When chemicals contaminate water sources, the water becomes unsafe for use in drinking, cooking, cleaning, swimming, and other activities. Chemicals, waste, microorganisms, and parasites are examples of pollutants. All types of pollutants eventually end up in water.

Causes of Water Pollution:

  1. Climate change.
  2. Deforestation.
  3. Livestock farming, agriculture, and industry.
  4. Dumping of waste and faeces.
  5. Shipping activity.
  6. Petrol leaks.
  7. Industrial waste is number.
  8. Sewage and Wastewater.
  9. Dumping of Marines.
  10. Unintentional Oil Leakage.
  11. The use of fossil fuels for energy.

Effects of Water pollution:

*Damage to biodiversity. Water pollution destroys aquatic ecosystems and causes eutrophication, or the uncontrolled growth of phytoplankton in lakes.
*Food chain contamination 
* lack of potable water
*infant mortality

Different Types of Water Pollution:

There are six types of water pollutions are there

1.Chemical Water pollution

2.Ground water pollution

3.Microbiological pollution

4,Nutrient water pollution

5.Oxygen-depletion pollution pollution

6.Surface water pollution

1.Chemical Water pollution:

Heavy metals like mercury, lead, and cadmium, industrial solvents, pesticide runoff, ship oil spills, and other chemicals are examples of chemical pollution. They are lethal to aquatic life forms and can impair reproduction. When the metal wastes enter our bodies, they become harmful to us as well.

2.Ground Water pollution:

Applications of pesticides and fertilisers to crops and lawns can build up and move to the water table. Moreover, bacteria can enter water through leaks from septic tanks and/or landfills, and pesticides and fertilisers that permeate agricultural soil can eventually end up in water obtained from a well. 

3.Microbiological Water pollution:

Water sewage treatment facilities, combined sewage overflows (CSO), non-collective sewage systems, domesticated animals (manure spreading, pit stock overflow), and wildlife are frequently the sources of faecal contamination.

4.Nutrient Water pollution:

When too many nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus, are added to water bodies, they can function as fertiliser and encourage an excessive amount of algae growth. This process is known as nutrient pollution. When lawn and garden fertilisers are applied in metropolitan areas, nutrients may drain off the ground.

5.Oxygen-Depletion Water pollution:

When the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO; molecular oxygen dissolved in the water) falls to a level that is harmful to the aquatic creatures that are living in the system, a phenomena known as oxygen depletion takes place.

6.Surface Water pollution:

A type of pollution known as surface water pollution occurs above ground in places like lakes, rivers, streams, and seas. Runoff from dirty rainwater into surrounding water sources causes these waters to become polluted.


Water pollution Impact on Human health:

According to the WHO, nearly 2 billion people are forced to drink water that has been tainted by faeces, putting them at risk for illnesses including cholera, hepatitis A, and dysentery. infant death rates. Over 1,000 children globally die from diarrheal infections each day, according to the UN, which are connected to poor hygiene. Water is a crucial component of human health, hence contaminated water has an immediate impact on human health. Many illnesses including typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, cancer, etc. are brought on by water contamination. By lowering the water’s oxygen concentration, water pollution harms the river’s flora and aquatic life.

Control of Water pollution:

1.Appropriately Dispose of Hazardous Chemicals.

2.Think about water pollution when you shop.

3.Employ phosphate-free detergent and dish soap

4.Avoid pouring fat and grease down the drain.

5.Inspect your sump pump or cellar drain.

6.Eat more organic food.

7.Appropriately dispose of medical waste.

8.Help clean up litter in water filled areas.

These are some points to control Water pollution.

Schemes to Prevent water pollution in India:

1.National River Conservation Progarmme

2.National Lake Conservation Programme

3.Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation

4.Smart cities mission

5.Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

these are the schemes to prevent Water pollution in India