion, five hundred quadrillion grains. That is an awfully big sand castle!


Venus has a slow axis rotation which takes 243 Earth days to complete its day. The orbit of Venus around the Sun is 225 Earth days, making a year on Venus 18 days less than a day on Venus.


There’s a planet made of diamonds twice the size of earth The “super earth,” aka 55 Cancri e, is most likely covered in graphite and diamond. Paying a visit to that planet would probably pay for the $12 million dollar space suit needed to get there!

Business Communication:

Definition and Meaning:

The word “Communication” has come from the Latin word “communis”, which means common. Thus, communication signifies sharing of ideas in common. The dictionary meaning of communication is to convey or exchange information and share ideas.

It is a process through which two or more persons transmit or exchange thoughts and ideas among themselves. According to W. H. Newman and C. F. Summer, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”

Communication is the process of transmitting information and understanding from one person to another or from one unit to other unit with a view to getting the desired response from the receiver. Through this process two or more persons exchange ideas and understanding among themselves to achieve the desired effect in the behaviour of another person.

It is a two-way channel for transmitting ideas, feelings, plans, commands, instructions, reports and suggestions that influence the attitude towards an organisation’s objectives. The communicator’s goal is to convey the meanings or ideas without distortion. Success of the leader and the enterprise depends upon adequacy of communication.

It is the responsibility of the managers to establish and maintain the channels whereby they can convey their own thinking and policies to the subordinates, and can receive their reactions and an account of their problems.

Elements of Business Communication:

1. Message:

This is the subject-matter which is transmitted or passed by the sender to the other party or group of persons. This might be opinion, order, suggestion, attitude, feeling, view, etc.

2. Sender:

He/she is the person who intends to make contact for passing information and understanding to other person.

3. Receiver:

The person to whom the message is meant for is known as receiver or communicate.

4. Channels:

Information is transmitted through certain channels (e.g., radio, television, telephone, letter, e-mail, etc.). The media is selected by the sender considering various factors.

5. Symbols:

These are the words, actions and signs which are passed on by the sender while communicating with the receiver.

6. Feedback:

When the receiver acknowledges the message of the sender and responds back to him/her, feedback takes place. Without feedback communication is incomplete.

Features of Business Communication:

1. Practical:

Effective business communication deals with the practical aspect of the information explaining why, how, when and the like queries. It avoids impractical, imaginary, unnecessary or repetitive information to eliminate waste of time. It conveys important information to the receiver.

2. Factual:

In general a business message contains facts and figures in place of overall idea. Important date, place, time, etc. should be clearly mentioned in a business communication.

3. Clear and Brief:

The language used in business communication should be simple, clear, brief and without ambiguity. Sometimes charts, photographs, diagrams, etc. are used to condense or clarify the information.

4. Target-Oriented:

A business communication must have a specific objective and must be planned properly so that the objective can be achieved.

5. Persuasive:

Business communication often plays a persuasive role. It persuades an employee to perform his/her duties, a customer to buy a product or service etc. The basic characteristics mentioned above are related to the message or information of the communication.