THE BIOGRAPHY OF WILLIAM WORDSWORTH-PART1

HIS LIFE:

             Wordsworth was born at Cockermouth, a town that is actually outside the Lake District. His father, who was a lawyer, died when Wordsworth was thirteen years old. The elder Wordsworth left very little money, and that was mainly in the form of a claim on Lord Lonsdale, who refused outright to pay his debt, so that William had to depend on the generosity of two uncles, who paid for his schooling at Hawkshead, near lake Windermere. Subsequently, Wordsworth went to Cambridge, entering St John’s college in 1787. His work at the University was quite undistinguished and having graduated in 1791, he left with no fixed career in view. After spending a few months in London, he crossed over to France (1791) and stayed at Orleans and Blois for nearly a year. He returned to Paris in 1792, just, after the September massacres, and the sights and stories, that greeted, him there shook his faith in the dominant political doctrine. Even yet, however, he thought of becoming a Girondin, or moderate Republican, but his allowance from home was stopped, and he returned to England. with his sister Dorothy (henceforward his long-life companion), he settled in a little cottage in Dorset; then, having met Coleridge, they moved to Alfoxden, a house in Somersetshire, to live near him. It was there that the two poets took the Series of Walks the fruit of which was to be the Lyrical Ballads.

After a visit to Germany in 1789-99, the Wordsworths Settled in the Lake District, which was to be their home for the future. In turn, They occupied Dove Cottage, in TOWN END, GRASMERE (1799), ALLAN BANK (1808), GRASMERE PARSONAGE (1811), and lastly, the well-known residence of RYDAL MOUNT, which was Wordsworth’s home from 1813 till death. Shortly before he had moved to Rydal Mount, he received the sinecure of Distributor of stamps for Westmorland and was put out of reach of poverty. The remainder of his life was a model of domesticity. He was carefully tended by his Wife and Sister, who, with a zeal that was noteworthy, though it was injudicious, treasured every scrap of his poverty that they could lay their hands on. His great passion was for traveling. He explored most of the accessible parts of the continent and visited Scotland Several times. On the last occasion (1831) he and his daughter renewed their acquaintance with Scott at Abbotsford and saw the great novelist when he was fast crumbling into mental ruin.

Wordsworth’s poetry, which at first had been received with derision or indifference, was now winning its way, and recognition was general. In 1839, the Crown awarded him a pension of £300 a year; and on the death of Southey in 1843, he became Poet Laureate. Long before this time, he had discarded his early ideals and become the upholder of Conservatism. Throughout his life, however, he never wavered in his faith in himself and his immortality as a poet. He lived to see his own belief in his powers triumphantly justified. It is seldom indeed that such gigantic egoism is so amply and so justly repaid.

Will be continued…..

Published by Ayisha Shabana…..

Biography – Bhagat Singh

Bhagat Singh was born in Punjab, India (now Pakistan), on September 27, 1907, to a Sikh family extremely concerned in political activities. He left school at thirteen to dedicate his life to Indian independence. He happened to involved in various fierce protests of political disobedience and was sent in prison for several times. Singh was found culpable of killing a British police officer and hanged to death on March 23, 1931.

Early Years

Born on September 27, 1907, to a Sikh household in Punjab, India (now Pakistan), Bhagat Singh was the second son of Kishan Singh and Vidya Vati. The family was immersed in patriotism and was included in movements for independence. At the time of Bhagat’s birth, his father was in lockup for political campaigning. By the time Bhagat Singh was 13, he was well acquainted with this family’s rebellious activities. His father was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, and after Gandhi called for refusing government-aided institutions, Singh left school and registered in the National College at Lahore, where he read European revolutionary movements. In time, he would become disillusioned with Gandhi’s non-violent campaign, trusting that equipped battle was the only way to political freedom.

Young Agitator

In 1926, Bhagat Singh originated the ‘Naujavan Bharat Sabha (Youth Society of India) and got connected to the Hindustan Republican Association (later known as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association), where he met numerous famous revolutionaries. A year later, Singh’s parents arranged to have him married, a move he passionately rejected, and he left school.

By this time, Bhagat Singh had developed interest to the police, and in May 1927, he was detained for supposedly being involved in a failing the previous October. He was freed several weeks later and started to write for various revolutionary newspapers. After getting reassurances from his parents that they wouldn’t force him to marry, he returned to Lahore.

Radical Revolutionary

In 1928, the British government held the Simon Commission to examine autonomy for the Indian people. Several Indian political organizations refused the event because the Commission had no Indian representatives. In October, Bhagat Singh’s companion, Lala Lajpat Rai led a march in complaint against the Commission. Police tried to pay the large crowd, and during the commotion, Rai was hurt by the superintendent of police, James A. Scott. Rai died of heart problems two weeks later. The British government deprived of any wrongdoing.

Arrest and Trial

The activities of the young revolutionaries were deeply convicted by followers of Gandhi, but Bhagat Singh was pleased to have a platform on which to promote his cause. He proposed no defence during the trial but disturbed the proceedings with outbursts of political dogma. He was found mortified and sentenced to life in prison.

Through further investigation, the police exposed the connection between Bhagat Singh and the murder of Officer Saunders and he was rearrested. While pending trial, he commanded a hunger strike in prison. Finally, Singh and his co-conspirators were tried and sentenced to hang. He was executed on March 23, 1931. It is said that he kissed the hangman’s noose before it was located around his neck. His death caused mixed emotions throughout India. Followers of Gandhi felt that he was too fundamental and hurt the quest for freedom, while his supporters considered him a martyr. Singh rests a significant, though controversial, figure in India’s independence movement.

Biography – Sarojini Naidu

Early Life and Childhood

Sarojini Naidu was born on February 13, 1879 in Hyderabad, India. She was a civil activist, feminist, poet, and the first Indian woman to be president of the Indian National Congress and to be appointed an Indian state governor. She was also identified as “Nightingale of India”

Sarojini was the first daughter of Aghorenath Chattopadhyay, a Bengali Brahman. He was principal of the Nizam’s College, Hyderabad. She took admission in the University of Madras at the age of 12 and studied at King’s College, London, and later at Girton College, Cambridge.

Work

After gaining some knowledge in the suffragist campaign in England, she was pulled towards India’s Congress movement and to Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement. In 1924 she moved to Eastern Africa and South Africa in the attention of Indians there She became the first Indian woman president of the National Congress in 1925 —having been headed eight years earlier by the English feminist Annie Besant. She visited North America to give lecture on the Congress movement, in 1928–29. Back in India her anti-British activity caused a number of prison sentences in her name (1930, 1932, and 1942–43). She escorted Gandhi to London for the indecisive second session of the Round Table Conference for Indian–British cooperation (1931). Upon the outburst of World War II she supported the Congress Party’s policies, first of coldness, then of affirmed interference to the Allied cause. In 1947 she became governor of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh), a post she preserved until her death. Sarojini Naidu was the first women Governor of Uttar Pradesh.

Sarojini Naidu also led a functioning literary life and attracted prominent Indian intellectuals to her famous salon in Bombay. Her first volume of poetry, The Golden Threshold (1905), was admired by The Bird of Time (1912), and in 1914 she was elected a member of the Royal Society of Literature. Her collected poems, all of which she wrote in English, have been published under the titles The Sceptred Flute (1928) and The Feather of the Dawn (1961).

Death

On 2nd March 1949, Sarojini Naidu passed away at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. She lived her wonderful life by her own words, “As long as I have life, as long as blood flows through this arm of mine, I shall not leave the cause of freedom…I am only a woman, only a poet. But as a woman, I give to you the weapons of faith and courage and the shield of fortitude. And as a poet, I fling out the banner of song and sound, the bugle call to battle. How shall I kindle the flame which shall waken you men from slavery…” Her childhood residence at Nampally was given to the University of Hyderabad by her family and it was named as ‘The Golden Threshold’ after her 1905 publication. The University retitled its School of Fine Arts and Communication as ‘Sarojini Naidu School of Arts and Communication’ to honour the Nightingale of India.