5 Yoga Poses to curb with Depression

When depression attacks, life appears to be hopeless. But yoga can benefit you. Try these yoga poses to recover your mental health.

Are you often surrounded by feelings of irrelevance? Is getting out of bed is a task for you? Do you feel like you have no future? These are some things that could site towards depression.

If this is how you’ve been feeling, you could find some aid by practising yoga. When it comes to this age-old system, it is so significant to remember that yoga isn’t just for physical health but also adds to improving mental health.

Yoga has shown its efficacy in several things like weight loss, rational behaviour, physical diseases, and mental health is another thing that yoga can take treat of.

There have been several studies published in journals like PLOS ONEInternational Journal of Preventive MedicineJournal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, and more that have noted that yoga has shown favourable results when it comes to depression and nervousness.

Some poses in yoga are dominant when it comes to depression and anxiety.

But before we start on this yoga journey,  keep in mind that ease poses can reduce your depressive symptoms but cannot cure your depression. If you do have depression, please seek professional help.

Here are the five yoga poses that you can do daily to fight with depression:

1. Child’s pose aka balasana
Child’s pose is known to confer stability and serenity on you. According to an article published by Harvard Medical School and a study issued International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, performing child’s pose daily can help in decreasing the symptoms of depression or anxiety.

2. Plow pose aka halasana
Halasana or Plow Pose increases your posture by decreasing the burden on your back. When the back is lengthened, it has a calming effect on your brain and reduces stress. This pose is very useful for those who suffer from headaches and insomnia. The pose of Halasana is such that the head is placed below the heart.

3. Bridge pose aka sethu bandhasana
Well, this one is not just eminent for depression and anxiety but it also assists your gut to stay proper.

4. Downward-facing dog aka adho Mukha Svanasana
This is one of the most lively poses in yoga and the flow of this pose is known to flow blood throughout our body.

5. Corpse pose aka savasana
According to the yoga guru, “Performed at the end of most physical yoga sessions, the corpse pose is a favourite pose for many. It’s easy and also very effective. Anxiety is exhausting, draining you both physically and mentally. When you get into savasana, the posture gives you a chance to relax and recoup. It begins to cool your mind.”

Bottom line is that you need to take care of your breathing techniques while doing these poses and take it slow to reap the maximum benefits.

So, try these yoga poses for at least two to three weeks regularly and let the peace prevail in your life.

Greenhouse Gases

What Are Greenhouse Gases?

Earth’s greenhouse gases catch heat in the atmosphere and increase the temperature of the planet. The primary gases liable for the greenhouse effect comprises of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor (which all occur naturally), and fluorinated gases (which are artificial). Greenhouse gases have diverse chemical properties and are eliminated from the atmosphere, over time, by different processes. Carbon dioxide, for example, is absorbed by so-called carbon sinks such as plants, soil, and the ocean. Fluorinated gases are demolished only by sunlight in the far upper atmosphere.

How much any one greenhouse gas effects global warming varies on three key factors. The first is how much of it exists in the atmosphere. Concentrations are measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb), or parts per trillion (ppt); 1 ppm for a given gas means, for example suppose, that there is one molecule of that gas in every 1 million molecules of air. The second is its lifetime—how long it remains in the atmosphere. The third is how effectual it is at catching heat. This is known as its global warming potential, or GWP, and is a measure of the total energy that a gas understands over a given period of time (usually 100 years) comparative to the emissions of 1 ton of carbon dioxide.

What Are Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

Meanwhile the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and the arrival of coal-powered steam engines, human activities have massively enlarged the volume of greenhouse gases produced into the atmosphere. It is predictable that between 1750 and 2011, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide boosted by 40 percent, methane by 150 percent, and nitrous oxide by 20 percent.

Five Major Greenhouse Gases

The most major gases that are responsible for global warming via the greenhouse effect are the following:

Carbon Dioxide
Reporting for about 76 percent of global human-caused emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2) sticks around for quite a while. Once it’s released into the atmosphere, 40 percent still rests after 100 years, 20 percent after 1,000 years, and 10 percent as long as 10,000 years later.

Methane
While methane (CH4) endures in the atmosphere for far less time than carbon dioxide (about a decade), it is much more effective in terms of the greenhouse effect. In fact, pound for pound, its global warming influence is 25 times greater than that of carbon dioxide over a 100-year period. 

Nitrous Oxide
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an influential greenhouse gas: It has a GWP 300 times that of carbon dioxide on a 100-year time scale, and it residues in the atmosphere, on average, a little more than a century. It reports for about 6 percent of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.

Fluorinated Gases
Ejected from a variety of manufacturing and industrial processes, fluorinated gases are man-made. There are four main types: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).

Water Vapor
The amplest greenhouse gas overall, water vapor varies from other greenhouse gases in that changes in its atmospheric concentrations are joined not to human activities directly, but rather to the warming that results from the other greenhouse gases we emit.

Book Review – The palace of Illusions

Book – The palace of Illusions

Author – Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni

This book is a re-exploring of the world-famous Indian classic, the Mahabharat—told from the point of view of an astonishing woman-Draupadi.

Related to today’s war-scarred world, The Palace of Illusions takes us behind in a time that is half history and completely magical. Recited by Panchaali, the wife of the famous Pandavas brothers in the Mahabharat, the new story gives us a new clarification of this olden tale.

The Palace of Illusion by author Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni is a re-telling of the Indian epic, the Mahabarat, from the outlook of Draupadi. It is amusing and delightful story-lacing. It is entirely satisfying and at the same time enlightening.

This book is spellbound from the first page to the last, and adored the very human faces put on the achievements of the leads and gods in the story. Particularly Panchaali, the heroine, will twig in my mind as a flawed yet lovable woman, confounded in much, but writhing always to find truth and love. Krishna, too, in his many-faceted character, excels as an everlasting presence, only exposed in the end for his true identity.

Panchaali enters this world through a divine fire, an unwelcomed boon granted by the gods in addition to her brother, Dhristadhyumna, the child intended to kill their father’s biggest enemy, Drona. She weds with the five Pandava brothers, the eldest of whom, Yudhisthir, gambles and loses his kingdom to their cousins, Kauravas. After twelve years of banishment in the forest, the cousin declines to return the kingdom, and the Pandavas go to war against the Kauravas. It is a tale so epic that it has an epic name: the Mahabharata.

The Palace of Illusions is no alternate for the real Mahabharata, of course, but it’s a good place to start. Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni has taken one of the important pieces of Indian literature and absorbed on the story of Panchaali. Telling the events from Panchaali’s point, author searches Panchaali’s role in the battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The result is a touching tale of human tragedy which, according to author, gives us vision into a character who is important in the Mahabharata but mainly silent on her purposes, thoughts, and feelings.

Since Author Chitra comprises her first person narrator, the epic possibility of the basis material suddenly becomes more personal. This in turn leads to a good question: can one really cleanse the essence of something as long and intricate as the Mahabharata in less than four hundred pages? Having not read the Mahabharata, I can’t say for sure; however, I’m sure the answer is “no.” One of the reasons this epic is beautiful is its lasting but flexible nature as a source material.

I can’t show to how well The Palace of Illusions supports the legacy of the Mahabharata. Regardless, it is a beautifully-written, moving story about Panchaali, the Pandavas, and the Kauravas. At times it doesn’t go as deep into Panchaali’s life as I would expect of a story narrated by and about her. But that’s a minor objection compared to the sad story, one of personal and epic scope, developed against the landscape of an India where magic is commonplace and gods walk among us.

Biography – Bhagat Singh

Bhagat Singh was born in Punjab, India (now Pakistan), on September 27, 1907, to a Sikh family extremely concerned in political activities. He left school at thirteen to dedicate his life to Indian independence. He happened to involved in various fierce protests of political disobedience and was sent in prison for several times. Singh was found culpable of killing a British police officer and hanged to death on March 23, 1931.

Early Years

Born on September 27, 1907, to a Sikh household in Punjab, India (now Pakistan), Bhagat Singh was the second son of Kishan Singh and Vidya Vati. The family was immersed in patriotism and was included in movements for independence. At the time of Bhagat’s birth, his father was in lockup for political campaigning. By the time Bhagat Singh was 13, he was well acquainted with this family’s rebellious activities. His father was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, and after Gandhi called for refusing government-aided institutions, Singh left school and registered in the National College at Lahore, where he read European revolutionary movements. In time, he would become disillusioned with Gandhi’s non-violent campaign, trusting that equipped battle was the only way to political freedom.

Young Agitator

In 1926, Bhagat Singh originated the ‘Naujavan Bharat Sabha (Youth Society of India) and got connected to the Hindustan Republican Association (later known as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association), where he met numerous famous revolutionaries. A year later, Singh’s parents arranged to have him married, a move he passionately rejected, and he left school.

By this time, Bhagat Singh had developed interest to the police, and in May 1927, he was detained for supposedly being involved in a failing the previous October. He was freed several weeks later and started to write for various revolutionary newspapers. After getting reassurances from his parents that they wouldn’t force him to marry, he returned to Lahore.

Radical Revolutionary

In 1928, the British government held the Simon Commission to examine autonomy for the Indian people. Several Indian political organizations refused the event because the Commission had no Indian representatives. In October, Bhagat Singh’s companion, Lala Lajpat Rai led a march in complaint against the Commission. Police tried to pay the large crowd, and during the commotion, Rai was hurt by the superintendent of police, James A. Scott. Rai died of heart problems two weeks later. The British government deprived of any wrongdoing.

Arrest and Trial

The activities of the young revolutionaries were deeply convicted by followers of Gandhi, but Bhagat Singh was pleased to have a platform on which to promote his cause. He proposed no defence during the trial but disturbed the proceedings with outbursts of political dogma. He was found mortified and sentenced to life in prison.

Through further investigation, the police exposed the connection between Bhagat Singh and the murder of Officer Saunders and he was rearrested. While pending trial, he commanded a hunger strike in prison. Finally, Singh and his co-conspirators were tried and sentenced to hang. He was executed on March 23, 1931. It is said that he kissed the hangman’s noose before it was located around his neck. His death caused mixed emotions throughout India. Followers of Gandhi felt that he was too fundamental and hurt the quest for freedom, while his supporters considered him a martyr. Singh rests a significant, though controversial, figure in India’s independence movement.

How to fight with Depression?

Depression is categorized as a mood disorder. It may be defined as emotions of grief, loss, or anger that disturb a person’s everyday activities.

It’s honestly common. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source approximates that 8.1 percent of American adults ages 20 and over had depression in any given 2-week period from 2013 to 2016.

People feel depressed in many ways. It may hinder with your daily work, causing in loss of time and lower productivity. It can also have an effect on relationships and some chronic health conditions.

Few of the ways to fight with depression are:

Exercise:

Take a 15- to 30-minute refreshing walk daily— or dance, jog, or bike if you favour. People who are depressed may not feel much like being functioning. But make yourself do it anyway (ask a friend to exercise with you if you need to be provoked). Once you get in the exercise habit, it won’t take long to see a difference in your mood.

In addition to doing aerobic exercise, some yoga poses can help release feelings of depression. Attempt downward-facing dog or legs-up-the-wall pose (you can find these poses on yoga websites) to reduce depression. Two other features of yoga — breathing exercises and meditation — can also help people with depression feel healthier.

Nurture yourself with good nutrition.

Depression can disturb appetite. One person may not feel like consuming food at all, but another might eat too much. If depression has affected your eating, you’ll need to be extra aware of getting the right diet. Proper nourishment can impact a person’s mood and energy. So, eat adequate of fruits and vegetables and get regular meals (even if you don’t feel hungry, try to eat something light, like a piece of fruit, to keep you going).

Recognize your troubles, but don’t dwell on them

Try to classify any situations that have added to your depression. When you know what’s got you feeling blue and why, talk about it with your dear friend. Talking about it is a way to relieve the feelings and to receive some understanding.

Once you declare out these thoughts and feelings, turn your awareness to something positive. Take action to crack problems. Ask for help if you need it. Feeling connected to friends and family can help release depression. It may also help them feel there’s something they can do as an alternative of just watching you hurt.

Express yourself. 

With depression, a person’s imagination and sense of fun may seem obstructed. Exercise your imagination (painting, drawing, doodling, sewing, writing, dancing, composing music, etc.) and you not only get those creative juices pouring, you also relax up some positive emotions. Take some time to play with a friend or a pet, or do something creative for yourself to give you fun. Find something to giggle about — a funny movie, perhaps. Laughter helps lighten your mood and it’s the best medicine.

Try to notice good things.

Depression disturbs a person’s thoughts, making everything seem miserable, negative, and hopeless. If depression, has you noticing only the negative, make an attempt to notice the good things in life. Try to notice one thing, then try to think of one more. Consider your powers, gifts, or blessings. Most of all, don’t forget to be patient with yourself. Depression takes time to heal.

Biography – Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel

Vallabhbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875, in Nadiad, Gujarat, India. He was Indian lawyer and statesman, one of the heads of the Indian National Congress during the fight for Indian independence. During the first three years of Indian independence after 1947, he worked as deputy prime minister, minister of home affairs, minister of information, and minister of states.

Early life and legal career

Patel was born into a family of self-sufficient landowning family of the Leva Patidar caste. Raised in an impression of traditional Hinduism, he took admission in primary school at Karamasad and high school at Petlad but was mostly self-taught. Patel wedded at the age of 16, graduated at 22, and passed the district pleader’s examination, which allowed him to rehearse law. In 1900 he set up an self-governing office of district advocate in Godhra, and after two years he shifted to Borsad.

As a advocate, Patel differentiated himself in staging an incontrovertible case in a accurate way and in confronting police witnesses and British judges. In 1908 Patel lost his wife, who had borne him a son and daughter, and afterwards endured as a widower. Determined to improve his career in the legal profession. Patel toured to London in August 1910 to study at the Middle Temple. There he learnt industriously and approved the final examinations with high honors.

Political philosophy

In the vital debate over the aimsof the Indian National Congress during the years 1928 to 1931, Patel trusted that the goal of the Indian National Congress should be power status within the British Commonwealth—not independence. In comparison to Jawaharlal Nehru, who overlooked violence in the fight for independence, Patel governed armed revolution, not on ethical but on practical grounds. Patel held that it would be unsuccessful and would involve severe suppression. Patel, like Gandhi, saw benefits in the future contribution of a free India in a British Commonwealth, offered that India was permitted as an equal member. He highlighted the want to nurture Indian self-reliance and self-confidence, but, dissimilar to Gandhi, he did not honour Hindu-Muslim unity as a prerequisite for independence.

Patel differed with Jawaharlal Nehru on the want to bring about economic and social changes by compulsion. A tradition rooted in traditional Hindu values, Patel demeaned the practicality of adapting collective ideas to the Indian social and economic structure. He trusted in free enterprise, thus gaining the trust of conservative elements, and thereby gathered the funds that continued the activities of the Indian National Congress.

Patel was the second applicant after Gandhi to the presidency of the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress. Gandhi avoided the presidency in an effort to avoid the adoption of the resolution of independence and exerted pressure on Patel to withdraw, thus, Jawaharlal Nehru was elected. During the 1930 Salt Satyagraha, Patel helped three months’ custody. In March 1931 Patel controlled over the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress.

Benefits of Internships

People at times become a bit doubtful when deciding whether or not to take an internship. Frequently, when newly graduating you lack sufficient experience to get a full-time stable job, so internships, traineeships and work experience are your only choices.

Although, we require to stop considering these things negatively and think of everything we can obtain from internships and work placements. They are frequently the best option for you because you want to get a feel for work without being thrown into the deep end straight away and this gives you with the opportunity to learn and grow.

Here are 5 reasons you should take the internship and feel good about your decision:

1. To gain experience.

You lack experience and this is the solitary way to get it. The finest experience hail from internships because you get to do a bit of the whole thing! You get to observe and experience the special roles that people play in particular companies and glance the working life from different perspectives. This is nice to take into the working world with you because at times, you will be enquired to do various tasks including different elements of the company. This way, you would have already had a go at things and comprehended how to multitask.

2. To have a better understanding.

An internship permits you to take time to realize your role, responsibilities and the industry. Internships want you to leave knowledge more than you came with, and this is most likely the result. Take this chance to recognize each task you are given and each new tool you use. Scribble things down, ask questions and do things repeatedly to make sure you are doing everything with 100% effort.

3. Have the opportunity to learn and watch.

You can learn from the best during an internship. People will be viewing over you and working carefully with you on projects so that you have somebody to consult to and a goal to work towards. Maybe you will learn new skills from these people and new things about the industry and life that you didn’t saw before. Communication and relations is key so ask plenty of questions and don’t be afraid to offer new ideas!

4. Gain the ability to put new things into practice.

You can attempt new skills and tools without the burden of being wrong and doing any mistake. Internships are a time to try new things and do experiment, and people who employ you for that internship know that. They suppose you to learn from your mistakes and apply this as motivation to get better at the things you were not so great at before! Take these new ideas and skills to your next job and find a way to include them into any tasks you are given.

5. To communicate

Internships provide you the chance to work with both independently and within a team. You study to communicate in new ways to build professional working relationships with people of all ages. This is good because it permits you to be open to other people’s ideas and to get imaginative in a team in order to construct better ideas and eventually, to build a better company.

Perks of Maintaining Day Journal/Diary

There are several reasons why we should maintain journal. From travel journals, dream journals, gratitude journals to prayer journals, we keep specific journals for various parts of our life. Earlier, many people used to keep private journals, where they detailed their day’s events and their observations. Without memoir writer like Anne Frank and Samuel Pepys, we would not be able to know much about the personal side of our history. Though people nowadays keep blogs or vlogs, and record their lives on social media, very rare people among us jot in a journal and write down their experiences. So why not give it a try?

There are many perks of keeping a journal. Here are the top 8 reasons why you should start writing a journal today:

Keep your thoughts Arranged.

Diaries assist us to systematize our opinions and make them understandable. We can jot daily events, thoughts and feelings about certain occurrences or opinions.

Help you to progress your writing.

Journaling assists you to train your writing. If you want to rehearse or expand on your writing, one of the finest things to do is to start a journal. You may not have the flawless topic. All you need to do is to start writing your thoughts and opinions in Journey. The more you write, the more your writing improves.

Set & achieve your goals.

A journal is a suitable place to write your goals, objectives, ambitions and new year resolutions. By maintaining them in a diary, you can check your progress and feel driven to continue to focus on your next milestone!

Record ideas on-the-go.

The pros of maintaining a daily journal is that you can record all of your ideas in one place anytime and at anywhere. At whatever time an idea comes to your mind, you can write it down in your journal. You can then re-enter into these ideas later on to look for new links, form conclusions or even get a fresh and new idea!

Releases stress.

Scripting down your feelings and moods helps you to “brain-dump” your worries, irritations and pains on a journal. This can help you to decrease and relieve any stress which you have gathered overtime. A good way to relive stress is to script in the flow of consciousness style first thing in the morning called “Morning pages”. You can also use the mood trailer found in Journey to signify your emotional level. Overall, conveying yourself in a diary is a fine way to let go any tension that restricts you from feeling happy.

Allow yourself to self-reflect.

As Ferris Bueller once said, “Life moves pretty fast. If you don’t stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it.” Our fast-paced lives can become even more frenzied as we start bearing on more responsibilities, making us feel the burden as others place high hopes on us. This causes in us getting hectic as we are easily caught up with the day-to-day.

Improves your memory.

Your brain is likely to accumulate information that you have written down in your diary. Your brain will make tougher connections with the information you have learnt after you jot them down in a diary, making it easier for you to remember in the future too!

Success Story of Zomato

To start the journey on the highway to success, an entrepreneur needs an idea, one which will set them apart. An idea can be hit by anyone but what comes after this idea is what creates or breaks the business. Desire for something is the first and primary essential. It is tracked by determination and a robust work ethic. Open-mindedness and the skill to recoil back from failure are other vital attributes. Patience is key. An entrepreneur cannot predict results to show in the blink of an eye.

Food is a major force for many. It does come under one of the most essential conveniences for a human being. But waiting for food is something everyone abhors especially when they are hungry. When it comes to a country as active and hardworking as India in its peak lunch hours, getting look at the menu card before ordering food is also a really big problem. Deepinder Goyal and Pankaj Chaddah came up with the absolute solution to the problem of waiting in long queue lines for food. Let’s have a look at how Zomato was started?

How was Zomato founded?

The story of Zomato begun in the organisation of Bain & Company in Delhi. Deepinder and Pankaj worked at this company when they thought of this concept. They saw people standing in a line at mealtime and give the order for their meal when their turn came. From there they got an idea of “Foodiebay” which became a opening to Zomato.

At first, they began scanning all the menu objects of the restaurant and registered them on their intranet website Foodiebay.com. Later on, after seeing a vast flow in their traffic, they decided to introduce their website open to the public.

Funds raised by Zomato

This idea of Deepinder’s and Pankaj’s fascinated Sanjeev Bikhchandani, the creator of Naukri.com. In December of 2010, Sanjeev Bikhchandani offered Zomato funding of 1 million USD through his corporation Info Edge India and from here on, there was no looking back.

In the next round of funding that they got was once again from Info Edge India and this time it was 3.5 million USD and again in the year 2013, Zomato received an astounding 10 million USD from Info Edge India which made Info Edge India an owner of almost 50% of the shares in the start-up. Other stockholders for Zomato include Sequoia Capital, VY Capital, and Temasek. The funds just kept arriving in after this. By the end of 2018, it is estimated that Zomato would’ve received a funding of more than 300 million USD. 

Zomato at a glance

Presently, there are over 100 million Zomato consumers globally and people use the application to get in contact with other foodies around the world so that they can get the finest of food in whatever place possible. This being an additional advantage, big restaurants from around the globe send their advertisements to the Zomato app and this is basically how Zomato makes its money.

As of 2018, Zomato regulates 3 million orders on a monthly basis with 1.4 million restaurants registered on its platform. It is available in 10,000 cities and 23 countries worldwide.

Quantum Physics

Quantum physics is typically just intimidating from the start. It’s kind of strange and can seem unreasonable, even for the physicists who deal with it every day. But it’s not impenetrable. If you’re learning something about quantum physics, there are really six main concepts about it that you should keep in mind. Do that, and you’ll find quantum physics a lot simpler to understand.

Everything Is Made of Waves; Also, Particles

There’s various of places to begin this sort of discussion, and this is as good as any: everything in the universe has both particle and wave nature, at the same time. There’s a line in Greg Bear’s imaginary duology where a character stating the fundamentals of magic says “All is waves, with nothing waving, over no distance at all.” It is a sort of poetic description of quantum physics– deep down, everything in the universe has wave nature.

Quantum Physics Is Distinct

It’s right in its name– the word “quantum” comes from the Latin for “how much” and reflects the fact that quantum models every time include something coming in distinct amounts. The energy comprised in a quantum field comes in integer multiples of some fundamental energy. For light, this is related with the frequency and wavelength of the light– high-frequency, short-wavelength light has a large characteristic energy, whereas low-frequency, long-wavelength light has a small characteristic energy.

Quantum Physics Is Probabilistic

One of the most astonishing and debateable features of quantum physics is that it’s impossible to expect with certainty the consequence of a particular experiment on a quantum system. When physicists predict the consequence of some experiment, the prediction always takes the form of a probability for finding each of the particular likely outcomes, and comparisons between theory and experiment always involve concluding probability distributions from many frequent experiments.

Quantum Physics Is Confined

The final huge contribution Einstein made to physics was not broadly known as such, mostly because he was wrong. In a 1935 paper with his younger colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (the “EPR paper”), Einstein offered a clear mathematical declaration of something that had been bothering him for some time, an idea that we now call “entanglement.”

Quantum Physics Is (Mostly) Very Small

Quantum physics has a status of being weird because its predictions are severely different from our everyday experience. This occurs because the results involved get smaller as objects get larger– if we want to see unmistakably quantum behaviour, you mostly want to see particles acting like waves, and the wavelength reduces as the momentum increases. The wavelength of a macroscopic object like a dog walking across the room is so ridiculously tiny that if you enlarged everything so that a single atom in the room were the size of the entire Solar System, the dog’s wavelength would be about the size of a single atom within that solar system.

Quantum Physics Is Not Magic

The earlier point leads very naturally into this one: as weird as it may seem, quantum physics is most definitely not magic. The things it expects are surprising by the values of everyday physics, but they are thoroughly forced by well-understood mathematical rules

Menstruation – Still a Taboo?

The roots of period shaming

Many old cultures and texts considered menstruation impure. These views date back thousands of years and have formed generations of cultural disgrace. Discrimination counter to menstruating women is prevalent in India, where periods have long been a taboo and considered unclean. They are often eliminated from societal and spiritual events, deprived of entering into religious places and even kept out of kitchens.

The absence of discussion about menses, according to one study, 71% of pubertal girls in India are ignorant of menstruation until they get it themselves. Campaigners say it shows that parents hardly prepare their daughters for something they know is very certain to occur. And this unpreparedness leads to so much unavoidable fear and anxiety. The trouble in accessing sanitary pads is another main issue. India cancelled a 12% tax on sanitary products in 2018 after months of campaigning by activists. Campaigners had debated over the matter of “menstrual hygiene products are not a luxury and periods are not a choice that a woman could simply opt out of. However, tax exception is only a minor step towards a much longer journey of making menstrual health and hygiene an approachable reality for every woman in the country.

What is the menstruation taboo?

The menstruation taboo ranges to various parts of a woman’s body structure and sexuality, but it principally includes the shame and disgrace around discussing and caring for menstrual needs. This taboo often results into the prohibiting of women from community and family activities. The taboo also makes people feel like the topic of menses is awkward and embarrassing to discuss in some societies. This often results in women using code words or slang to mention periods.

In the last two centuries, intellectuals, writers, and psychologists have made an effort to state what exactly has contributed to taboos around periods. Sigmund Freud supposed that the fear of blood was one reason behind the taboos, another being that it was related with a woman’s fear of losing her virginity. Twentieth-century author Allan Coult said that rude man had an unconscious wish to avoid the hostile effects menstruation had on “organic materials.” According to Coult, taboos grew as a way to manage with periods. Whatever the reason behind these stigmas, menstruation taboos have actual and serious effects on the health, education, safety, and happiness of women.

Menstruation in India

Menstruation in India is broadly considered unclean and impure. An absence of sanitary products makes periods more of a load in India. In fact, 88 percent of women in India still rely on cloths, rags, hay, ash, and even leaves to manage their periods. Isn’t that shameful? When their menstruation instigates for the first time, over 23 percent of girls in India drop out of school. Those who continue miss an average of five days of school per month because of their menses. Women’s education can have a huge impact on economic growth, which means menstruation taboo can affect the prosperity of a country.

Twin Attacks in Jammu

Two low powered bomb blasts shocked the technical area of Jammu Air Force Station early on Sunday morning. It is the first ever bombing by quadcopter drones in India. This was the first terror attack on an armed forces quarters since 2018 when Jaish-e-Mohammed operatives harmed an Indian Army camp in Sunjuwan, Jammu.

After two explosives-loaded drones collapsed into the high-security Indian Air Force station at Jammu airport, a warning was announced in Punjab’s border district of Pathankot, news agency PTI reported on Sunday.

Officials conveyed the news agency that tight security was being maintained near key systems in Pathankot. The Pathankot air base had come under terror attack in 2016. According to the report, patrolling has been increased near sensitive areas in and around Pathankot and additional forces have been arranged.

Sharing the details about the extra security measures in wake of the Jammu incident, Pathankot SSP Surendra Lamba told PTI that workforces were on our guard in view of the situation. “Whenever there is an incident of this kind, maximum alert is sounded in neighboring areas,” he said.

Details

According to information received, the explosions occurred around 1:45 am on Sunday morning, with the first one taking out the rooftop of a building while the second one, almost five minutes later, was on the ground in an open area. While there were no reports of any fatalities, two Indian Air Force (IAF) employees—License officer Arvind Singh and airman S K Singh — got minor injuries. An FIR has been recorded under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, or UAPA. While a suspect has been picked up for questioning, J&K DGP Dilbagh Singh, who called the blasts as a “terror attack”, said an “IED weighing 5-6 kgs was recovered by Jammu police” which was to be implanted by an operator of Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) in some crowded area, he added.

The two blasts occurred hours before Defence Minister Rajnath Singh and Army Chief General MM Naravane were to start a three-day visit to Ladakh, to converse with the troops and review India’s operational readiness in the background of a long standoff with China. Singh studied the situation by speaking to IAF vice chief Air Marshal H S Arora, while Delhi-based Western Air Command Chief Air Marshal V R Chaudhari flew to Jammu to take stock of the situation.

Effect

While the National Investigation Agency (NIA) has been fastened in to lead the investigation, a terror alert has also been announced at the Pathankot air force base in Punjab which was the aim of a terror attack in 2016 in which six terrorists and seven security personnel were killed. There was no loss of any equipment and flight operations were also unaffected, according to Jammu Airport Director Pravat Ranjan Beuria. However, two flights — G8 185 and SG 963 — were called off for what airport authorities said were operational reasons. While Jammu airport is a civil airport, the runway and the ATC (air traffic control) are under the IAF. Technical area of an airport is usually a high security zone used for VIP and military flight operations.

Book Review : The Power of Subconscious Mind

Book – The power of your subconscious mind

Author – Dr Joseph Murphy

About the Author

Dr Joseph Murphy devoted a good part of his life studying eastern religions and was an intellectual of the book I Ching, the Chinese manuscript of insight. For 28 years, he was priest at the Los Angeles branch of the Church of Divine Science. It was a New Thought church that encourages a practical holiness, free of religious faith and dogma.

He believed he had found secrets concerning the subconscious that were beyond time and culture.

Murphy’s idea is very simple and minimal. He states that if you desire for something, just implant that idea into your non-repellent (Subconscious) mind.

How this strategy work

The author saw the subconscious mind as a shady room in which we create images that we want to live in real life. While the alert mind sees an incident happening, takes a photo of it and recollects it. Whereas the subconscious mind works in reverse, ‘seeing’ something before it happens.

The subconscious is neutral in a moral sense, so pleased to adopt any routine as ‘normal’, good or bad. We let harmful thoughts dive into the subconscious every minute of our lives, then are amazed when we find result in day-to-day experiences and relationships.

Knowledge of the subconscious means we can rule the thoughts and images we feed to our mind. This idea makes author’s book to be one of the best books ever. It has instructions and affirmations that will have the greatest effect on the subconscious, a tool of freedom. Having a perception that your subconscious mind is like a photographic mechanism which removes makes the struggle in life easy; if it is just a subject of changing current mental images with new ones, change seems easy.

Trusting your Subconscious

‘The law of your mind is the law of belief itself,’ author wrote. We should make ‘the truth’ our utmost value. The truth is weak next to the actual power of belief in shaping our lives. Whatever you feed your subconscious, it will digest it as fact.

Strength and Fortune

In the ancient times, it was the influence of recommendation and acceptance in the subconscious mind that healed. Wonders of healing, Dr Joseph said, are basically the body following the subconscious mind’s knowledge of ‘perfect health’ when the paranoid nature of the normal conscious mind is hushed.

The other feature of mental healing is the foundation that our minds are part of a larger human mind, related to ‘infinite intelligence’. This is why it is not crazy, author claimed, to believe you can heal people not actually near to you, by picturing health, energy and love for them.

As there is a belief of health and harmony in the world, so there is a principle of abundance. Those aware of this will not have a nervous breakdown if their business is lost but understand it as a message to get reacquainted with the fact of a prosperous universe.

The ‘feeling of wealth’, author said, produces wealth in reality. He shows how to indicate to the subconscious so the abundant images reproduce themselves in real life. Law of Attraction always works.

Biography – Sarojini Naidu

Early Life and Childhood

Sarojini Naidu was born on February 13, 1879 in Hyderabad, India. She was a civil activist, feminist, poet, and the first Indian woman to be president of the Indian National Congress and to be appointed an Indian state governor. She was also identified as “Nightingale of India”

Sarojini was the first daughter of Aghorenath Chattopadhyay, a Bengali Brahman. He was principal of the Nizam’s College, Hyderabad. She took admission in the University of Madras at the age of 12 and studied at King’s College, London, and later at Girton College, Cambridge.

Work

After gaining some knowledge in the suffragist campaign in England, she was pulled towards India’s Congress movement and to Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-cooperation Movement. In 1924 she moved to Eastern Africa and South Africa in the attention of Indians there She became the first Indian woman president of the National Congress in 1925 —having been headed eight years earlier by the English feminist Annie Besant. She visited North America to give lecture on the Congress movement, in 1928–29. Back in India her anti-British activity caused a number of prison sentences in her name (1930, 1932, and 1942–43). She escorted Gandhi to London for the indecisive second session of the Round Table Conference for Indian–British cooperation (1931). Upon the outburst of World War II she supported the Congress Party’s policies, first of coldness, then of affirmed interference to the Allied cause. In 1947 she became governor of the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh), a post she preserved until her death. Sarojini Naidu was the first women Governor of Uttar Pradesh.

Sarojini Naidu also led a functioning literary life and attracted prominent Indian intellectuals to her famous salon in Bombay. Her first volume of poetry, The Golden Threshold (1905), was admired by The Bird of Time (1912), and in 1914 she was elected a member of the Royal Society of Literature. Her collected poems, all of which she wrote in English, have been published under the titles The Sceptred Flute (1928) and The Feather of the Dawn (1961).

Death

On 2nd March 1949, Sarojini Naidu passed away at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. She lived her wonderful life by her own words, “As long as I have life, as long as blood flows through this arm of mine, I shall not leave the cause of freedom…I am only a woman, only a poet. But as a woman, I give to you the weapons of faith and courage and the shield of fortitude. And as a poet, I fling out the banner of song and sound, the bugle call to battle. How shall I kindle the flame which shall waken you men from slavery…” Her childhood residence at Nampally was given to the University of Hyderabad by her family and it was named as ‘The Golden Threshold’ after her 1905 publication. The University retitled its School of Fine Arts and Communication as ‘Sarojini Naidu School of Arts and Communication’ to honour the Nightingale of India.

Animal Awareness

Animal rights are the concept in which some, or all animals are permitted to have control of their own being and that their most essential interests. Like, those people want to keep away from suffering should afforded the equal consideration as akin activities of human beings.

It was a lengthy journey to make the world like we know now. The established movement for animal protection started in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Bills against animal cruelty were approved in England and several American states. In the mid-1800s the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals formed, and anti-vivisection (animal research) movements appeared.

In the UK, the first legal code ‘Martin’s Act’ for the protection of animals which was mainly for cattle and horses was passed in 1822. Two years later, in 1824, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was started. The society focused mainly on implementation of the law, with trials where appropriate. In 1835, the Act was altered to protect domestic animals, such as dogs and cats, against cruelty.

Now most popular organization for animal rights and wellbeing is PETA. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, PETA shut down Taiwan’s drowning tanks, which were used to kill stray and unwanted dogs. The country also amended its first-ever law against cruelty to animals. All car-crash tests on animals stopped globally following PETA’s campaign. They are now trying to draft a bill for animals who are used for scientific exploration, and hopefully, they do those campaigns globally.

India is home to various holy traditions encouraging non-violence and kindness towards animals and has amended several animal welfare reforms since 1960. In India, animals are used for food, dairy products, clothes, etc.  So, government amended the 1960 Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act which is the legal basis of animal protection in India. After that, you can’t harm or treat any animal without any sensible reason. Afterwards, Ingrid Newkirk started PETA India. PETA India functions under the simple principle that animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on or use for entertainment.

Traditionally, charities have worked on reducing the suffering of different animals that happens when they are thinking of as lesser beings who can and should be controlled. Recently, Gauri Maulekhi is a popular animal rights activist in India. She is a co-opted member of the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) and a trustee in Maneka Gandhi’s People for Animals.

There will be continuously suffering as long as any group is defined as reachable to be overlooked and controlled. The nonhuman rights advocate does not disregard people’s concerns about suffering. Those worries are valid. But the concept of animal rights involved working at the main motive of the problem. Lastly, we need to aware; we need to know these rights. We need to be concerned about animals well being.

Book Review: Rich Dad Poor Dad

Name: Rich Dad Poor Dad

Author: Robert T. Kiyosaki

“Rich Dad, Poor Dad” is the tale of two fathers in which one has a set of degrees and diplomas and the other is a high school drop-out. When the overqualified father dies, he will leave next to nothing behind, and even a few unpaid invoices here and there. The school drop-out father will become one of the richest men in Hawaii and will pass on his domain to his son. During his life, the qualified dad would say things like “I don’t have money to treat myself to this or that”, while the uneducated would say: “How can I treat myself?”

The rich father in this book educates two small boys some priceless lessons about money through their own knowledge. The most important one is certainly to comprehend on how to best use your mind and your time to make your own prosperity through business and investments.

Get out of the rat race. Learn how to grab opportunities, find answers, take care of your commerce and investments and significantly, learn how to make money work for you and not be its slave!

The words “poor” and “rich” are used by the author in respect to clarify what type of conduct is better in order to have economical liberty. It is not about giving judgement yourself on the present state of your finances and your richness.

Some pearls of wisdom by the author:

  • You are the copy of your thoughts,
  • Being a worker is a short-term solution to a long-term problem,
  • A slave, even if he is paid a fortune, remains a slave,
  • What is the point of need to grow through the positions of a company when you can own a company?

Some of the important lessons from Rich Dad Poor Dad

1)    The Rich Don’t Work for Money

2) Why Teach Financial Literacy?

3) Mind Your Own Business!

Keep your current job but begin to think about your own business.

4)    The History of Taxes and the Power of Corporations

5)    The Rich Invent Money

6)    Work to Learn and don’t Work for Money

3 essential skills for management

  1. The cash flow management
  2. Management of systems (including time spent with family and friends!)
  3. People management

The initial step towards getting out of the rat race is to: understand the difference between an asset and a liability.

Types of Assets:

Here is why your main residence is NOT an asset:

  1. You will work your whole life to pay back the mortgage you took out.
  2. Your maintenance costs represent a significant amount.
  3. You must pay property tax.
  4. Your principal residence may depreciate if the real estate market drops or if you buy at the top of the cycle.
  5. Rather than investing in an asset that earns you money regularly, you repay your monthly credit to the bank. In other words, the real owner of your home is the bank!

If you really want to  your obtain residence, you must first make the income to finance your monthly settlements.

7th Pay Commission

Asked about the agenda of this meeting Shiva Gopal Mishra of National Council of JCM said, “The meeting will revolve around the 7th CPC DA and 7th CPC DR benefits of the central government employees and central government pensioners. In this meeting we’ll discuss about the DA arrears and DR arrears payment due for 1.1.2020, 1.7.2020 and 1.1.2021 to the central government servants and central government pensioners respectively.”

The Centre has said in Parliament that the stalled dearness allowance and dearness relief (DR) of central government employees and pensioners are going to be resumed from Dominion Day , 2021. The three instalments of DA for central government employees and DR for pensioners, due on January 1, 2020, July 1, 2020, and January 1, 2021, were frozen in sight of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Any increase in DA from Dominion Day , however, will only be effective from that day and employees wouldn’t get any arrears on non-revision of DA for the previous period.

Millions of central government employees and pensioners are expecting the Finance Ministry’s decision regarding the dearness allowance (DA) arrears. A meeting between Central government servants’ (CGS’) representative body National Council of JCM, officials from the Department of Personnel & Training (DoPT) and Ministry of Finance is set to take place on Saturday (June 26). Previously, the Central government has already announced that each one its employees and pensioners will get the pending hike within the DA will from Dominion Day under the 7th Pay Commission.

The DA are going to be increased from the present 17% to twenty-eight of the essential salary from Dominion Day , 2021. However, even before the meeting, the govt has introduced a slew of other benefits for central government employees under the 7th Pay Commission.

7th Pay Commission: Travel allowance claims deadline extended

The deadline for submitting the claims for allowance or TA has been increased by the govt from 60 days to 180. The decision stands effective from June 15, which is that the same day the order was gone by the govt , which is even before the meeting on DA arrears.

7th Pay Commission: Benefit under House Building Advance (HBA) scheme

Central government employees are offered the House Building Advance (HBA) scheme to assist them avail loans at cheaper interest rates for the development of their homes. Recently, the Union Ministry for Housing and concrete Affairs had announced that the last date to require a loan under the HBA scheme has been postponed to March 31, 2022, from October 1, 2020. At present, employees can get an HBA loan at 7.90% basic interest.

7th Pay Commission: National Pension System (NPS) benefits

Central government employees who are offered benefits under the National Pension System (NPS) can now use the pension corpus available with the Old Pension Scheme (OPS).

7th Pay Commission: Monthly Pension Slips

In a big relief to 60 lakh Central government pensioners, pension disbursing banks are directed to issue pension slips with an entire breakup via SMS, WhatsApp and e-mail.

Joe Biden and NATO

President Joe Biden’s first overseas trip put his political and negotiating philosophy ahead of everyone, as he gathered traditional US democratic allies to tackle new and old challenges and proposed an often-rosy take on the options of cooperation with Russian President Vladimir Putin after a one-on-one summit.

Here are some key takeaways:

Biden and Putin didn’t use the word “reset” to label the condition of affairs between the 2 nations after their summit in Switzerland. But that’s what the meeting amounted to, with both men risking out clear areas of divergence, even as they pointed to smaller-scale areas where they could unite.

They expressed both a joint respect and a mutual scepticism. It was an sudden return to more conservative US-Russia inclosing after the presidency of Donald Trump, who often seemed to raise Putin and create at least the ambition that the countries could be more like partners.

This time, each leader left with the estimation that some of the old rules still apply. Russia returns to its place as a “worthy adversary,” as Biden put it, rather than some quite associate. And the longer-standing tensions, over cyberwarfare and human rights, remain.

After their three-hour meeting, Biden’s sunny character stood in sharp difference to the more sober, taciturn tone of Putin, who at times became self – justifying when asked questions by reporters about human rights violations in Russia and therefore the country’s attacks of Ukraine.

Even so, Biden recognized his optimism was more wishful thinking than reality.

“I’m getting to drive you all crazy because i do know you want me to always put a negative thrust on things, particularly publicly ,” he said shortly before boarding Air Force One, adding, that way, “you guarantee nothing happens.”

It emphasized the president’s talking style, whether it’s with Putin or with Senate Republicans reception on infrastructure — during which he publicly expresses his confidence that a deal can be struck despite often overwhelming odds.

“I know we make policy bent be this great, great skill that somehow quite “> is sort of kind of a cipher ,” Biden said. “All policy could also be a logical extension of personal relationships. It’s the way human nature functions.”

He later added, “There’s a worth to being realistic and to put on an optimistic front, an optimistic face.”

Biden’s eight-day, three-country foreign trip established his emphasis on private relationships above all.

“There’s no substitute, as those of you who have covered me for a quick time know, for face-to-face dialogue between leaders. None,” Biden said, stating his summit with Putin successful simply for the actual fact that they spoke face to face .

Throughout his trip, most of Biden’s meetings were conducted privately , without cameras, or with only a couple of moments hospitable media.

It highlighted Biden’s faith in immaterial personal ties that can drive policy outcomes, both foreign and domestic.

And it marked a clear leaving in style from Trump, whose carefree public meetings with global leaders became something of legend on the international stage. Relationships inclined to flow one way — with sycophantic public displays by heads of state and government trying to get on Trump’s good side.

Biden is banking that those leaders will welcome a return to the “old school” approach.

DELTA VARIANT

The Delta variant, or B.1.617.2, which was first identified in India in October 2020, has now become the leading covid strain in the UK, presently reporting for more than 90% of cases there.

In the US, too, the number of Delta variant cases are speedily growing, up from 10% of the total Covid-19 cases last week to 20% this week. According to a Financial Times analysis, the delta variant reports for more than a third of new cases each day in the US.

What is Delta Plus?

The variant, called “Delta Plus” in India, was first reported in a Public Health England bulletin on June 11.

It is a sub-lineage of the Delta variant first detected in India and has obtained the spike protein mutation called K417N which is also found in the Beta variant first identified in South Africa.

Some scientists concern that the mutation, joined with current features of the Delta variant, could make it more infectious.

“The mutation K417N has been of interest as it is present in the Beta variant (B.1.351 lineage), which was reported to have immune evasion property,” India’s health ministry said in a declaration.

Shahid Jameel, a top Indian virologist, said the K417N was known to decrease the efficiency of a mixture of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

Where all has it been found?

As of June 16, at least 197 cases had been detected in 11 countries — Britain (36), Canada (1), India (8), Japan (15), Nepal (3), Poland (9), Portugal (22), Russia (1), Switzerland (18), Turkey (1), the United States (83).

India said, on Wednesday, around 40 cases of the variant have been detected in the states of Maharashtra, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh, with “no significant increase in prevalence”. The initial case in India is from a sample taken on April 5.

Britain said its first 5 cases were sequenced on April 26 and they were contacts of individuals who had travelled from, or transited through, Nepal and Turkey.

No deaths were accounted among the UK and Indian cases.

What are the worries?

Research is ongoing in India and world-wide to test the efficiency of vaccines against this alteration.

“WHO is tracking this variant as part of the Delta variant, as we are doing for other Variants of Concern with additional mutations,” the World Health Organization (WHO) said in a declaration sent to Reuters.

“For the moment, this variant does not seem to be common, currently accounting for only a small fraction of the Delta sequences…Delta and other circulating Variants of Concern remain a higher public health risk as they have demonstrated increases in transmission,” it said.

But India’s health ministry cautioned that regions where it has been found “may need to enhance their public health response by focusing on surveillance, enhanced testing, quick contact-tracing and priority vaccination.”

There are doubts that Delta Plus would impose another wave of diseases on India after it emerged from the world’s worst surge in cases only recently.

The mutation itself may not lead to a third wave in India — that also depends on Covid-appropriate behaviour, but it could be one of the reasons,” said Tarun Bhatnagar, a scientist with the state-run Indian Council for Medical Research.

THE FLYING SIKH

Milkha Singh also known as The Flying Sikh was born on October 17, 1935, Lyallpur [now Faisalabad], Pakistan. He died on June 18, 2021, Chandigarh, India. He was Indian track-and-field athlete who became the first Indian male to achieve the final of an Olympic athletics event when he positioned fourth in the 400-metre race at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome.

Independent India’s first individual sports star, Milkha Singh conquered Indian track and field for over a decade with his haste and spirit, creating various records and winning multiple medals in his career.

Representing India at the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne, the 1960 Olympics in Rome and the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo, Milkha Singh continued to be the greatest Olympian from India for decades with his remarkable displays.

Orphaned during the partition of India, Singh shifted to India from Pakistan in 1947. He earned living by working in a roadside restaurant before joining the Indian army. It was in the army that Singh recognized his capabilities as a sprinter. After winning the national trials in the 200-metre and 400-metre sprints, he was rejected during the preliminary heats for those events at the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne.

At the 1958 Asian Games, Singh won the 200-metre and 400-metre races. Afterwards, that year he won the 400-metre gold at the Commonwealth Games, which was India’s first athletics gold in the history of the Games. He closely lost the bronze medal in the 400 metres at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome, missing out on third place in a photo finish. Singh preserved his 400-metre gold at the 1962 Asian Games and also took another gold as part of India’s 4 × 400-metre relay team. He made a final Olympic appearance at the 1964 Tokyo Games as part of the national 4 × 400 team that botched to advance past preliminary heats.

Singh was awarded the Padma Shri (one of India’s highest civilian honours) in 1959. After his retirement he performed the role of director of sports in Punjab. Singh’s autobiography, The Race of My Life (cowritten with his daughter Sonia Sanwalka), was published in 2013.

Milkha Singh, a track star who enthused generations of Indians with his accomplishments on an international stage and a convincing life story in which he once raced trains for entertainment and literally had to run for his life as his father, beaten by crowd, lay dying, died on June 18 in Chandigarh. His age was uncertain, but he was either in his late 80s or his early 90s. Singh overcame great hardship to become a sports hero

The Flying Sikh died on June 18, 2021 in Chandigarh, India. His family said the reason was problems of Covid-19. He had tested positive for the coronavirus on May 20 and had been in and out of the hospital for a month. His death came just five days after that of Nirmal Kaur, his wife of 58 years and a sportswoman in her own right. He was cremated with state honors, and the state of Punjab observed a day of grief.

OIL PULLING

Oil pulling is an old Ayurvedic dental action which apparently dates back approximately 3,000 years ago. It basically comprises of whooshing a tiny quantity of oil in mouth for a short time, then spitting it out. The thought is that the oil pulls out bacteria and other toxins that hide within your mouth.

How Does Oil Pulling Work?

When you get up in the morning, get a tablespoon of any oil and swish it around your mouth for about 20 minutes, like when you use mouthwash. However, don’t do it as robustly since you’ll be doing it for far longer and your jaw will get exhausted.

Mildly swirl the oil around your mouth and pull it through the spaces between your teeth. Ensure not to swallow any of it, or you’ll devour the foul things in your mouth gathered by the oil.

When you’re done, spit the oil in the dustbin. Do not spit it in your sink because when the oil congeals, it may block up your pipes. Wash your mouth out with warm water then brush and floss like normal.

What are the Benefits to Oil Pulling?

Oil pulling has been qualified to a number of advantages that include whiter teeth, better gums, clearer sinuses, stronger jaw, and a decrease in bad breath and gingivitis.

It’s important to keep in mind that oil pulling is not meant to substitute regular dental hygiene. You still need to brush, floss at least twice a day and visit your dentist twice a year.

Some of the benefits are as follows:

  1. Can kill Harmful Bacteria in your mouth

2. Could help reduce bad breath

3. May Help Prevent Cavities

4. Seems to Reduce Inflammation and Improve Gum Health.

5. May have other benefits

Some claim that it’s able to pull stains from the surface of teeth, resulting in a whitening effect, although there is no scientific research to back this up

6. Cheap and Easy to add to your routine

Two of the biggest benefits to oil pulling are how simple it is to do and how easily it can be incorporated into your daily regimen.

HOW To Oil Pulling in 4 Simple Steps

Oil pulling is easy to do and involves just a few simple steps.

Here are the 4 simple steps to do oil pulling:

  1. Measure one tablespoon of oil, such as coconut, sesame or olive oil.
  2. Swish it around in your mouth for 15–20 minutes, being careful not to swallow any.
  3. Spit the oil into a trash can once you’re done. Avoid spitting it into the sink or toilet, as this can cause a build-up of oil, which may lead to clogging.
  4. Rinse your mouth well using water before eating or drinking anything.

Repeat these steps a few times per week or up to three times daily. You may also want to work your way up, starting with swishing for just 5 minutes and increasing the duration until you’re able to do it for a full 15–20 minutes.

For best results, most recommend doing this first thing in the morning on an empty stomach, although you can adapt based on your personal preferences

THE G7 SUMMIT

What is the G7?

The G7 stands for the ‘Group of Seven’ and is a assembly of government chiefs from some of the world’s wealthiest nations.

The countries which make up the G7 have met each year since the 1970s. The 2021 summit will be the 47th meeting to take place. It held in UK this year.

The group used to be known as the G8 until Russia was excluded in 2014 because of its takeover of Crimea.

What does the G7 do?

The prime ministers and presidents from the G7 countries meet yearly to discuss problems facing the world – including economic issues, health emergencies and the climate crisis.

Earlier G7 summits have concentrated on subjects ranging from debt relief for developing countries, health emergencies such as HIV and AIDS and global security threats.

Participants, INVITEES AND THEIR probable representatives:

The “Group of Seven” and their representatives are:

  1. Canada was represented by Prime Minister Justin Trudea
  2. France was represented by President Emmanuel Macron
  3. Germany was represented by Chancellor Angela Merkel
  4. Italy was represented by Prime Minister Mario Draghi
  5. Japan was represented by Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga
  6. United Kingdom was represented by Prime Minister Boris Johnson
  7. United States was represented by President Joe Biden

This year UK hosted G7 Summit and was held on 11 – 13 June ‘21

Following Countries were invited and were represented by their respective leaders:

  1. Australia was represented by Prime Minister Scott Morrison
  2. India was represented by Prime Minister Narendra Modi
  3. South Korea was represented by President Moon Jae-in
  4. South Africa was represented by President Cyril Ramaphosa

What happened in the Summit?

Topics of conversation included developing a response to the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change. British Prime Minister Boris Johnson pledged to call for the G7 to work on a world-wide approach to pandemics to ensure a uniform global supply of COVID-19 vaccines and to avoid future pandemics. He suggested a five-point plan to prevent future pandemics, which includes a worldwide network of zoonotic research hubs, developing global manufacturing capacity for treatments and vaccines, the design of a global early warning system, the agreement of global protocols for a future health emergency and the reduction of trade barriers.

The G7 nations decided to pledge 1 billion vaccines to other countries. Johnson also focused on climate change, a top priority for the United Kingdom ahead of the COP26 conference. UK Secretary for Business Kwasi Kwarteng has indicated that Johnson pursued organized action on carbon border taxes, green finance, the phase-out of coal and helping poorer countries to step up climate action. While the taxes have been backed by the EU and US, EU climate ambassador Mark Vanhuekelen designated that Australia may resist the measures. The G7 nations pledged to reach net-zero emissions by 2050.

India has said it supports a follow-up review by the World Health Organization (WHO) for a new and evident enquiry into the roots of the coronavirus pandemic.

News reports on Friday said G7 leaders in their summit at Cornwall in Britain will call for a new investigation into the origins of the coronavirus while assuring one billion doses of vaccines for countries world-wide.

A GUIDE TO BREAST CANCER

WHAT IS BREAST CANCER?

Cancer appears when changes called mutations take place in genes that control cell growth. The mutations let the cells divide and multiply in an unrestrained way.

Breast cancer is cancer that grows in breast cells. Normally, the cancer forms in either the lobules or the ducts of the breast.

Lobules are the glands that create milk, and ducts trails that milk from the glands to the nipple. Cancer can also happen in the fatty tissue or the fibrous connective tissue within your breast.

The uncontrolled cancer cells often attack other healthy breast tissue and can move to the lymph nodes under the arms. The lymph nodes are a main pathway that assist the cancer cells travel to other parts of the body.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:

In its initial stages, breast cancer may not show any symptoms. In many cases, a lump may be too small to be felt, but an irregularity can still be seen on a mammogram.

If a tumour can be felt, the first sign is usually a new lump in the breast that was not there before. However, not all lumps are cancerous.

Each type of breast cancer can cause a diversity of symptoms. Many of these symptoms are alike, but some can be unusual. Symptoms for the most common breast cancers include:

  • a breast lump or tissue thickening that feels different than surrounding tissue and has developed recently
  • breast pain
  • red, pitted skin over your entire breast
  • swelling in all or part of your breast
  • a nipple discharge other than breast milk
  • bloody discharge from your nipple
  • peeling, scaling, or flaking of skin on your nipple or breast
  • a sudden, unexplained change in the shape or size of your breast
  • inverted nipple
  • changes to the appearance of the skin on your breasts
  • a lump or swelling under your arm

If you have any of these symptoms, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have breast cancer. For instance, aching in your breast or a breast lump can be caused by a benign cyst also.

Still, if you find a lump in your breast or have other symptoms, you should see your doctor for further examination and testing.

RISK FACTORS:

Risk factors for breast cancer include:

  • Age. Your risk for developing breast cancer increases as you age.
  • Drinking alcohol. It raises your risk to develop the disease.
  • Having dense breast tissue. 
  • Genes. Women who have the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations are more likely to develop breast cancer than women who don’t. Other gene mutations may also affect your risk.
  • Early menstruation. If you had your first period before age 12 years, you have an increased risk for breast cancer.
  • Giving birth at an older age. Women have their first child after age 35 years have an increased risk for breast cancer.

BREAST CANCER PREVENTION:

  • Lifestyle factors: For instance, women who have obesity have a higher risk for developing breast cancer. Maintaining a nutrient-dense diet and getting regular exercise as often as possible could help you lose weight and lower your risk. Alcohol misuse also increases your risk
  • Breast Cancer Screening
  • Preemptive Treatment
  • Self-Exams
  • Breast Exam by Doctors

NASA’S MISSION TO VENUS

Venus is one of the four terrestrial planets in the Solar System. It has a rocky body like Earth. It is like Earth in size and mass, and is often described as Earth’s “sister” or “twin”. Due to its proximity to Earth, Venus has been a prime target for early interplanetary exploration. Plans have been proposed for rovers or more complex missions, but they are hindered by Venus’s harsh surface conditions. The possibility of life on Venus has long been a topic of assumption, and in recent years has received active research.

NASA has selected two new missions to Venus, Earth’s nearby planetary neighbour. Part of NASA’s Discovery Program, the missions aim to comprehend how Venus became an inferno-like world when it has so many other characteristics similar to ours – and may have been the first liveable world in the solar system, complete with an ocean and Earth-like climate.

These investigations are the final selections from four mission concepts NASA picked in February 2020 as segment of the agency’s Discovery 2019 competition. Following a competitive, peer-review process, the two missions were chosen based on their potential scientific value and whether they are feasible or not on the basis of their development plans. The project teams will now work to conclude their requirements, designs, and development plans.

NASA is providing approximately $500 million per mission for development. Each is expected to launch in the 2028-2030 timeframe.

The selected missions are:

DAVINCI+ (Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging)

DAVINCI+ will calculate the composition of Venus’ atmosphere to understand how it formed and evolved, as well as settle on whether the planet ever had an ocean. The mission consists of a declined sphere that will dive through the planet’s thick atmosphere, making exact measurements of noble gases and other elements to understand why Venus’ atmosphere is a runaway hothouse compared the Earth’s.

In addition, DAVINCI+ will give the first high resolution pictures of the rare geological features on Venus known as “tesserae”. It may be similar to Earth’s continents, suggesting that Venus has plate tectonics. This would be the first U.S.-led mission to Venus’ atmosphere since 1978, and the results from DAVINCI+ could reshape our perception of terrestrial planet creation in our solar system and beyond. James Garvin of Goddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland, is the main investigator. Goddard has provided project management.

VERITAS (Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography, and Spectroscopy)

VERITAS will map Venus’ surface to decide the planet’s geologic history and comprehend why it developed so differently than Earth. Orbiting Venus with a synthetic aperture radar, VERITAS will chart surface elevations over nearly the entire planet to create 3D reconstructions of topography and confirm whether processes such as plate tectonics and volcanism are still active on Venus.

VERITAS also will record infrared emissions from Venus’ surface to map its rock type, which is largely unknown, and determine whether active volcanoes are releasing water vapor into the atmosphere. Suzanne Smrekar of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California, is the main investigator. JPL provides project management. The German Aerospace Center will provide the infrared mapper with the Italian Space Agency and France’s Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales contributing to the radar and other parts of the mission.

SEARCHING ALGORITHMS

Searching algorithms is a basic, vital step in computing. It is a step-by-step technique to locate a particular data among a collection of data.

In computer science, there are various type of search algorithms available. The way they perform their activity decides the performance and efficiency of the manner in which the data is being used.

These algorithms are mainly categorised in 2 categories on the basis of their type of search operations. The two categories are:

  1. Sequential Search: In this, the list or array is tracked sequentially and every element is checked. For example: Linear Search
  1. Interval Search: These algorithms are precisely designed for searching in organized data-structures. These type of searching algorithms are more efficient than Sequential Search method, as they repetitively target the centre of the search structure and divide the search space in 2 halves. For Example: Binary Search.

Few of the searching algorithms are:

  • Linear Search
  • Binary Search
  • Jump Search
  • Interpolation Search
  • Exponential Search
  • Linear Search:

A linear search or sequential search is a technique for finding an element within a list. This type of searching algorithms sequentially checks each element of the list until a match is found or the whole list has to be searched.

A linear search runs in at worst linear time and makes at most n comparisons, where n is the length of the list. The time complexity of this algorithm is O(n).

  • Binary Search:

This type of searching algorithms is used to find the location of a specific value contained in a sorted array. Binary search algorithm works on the principle of divide & conquer and it is considered the best searching algorithms because of its rapid speed to search (Provided the data is in sorted form). A binary search is also known as a half-interval search or logarithmic search. The time complexity of above algorithm is O(log n).

  • Jump Search:

Just like Binary Search, this algorithm is one of the searching algorithms for sorted arrays. The basic idea is to check fewer elements (than linear search) by jumping ahead by fixed steps or avoiding some elements in place of searching all elements. The time complexity of this algorithm is between linear search (O(n)) and Binary Search (O(Log n)).

  • Interpolation Search:

Interpolation search is an upgraded variant of binary search. This search algorithm works on the searching position of the required value. For this algorithm to work properly, the data collection should be in a sorted form and equally distributed. Interpolation search is that type of searching algorithms, used for searching for a key in an array that has been ordered by numerical values assigned to the elements (key values). Time Complexity: O(log2(log2 n)) for the average case, and O(n) for the worst case (when items are distributed exponentially)

  • Exponential Search:

Exponential search is also known as doubling or galloping search. This mechanism is used to find the range where the search key may exist.

If L and U are the upper and lower bound of the list, then L and U both are the power of 2. For the last section, the U is the last position of the list. For that reason, it is known as exponential. After finding the specific range, it uses the binary search technique to find the exact location of the search key.

EASY PYTHON PROJECTS

Gaining Python knowledge will be your best investment in 2021. So, if you want to achieve expertise in Python, then it is crucial to work on some real-time Python projects.

Python is one of the most accepted programming languages currently. It looks python craze is about to continue in 2021 and beyond. So, if you have started python, the best thing you can do is work on some real-time Python project ideas. Moreover, project-based learning helps improve student’s knowledge. If you work on live projects, it will help you to boost your confidence, to know the nitty-gritty of Software Development Life Cycle, to experiment and to master the concepts of programming. So here are the few projects for beginners to start with:

  1. Text Based Adventure Game:

This is a simple version of the Adventure game. It is totally text-based. In this version of the game, users can move about through different rooms within a single setting, and based on the user input, it will provide explanations for each room. This is one of the interesting python projects. 

Movement direction is important here – you must create walls and set the directions in which the users can move through the rooms, set movement restrictions, and also include a tracker that can track how far a user has walked or moved in the game.

Link: https://www.derekshidler.com/how-to-create-a-text-based-adventure-and-quiz-game-in-python

2. Rock Paper Scissor Game:

The object of the rock-paper-scissor python project is to construct a game for a single player that plays with a computer, anywhere, and anytime. This project is based on the rules that:

  • rock blunts scissors so rock wins
  • scissors cut the paper so scissors win
  • paper cover rock so paper wins

This project is build using random modules, and the basic concept of python. In this python project, players have to choose any one from rock, paper, and scissors. After that click on the play button will show the result of the game.

Link: https://realpython.com/python-rock-paper-scissors/

3. Hangman Game:

The objective of this project is to build the hangman game using Python. It doesn’t require any specific modules other than random. Python loops and functions are enough to build this game. This project requires knowledge of Python which includes defining functions and managing for/while loops. The functions that we use here contain arguments that are defined in a global scope which can be further used in other functions to improve game quality. It can also be used to provide different steps when required to execute upon conditions by the for and while loops.

      Link: https://www.pythonforbeginners.com/code-snippets-source-code/game-hangman

4. Password Generator:

We know that passwords are a real security threat. To keep your account safe and prevent your password from being hacked you have to make your password hard enough that nobody can guess.It is a tool that generates passwords based on the given guidelines that you set to create an unpredictable strong password for your accounts.

The Password generator tool creates a random and customized password for users that helps them to create a strong password which provides greater security.

Link: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/generating-strong-password-using-python/

Book Review: The alchemist

Book Title: The Alchemist

Written By: Paulo Coelho

The Alchemist is written by Author Paulo Coelho. It is one of the best-selling books in entire history. It was first issued in 1988 in Portuguese and is now translated all over the world into many languages. The novel is a tale that follows a young Andalusian shepherd in his journey to the pyramids of Egypt, after having a frequent dream of finding a treasure there. Author wrote The Alchemist in only two weeks in 1987. He explained that he was able to write at this pace because the story was “already written in soul.”

The story is about Andalusian shepherd empowered to follow his dream. Santiago is an Andalusian shepherd boy who learns lessons through a dream of a treasure in the Egyptian pyramids. An old man, the king of Salem, the first of various spiritual guides, tells the boy that he has to discovered his destiny: “to realize one’s destiny is a person’s only real obligation.” So Santiago sells his sheep, sails to Tangier, is tricked out of his money, regains it through hard work, crosses the desert with a caravan, stops at an oasis long enough to fall in love, escapes from warring tribesmen by performing a miracle, reaches the pyramids, and finally gets both the gold and the girl. Along the way he meets an Englishman who describes the Soul of the World; the desert woman Fatima, who teaches him the Language of the World; and an alchemist who says, “Always listen to your heart” A message clings like ivy to every encounter (“concentrate always on the present, you’ll be a happy man”).

According to The New York Times, The Alchemist is “more self-help than literature.” The advice that was given to Santiago (“when you really want something to happen, the whole universe will conspire so that your wish comes true”) is the fundamental lesson of the novel’s philosophy and a motif that plays throughout it. Another interesting theme in the novel and that one can relate to is those related to the harmful consequences of fear. If people let fear control their lives, they will live miserably. Had Santiago let the fear from following his dream dominate his life, he wouldn’t have discovered the treasure and most importantly the meaning of his life.

Hardship is a important in the journey of every successful individual who followed his dream. What separates these great human beings from the rest is that they are never afraid of hardships. While a painter running from gallery to gallery requesting them to display his masterpiece is a hardship, but so is sitting on a desk in front of a screen, following orders, travelling in the same local train each day, and meeting the same or same kind of people for your entire life.

The difference is that the painter gone towards hardship, tackled it, and killed it. While the ones running away from them ultimately get caught and pinned down by it. It’s better to die fighting than being a prisoner, isn’t it? Paulo Coelho wants people to be fighters, not prisoners. And he conveys his message in a phenomenal way!

The Alchemist is a must read.

World Environment Day

We celebrate World Environment Day every year on 5th June to bring positive changes and enhance healthy ecosystems. The earth is what we all have in common. So, every year we celebrate this day to help nature in healing itself. Nature is our first mother. It gives us so much including food we eat, water we drink, the air we breathe and much more and in return we are harming our nature and eventually we are harming our livelihood. Nature doesn’t need human but human will always need nature to sustain. If we possess healthy ecosystem then only, we can fight climate change and discontinue the ruining of biodiversity.

World Environment Day is celebrated globally to inspire people to change their lifestyle and take action to build a greener future. World Environment Day is worldwide initiative taken by United Nations (UN) to spread awareness. UN established Environment Day in 1972. World environment Day is celebrated by various host countries. It was first observed in 1974 in United States of America and the theme was “Only One Earth”.

United Nation has declared this decade as “Ecosystem Restoration” decade. Ecosystem Restoration is a process of reversing the degradation of ecosystems, such as landscapes, oceans and lakes to regain their ecological functionality. Also, to increase the productivity and capacity of ecosystems to meet the society’s need.

Till 2030, the refurbishment of 350 million hectares of degraded terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems could generate US$9 trillion in ecosystem services. Restoration could also remove 13 to 26 gigatons of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. All kinds of ecosystems can be restored, including forests, farmlands, cities, wetlands and oceans. Restoration initiatives can be launched by almost anyone, from governments and development agencies to businesses, societies and individuals. That is because the causes of degradation are many and varied, and can have an impact at different levels.

Every year World Environment Day is celebrated at various countries but officially it is hosted by one different country in which official celebrations takes place. The host for World Environment Day this year is Pakistan. Pakistan will highlight the importance of “Ecosystem Restoration” this year. The theme for this year is ”Reimagine. Recreate. Restore”. The Government of Pakistan plans to develop and restore the country’s forests through a ‘10 Billion Tree Tsunami‘ campaign spread over five years. The campaign includes restoring mangroves and forests, as well as planting trees in urban settings, including schools, colleges, public parks and green belts.

Through the 10 Billion Tree Tsunami, Pakistan is contributing to the Bonn Challenge, a global effort linked to the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration. Under the challenge, countries are pledging to bring 350 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded land into restoration by 2030.

Here’s what you can do to contribute:

  • Plant more trees.
  • Segregate your waste into wet waste and dry waste
  • Follow the 5R’s – Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Renew, Recycle
  • Travel by Public Transport
  • Spread Awareness about Environment
  • Conserve water. Implement Rain water Harvesting
  • Avoid using plastic
  • Save Electricity
  • Use art as a way to spread the message.

All you need to know about The Model Tenancy Act

After almost two years of declaring the Model Tenancy Act, the Union Cabinet has finally approved it. The government released the Model Tenancy draft in 2019. This act intents to bridge the trust gap between the tenants and the landlords. It will improve the rental housing and reduce the lawsuits. The main aim is to create more lucrative environment for renting, tenants as well as landlords and also to increase the housing supply for tenants in market. There are many empty houses and at the same time there is lack of houses from the tenant’s point of view. So, this act aims to ease this all out and bridge the gap.

Union Minister of Housing and Union Affairs Hardeep Singh Puri said Model Tenancy Act would provide model for urban and rural properties and template both for commercial and residential properties. Adding to that he said that 1.1 crore vacant houses will be available on rent and it will compliment the PM’s vision of “Housing for All” in 2022. “The Model Tenancy Act will facilitate the unlocking of vacant houses for rental housing purposes,” the statement said. “It is expected to give a fillip to private participation in rental housing as a business model for addressing the huge housing shortage.”

The law bars renting without the permission of the landlord, fixing limits for security deposits, includes relief during unexpected disasters, and providing for a faster dispute resolution by creating a rent authority, a rent court, and a rent tribunal, according to a government statement. Such cases won’t come under the authority of civil courts.

Most of the provisions are coherent with the draft released earlier for approval.

Key Features:

  • It puts the rights and obligations of the tenants and landlords.
  • There will be transparency in the renting process
  • It aims to spur its overall growth
  • Aims at creating a sustainable and inclusive rental housing market
  • To create adequate rental housing stock for all income groups
  • To address the issue of homelessness
  • To institutionalize rental housing by shifting it towards formal market.
  • To set up rent courts and tribunals
  • Puts a cap on the amount of security deposit. The tenants should pay maximum of 2 months of rent as a security deposit in the residential premises whereas for non-residential premises tenants must pay maximum of six months of rent.

Rights for Landlords:

  • Can enter property let out on rent after serving at least 24 – hour legal notice.
  • If tenants do not vacate the house, they have to pay double the rent for first two months till the agreement period is over and it will become 4 times after the agreement period is over.
  • Tenants are not allowed to sublet without prior permission from the landlord.

Rights for tenants:

  • Landlords cannot ask for more than 2 months of security deposit and the deposit should be returned while vacating the property if the property is in the same condition as it was given to the tenant.
  • Landlord cannot cut power and water supply in case of dispute.
  • Regulates increase of rentals.
  • Structural Maintenance of property is in hands of landlord.

Covid triggered Unemployment

The covid – 19 pandemic has triggered the common issue of unemployment in our country. The real danger is this crisis will eventually increase the poverty and economical inequalities and will have an impact on our economy for years to come.

The government has imposed lockdown to control the spread of corona virus. As a result, it has impacted on the economic and commercial activities of our nation and effected into job loss and migration of migrant workers which trembled the entire nation.

This Job crisis shows no sign of slowing as the impact of corona virus continues to batter almost every sector now.

The economy has hit hard by this pandemic particularly the informal economy. Around 20 crore 12 lakh people lost their job in April 2020 as per CMIE (Centre for Monitoring of Indian Economy) and 74 lakh people lost their jobs in April 2021 as per CMIE. Apart from job loss the household incomes have also fallen down sharply. The CMI has also said that 97% of households has seen fall in income as a result.

India’s Unemployment has increased from 7.97% in April to 11.9% in May. While unemployment is high, future too isn’t looking very bright. Our traders who were looking forward to recover from last year’s shutdown didn’t got the relief due to Lockdown 2.0. While big businesses are suffering losses whereas the small ones are permanently shut down.

The present constraints are majorly predominant in urban India, where most of the salaried jobs are. According to employment data from 2019-20, urban India accounted for 58 % of all salaried jobs in the country. The job loss in urban India during 2020-21 was, however, only 38 % of the total job loss of 9.8 million, as per the CMIE report. This means that urban India will observe further salaried job loss over the course of the year.

Migrant and labor forces:

Migrant workers constitute one of the weaker sections of the society and this pandemic has rubbed salt to their wounds. Due to lockdown, daily wage workers are left with no work. Besides job losses, the migrant workers are facing another reality – hunger. Unemployment in 2020 had left these labors and workers with little or no savings, and now jobs are scarce and living costs have gone sky high.

Farmers and primary sector:

Farmers are crucial part of the food value chain in India. They are the most significant element of the global food system. This pandemic has brought new risks which have threaten the livelihood and food security. Every year, Indian farmers face risks such as low rainfall, price volatility and rising debts. But risks from the COVID-19 pandemic are putting new challenges in front of a sector that is already under threat.

Women and Youngsters:

According to reports, women saw a larger decline in job losses in India than men. Covid also created turmoil in Young people’s lives by taking their jobs away. The youth share of total employment loss was 15-18 times greater than their share in total employment. This is pathetic. The pre-crisis challenges are now amplified due to covid – 19 hit.

Reference –

  1. https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/rising-unemployment-adds-to-the-covid-pain/article34628576.ece
  2. https://qz.com/india/2011017/covid-19-may-leave-thousands-of-indians-unemployed-forever/