Social media :

Social media refers to methods of communication where individuals produce, share, and/or exchange knowledge and concepts in online groups and networks. The primary accounts on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, and YouTube are managed by the Office of Communications and Marketing.

Social media marketing:

Social media apps are used as a marketing tool in social media marketing (SMM), a type of online advertising. These social media platforms give businesses the chance to interact with their customers in order to develop a strong brand, boost sales, and enhance website traffic.

Types of Social media marketing:


2.Influencer marketing

3.Social media management

4.Paid media


Social media advertising is a form of digital marketing that involves sending sponsored advertisements to your target audience through social networks like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Ads on social media are a quick and efficient approach to reach your target audience and expand your marketing initiatives.

2.Influencer Marketing:

One who has the power to influence others is an influencer. Influencer marketing is a type of social media promotion where brands pay individuals to spread the word about their goods or services to their followers. Influencer marketing first appeared in the form of celebrity endorsements.

3.Social media Management:

While social media marketing focuses more on developing and implementing a strategy to generate leads for your business through your presence on social platforms, social media management focuses more on using social media accounts.

4.Paid media:

External marketing initiatives involving a sponsored placement are referred to as paid media. Branded content, display ads, and PPC advertising are examples of paid media. For internet firms, paid media is a crucial part of revenue growth and brand visibility.

Importance of Social media marketing:

Brands have the chance to develop trust with potential customers, partners, and talent/employees by engaging on social media. This is especially true if other people are spreading the word about your company’s name, products, or services.

Benefits of Social media marketing:

1.Promote customer services

2.Impacting conversion and sales rates.

3.Draw the audience in.

4.Develop your leadership skills.

5.Investigate the opposition.

6.Boost SERP visibility.



Mental health:

Our emotional, psychological, and social well-being are all parts of our mental health. It influences our thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. Additionally, it influences how we respond to stress, interact with others, and make good decisions. Mental health is vital at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.

Risk factors for Mental health:

1.Genetic predisposition.

2.Homelessness and unemployment


4.Family disorganization

5.Stressfull life events

1.Genetic predisposition:

a higher possibility or propensity to get a specific disease based on the existence of one or more genetic variations and a family history that suggests a higher risk of the disease. A person’s susceptibility to the disease is not guaranteed just because of their genetic makeup. The risk of developing an illness can also be influenced by a person’s lifestyle and surroundings. also known as inherited tendency, hereditary predisposition, and genetic susceptibility.

2.Homelessness and Unemployment:

One of the main factors contributing to homelessness globally is unemployment. Lack of employable skills or fierce market rivalry are the two main causes of unemployment. Many people have stable occupations up until an unpleasant event, such as a downsizing or firm closure, results in their unemployment. It is important to remember that employment does not always equate to homelessness. While an employed individual might find themselves living in a tent city, an unemployed person could nonetheless maintain a home.


You may experience relaxation, reduced anxiety, and more confidence after consuming alcohol because it has an impact on the area of your brain that regulates inhibition. Nevertheless, these results disappear shortly. Regardless of how you are feeling, the chemical changes in your brain can quickly cause more unpleasant emotions, including anger, melancholy, or anxiety.

4.Family inorganization:

Top concerns for family members and carers include: The family’s main concern frequently turns into the mental disorder. Family members disagree about the best course of action because they have different perspectives on the issue. helplessness, annoyance, sadness, guilt, and compassion weariness.

5.Stressful life events:

Stress hormones are secreted into your body when major events occur. This can then cause a number of psychological and physical issues. Headaches could develop as a result of a rise in blood pressure. When performing otherwise straightforward tasks, you might suffer cognitive challenges.

Importance of mental health:

Your wellbeing greatly depends on your mental health. How you are able to function psychologically, emotionally, and socially, among other things, depends on this component of your welfare. Given the significant impact your mental health has on every element of your life, it is crucial to protect and enhance psychological wellness using the right strategies. We’ll be emphasising risk factors and symptoms that could point to mental discomfort because various conditions can have an impact on your mental health. Perhaps most significantly, we’ll explore all the advantages of having excellent mental health.

Benefits for a good mental health:

When our minds are in good shape, we appreciate our lives, our surroundings, and the people that inhabit them. We have the capacity to innovate, learn, explore, and take chances. In both our personal and professional lives, we are better equipped to handle challenging situations.


Climate Migration:

People move away from their homes as a result of catastrophic weather conditions, such as floods, heat waves, droughts, and wildfires, as well as slower-moving climate issues like rising sea levels and worsening water stress.

What is climate forced Migration:

Hazards resulting from the increasing intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, such as abnormally heavy rainfall, prolonged droughts, desertification, environmental degradation, or sea-level rise and cyclones are already causing an average of more than 20 million people to leave their homes and move to other .

Climate migrants:

Those who are forced to flee their homes and communities as a result of climate change and global warming are known as climate refugees. Climate refugees are a subset of the wider immigrant population known as environmental refugees.

Causes of Migration due to climate change:

Every year, millions of people are forced to migrate due to climate change, a force that is growing in strength. According to the most recent Groundswell analysis from the World Bank, by 2050, climate change may compel 216 million people in six different world regions to relocate within their own nations.

 Climate migration occurs when people leave their homes due to extreme weather events, including floods, heat waves, droughts, and wildfires, as well as slower-moving climate challenges such as rising seas and intensifying water stress.


Precipitation intensity and frequency can be impacted by climate change. Oceans that are warmer cause more water to evaporate into the atmosphere. More severe precipitation, such as heavier rain and snowstorms, can result when more moisture-laden air travels over land or congregates into a storm system.

Heat waves:

Exceptionally hot days and heat waves are a normal component of the weather’s day-to-day variability. Yet, as the Earth’s climate warms, it is becoming more typical to experience hotter-than-normal days and nights , and heat waves are predicted to occur more frequently and with greater ferocity.


Longer fire seasons are a result of extreme meteorological conditions, such as higher temperatures and greater droughts, according to the Frontiers paper. Also, wildfires have increased in frequency within the Savannah ecosystem.

How to solve Migration due to climate change:

One way to lessen people’s exposure and susceptibility is to regulate how land is utilised, restrict the destruction of environmental resources, or offer social support to individuals who depend on natural resources. Another is planned relocation, provided it is carried out in an open and transparent manner.


Diet plan for health:

The sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons .

Types of diet for health:

There are many kinds of diets for health. but manly few diets are used for health.

1.High protein vegetarian diet

2.Non vegetarian diet

3.Diabatic diet

4.Low fat diet

1.High protein diet:

In general, high-protein diets contain a lot of protein and very little carbohydrate. The majority of people can maintain a high-protein diet by consuming meat, fish, dairy products, beans and other legumes, eggs, and reasonably high-protein plants like asparagus and spinach.

2.Non vegetarian diet:

A person who consumes meat or fish: a non-vegetarian. For an additional layer of flavour, non-vegetarians could use well-reduced chicken stock in this recipe.

3.Diabatic diet:

Just keeping to regular mealtimes and consuming the healthiest foods in moderation constitutes a diabetes diet. A diabetes diet is a balanced, calorie- and fat-free eating regimen that is naturally high in nutrients. Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are essential components.

4.Low fat diet:

Foods that contain 30% or fewer of their calories from fat are considered low fat. Many correlational studies have linked a nation’s population’s food consumption to cardiovascular mortality in that nation. According to a general guideline, if a food has 100 calories and 3 grams or less of fat, it qualifies as a low fat food.

Benefits of diet for health:

1.May prolong your life.

2.Helps one reach and keep a healthy weight.

3.Healthy diet gives to increases immunity.

4.It helps to strong our muscles.

5.Reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and several types of cancer.

6.Bolsters the bones for diet.

7.It enhances the digestive system’s performance.

8.supports breastfeeding and healthy pregnancy.

Is diet and Nutrition both are same:

Diet describes all the meals you regularly eat during the day. Contrarily, nutrition describes the fuel your body needs to function at its best and to preserve good health. It alludes to the proper balance of nutrients.


Meaning of Urbanization:

The population transfer from rural to urban regions, the concomitant decline in the number of people living in rural areas, and the methods in which societies adjust to this transition are all referred to as urbanisation.

Causes of Urbanization :



3.Employment opportunities

4.Rural to urban transformation

5.Social benefits



The process of industrialization is when a country or region switches its economic emphasis from industry to agriculture. A crucial element of this change is the use of automated mass production techniques.


Modern marketing institutions and exchange techniques have been formed through the distribution of goods and services and commercial transactions, which has greatly accelerated the development of towns and cities.

3.Employment opportunities:

Because businesses are situated close to other businesses, the labour market, and potential customers, jobs are created in cities. New employment are generated, revenues rise, and productivity rises.

4.Rural to urban transformation:

This shift entails the conglomeration of previously rural populations into cities, with rising city populations and city populations overall.

5.Social benefits:

Urbanization can alleviate poverty and inequality when it is planned for and managed properly since it increases employment opportunities and quality of life, including bettering education and health.


By generating economic prosperity and job possibilities that entice people to cities, industrialization has traditionally resulted in urbanisation or the spread of cities. A region becomes more urbanised as a result of the establishment of manufacturers since there is a strong need for factory workers.

Impact of Urbanization in India:

Urban areas can expand due to migration into urban regions or growth in the human population. Deforestation, habitat loss, and the removal of freshwater from the ecosystem are all frequent effects of urbanisation, which can reduce biodiversity and change the ranges and interactions of various species.

History of Urbanization In India:

Urbanization is the process by which rural settlements develop into cities or urban centres, and consequently, it is the process by which such cities develop and grow. For reasons that experts are still debating, urbanisation began in ancient Mesopotamia around the Uruk Period (4300-3100 BCE). Yet, it is hypothesised that a particularly prosperous and effective town drew the attention of other, less prosperous tribes, which led them to ally themselves with the prosperous settlement.


What is Ecology:

Ecology is the study of organisms and their interactions with their surroundings. The interaction between living organisms and their environments is studied by ecologists.

Types of Ecology:

There are various kinds of Ecology and they are:

1.Global Ecology

2.Landscape Ecology

3.Ecosystem Ecology


5.Population Ecology

6.Organismal Ecology.

7.Molecular Ecology

1.Global Ecology:

The study of the ecosystems found on land, in the oceans, and in the atmosphere is known as global ecology. Global ecology is required to comprehend what is happening and why since four primary environmental issues habitat degradation, invasive species, declining population densities, and pollution are occurring on a worldwide scale. Examine the concept and general outline of global ecology, as well as its size, its impact on globalisation, and the main issues it raises on a worldwide scale.

2.landscape Ecology:

Landscape ecology is the study of how ecosystems coexist and interact within a given area of interest, as well as how these interactions affect ecological processes, particularly the distinctive implications of spatial variation on these interactions.

3.Ecosystem Ecology:

An ecosystem is a region where a bubble of life is created by plants, animals, and other organisms interacting with the weather, environment, and other factors. Abiotic variables, or nonliving components, coexist with biotic components in ecosystems.

4.Community Ecology:

The term ecological community refers to a collection of species that are frequently found together. Ecological communities can be assemblages of animals or plants that have similar habitat needs and may interact with one another or depend on comparable environmental processes.

5.Population Ecology:

Population ecology is the study of the factors influencing the number and distribution of animal and plant populations.

6.Organismal Ecology:

The morphological, physiological, and behavioural adaptations that enable an organism to survive in a particular ecosystem are the main topics of organismal ecology. Population ecology looks at how many people live somewhere and how and why their population size changes over time.

7.Molecular Ecology:

Molecular ecology is the study of ecological issues using molecular genetic methods. The relationships and variety of natural populations are studied using methods like microarrays and Genetic markers.

Components of Ecology:

1.Biotic Components

2.Abiotic Components

1.Biotic Components:

The living species that directly or indirectly affect other organisms in an environment are referred to as biotic components. For instance, consider plants, animals, bacteria, and the waste products they produce. The non-living, or abiotic, aspects of an ecosystem include all chemical and physical substances.

2.Abiotic Components:

Abiotic factors are non-living components of an ecosystem that influence their surroundings. Examples could be light, water, and temperature in a terrestrial habitat. Abiotic elements in a marine ecosystem would be salinity and ocean currents. A particular ecosystem is produced by the interaction of biotic and abiotic elements.

Importance of Ecology:

Ecosystem research is crucial for resource allocation, pollution reduction, and preventing the ozone layer from being destroyed. It offers knowledge on the advantages of maintaining a healthy ecosystem and making wise use of the planet’s resources for the benefit of future generations.

Advantages of Ecology:

1.For humans, these are a source of food. The ecosystem is the source of all the natural resources on which humans rely. Humans can also access water and mineral resources thanks to ecosystems.

2.Ecosystems keep the environment in balance and control the weather. The ecosystem’s responsibility for preserving biodiversity is one of its primary roles.

Disadvantages of Ecology:

Because each component of an ecosystem depends on the others, an ecosystem becomes unbalanced when one of them is excluded.


Solar energy:

Any energy produced by the sun is referred to as solar energy. Nuclear fusion occurs in the sun and produces solar energy. In the sun’s core, fusion happens when the protons of colliding hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium atoms.

Is solar energy is a Renewable source:

Solar energy is created by the Sun’s light (photovoltaic energy) and warmth (solar thermal energy) and is used to create heat or electricity. Solar energy, which originates from the Sun and is both renewable and inexhaustible, is captured using mirrors and panels.

How is solar energy produce:

Solar panels are used in solar power systems to harness the sun’s energy. To convert solar energy into useful power, these solar panels are typically installed on the roofs of buildings. The electricity gathered in this way is DC current.
DC electricity is transformed into AC (alternating current) electricity using a solar inverter. A grid receives the AC electricity after that. A system known as Solar PV Balance-of-System is used to convert DC electricity to AC.
Certain machinery is used by the BOS System to convert DC to AC. Such equipment consists of: panels to generate DC from sunlight.

2. An inverter to convert DC to AC.

3.Solar battery to store the electricity.

4.A few extra electrical wire accessories are required for the system installation to function.

Sources of Solar energy:

Solar energy is created by the Sun’s light photovoltaic energy and its warmth solar thermal energy, and it can be used to produce heat or electricity. Solar energy, which originates from the Sun and is both renewable and inexhaustible, is captured using mirrors and panels.

Types of solar energy:

1.Photovoltaic solar energy.

2. solar thermal energy.

3.Passive solar energy.

4.Hybrid solar energy.

1.Photovoltaic solar energy:

With the aid of a photoelectric effect-based technology, sunlight is transformed into electricity to create photovoltaic solar energy. It is a form of renewable, limitless, and non-polluting energy that may be produced in a variety of settings, from modest home generators to substantial solar power plants.

2.Solar thermal energy:

Solar thermal energy (STE) is the conversion of solar radiation into heat that can be used for a variety of applications, including space and hot water heating, industrial process heating, and power generation.

3.Passive solar energy:

The term “passive solar” refers to the direct utilisation of solar energy for either heating or cooling reasons. Passive solar energy systems do not use mechanical or electronic methods to gather or transform energy, unlike photovoltaic systems or other technological solar power applications.

4.Hybrid solar energy:

A grid-connected, battery-powered renewable energy system known as a hybrid solar system. The system generates electricity during the day using solar panels, and the batteries store any extra energy for use at night when there is no light from the sun.

Advantages of solar power:

1.Solar energy is renewable and inexhaustible source.

2.Every where gets sunlight.

3.It works incredibly well with batteries and the power grid.

4.The sun generates local income and employment.

5.technical adaptability.

6.minimal upkeep necessary.

7. Green until the end of life.

8. A strong, trustworthy technology.

Disadvantages of solar energy:

1.The high initial cost of installing solar panels. energy storage is more expensive. does not work for any roof type. panels are dependent for sunlight.


Definition of Technology:

Technology is the end result of applying scientific knowledge to real-world situations. People’s efforts to develop new ideas and more effective methods of doing things have led to the development of many sorts of technology. Technology is continually developing with the goal of simplifying processes for humans.

Types of technology :

Several types of Technologies are in implemented. But some of the technologies are commonly used. they are

1.Information Technology

2.Artificial intelligence.

2.Medical Technology.

5.Robotics Technology

6.Communication Technology.

7.Entertainment Technology.

8.Bussiness Technology.

9.Agriculture Technology.

10.Educational Technology.

11.Architecture Technology.

12.Food and Production Technology.

13.Environmental Technology.

14.Aerospacec Technology.

15.sports Technology.

Importance of Technology in Society:

The area of knowledge known as technology deals with the development of technical tools and how they interact with the environment. The improvements that technology has made to our lives include time savings, instant connection and interaction, a higher standard of living, simple information access, and safety.

Positive impact of Technology on Society:

The impact of technology on daily life. As technology permeates every aspect of our lives, we frequently take it for granted and aren’t aware of how much it affects us until we suddenly lose access to things like the telephone, transportation, water, or electricity. Our standard of living has significantly improved thanks to technological advancements. People are typically eating better, dressing better, and actually leading more pleasant lives, despite the fact that we are currently suffering very high inflation rates and very high unemployment rates.Technology also has a great impact on all the fundamental aspects of all our cultures including laws and how they are enforced, language, art, health care, mobility, education and religion. 

Negative impact of Technology on society:

The coming in of new types of technology also results in a negative impact on the growth of the economy at times; television at times consumes all the productive hours that a man has in a day. Every new form of technology gets into the market together with long term consequences that are most of the time not foreseeable. for example Social media and mobile gadgets may cause psychological problems as well as physical problems including eyestrain and trouble focusing on crucial tasks. Also, they might exacerbate more severe medical issues like depression. Children and teenagers who are still developing may be more negatively impacted by excessive usage of technology.



The art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops, and raising livestock is known as agriculture. It involves preparing plant and animal items for human consumption and distributing them to marketplaces.

Types of Agriculture:

1.Commercial farming.

2.Organic farming

3.Subsistence farming

1.Commercial farming:

Commercial agriculture, also referred to as agribusiness, is a cropping technique in which crops and livestock are cultivated with the intention of reselling the goods on the market for a profit. Large-scale crops are raised in vast farms employing modern technology, machinery, irrigation techniques, and chemical fertilisers, along with significant financial investment. The fundamental aspect of commercial agriculture is that high doses of contemporary inputs such as high yielding varieties, fertilisers, insecticides, herbicides, weed killers, and so for employed for higher output.
The majority of crops produced in commercial agriculture are those that are in great demand, or those that must be exported to other nations or utilised as raw materials in businesses. Moreover, agricultural marketing intensity varies from region to region.

2.Organic farming:

A method of management and agricultural production that combines a high level of biodiversity with environmental precautions that protect natural resources and adheres to strict standards for animal welfare is known as organic farming. Moreover, organic farming satisfies the growing demand for natural products among consumers while also enabling environmental preservation in the framework of sustainable rural development.

3.Subsistence farming:

Subsistence farming is a type of agriculture in which the farmer and his or her family consume almost all of the crops or livestock produced, leaving little to no excess for trade or sale. Subsistence agriculture has historically been a way of life for preindustrial agricultural peoples all throughout the world. When they depleted the soil at each location, some of these peoples relocated from one place to another. Farmers began to practise commercial farming as urban areas expanded, specialising agricultural output and producing large surpluses of certain commodities that they either sold for cash or swapped for manufactured goods.

Importance Agriculture in India:

The primary source of revenue for the federal and state governments is agriculture. The country’s government receives significant funding from increasing land revenue. Also, the transportation of agricultural products helps the Indian Railways make money, which aids the government in making money. India largely depends on the agriculture sector. Besides, agriculture is not just a mean of livelihood but a way of living life in India. Moreover, the government is continuously making efforts to develop this sector as the whole nation depends on it for food.

Is Agriculture is the backbone of India:

Since that two-thirds of Indians work in agriculture, the sector is referred to as the foundation of the country’s economy. Agriculture provides food for the big population and provides raw materials for the main manufacturing sectors. In addition to being a crucial part of the primary sector, agriculture also supports and develops the secondary and tertiary industries. It is therefore the foundation of the economy.The Indian agricultural sector is the second-largest land user in the world, accounting for a sizeable portion of the country’s economy. In India’s extensive rural areas, notably, the agricultural industry supports livelihoods and makes a significant contribution to the GDP.

Features of Agriculture :

1.Agricultre depends on monsoon.

2.Source of support.

3.Labour intensive cultivation.

4.Traditional methods of production.

5.Low agriculture production.

6.under employment.

7.small size of holdings.


What is Industrialisation?

The transition from predominantly agrarian to mass-produced, technologically advanced goods and services is known as industrialization. Increased standards of life, a transition from rural to urban labour, and exponential increases in production are all characteristics of this phase.

Role of Industrialisation in Indian Economy:

industrialization’s contributions to a country’s economic growth Income per capita rises as industrialization occurs. Increased industrialization increases employment possibilities. Returns from industrialization are rising.

The role of Industrialisation In the development of Indian economy can be analysed in following.

1.Income growth per person.

2.Increasing the global trade.

3.High level of Investment.

4.Generation of employment

5.Meet the requirement of People.

Factors of Industrialisation:

1.Natural resources



4.Transport facility




Importance of Industrialisation:

The world’s economic development has benefited greatly from industrialization. The method has raised productivity and enabled mass production, which has raised living standards.India currently has the sixth-largest economy in the world. More employment prospects in both small- and large-scale industries result from industrialization. Farmworkers who are underemployed or jobless are absorbed by industry in an industrial economy, raising overall income.

Benefits of Industrialisation:

1.Increasing the job opportunities.

2.Provision of goods

3.Low price of Goods

4.Increasing production and efficiency

5.Increasing economy.

Disadvantages of industrialisation:

1.Environment pollution is the main cause of industrialisation.


3.Poor working conditions

4.Less number of workers work more time

5.Resource consumption.


Cyber Security:

Cybersecurity is concerned with preventing unauthorised access to, damage to, or inaccessibility of computer systems. All information assets, whether they are in hard copy or digital form, are protected by information security, a more general term.

Types of Cyber Security:

1.Critical Infrastructure security.

2.Application security.

3.Network security

4.Cloud security.

5.Internet of Things security

1.Critical infrastructure security:

The protection of systems, networks, and assets whose continuing functioning is judged important to ensure a given nation’s security, its economy, and the health and/or safety of the general population is the subject of critical infrastructure security.

2.Application security:

In order to guard against dangers like illegal access and alteration, application security is the process of creating, integrating, and testing security measures within applications.

3.Network security:

A group of technologies known as network security guard against a wide range of potential dangers from entering or spreading within a network, preserving the usefulness and integrity of a company’s infrastructure.

4.Cloud security:

Cloud security, often referred to as cloud computing security, is a group of security controls intended to safeguard data, programmes, and infrastructure that are hosted in the cloud. These steps guarantee data and resource access control, user and device authentication, and data privacy protection.

5.Internet of Things security:

The technique of protecting IoT devices and the networks they use is known as internet of things security. Its key objectives are to uphold user privacy and data confidentiality, guarantee the security of equipment and other relevant infrastructures, and permit the smooth operation of the IoT ecosystem.

Importance of Cyber security:

Because of various security concerns and cyberattacks, cybersecurity is crucial in today’s environment. Many businesses create software for data protection. The data is shielded by this software. Cybersecurity is crucial since it protects not only our systems from virus attacks but also helps to secure information.

Ten tips for cyber security:

1.Back up the data from your divices

2.Choose your accounts having memorable passwords.

3.Keep your devices are update

4.Toggle two factor authentication on.

5.Avoid making important purchases via public wifi.

6.Install an antivirus programme, and perform routine virus scans.

7.Careful for social media account information

8.Can give less information for online related apps

9.Check bank account details for safety way

10.Be imaginative while responding to your account recovery inquiries.



Sarojini Naidu was born on 13 February 1879 in Hyderabad , India. Sarojini was the eldest daughter of Aghorenath Chattopadhyay, a Bengali  Brahman who was principal of the Nizam’s College, Hyderabad, and mother Varada sundari devi..

Education Life:

In 1891, at the age of twelve, she passed her matriculation exam to be eligible for university study, receiving the top position. On a scholarship from the Nizam of Hyderabad, she studied in England from 1895 to 1898, first at King’s College in London and subsequently at Girton College in Cambridge. She encountered creatives from the Aesthetic and Decadent movements in England. She had a quick trip to Europe.

Marriage life:

In 1898, sarojini naidu went back to Hyderabad. She became engaged to Govindaraju Naidu, a doctor, in the same year. They met while she was living in England. Their long-lasting, blissful marriage received the blessing of both of their families. They had five kids together. Their daughter Padmaja, who served in several government roles in independent India, also joined the Quit India Campaign.

Political career of Sarojini Naidu:

Naidu began to gain popularity as a public speaker in 1904, advocating for Indian independence and women’s rights, particularly women’s education. Her speeches frequently used Nyaya reasoning’s five-part rhetorical structures to frame their arguments. In 1906, she spoke to the Indian Social Conference and the Indian National Congress in Calcutta. In 1911, she received the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal for her social services in flood relief; however, she later returned it in opposition to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in April 1919. She first met Muthulakshmi Reddy in 1909, and then she met Mahatma Gandhi in 1914. She attributes Gandhi with encouraging her to take up political activism again. She presided over the INC convention as the organization’s first Indian woman and second female president. She collaborated with Reddy to create the Women’s Indian Association in 1917. During that year, Naidu accompanied her colleague Annie Besant, who was the president of Home Rule League and Women’s Indian Association, to urge universal suffrage in front of the Joint Select Committee in London, United Kingdom. At the Madras Special Provincial Council, she also backed the Lucknow Accord, a joint Hindu-Muslim call for British political change. Naidu was a well-known public speaker who included her poetry into her speeches and was noted for her charisma.

President of the Indian national congress:

Naidu attended the East African Indian National Congress in 1924 on behalf of the Indian National Congress.  Naidu served as the Indian National Congress’s first female president in 1925.  Naidu was a founding participant of the All India Women’s Conference in 1927. She made a tour of the United States in 1928 to advocate for peaceful protest.  Naidu also presided over the 1929 meeting of the East African and Indian Congress in South Africa.

Gandhi initially opposed allowing women to participate in the 1930 Salt March because he felt that it would be physically taxing and dangerous for them to be arrested.   He was convinced otherwise by Naidu and other female activists, such as Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay and Khurshed Naoroji, who joined the march.  Gandhi named Naidu the new campaign leader after his incarceration on April 6, 1930. Due to the arrests, the Indian National Congress made the decision to skip the First Round Table Conference that was held in London. Yet after the Gandhi-Irwin pact, Naidu and other Congress Party leaders took part in the Second Round Table Conference in 1931, which was presided over by Viceroy Lord Irwin. The British imprisoned Naidu in 1932.For her involvement in the Quit India Movement, the British put Naidu in prison once more in 1942. She spent 21 months behind bars.

Naidu became India’s first woman governor when the country gained independence from British rule in 1947 when she was named governor of the United Provinces (modern-day Uttar Pradesh). She served as president until her passing in March 1949.

Why is called Sarojini As Nightingale of India:

Because of the vivid imagery and strong emotions in her writings, she was known as the Nightingale of India or Bharatiya Kokila. Her poetry avoids fancy language and is primarily built of straightforward phrases that could be sung. Her works were vivid in imagery and dealt with a range of subjects, including love, death, and separation, among others. Many of her literary works such as The Golden Threshold, The Bird Of Time, The Broken Wing, Autumn Song have been read widely and critically acclaimed. She earned the moniker “The Nightingale of India” due to the natural rhythm, the beauty of her sensual imagination, and the cadence that effortlessly flowed from her.


Need of Intenational women’s day:

International Women’s Day offers a platform for the globe to recognise the accomplishments of women, increase awareness of gender inequality, and strengthen support for women. The day is a significant opportunity to recognise the social, cultural, economic, and political accomplishments made by women. Pay discrepancies and other forms of discrimination against women still exist. The celebration of International Women’s Day raises awareness of these problems and gives individuals a chance to participate in effecting change.

Aim of International women’s day:

International Women’s Day, observed on March 8, is dedicated to recognising the accomplishments of women and promoting gender equality. The campaign theme this year is Embrace Equity – whereas the United Nations’ theme is DigitALL: Innovation and technology for gender equality.

History of International women’s day:

On February 13, the day of Sarojini Naidu’s birth, we commemorate National Women’s Day. She was an accomplished poet, liberation warrior, and national leader. She was referred to as “Bharat Kokila” and the “Nightingale of India”. The day of her birth was chosen to honour Indian women and their contributions to the country in all walks of life.

The United Nations first observed it in 1975.
In support of women’s rights and global peace, the UN General Assembly declared March 8 as International Women’s Day in 1977. International Women’s Day was first celebrated by the UN in 1975. Since that time, the UN has recognised the day by selecting a theme each year.

Importance of international women’s day:

Over the years, International Women’s Day has transformed into a platform for women to advocate for change. It has been employed to call attention to issues such as gender-based violence, income inequality, lack of access to healthcare and education, and the underrepresentation of women in politics and leadership roles. One of the most notable successes of International Women’s Day is the global advancement of women’s rights. Women now have the ability to vote in many countries, and laws protecting them from workplace harassment and discrimination have been developed. Women have also made enormous strides in education and healthcare, with more girls attending school and receiving life-saving medical care than ever before. International Women’s Day is observed to increase awareness of the importance of ongoing advocacy on behalf of women. It is an appeal for everyone to work together to create a society where women are valued, given the chance to achieve, and empowered to reach their full potential. We can keep raising awareness of the issues that women face and promote positive change for upcoming generations by recognising International Women’s Day.

Is international women’s day is Holiday:

March 8th is International Women’s Day, a day dedicated to honouring the political, cultural, and historical accomplishments of women. The day was also marked in support of global efforts to combat gender inequality. Without women, we all know that the world would not function.


Meaning of poverty:

Lack of resources to meet necessities like food, clothing, and shelter constitutes poverty. Yet poverty goes far beyond simply not having enough money. According to the World Bank Group, hunger is a defining characteristic of poverty. Absence of shelter is poverty.

Types of Poverty:

1.Absolute poverty.

2.Relative poverty.

3.Situational poverty.

4.Generational poverty.

5.Urban poverty.

6.rural poverty

1.Absolute poverty:

When a household’s income falls below a given threshold, absolute poverty results. Due to this, it is impossible for the individual or family to meet their fundamental needs, such as those for food, shelter, safe drinking water, healthcare, and other necessities of life.

2.Rural poverty:

When someone cannot afford to actively engage in society and gain from the experiences and activities that most others take for granted, they are said to be living in relative poverty. It is typically described as 40, 50, or 60% of the median disposable income for the country.

3.Situational poverty:

When a person’s or family’s income and support are reduced because of a specific change. job loss, divorce, death, can have a domino effect, but families in situational poverty typically maintain hope because they understand that this is only a temporary setback.

4.Generational poverty:

Families that have been impoverished for at least two generations are said to be living in generational poverty. It can have an impact on a person’s physical, social, emotional, and mental well-being.

5.Urban poverty:

Urban poverty is the term used to describe a group of economic and social issues that are present in industrialised cities and are brought on by a number of processes, including the development of comfortable living standards, the rise of individualism, social fragmentation processes, and the dualization of the labour force.

6.Rural poverty:

Rural poverty is defined as poverty in rural areas, including the social, economic, and political aspects that contribute to such poor.

Poverty in India:

Poverty refers to a situation in which a person remain underprivileged from the basic necessities of life. In addition, the person does not have an inadequate supply of food, shelter, and clothes. In India, most of the people who are suffering from poverty cannot afford to pay for a single meal a day. Also, they sleep on the roadside; wear dirty old clothes. In addition, they do not get proper healthy and nutritious food, neither medicine nor any other necessary thing.

Main causes of poverty in India:

1.Increse the rate of population.


3.Increasing the price of goods.

4.Reducing the productivity in Agriculture.

5. A quick rate of economic growth.

6.Income distribution that is not equal.

7.Provision for minimum requirement of poor.

Reduce poverty in India:

1.Speed of human resource developement.

2.Income distribution is equal.

3.Improving the economic growth.

4.Eliminating poverty through equity.

5.Education is one of the major source to reduce poverty.

6.Ensure Basic health care to the people.

These are some of the points to control poverty in India.


Definition of satellite:

A satellite is a body that orbits a planet, star, or moon. For instance, the fact that Earth orbits the sun makes it a satellite. The moon is a satellite as well because it revolves around Earth. The term “satellite” typically refers to a device that is launched into space and orbits the Earth or another celestial body.

Satellite communication:

Using a communication satellite in orbit around the Earth, satellite communication is the transfer of information from one location to another. An artificial satellite called a communication satellite establishes a channel between a transmitter and a receiver at various points on Earth in order to transmit a signal using a transponder.
Satellite communications are used in telephone, radio, television, internet, and military applications.

Types of satellite communication:

There are various types of satellite communication, depending on the service offered. Mainly there are three types of satellite communication services are there.

1.Fixed satellite communication services

2.Mobile satellite communication services.

3.Broadcast communication services.

1.Fixed satellite communication services:

Fixed Satellite Services (FSS), which receive and broadcast satellite signals using ground-based equipment at predetermined locations. Most of our domestic and international services, including private business networks and global internet connection, are supported by FSS satellites.

2.Mobile satellite communication services:

Mobile satellite services (MSS) offer two-way voice and data communications to people all over the world who are travelling or residing in remote areas; terminals come in a variety of sizes, including handheld and laptop-sized devices. Moreover, terminals positioned inside of a moving vehicle can continue connections.

3.Broadcast satellite communication services:

Using broadcast signals transferred to and from communication satellites, satellite broadcasting is a method of distributing content. Satellite dishes, also known as parabolic antennae, are used to receive the broadcast signals. The signals are then conditionally sent through a low-noise block converter.

How satellite communication works:

The communication satellites are comparable to the space mirrors that assist in bouncing communications from one side of the globe to the other, including radio, internet data, and television. There are three steps that are necessary to understand how satellite communications function. Which are:




Have a look at a television signal as an example. The first stage begins with the ground station on Earth beaming the signal from the television broadcast on the other side of the planet up to the satellite. Uplink is the term for this procedure. Transponders such radio receivers, transmitters, and amplifiers are used in the second stage. These transponders modify the frequency of the incoming signal and amplify it in order to prevent interference with the outgoing signal. In light of the upcoming signal sources.The data is transmitted through a downlink in the final step to the receiver’s opposite end on earth. It is crucial to realise that there is typically just one uplink and many downlinks.

Advantages of satellite communication:

1.Each and every side of the earth can be covered.

2.New circuits can be easily installed.

3.Since satellites are powered by solar energy, energy is conserved.

4.The system can be managed by users.

Disadvantages of satellite communication:

1.Initial cost is very expensive.

2. due to the interference of frequencies communication services may be disrupted.

3. Interference and expansion.

Applications of satellite communication:




4.Digital cinema.

5.Internet access.


One of the most crucial things you can do for your health is to exercise regularly. Physical activity can strengthen your bones and muscles, help you maintain a healthy weight, increase your ability to carry out daily tasks, and improve your cognitive health.

Is it good exercise for everyday?

Working exercise every day is great as long as you’re not overdoing it or becoming obsessed with it. Make sure you enjoy it without being too hard on yourself, especially when you’re sick or injured.

Best exercise for health and fitness:







7.Abdominal crunches.

8.Bent over row.


These are commonly used exercises for health and fitness.


The easiest exercise may be walking. Put one foot in front of the other to get started, and you can do it practically anywhere.

There are many wonderful benefits of walking. Your blood pressure will drop, your heart will become stronger, and your bones will become more durable. Also, walking reduces stress, improves sleep quality, and can improve your view on life.


One common physical activity is running. At some point in their lives, about one in five Australians try running .Running is a desirable workout because it is inexpensive to participate in and you may run whenever it is convenient for you.


Swimming is a terrific all-around exercise since it both raises heart rate and lessens impact load on the body. increases cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and endurance. maintains your heart and lungs’ and weight’s wellness.


Squats may aid in weight loss because they burn calories. Moreover, they reduce the possibility of knee and ankle injuries. Your tendons, bones, and ligaments around your leg muscles get stronger as you move. Your knees and ankles are relieved of some weight as a result.

5.Push ups:

Pushups done the old-fashioned way are good for developing upper body strength. They exercise the shoulders, pectorals, and triceps. By contracting (drawing in) the abdominal muscles, when performed with perfect form, they can also strengthen the lower back and core. Pushups are a simple and powerful exercise for increasing your strength.


Place your feet hip-width apart as you stand. Walk forward while bending both knees, lowering yourself until your knees are 90 degrees bent. Onto the lead leg, advance. Lifting your back leg and pushing it forward will cause your back foot to land in a lunge position in front of you as you step through and push off with both of your legs.

7.Abdominal crunches:

The purpose of abdominal crunches is to tone the body’s core muscles. The exercise helps to build up the core muscles, enhance posture, and make the muscles more mobile and flexible.

8.Bent over row:

One of the best exercises for increasing strength and muscular mass is the bent-over barbell row. Compared to other rowing exercises, it enables the lifter to employ more weight. Moreover, it activates the biceps and forearm muscles, strengthening the grip.


By burning calories and causing weight reduction, cycling can assist alter body composition. It can also aid in the development of lower and upper body muscles. Cycling enthusiasts must, however, incorporate strength training if they want to see a significant change in their body form, especially if they want to boost their power for speed over shorter distances.

Benefits for doing exercises:

1.It maintains good for health.

2.Readuce for health related problems.

3.Lose weight for doing exercises.

4.control high blood pressure.

5.Improve your heart rate.

6.Improve your quality of sllep.

7.Maintain muscle strength and balance.

8.protect against chronic diseases.

9.keep your brain fit.

10.Exercise boost up mental health.

so many advantages of doing exercises for your healthy body .


Biodiversity definition:

The variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural environment are all included in what is known as biodiversity. These various species and critters collaborate in complicated web-like ecosystems to keep things in balance and support life.

Classification of Biodiversity:

1.Species diversity.

2.Ecological diversity.

3.Genetic diversity.

1.species diversity:

The number of distinct species present in an environment and the relative abundance of each species are the two components that make up species diversity. When every species present is equally plentiful in the area, diversity is at its highest.

Importance of species diversity:

The importance of species diversity can be argued for a variety of reasons. The environment depends on each species in some way. Bees are a perfect example of a primary pollinator. Consider the consequences if bees become extinct. Next may come fruits and vegetables, then the animals that consume them, and so on all the way to us. Many species not only give us food but also clean water, breathable air, fertile soils, a stable climate, the ability to absorb pollution, building materials for our homes, the ability to prevent disease outbreaks, the availability of therapeutic resources, and much more.

2.Ecological diversity:

The broadest definition of biodiversity is ecological diversity. Ecological diversity on a global scale would examine the variety in habitats like wetlands, deserts, grasslands, forests, and oceans. There is a substantial amount of species and genetic diversity within each ecosystem.

Importance of Ecological diversity:

Ecosystem diversity describes the variety of organisms in a specific environment and the biological processes that give them meaning. The variety of the species that make up an ecosystem is frequently measured, along with the relative abundance of various species and consideration of the type of species. The ecosystem is the conglomeration of populations of living creatures and the environment they inhabit. The variety of biological communities that interact with one another, with their physical and chemical environments, is referred to as ecosystem diversity.

3.Genetic diversity:

The biological variation that exists within species is known as genetic diversity. It enables species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Under conditions of rapid environmental change, such as those found in the Baltic Sea, genetic diversity is particularly crucial.

Importance of Genetic diversity:

It is possible for organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions and prevent inbreeding by maintaining significant genetic variety. When there are limited, isolated populations, inbreeding takes place, which might make a species less able to endure and procreate.

Biodiversity in India:

One of the twelve countries with the most biodiversity is India. India ranks fourth in Asia and tenth in the world for plant diversity, with over 47 000 plant species. Around 15 000 flowering plants, or 6% of all flowering plants worldwide, may be found in India.India is one of the world’s most diversified countries. In terms of the diversity of plant species, it comes in tenth. India is home to two of the top 25 biodiversity hotspots on earth. Important agricultural species like the pigeon pea, eggplant, cucumber, cotton, and sesame are descended from it. Many domesticated species, including millets, grains, legumes, vegetables, medicinal and aromatic crops, etc., are also widely grown in India.



An ecosystem is a region where a bubble of life is created by plants, animals, and other organisms interacting with the weather, environment, and other factors. Abiotic variables, or nonliving components, coexist with biotic components in ecosystems. Plants, animals, and other species are biotic factors.

Types of Ecosystem:

1.Terrestrial ecosystem.

2.Aquatic ecosystem

1.Terrestrial ecosystem:

A terrestrial ecosystem is a population of land-based species and the relationships between biotic and abiotic elements in a specific space. The tundra, taigas, temperate deciduous woods, tropical rainforests, grasslands, and deserts are a few examples of terrestrial ecosystems.

The terrestrial system classified into four types.

1.Forest Ecosystem.

2.Desert Ecosystem.

3.Thundra Ecosystem.

4.Grassland Ecosystem.

1.Forest Ecosystem:

Biologically integrated communities of plants, animals, and microbes, as well as the regional soils and atmospheres with which they interact, make up forest ecosystems, which are regions of the landscape where trees predominate.

2.Desert Ecosystem:

Deserts are arid regions of terrain with little to no vegetation, extremely high or low temperatures, and little to no rainfall. Terrestrial ecosystems, which can be found all over the planet, include deserts as examples. Not all deserts are level, nor do they all have cacti or oases.

3.Thundra Ecosystem:

The Arctic and the summits of mountains are home to tundra ecosystems, which are characterised by their lack of trees and harsh climates with little rainfall. Snow covers tundra lands for the majority of the year, but summer provides bursts of wildflowers. Tundra plants and animals.

4.Grassland Ecosystem:

Large open grassy areas make up grassland biomes. There may be trees, but they are uncommon. Elephants from Africa are among the creatures that inhabit grasslands. to several prairie dog species.

2.Aquatic Ecosystem:

An aquatic ecosystem encompasses marine and freshwater habitats such as the ocean, intertidal zone, reefs, seabed, and freshwater habitats such as lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands, and swamps. The habitat for all living things that require water, such as animals, plants, and bacteria, is the aquatic ecosystem.

The Aquatic Ecosystem classified into two types.

1.Fresh water Eco system

2.Marine Ecosystem.

1.Freshwater Ecosystem:

On the surface of the Earth, freshwater is a valuable resource. Also, it supports a wide variety of fish, plant, and crab species. Lakes, rivers, ponds, wetlands, streams, and springs are just a few of the habitats that freshwater environments offer.

2.Marine Ecosystem:

Aquatic environments with high levels of dissolved salt make up marine ecosystems. They comprise the deep ocean, the open ocean, and the coastal marine ecosystems, each of which has unique biological and physical properties.

Ecosystem services:

Any advantageous benefit that people receive from wildlife or ecosystems is referred to as an ecosystem service.

Ecosystem services are four types.

1.Provisioning services.

2.Regulating services.

3.cultural services.

4.supporting services.

1.provisioning services:

The material advantages that people receive from ecosystems are referred to as “provisioning services,” and include water, food, timber, and other items. Markets are used to trade a variety of provisioning services. Nonetheless, rural households in many areas also rely directly on the provision of services for their means of subsistence.

2.Regulating services:

The uses offered by ecosystem processes that control natural phenomena is referred to as a regulatory service. Pollination, decomposition, water filtration, erosion management, flood mitigation, carbon sequestration, and climate regulation are all examples of regulating functions.

3.Cultural Ecosystem:

The non-material benefits that people derive from ecosystems through leisure, tourism, intellectual advancement, spiritual enrichment, introspection, and creative and aesthetic experiences are known as cultural ecosystem services.

4.Supporting services:

All ecosystems and their benefits depend on “supporting services,” which are the provision of habitat for living things and the preservation of their diversity. Many kinds of ecosystem services are influenced by and are influenced by forestry, fishery, and agriculture.

Importance of Ecosystem services:

For instance, supplying wholesome food and clean water, controlling illness and the climate, assisting in crop pollination and soil formation, and offering recreational, cultural, and spiritual advantages, ecosystem services enable human life.

1.With addressing biodiversity as “natural capital” in recent years, acknowledging the importance of biodiversity protection has grown significantly.

2.They support a wide variety of creatures, particularly bird species, and are hotspots for biodiversity.

3.The interplay of living like plants, animals, and bacteria and non-living species creates ecosystems, which are communities like air, water, mineral soil.



The Internet, sometimes known as the Net, is a global system of computer networks. It is a network of networks that allows users at any one computer to obtain information from any other computer with permission.

History of internet:

In the 1970s, Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf created the Internet. They started the process of creating what is now known as the “internet.” It was the outcome of a different research project known as ARPANET, or Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. The Defense Team of the United States of America originally intended for this to be a communications network that could withstand a nuclear attack. It eventually became a successful nationwide experimental packet network. But when was the first Internet started? It is believed that on 6 August 1991, when the World Wide Web opened to the public.

Types of internet connections:


2.Broad band.

3.Digital subscriber line.



Computers, tablets, cellphones, and other devices are linked to the internet using Wi-Fi, a wireless technology. Wi-Fi is the radio signal that a wireless router transmits to a device in the area, which then converts the signal into information you can see and use.

2.Broad band connection:

Broadband is a phrase used to describe high-speed Internet connectivity that is always active and quicker than dial-up access. Several high-speed transmission techniques are part of broadband, including: Cable modem for digital subscriber lines (DSL). Fiber.

3.Digital subscriber line:

A digital subscriber line, often known as DSL or a digital subscriber loop, is a type of internet connection that transmits and receives data and traffic via telephone lines using the voice frequency. High-speed downloads are possible with this connection type when the user is close to the DSL provider.


Broadband access can take the form of a cable Internet connection. Users can access the Internet using cable TV lines by using a cable modem. Many people may find a cable connection to be a realistic alternative because cable modems can deliver incredibly quick access to the Internet.

why should students get access to the limited internet?

The biggest issue facing kids today is this. They contact with their family members very little and spend the majority of their day online. Family ties become weak as a result. Students that spend most of their time online suffer from poor academic performance owing to their lack of physical activity, bad grades since they merely keep browsing pointless websites, and a distance from their families because they don’t have time to spend quality time together.

Students disregard their social, personal, financial, and physical well-being. They are just concerned about being online. We have examples of students becoming physically and mentally ill as a result of internet addiction. For instance, a Vietnamese girl became addicted to Facebook in 2018 and ended up in a mental hospital. She is currently receiving care. Another incident involving a student who played an internet game nonstop for two days without eating anything happened in Taiwan. Due to the overuse of the internet, there are countless instances where kids experience problems like this, which serves as a reminder of the significance of restricting internet access for students.

Benefits of internet:

1.Online education use internet.

2.Develope communication system.

3.Extra information for any topic by using internet to collect the information.

4.Shopping and paying bills flexibility by use of internet entertainment sources ideas for business by the use of internet.

7.Online shopping.

8 Smart phones and mobile connectivity.

9.expansion of business developement.

10.improving of business efficiency.

so many advantages by using internet.

Disadvantages of internet:

1.Spending many time while the use of internet.

2.Hacking of the personal information.

3.too much addiction to internet leads to time wastage, affecting our productivity and health.

4. data and information may be harmed by online virus attacks.

5.Social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter are a huge target for hackers.

6.Only when supervised by parents should children use the internet.

7.There are a lot of audio and video materials that are inappropriate for particular age groups.

8.Social media posts of images and videos are inherently unsafe.


What is food?

After air and water, food is the next most crucial element for sustaining life, promoting growth, and providing energy. In actuality, it’s one of the most intricate chemical combinations.

Food is crucial in the promotion of health and the prevention of disease.
In general, it is made up of vital nutrients like carbs, proteins, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that are taken to support an organism’s nutritional needs. These nutrients are also swallowed by an organism and used by its cells to maintain health. Grains, pulses, fruits, vegetables, oils, and other types of produce make up these nutrient-dense diets.

Importance of food in our life:

The vitality you need to be busy all day. nutrients you require for growth and repair, ensuring your strength and health and assisting in the prevention of diet-related diseases like certain cancers.

1.All the components our bodies require, including protein, vitamins, lipids, and carbohydrates, are present in healthy foods.

2.Healthy food is the requirement of our body.

3.It prevents us from feeling dull and sluggish.

4.Any food closest to its natural form is healthier than those one cooked.

sources of food :

All living things on earth primarily obtain their sustenance from plants and animals. Animal-derived foods, such as fish, milk, meat, chicken, and cheese, are the primary source of protein. Fruits and vegetables, which constitute a significant source of fibre, protein, and carbohydrates, are produced by plants for us.

mainly two types of food sources are there.they are



1.plants are the sources of food:

Plants are the sources of food ingredients like grains, cereals, vegetables and fruits. which are an important source of fibres, proteins and carbohydrates.

2.Animals are the sources of food:

Animal-derived foods, such as fish, milk, meat, chicken, and cheese, are the primary source of protein.

Benefits of eat healthy food:

1.It gives a healthy life to eat good food.

2.Help the digestive system function.

3.Keep the healthy body.

4.Helps one reach and keep a healthy weight.

5.Boosts immunity.

6.control levels of blood pressure and cholesterol levels

7.Decrease the risk of diabates.

8.Decrease the cancer risks.

9.Strenghthen teeth and bones.

10.Delay age.

11.Increase productivity.

What should we eat food for a healthy life style:

1.We must eat fruits and vegetables for a good health.

2.Drink minimum 3 liters of water daily.

3.Eat whole grains at two times once in aweek.

4.Eat a bean-based meal at least once a week.

5.Eat protein food like chicken, Fish.

6.Bananas are one of the healthiest fruits loaded with fiber and potassium.


What is called natural resources?

Without human assistance, natural resources are present on planet. We can get water, wood, food, and energy from natural resources. Without natural resources, life is not conceivable.Oil, coal, natural gas, metals, stone, and sand are examples of natural resources. Other natural resources include water, soil, sunlight, air, and so on.

Types of Natural resources:

two types of natural resources.

1.Renewable resources

2.non renewable resources.

1.Renewable resources:

A resource that can be used repeatedly and does not run out because it is naturally replaced.

examples of renewable resources are: energy.

2.wind energy

3.GeoThermal energy.

4.Hydro power

5.Tidal energy

6.Biomass energy

1.Solar energy:

One well-known renewable resource is sunlight. In fact, throughout human history, it has been used to heat water, dry and prepare food, and warm habitations. In order to gather and transform solar radiation into heat energy that can be used for a variety of purposes, different technologies already exist and are being developed.

2.Wind energy:

The sun and wind are in a direct interaction. When the sun’s heat is absorbed unevenly by the various surfaces of the earth, including oceans and other water masses, daily winds are created. When the sun is shining during the day, air above land warms up more quickly than air above water. The warm air rises and expands. It is replaced with cooler air. The result is wind.In earlier years, windmills were used across the U.S. to capture energy and pump water from wells. They still exist in some farming areas to provide livestock with water.

3.GeoTheramal energy:

Geothermal energy uses the heat of the earth to produce electricity and is a renewable resource. For millennia, people have taken baths in hot springs that are heated by the ground. District heating systems have also utilised and continue to employ geothermal energy. Moreover, geothermal energy is used to produce power. Underground power plants are constructed for this purpose within a mile of the earth’s surface.

4.Hydro power:

A dam or other construction that alters the natural flow of a river or other body of water is used to generate hydropower, often known as hydroelectric power.Water in motion generates hydroelectricity, namely the winter and spring runoff from mountain streams and crystal-clear lakes. Water can be utilised to turn turbines and generators that produce power when it is falling due to gravity.

5.Tidal energy:

Tidal energy is a renewable source of power generated by the tidal movements and ocean currents that occur naturally. These technologies include paddles and turbines, among others. The rush of ocean waters during tide changes is what generates tidal energy. A renewable energy source is tidal energy.

6.Biomass energy:

A clean, renewable energy source is biomass. Plant or algae biomass may regenerate quickly since it receives its initial energy from the sun. Municipal solid trash, trees, and crops are all readily available and may be managed responsibly.

Advantages of renewable resources:

1.Low cost

2.clean,safe and efficient

3.numerous methods to create renewable power

4.Reliability and resilience

5.Less global warming.

Disadvantages of renewable resources:

1.Renewable resources need recycling.

2.initial cost is very high

3.renewable resources is not available at any time

4.It is difficult to generate the quantity of electricity.

Non Renewable resources:

The sources of non-renewable energy will deplete or not be renewed within our lifetimes, or perhaps within many, many lifetimes.

Examples of non renewable resources are:

1.Fossil fuels: coal, crude oil, natural gas

2.nuclear energy.

1.fossil fuels:


A flammable sedimentary rock with a high concentration of carbon and hydrocarbons, coal is often black or brownish-black in colour. Because it takes millions of years for coal to develop, it is categorised as a nonrenewable energy source. Coal is made up of the energy that was once locked up in plants that inhabited marshy forests hundreds of millions of years ago.

crude oil:

Only one non-renewable resource, crude oil, commonly known as petroleum oil, is extracted in liquid form. It is extracted by drilling a vertical well into the ground or ocean floor and is discovered between the layers of the earth’s crust or between rocks.

natural gas:

There are no renewable energy sources like natural gas. It takes millions of years for a fossil fuel to form. We can only manufacture more till a finite amount of it remains in the ground.

2.Nuclear energy:

The element uranium is the one that is most frequently employed in nuclear power reactors. Despite the fact that uranium may be found in rocks all over the world, nuclear power plants typically use U-235, a highly uncommon form of uranium. A non-renewable resource is uranium. Over the world, generating power via nuclear energy is a common practise.

Advantages of non renewable resources:

1.Non renewable resources are abundant and affordable is more effective and easier to produce and use then renewable energy

3.Non renewable resources are significant source of energy.

Disadvantages of non renewable resources:

1.These resources are used can not be replaced.

2.once fossil fuels are creates pollution.

3.heavy uses of fossil fuels .it creates global warming and green house effect.


The definition of Art:

something that is attractive or reflects important ideas or sentiments, and was made with imagination and talent that is called “Art”.

The study of the nature of art, including ideas like interpretation, representation, expression, and form, is known as philosophy of art. Aesthetics, the philosophical study of beauty and taste, and it are intimately related.

Types of Art:

There are number of types in art. when it comes to visual arts. but. finally there are three types in art.

they are:

1.Decorative art.

2.Commercial art.

3.Fine art.

1.Decorative art:

Any form of art that focuses on designing and embellishing items that are valued more for their functionality than their merely aesthetic features is referred to as decorative art.

Examples of Decorative art:


2.Glass ware.


4.Wood work.


Importance of Decorative art:

The programmed lifestyle of the upper classes of society, which was followed by others, was heavily influenced by ornamental arts. Records of an object’s location and careful descriptions highlight their variety of uses.

2.Commercial Art:

Art produced for business objectives, typically advertising, is referred to as commercial art or the art of creative services. To encourage the sale and interest in goods, services, and ideas, commercial art use a range of venues for spectators.

Examples of commercial art:


2.magazines and news papers.

3.Bill boards and sign boards.

4.telivision commercials.

5.Internet ads

6.Package and labeling goods

Importance of commercial art:

It is their duty to produce visual materials, such as presentations, photographs, and designs, to engage customers with the company’s offerings. For the creation of billboards, book jackets, presentations, Windows displays, and technical catalogues, businesses hire art directors.

3.fine art:

The fine arts—commonly referred to as the performing and visual arts—are distinctive and significant in the academic programme.

examples of fine art:





Importance of fine art:

Students have a creative outlet through arts education, which can help them become better problem solvers. They gain the ability to think creatively and investigate ideas in novel ways. Several of these subjects, including feelings, time, and space, are frequently challenging to teach in a classroom.

The most common elements in art:







principles of Art:

The nine design principles—contrast, emphasis, movement, repetition, proportion, metre, rhythm, balance, unity, and variety—are the cornerstones of artistic creation and the guidelines by which artists must arrange the components of an artwork.



A system of techniques utilised in ancient times to harmonise the mind and body through physical activity, mindfulness meditation, and emotional and breathing regulation.

yoga can be defined in many ways, every one has there own meaning.

Photo by Felipe Borges on

Importance of Yoga in daily life:

People’s minds can be calmed by using the many breathing techniques used in yoga. Also, it increases your capacity for awareness and stillness. Also, you can find inner calm through meditation. It also aids in instilling commitment and discipline in one’s life. And Yoga promotes mental health, mindfulness, healthy eating, weight loss, and restful sleep in addition to stress management.While the sole purpose of yoga is to challenge the mind and body through a series of yoga asanas, the overall goal of yoga is to cultivate self-reflection, control the breath, achieve profound relaxation, and progress through meditation.

Types of yoga:

There are six types of yoga.

1.Karma yoga

2.Bhakti yoga

3.Jnana yoga

4.Raja yoga

5.Tantra yoga

6.Hatha yoga

1.Karma yoga:

A route to moksha through employment is karma yoga. A commitment to one’s duty, making the best effort but being unattached to rewards or outcomes like success or failure, are all examples of righteous activity without being swayed by what the results may be.

2.Bhakti yoga:

Bhakti yoga, also known as Bhakti marga, is a Hindu spiritual path or practise that is centred on adoring devotion to any particular deity.

3.Jnana yoga:

One of the three traditional Hindu paths to moksha, jnana yoga, also known as the jnana marga, emphasises the “road of knowledge,” also known as the “path of self-realization”.

4.Raja yoga:

Raja yoga describes both the end result of yoga and the path to getting there. As a result, it is also regarded as the feeling of tranquilly and contentment that results from regular yoga and meditation practise. Raja yoga is essentially the practise of controlling one’s mind and body, with an emphasis on meditation and energetics.

5.Tantra yoga:

Tantra is a branch of yoga that combines a variety of practises, including pranayama, mudras, visualisation, mantra meditation, and initiation to study the inner world through the human body. These Tantric practises and rituals are primarily concerned with kundalini energy development and accumulation.

6.Hatha yoga:

In order to achieve a condition of spiritual purity in which the mind is detached from the outside world, Hatha yoga emphasises physical control.

Benefits of Yoga: reduce the mental stress.

2.It improves strength, balance and flexibility. releases to you, to help you sleep better. gives more energy in positive vibration. control the mental stress.

6.It improves heart health

7.It can melt away tension.

8.Gain muscle strength.

9.It improves the quality of life.

Is yoga and meditation both are same:

No, meditation and yoga are not the same thing. Yoga is a form of exercise that uses specific body postures to achieve physical and mental health benefits, while meditation is a practice that can be done with or without movement in order to focus and calm the mind.


Definition of Feminism:

Feminism advocates for equal rights and opportunities for people of all genders. It involves valuing the different experiences, identities, skills, and strengths of women and working to ensure that every woman has the opportunity to exercise all of her legal rights.

Types of Feminism:

1.Liberal feminism.

2.Radical feminism.

3.Marxist and Socialist feminism.

4.Cultural feminism.

5.Eco feminism.

1.Liberal feminism:

The primary goal of liberal feminism, often known as mainstream feminism, is to achieve gender equality within the framework of liberal democracy through political and legal reform. It is frequently regarded as economically centrist and culturally progressive.

2.Radical feminism:

Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reorganisation of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts while acknowledging that other social divisions, such as those based on race, class, and sexual orientation, also have an impact on women’s experiences.

3.Marxist and Socialist feminism:

Marxism is one of the main sources of inspiration for socialist feminists, who contend that patriarchal hierarchies and the subjection of women were intended purposes of capitalism. Marxist and socialist feminism holds that overthrowing capitalist economic structures that exploit and undervalue women’s work is necessary to achieve gender equality.

4.Cultural feminism:

A subset of feminism known as cultural feminism emphasises the fundamental distinctions between men and women that are based on their biological capacities for procreation. Cultural feminism credits these distinctions with giving women special and superior qualities.

5.Eco feminism:

Like the social movements it arose from, ecofeminism is a combination of political activism and intellectual critique. Ecofeminism unites feminism and environmentalism in its claim that patriarchy and capitalism are to blame for capitalism’s environmental damage and the dominance of women.

History of feminism:

The history of feminism comprises the narratives of movements and ideologies which have aimed at equal rights for rights.

history of feminism can be divided in three waves.

1.First wave of feminism:

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a climate of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics gave rise to the first wave of feminism. With a focus on suffrage, this wave sought to increase possibilities for women.

2.Second wave of feminism:

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, there was a second wave of feminism that concentrated on concerns of equality and prejudice. The feminist liberation movement first gained popularity among American women, and it quickly expanded to other Western nations.

3.Third wave of feminism:

The Third Wave of Indian Feminism began in 1980 with the Five-Year Plan’s decision to prioritise women’s health, work, and education. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) run by women have multiplied in an effort to support other women. The Dalit and marginalised women’s rights were also championed by the movement.

Future of feminism:

The struggles for equality of opportunity in the workplace, political influence, and representation will be at the centre of the next wave of feminism. It will be about imagining and building a democracy and economy that works for all of us, safeguarding the weakest among us, and holding those responsible for our safety accountable.


Early life of Mahatma Gandhi:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, into a Hindu Modh family in Porbanadar, Gujarat, India. His father, named Karamchand Gandhi, was the Chief Minister (diwan) of the city of Porbandar. His mother, named Putlibai.

At the age of 13, Mahatma Gandhi was married to Kasturba which is an arranged marriage. They had four sons namely Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas and Devdas. She supported all the endeavors of her husband until her death in 1944.


Gandhi attended a neighbourhood school in Rajkot when he was nine years old, where he learned the fundamentals of math, history, geography, and languages. He attended a high school in Rajkot when he was eleven years old. His studies were disrupted by his marriage for at least a year, after which he rejoined the school system and finished his education. In 1888, he enrolled in Samaldas College in Bhavnagar, Gujarat. Mavji Dave Joshi, a family friend, then sought higher education, including law, in London. Gandhiji, who was dissatisfied with his academic performance at Samaldas College, became thrilled about the London plan and persuaded his mother and wife that he would not touch non-vegetarian food, alcohol, or women.

Contribution of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian freedom struggle:

The Champaran Movement in 1917, the Kheda Movement in 1918, the Khilafat Movement in 1919, the Non-Cooperation Campaign in 1920, the Quit India Movement in 1942, and the Civil Disobedience Movement are all part of Mahatma Gandhi’s freedom movement.

Champaran Movement:

Being Gandhi’s first Satyagraha movement in India, the Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 is regarded as a pivotal uprising in the history of the Indian Independence Movement. During the British colonial era, there was a farmer’s uprising in the Champaran area of Bihar, India.

Kheda Movement:

Mahatma Gandhi organised the Kheda Satyagraha of 1918, a satyagraha movement in Gujarat, India, during the reign of the British Raj. In the fight for Indian independence, it was a significant uprising. It was the third Satyagraha movement, and it began four days after the mill strike in Ahmedabad. Gandhi organised the effort to aid peasants who were unable to pay the tax because of starvation and plague epidemic after the successful Satyagraha staged in Champaran in Bihar.

Khilafat movement;

In addition to advocating for a larger campaign of non-cooperation at the same time, Mahatma Gandhi had supported the movement as part of his opposition to the British Empire. Several prominent members of the Congress, such as Vallabhbhai Patel and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, also backed the initiative.

Non co-operation campaign:

The leading proponent of the non-cooperation movement was Mahatma Gandhi. He published a manifesto in March 1920 outlining the movement’s nonviolent noncooperation stance. Follow swadeshi ideals is what Gandhi urged people to do in his manifesto. Leaders.

Quit india Movement:

On August 8, 1942, during World War II, Mahatma Gandhi began the August Kranti Campaign, also known as the Quit India Movement, calling for the end of British rule in India at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee.

Civil disobedience Movement:

Civil disobedience, also known as passive resistance, is the act of refusing to comply with the requests or orders of a government or occupying power without using force or other aggressive forms of resistance. Its typical goal is to pressure the government or occupying power into making concessions.

Mahatma Gandhi as Father Of Nation:

Mahatma Gandhi is the common name for Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Gandhi was a nationalist, lawyer, and opponent of colonialism. In opposition to British control over India, he organised a nonviolent mass movement that eventually led to the country’s independence. In India, Mahatma Gandhi is regarded as the founding father of the country.

The Eleven vows of Mahatma Gandhi:









9.Sarva Dharma Samanatva

10.Asangraha non posession


these are the 11 vows of Mahatma Gandhi.


What is motivation?

The word “motive,” which refers to a person’s needs, wishes, wants, or drives, is the root of the word “motivation.” It is the process of inspiring people to act in order to accomplish a goal. In the context of career aspirations, psychological factors influencing people’s behaviour may include a desire for money.

How will you motivate yourself to achieve your goals:

1.Keep an ongoing review of your objectives and results. Making improvement is incredibly motivating in and of itself, and it also raises your self-esteem.

2.Continue to set new goals. Think about what you want to achieve next week, next month and next year. Tackle one goal at a time so you don’t feel overwhelmed.

3.Maintain the momentum. The average person needs  months to form a new habit, but it might take considerably longer for other people. Over time, it becomes increasingly automatic as long as the momentum and pattern are maintained.

4.Identify role models who have experience in the habit you want to change, such as someone you look up to. You might find a mentor by looking for social or support groups with a similar interest.

5.Be in the company of uplifting individuals. Your positive self-talk is strengthened by supportive friends and relatives. Moreover, it aids in the management of anxiety and depression symptoms.

6.Make exercising a daily priority to enhance your mental well-being.

Types of Motivation:

Motivation is four types.

They are:

1.Incentive motivation.

2.Fear motivation.

3.Power motivation.

4.Social motivation.

Importance of Motivation:

The general growth of a person’s personality and thinking depend greatly on their level of motivation. Together with that, it makes a person active and competitive. The efficiency and motivation to accomplish the goal both increase as a result. Stability and progress at work follow from it.

Self Motivation:

Self-motivation is the ability to remain motivated despite the impact of outside circumstances and individuals. Also, self-motivated people always find the strength and logic to finish a task. Also, they do not require outside motivation to complete a difficult activity.

Importance of Self Motivation:

In whatever task they are performing, they learn how to show their best selves. Because accomplishing their goals requires time and work, they grow more resilient. They are driven by passion, which gives them a desire to succeed. When they fail, they view the criticism as a teaching moment.

Types of Self Motivation:

1.Extrinsic Motivation.

2.Intrinsic Motivation

3.Family Motivation.

Self motivation is the key to success:

The capacity to inspire oneself to take initiative and action in pursuit of objectives and task completion is known as self-motivation. It’s an innate desire to act, to create, and to accomplish things. It is what motivates you to continue working on projects, especially those that you are pursuing for personal reasons rather than because someone else ordered you to.


What is computer?

A computer is a programmable electronic device that accepts data, performs mathematical and logical processes as directed quickly, and displays the outcomes. There are many distinct kinds of computers, including mainframes, desktop and laptop computers, tablets, and cellphones.

The Basic components of a computer Hardware:

1.CPU(central processing unit)

2.RAM(Random Access Memory)

3.ROM(Read Only Memory)

4.Mother board



1.Cental Processing Unit:

The part of a computer that obtains and executes instructions is called the central processing unit (CPU). A CAD system’s CPU can be thought of as its brain. It is made up of a control unit, a number of registers, and an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). The term “processor” is frequently used to refer to the CPU.

2.Random Access Memory:

A computer’s short-term memory, or RAM (random access memory), is where the data that the processor is presently using is kept. RAM memory capacity is essential for system performance since your computer can access RAM memory data more faster than data on a hard drive, SSD, or other long-term storage device.

3.Read Only Memory:

A type of computer storage called read-only memory, or ROM, contains non-volatile, permanent data that typically may only be read from, not written to. The software that enables a computer to boot up or regenerate each time it is turned on is stored in the ROM.

4.Mother Board:

The primary printed circuit board in all-purpose computers and other expanding systems is called a motherboard. It provides connectors for additional peripherals and retains and enables communication between many of the critical electronic parts of a system, including the memory and central processing unit.


A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or textual form. A discrete monitor comprises a visual display, support electronics, power supply, housing, electrical connectors, and external user controls.


A computer mouse is a tiny, movable object that you can use to operate a variety of things. Most mouse types have two buttons, while some may also have a wheel positioned in the middle of the buttons. The majority of mouse models utilise the computer’s power and a cable connection to connect to it. Wireless mouse come in a few varieties.

versions of a computer:

On the basis of data handling capabilities. Three types of versions are there. they are

1.Analog computers.

2.Digital computers

3.Hybrid computers

1.Analog computers:


A computer that uses continually changing components, such as mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, etc. is known as an analogue computer. They originally saw use in the 1950s and 1960s. They employ continuous values rather than discrete ones. These computers therefore operate on an analogue signal.

2.Digital computers:


A digital electronic computer is a type of computer that is both an electrical computer and a digital computer, according to computer science. Digital electronic computers include devices like the Apple Macintosh, the IBM PC, and contemporary smartphones.

3.Hybrid computer:


Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit features of analog computers and digital computers. The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical and numerical operations, while the analog component often serves as a solver of differential equations and other mathematically complex problems. 

History of computer:

An abacus was one of the earliest and most well-known tools. The first mechanical computer was then being developed by Charles Babbage, the inventor of computers, in 1822. Finally, he created an analytical engine, a general-purpose computer, in 1833.


In every nation on earth, women are the primary kid and elder caretakers. Worldwide studies show that women take the lead in assisting the family in adjusting to new realities and problems as a society’s economy and political structure change.

These are the fundamental building blocks of society; they form a family, which in turn forms a home, which in turn forms a society, which in turn forms a nation. Hence, from giving birth and caring for a child throughout their entire life, women contribute in many different ways.

They are portraying a professional, a competent housewife, and a proud mother and daughter. In the past, women were only thought of as caring for the home and young children. Yet these days, people work in many industries to discover their hidden skills as well as to get independence and make money for themselves

Women’s role as a family guide:

The success of sustainable development and family life depends on women. The different roles that women play in the family include those of wife, head of the household, administrator, manager of finances, and last but not least, mother.

women’s role in education system:

Women with education can contribute significantly to society’s socioeconomic growth. Inequalities and disparities are eliminated through education as a way to regain one’s standing both inside and outside of one’s family. It is essential to women’s empowerment, prosperity, growth, and wellbeing.

In addition to encouraging their girl children’s education, educated women are better able to guide their entire family. Moreover, educated women can contribute to population increase and a decline in infant mortality.

women’s role in politics:

In terms of the percentage of women in Parliament, India comes in twenty-first from the bottom. In India, women have served as president, prime minister, and chief ministers of several different states. Women have long been elected by Indian people to various state legislative bodies and the national parliament.

As a working women:

Working women typically view their employment favourably because it has a significant impact on their status. Notwithstanding the impact that stress and family issues play, employment inevitably improves her status, boosts her feeling of self-worth, and gives her higher psychological well-being.

Women’s role in sports:

Sports have long been recognised for their beneficial effects on young girls’ and women’s liberation. Sports participation can help dispel gender stereotypes, boost women’s and girls’ self-esteem, and promote the growth of leadership and strategic thinking abilities.

The role of women in society:

1.A women should be given equal opportunities i socially and economically.

2.Because they are women, they must always be respected and never treated with disrespect.

3.Schooling should be made available for the girls in the rural area

4.Women should be headstrong and believe in them. They must voice their option without any fear.

5.During the middle ages, the women’s position in the society became inferior as compared to men, and the condition of the deteriorated.

6.We should remember the contribution of woman leaders and have a positive attitude towards woman controlling the government.


Social media supports many businesses as well as society as a whole. It offers resources like social media marketing tools to connect with millions of potential customers. Using social media, we may easily access information and obtain news. Any social cause can benefit greatly from the usage of social media.

Social media in our society used in several ways.

they are:

1.Education .




In many ways social media used.


Teachers can use social media to connect with their peoples. even when they are not in the classroom. Students may access an infinite number of resources and texts from reliable sources by using social media platforms, which they can then use to their advantage in essays, projects, and presentations.

Students are inspired and encouraged to learn through the usage of social media platforms in the classroom. Major factors that contribute to educational progress include simple access to e-books, online notes, and learning through video conversations.

Advantages of social media in Education:

1.To learn new things for studying

2.Social media provides current information and updates to the students.

3.Increases connections among to the students.

4.Learn new skills to students

5.Improve Knowledge retention and understanding.

6.It builds a community for students.

7.Even Teachers are out of the station .They are communicate in online class room.


Most farmers today use smartphones with internet and social media capabilities. Social media is being used by farmers to exchange information, novel techniques, etc. The most well-known social media sites for agricultural marketing. .The spread of various agricultural information is being greatly aided by social media in the agricultural sector. It aids in bridging the geographic gap that separates farmers in various locations.

Advantages of social media in Agriculture:

1.Advanced training provided by farmers on use of social media.

2.Farmers share there plans in groups by use of socil medioa.

3.create organic content.

4.Get knowledge about what type of crops are in fields.


Social media provides a venue for businesses to engage with their clients and establish a cherished relationship, making social media marketing a crucial component of digital marketing. It streamlines communication between brands and customers by cutting out the middlemen.

Advantages of social media in Business:

1.Develope the brand of our business.

2.Do market research and reduce marketing prices

3.Increase your market,international market business.

4.attract customers, get customer feedback and build customer loyalty.

5.Improve business ideas to develop business.

6.keep an eye for your competitors.


In essence, social entertainment marketing may be used to describe any type of online content that is published or broadcast with the intention of entertaining its audience. Long or short-form videos, live streaming, and other types of content that promote a closer relationship between content producers and users are now popular trends.

The popular social media entertainment apps are You tube,face book,Whats app,Instagram,Twitter,Tiktok.

Advantages of social media on Entertainment:

1.Use of social media for promoting and advertising.

2.To watch movies on online OTT platforms.

3.Stress relief for entertaining apps.

4.stay update on local and global events.

5.Enjoy video games and films.

6.Wide range of availability.

Disadvantages of social media:

1.It addict the people.

2.Self image issues

3.Increasing of usage, The more time spent on social media can lead to social anxiety,depression and exposure content

that is not appropriate.

4.A fear of missing out can keep you returning to social media again and again.

5.Feeling inadequate about your life or your appearance.



A calm environment with few distractions, a relaxed posture, a focus of attention, and an open mindset are the four essential components of meditation. Meditation is described as a mind-body activity that focuses on interactions between the brain, mind, body, and behaviour.

Types of Meditation:

Different types of Meditations are there. But mainly three types of meditations.

they are:

1.concentrative Mefitation.

2.Mindfulness Meditation.

3.Guided Meditation.

1.Concentrative Meditation:


The focus of attention is highlighted in concentrated meditation. This type of meditation involves concentrating on just one thing, such as the sensation of one’s breath, a sound like a ticking clock, the repetition of a single word or phrase in one’s head, or an actual object, such a candle that is burning or a piece of art.

Purpose of Concentrative Meditation:

The goal is to just be aware of your feelings, not to lose yourself in them. An object, speech, or breath that is the focus of concentration. To stop your mind from wandering, the objective is to let go of your thoughts and maintain or redirect your concentration on that area.

2.Mindfulness Meditation:


A particular form of meditation known as mindfulness focuses on your ability to be acutely aware of your senses and emotions in the present moment without analysing or judging them. In order to calm the body and mind and help with stress reduction, practising mindfulness involves breathing techniques, guided imagery, and other techniques.

purpose of Mindfulness Meditation:

By practising mindfulness, we can prevent ourselves from losing our cool and becoming overwhelmed by unpleasant bodily sensations, pessimistic thoughts, and painful emotions that arise in response to stressful events. Stressful situations won’t go away, but we can learn how to react to them wisely.

3.Guided Meditation:

A style of meditation known as “guided meditation” is one that is conducted by a teacher, either in person or via audio or video. It is advised that you have a professional guide you through the fundamentals of your meditation practise when you first begin.

Purpose of Guided Meditation:

The duration of guided meditation might range from a few minutes to several hours. In any case, the goal is to relieve stress and promote physical, mental, and emotional recovery.

Why Meditation is so powerful:

Your sensation of quiet, peace, and balance that meditation can bring you can help your physical and emotional health. By concentrating your attention on something peaceful, you can also utilise it to unwind and manage stress. You can learn to keep your focus and maintain inner serenity by practising meditation.

Advantages of Meditation:

1.Improve Self awareness.

2.Enhances Mental health.

3.Reduce fear.

4.Pecefulness of Mind.

5.Improve Sleep hygiene

6.Increasing patience and tolerance

7.Reduce Negative emotions.

8.Skills to control your stress.

9.Improve Creative thinking

10.Increasing the concentration to our goal.

11.Generate empathy and kindness.

12.lowering resting of heart rate

13.control blood pressure

14.immunity our health

15.focusing on the present situation.

Rules of Meditation:

1. Sit down. Locate a quiet, peaceful area where you may sit.
2.Set a time limit
3. Take note of your body.
4.Feel your breath.
5. Recognize when your thoughts have strayed.
6. Close with kindness.
7. End on a kind note.


The coronavirus pandemic’s effects on India have primarily disrupted economic activities and resulted in fatalities. With a few notable outliers where high growth was witnessed, almost all industries have been negatively impacted since domestic demand and exports have dramatically decreased.

With over 2.5 million confirmed cases and an increasing death toll, India has one of the highest rates of COVID-19 infection in the world (15, 16). On January 30, 2020 in Kerala a student who had just returned from Wuhan, China, was found to have the first instance of COVID-19 .

Which sectors are Effected by Covid-19 pandemic In India:

The following sectors effected by the covid-19 pandemic in India.

They are:

1.Agriculture and food security




5.Automobilee industries industry.

7.Textile industry


1.Agriculture and food :

COVID-19 had a negative impact on the food supply chain financially and by restricting labour movement, altering consumer demand, closing food manufacturing facilities, and restricting food trade laws. Governments should therefore make it easier for people and agricultural and food products to travel.

Food security has been compromised since the COVID-19 pandemic as a result of limitations on food production, processing, and marketing. A high price was noted for fresh goods, particularly vegetables, fish, and meat, as a result of delivery route disruptions.


There is a good likelihood that the education of female and transgender children will have an impact on the opportunity and financial expenses of doing so, as their parents may see. In addition to affecting students, this epidemic also negatively impacted low-cost institutions and schools, forcing several to close.

Almost 250 million pupils in India were impacted by the shutdown of schools at the start of the lockdown brought on by COVID-19. The epidemic presented both public and private schools with a number of difficulties, including an increase in dropouts, learning losses, and the digital divide.


In every country in the world, the tourism industry has been severely hit by the coronavirus outbreak. Every aspect of the tourism industry, whether it be aviation, hotels, transportation, tour guides, or restaurants, has been negatively impacted in a way that is unprecedented.

The epidemic has disrupted local communities overall by affecting not just foreign exchange earnings (FEE), but also numerous regional developments and job prospects. The research seeks to forecast foreign tourists’ arrival in India and FEE using artificial neural networks in light of a significant reduction in foreign visitor visits in 2020. (ANN). Additionally, we examine the effects of COVID-19 in terms of loss and gain in FEE based on four scenarios that take lockdown into account. Last but not least, the outcomes will assist policymakers in optimising FEE while also assisting them in making important strategic and operational decisions.


With comparison to 2019, it is predicted that traffic will decrease by 56% in 2020. As the previous projection was $66 billion, the region’s GDP that is supported by aviation will continue to decline by up to $85 billion. The transportation industry has been one of COVID-19’s main victims. Every industry, from airlines to rickshaw pullers, has been impacted financially by the pandemic. In March 2020, India’s total energy demand decreased by 11%. The demand for passenger travel has been significantly impacted by lockdown in several nations. Regarding the short-term need for transportation, the freight industry has had a mixed impact. Truck drivers are in high demand for the conveyance of necessities. For instance, after the COVID outbreak, there has been a 40% to 60% rise in the volume of goods moving into supermarkets and warehouses in the US2. However in the medium run, it’s anticipated that COVID’s slowdown and supply chain disruption will reduce demand for freight.

5.Automobile industries:

COVID‐19 affected automobile new vehicle sales very badly especially in the month of February 2020. Like, in China new sales of vehicles have fallen by 92% in February. Also, in European countries total vehicle sales were dropped by 7.4% when compared to that of sales in last year. industry :

The reduction of fishing and fish farming activities will reduce the amount of fish available for processing and trade. Furthermore, mobility restrictions will adversely affect the transfer of fish to markets. This will particularly impact women, who are mostly in charge of these activities. Traders had projected a price decline of 20–40%. Fish is a perishable food, therefore panicked consumers are driving up demand for packaged and frozen goods. But, the processing and canning industries won’t be able to meet this demand due to a lack of labour.

7.Textile industry:

According to the organisation representing the garment industry, Clothes Manufacturers Association of India, there could be up to one crore job layoffs in the textiles sector, which has been adversely impacted by the current shutdown.

The 40,000 textile and garment manufacturers that were forced to close as a result of the enforced lockdown caused a significant disruption in supply and demand. According to a research by the apparel export development council, 83% of export orders had been fully or partially cancelled.

It is believed that the Corona virus is hurting India’s construction sector Rs 30,000 crore every day. This pandemic would likely reduce investment in the building sector by 13 to 30 percent, which will likely have an impact on employment and gross value added.

positive impact of Covid-19:

The sudden changes in human behaviour in response to the COVID-19 epidemic are having some unusual and unexpectedly favourable side effects, according to doctors and experts. The sky is bluer, there are fewer traffic accidents, fewer crimes, and some infectious diseases are disappearing from hospital emergency rooms.


Early life of Gautama Buddha:

He was born into a royal family in Lumbini, Nepal, in 623 BC. His mother was Queen Maya, and his father was King Shuddhodan. His mother passed away shortly after his birth, thus his stepmother Mahaprajapati reared him. He had another name as a child, Siddharta.

Family of Gautama Buddha:

At the age of sixteen, Yasodhara married Siddhartha. Although they had a good connection and showed respect for one another, it is also reported that neither of them had any strong feelings for marriage. It took Yaodhar a long time to become pregnant. Rahula, a boy, was born on the day Siddhartha departed the palace.

Founder of Buddhism:

The founder of Buddhism is thought to be Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhartha Gautama and Lord Buddha; those who practise Buddhism are known as Buddhists. Gautama Buddha is also known as the Buddha, which is a term for an enlightened person who has gained nirvana, or the state of being free from pain and ignorance.

The way to alightenment of Buddha:

Buddha left his wife in silence, without waking her, and headed for the forest while dressed in a straightforward monastic garment. He collaborated alongside Udraka Ramaputra and Alara Kalama, two professors. He learned how to prepare his thoughts to enter the realm of nothingness from Alara Kalama. He learned how to enter the zone of focus in the mind, which is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness, from Udraka Ramaputra. Buddha ultimately parted ways with both of his gurus in search of freedom.

Buddha and his five companions engaged in asceticism for six years, eating only one grain of rice each day and battling their bodies. Buddha’s five companions dispersed once he decided to give up asceticism.

In a village, Buddha was offered a disk of milk and several vessels of honey by a woman named Sujata. After this, he went to bathe himself in the Nairanjana river, and then sat underneath the bodhi tree, where he meditated. After seven days, he was liberated from the chains of human suffering and became “Buddha”, the enlightened one.

Who is the founder of Buddhism?

Siddhartha Gautama, the father of Buddhism, was a well-off family man who was born in the year 563 BCE. Gautama abandoned his luxurious lifestyle in favour of asceticism, or strict self-control. Gautama became the Buddha, or “enlightened one,” after 49 days of nonstop meditation.

History of Buddhism:

The birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama marks the beginning of Buddhism’s history, which extends from the sixth century BCE to the present. As a result, it ranks among the oldest current religions. The religion evolved over this time as it faced numerous nations and cultures, adding Hellenistic, Central Asian, East Asian, and Southeast Asian cultural aspects to its original Indian core. As a result, the majority of the Asian continent was impacted at some point by its geographical expansion. The rise of several movements and schisms, most notably the Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana traditions, along with contrasting eras of expansion and seclusion, are other features of Buddhism’s history.

Types of Buddhism:

There are mainly three types.

1.Theravada Buddhism

2.Mahayana Buddhism.

3.Vajrayana Buddhism.

1.Theravada Buddhism:

Theravada Buddhism places a strong focus on achieving self-liberation by personal endeavour. Concentration and meditation are essential steps on the path to enlightenment. The best path is to dedicate oneself to monastic life full-time.

2.Mahayana Buddhism:

In contrast to other Buddhists, Mahayana adherents aim to not only free themselves from suffering but also to guide others on the path to enlightenment and liberation.

3.Vajrayana Buddhism:

According to Vajrayana Buddhism, enlightenment can be attained in a single lifetime as opposed to requiring repeated practises of morality, compassion, ethics, and meditation. This rapid transformation is facilitated by the use of spiritual tools including breathing exercises, mantras, and visualisation.

The Teaching’s of Gautama Buddha:

  1. Be mindful of your objective.
  2. Speak kindly to others.
  3. Your mindset is socially conscious.4.Come join the orderly occupation.
  4. Don’t depend on other people.
  5. Focus on the now.


Definition of Online Shopping:

Electronic commerce, sometimes known as e-commerce, is fundamentally the act of purchasing and selling products and services via the internet when consumers purchase online. Nonetheless, the phrase is frequently used to refer to all of a seller’s online efforts to offer goods to customers directly.

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Who was invented online shopping?

Michael Aldrich, an English businessman, invented online shopping in 1979. His technique utilised a domestic telephone line to connect a real-time transaction processing computer to a modified domestic TV.

Who started online shopping in India?

When planning: Get to know the man who launched India’s first online store in the 1990s. In 1999, K Vaitheeswaran launched, which was India’s first e-commerce site. There was Fabmart before there was Flipkart, Myntra, and Snapdeal. K. Vaitheeswaran predated the Bansals.

History of Online shopping:

Either NetMarket or Internet Shopping Network conducted the first secure online retail transaction in 1994. Right after, in 1995, eBay and both established their online retail platforms. Taobao and Tmall, two websites owned by Alibaba, were introduced in 2003 and 2008, respectively.

Features of Online Shopping:

There are 7 key features of online shopping.

they are:

1.A mobile website option.

2.Free are affordable delivery alternatives.

3.Improved navigation and search possibilities.

4.Excellent image selections and images.

5.A through product description.

6.product reviews from customers.

7.A quick check out option for Guests.

A list of websites for Online shopping in India:


2.Flip cart


4. Ajio

5.Snap deal






these are commonly used websites for online shopping.


Amazon has had a big impact on the internet business scene. It provides a huge selection of goods. They offer a range of things, including furniture, electronics, appliances, clothing, toys, and sportswear. They provide a Prime membership that offers a variety of advantages like free shipping and faster delivery. The “Amazon Great Indian Sale,” which is their biggest annual sales event, is held there. Without a doubt, Amazon is a popular service both in India and around the globe.

2.Flip cart:

Flipkart is an all-in-one destination for all of your daily needs. Their online store sells apparel, appliances, sporting goods, furniture, laptops, and electronics. They provide significant discounts on the bulk of their products and a range of convenient payment options. They have gained phenomenal success as a consequence of their unbelievable daily deals.


Meesho is redefining the way that internet markets function. This Indian market offers a platform for small businesses to promote their products. Anyone can use it as a platform to sign up as a vendor and run a home-based business. It made use of social media platforms to help its merchants connect with customers. It provides goods throughout several different categories. It’s simple to shop on and browse our online store.


Ajio is an online fashion store that launched in 2016. This online store offers the biggest selection of women’s private label apparel. The inventory consists of apparel and accessories from all across the nation, the globe, and India. The online store offers more than 200 domestic and foreign brands of clothing, accessories, jewellery, and footwear.


Snapdeal is another online store that offers a wide range of products at deep discounts, including electronics, mobile phones, clothing for men and women, shoes, and home appliances. You may purchase high-quality goods while still saving money with their daily promotions. Snapdeal offers particular products with free shipping and same-day delivery.


An Indian online eyewear retailer called Lenskart offers a variety of goods to the general public, including contact lenses, prescription sunglasses, and eyeglasses. Robotics are used internally by Lenskart to make and assemble lenses to the highest standards of quality. The leading eyeglasses e-commerce site has an omnichannel strategy and has both an online and rapidly expanding offline presence. Lenskart not only sells eyewear but also accessories, all of which are sent right to your house. Men’s and women’s sunglasses and eyeglasses come in a variety of designs and hues.


Luxury items, beauty products, accessories, and clothing are just a few of the products available on Myntra. Their expansive reach and reputation as a trustworthy online shopping destination have been built through their aggressive advertising and massive sales events. Not to mention how straightforward it is for them to return or exchange items. Myntra is owned by Flipkart, which also offers a rewards programme called Myntra Insider to promote customer interaction. Consumers can show their thanks by exchanging their Insider points for deals and other prizes.


Almost anything is now feasible to perform online thanks to the development of the internet, including pharmaceutical delivery to a patient’s door. As a market leader today, Pharmeasy was a pioneer in India’s online e-pharmacy industry. Together with prescription drugs, it also gives consumers access to online testing, virtual doctor visits, and a number of other services. The organisation has faith in its ability to offer top-notch services at a competitive price.


Nykaa has swiftly become India’s top source for beauty products. This online store sells just about anything you can think of. From soaps to luxury cosmetics, there is something for everyone. The business has worked with numerous international brands over the years, launching these products just on their website. It’s a great place to purchase for skincare, toiletries, personal care, and cosmetics because they are all offered at steep prices. They also market products under their own name, including body wash, shampoo, lipsticks, and lotions.


The goal of Pepperfry is to satisfy every customer’s furniture needs. This online store provides everything, including rentals, a wide range of furniture options, and custom items. If you only need the furniture for a short time, it’s a lovely alternative. It is one of India’s more well-known online furniture businesses and offers a wider selection than any other furniture company.

purpose of online shopping:

A web-based programme called Online Shopping was created with online retailers in mind. This application’s key goals are to be user-friendly and interactive. It would facilitate product searching, viewing, and selection.

Importance of online shopping:

Because we are buying items for the people we care about or  shopping with them, shopping makes us happy. Shopping is a means to express affection, which in turn helps you feel good and not simply buy things or calm yourself down. Another approach to show that you care is to go shopping.

Advantages of online shopping:

1.The convenience of shopping at home.

2.Save time and efforts.

3.Wide variety of products are available.

4.Good discounts or low prices are available.

5.Get detailed information about the product.

6.We can compare various models and brands.

7.Saves money.

Disadvantages of online shopping:

1.Delay in delivery.

2.Frauds in online shopping.

3.Online stores do not offer substantial discounts.

4.Absence of product touch and feel while shopping online.

5.Online shopping’s lack of interaction.

6.No experience with shopping.

7.Online shopping is done without careful inspection.


Ozone layer:

The majority of the UV light from the Sun is absorbed by the Earth’s stratosphere’s ozone layer, also known as the ozone shield. Compared to other areas of the atmosphere, it has a high concentration of ozone, yet it is still relatively low in comparison to other gases in the stratosphere.

Ozone Layer Depletion:

The high atmosphere’s ozone layer gets thinned due to ozone layer depletion. This occurs when ozone molecules come into touch with chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere and are broken down. Ozone molecules can be destroyed by one chlorine molecule. It doesn’t get made as quickly as it gets destroyed.

Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion:

The ozone layer blocks harmful ultraviolet (UVB) light wavelengths from entering the Earth’s atmosphere. These wavelengths hurt plants and animals as well as cause skin cancer, sunburn, permanent blindness, and cataracts, all of which were predicted to sharply increase as a result of the weakening of the ozone layer.

Increased UV radiation reaching Earth as a result of ozone depletion may increase the incidence of skin cancer, cataracts, and immune system impairment. The most lethal form of skin cancer, melanoma, is thought to be on the rise as a result of excessive UV exposure.

Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion:

Mainly there are 5 types of causes for Ozone Layer Depletion.

They are:

1.Chlorofluoro Carbons.

2.Nitrogenous Compounds

3.Bromine Compounds

4.Natural Causes

5.Fossil fuels destroy the Ozone Layer

1.Chlorofluoro Carbons:

CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons, are to blame for the ozone layer’s thinning. The Ozone Layer helps block dangerous UV rays that would otherwise burn plants and cause skin cancer in people. Ozone molecules break down as a result of chemical processes brought on by CFCs, decreasing the amount of UV radiation that can be absorbed.

2.Nitrogenous Compounds:

Just above the region with the highest ozone concentrations, nitrogen oxides are the main cause of ozone depletion. As a result, NOx effectively destroys ozone . Because only around 10% of N2O is converted to NOx, compared to the CFCs’ potential contribution of all of their chlorine, the ODP of N2O is smaller than that of CFCs.

3.Bromine Compounds:

Loss of ozone. Ozone molecules are destroyed when chlorine and bromine atoms come into touch with them in the stratosphere. Until it is eliminated from the stratosphere, one chlorine atom can destroy more than 100,000 ozone molecules. More quickly than it is produced naturally, ozone can be destroyed.

4.Natural Causes:

It has been discovered that some natural processes, such solar flares and stratospheric winds, degrade the ozone layer. Yet, it only contributes to 1-2% of the ozone layer loss. The ozone layer is being destroyed due to volcanic eruptions as well.

5.Fossil Fuels destroy the Ozone:

The widespread usage of fossil fuels in daily life has brought about an era of ozone layer depletion and global warming. When burned, fossil fuels like gasoline, diesel, natural gas, etc. release dangerous greenhouse gases like CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, etc.

Effect of Ozone Layer Depletion on Environment:

ncreased UV-B rays that reach the earth’s surface as a result of stratospheric ozone loss have the potential to disrupt biological processes and harm a variety of materials. The common sunburn that results from excessive sun exposure is a good example of how UV -B can have an impact on biological processes.

Effect of Ozone Layer Depletion on Plants:

More dangerous UV rays are penetrating Earth’s surface as a result of the ozone layer being destroyed. As radiation levels rise, plants are unable to swiftly adapt, which can have a negative impact on their physiological and developmental processes.

Effect of Ozone Layer Depletion on Animals:

Early developmental stages of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians, and other marine species have been discovered to be damaged by UVB light. Reduced fertility and hampered larval development are the most serious impacts.

Solutions for Ozone Layer Depletion:

1.Minimize the use of Vehicles

2.Use Eco-Friendly cleaning products

3.Pesticides should not be used

4.Ozone Depleting products Should not be used

5.Renewable sources of Energy.

6.Reuse and Recycle

1.Minimize the use of Vehicles:

The simplest method to stop ozone depletion is to minimise the number of cars on the road. Large amounts of greenhouse gases are released by these vehicles, which eventually condense into smog and contribute to the ozone layer’s thinning.

2.Use Eco-Friendly cleaning products:

The bulk of cleaning supplies for the home are made with harsh chemicals that leach into the air and thin the ozone layer. Use natural and environmentally friendly cleaning supplies to prevent this from happening.

3.Pesticides should not be used:

Pesticides are useful tools for managing weeds and pests on your farm, but they can dramatically harm the ozone layer. The most efficient technique to get rid of weeds and pests is with natural remedies. Simply hand-weed your farm and use environmentally safe pesticides as an option to combat pests.

4.Ozone Depleting products Should not be used:

When you go shopping, avoid purchasing products that contain chlorofluorocarbons in aerosol form. If the primary ingredient in your fire extinguishers is “halon” or “halogenated hydrocarbon,” check them out. Dispose of any outdated freezers and air conditioners that use chlorofluorocarbons. This could result in the discharge of toxic compounds into the atmosphere.

5.Renewable Sources of Energy:

In order to stop the destruction of the ozone layer, renewable energy sources must be used and developed. Fossil fuels like coal are a key source of electricity in addition to nuclear energy.

6.Reuse and Recycle:

We should also make an effort to reuse as many of our possessions as we can. We need to make sure they can be properly recycled if we stop using them. In this approach, we can lessen the demand on natural resources. As a result, we also prevent the harm that resource exploitation causes to the ecosystem.



When chemicals contaminate water sources, the water becomes unsafe for use in drinking, cooking, cleaning, swimming, and other activities. Chemicals, waste, microorganisms, and parasites are examples of pollutants. All types of pollutants eventually end up in water.

Causes of Water Pollution:

  1. Climate change.
  2. Deforestation.
  3. Livestock farming, agriculture, and industry.
  4. Dumping of waste and faeces.
  5. Shipping activity.
  6. Petrol leaks.
  7. Industrial waste is number.
  8. Sewage and Wastewater.
  9. Dumping of Marines.
  10. Unintentional Oil Leakage.
  11. The use of fossil fuels for energy.

Effects of Water pollution:

*Damage to biodiversity. Water pollution destroys aquatic ecosystems and causes eutrophication, or the uncontrolled growth of phytoplankton in lakes.
*Food chain contamination 
* lack of potable water
*infant mortality

Different Types of Water Pollution:

There are six types of water pollutions are there

1.Chemical Water pollution

2.Ground water pollution

3.Microbiological pollution

4,Nutrient water pollution

5.Oxygen-depletion pollution pollution

6.Surface water pollution

1.Chemical Water pollution:

Heavy metals like mercury, lead, and cadmium, industrial solvents, pesticide runoff, ship oil spills, and other chemicals are examples of chemical pollution. They are lethal to aquatic life forms and can impair reproduction. When the metal wastes enter our bodies, they become harmful to us as well.

2.Ground Water pollution:

Applications of pesticides and fertilisers to crops and lawns can build up and move to the water table. Moreover, bacteria can enter water through leaks from septic tanks and/or landfills, and pesticides and fertilisers that permeate agricultural soil can eventually end up in water obtained from a well. 

3.Microbiological Water pollution:

Water sewage treatment facilities, combined sewage overflows (CSO), non-collective sewage systems, domesticated animals (manure spreading, pit stock overflow), and wildlife are frequently the sources of faecal contamination.

4.Nutrient Water pollution:

When too many nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus, are added to water bodies, they can function as fertiliser and encourage an excessive amount of algae growth. This process is known as nutrient pollution. When lawn and garden fertilisers are applied in metropolitan areas, nutrients may drain off the ground.

5.Oxygen-Depletion Water pollution:

When the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO; molecular oxygen dissolved in the water) falls to a level that is harmful to the aquatic creatures that are living in the system, a phenomena known as oxygen depletion takes place.

6.Surface Water pollution:

A type of pollution known as surface water pollution occurs above ground in places like lakes, rivers, streams, and seas. Runoff from dirty rainwater into surrounding water sources causes these waters to become polluted.


Water pollution Impact on Human health:

According to the WHO, nearly 2 billion people are forced to drink water that has been tainted by faeces, putting them at risk for illnesses including cholera, hepatitis A, and dysentery. infant death rates. Over 1,000 children globally die from diarrheal infections each day, according to the UN, which are connected to poor hygiene. Water is a crucial component of human health, hence contaminated water has an immediate impact on human health. Many illnesses including typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, cancer, etc. are brought on by water contamination. By lowering the water’s oxygen concentration, water pollution harms the river’s flora and aquatic life.

Control of Water pollution:

1.Appropriately Dispose of Hazardous Chemicals.

2.Think about water pollution when you shop.

3.Employ phosphate-free detergent and dish soap

4.Avoid pouring fat and grease down the drain.

5.Inspect your sump pump or cellar drain.

6.Eat more organic food.

7.Appropriately dispose of medical waste.

8.Help clean up litter in water filled areas.

These are some points to control Water pollution.

Schemes to Prevent water pollution in India:

1.National River Conservation Progarmme

2.National Lake Conservation Programme

3.Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation

4.Smart cities mission

5.Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

these are the schemes to prevent Water pollution in India

AUTOMATIC TECHNOLOGY-(Artificial Intelligence)


The replication of human intelligence functions by machines, particularly computer systems, is known as artificial intelligence. Expert systems, natural language processing, speech recognition, and machine vision are some examples of specific AI applications.

Purpose of Artificial Intelligence:

Machines may learn from experience, adapt to new inputs, and carry out activities similar to those performed by humans thanks to artificial intelligence (AI). Deep learning and natural language processing are prominently utilised in the majority of AI instances you hear about today, including self-driving vehicles and chess-playing computers.

Father of Artificial Intelligence:

One of the most important figures in the industry was John McCarthy. He is referred to be the “father of artificial intelligence” due to his outstanding contributions to computer science and AI. The term “artificial intelligence” was first used by McCarthy in the 1950s. It is “the science and engineering of creating intelligent machines,” according to his definition.

History of Artificial Intelligence:

The origins of artificial intelligence (AI) can be traced back to ancient myths, tales, and legends of man-made creatures that were given intellect or consciousness by master craftsmen. Philosophers’ attempts to characterise human thought as the mechanical manipulation of symbols laid the groundwork for modern artificial intelligence. The programmable digital computer, a device built on the abstract core of mathematical reasoning, was created as a result of this work in the 1940s. A few scientists were motivated to start seriously debating the viability of creating an electronic brain by this device and the concepts that went into creating it.During a workshop held in the summer of 1956 on the campus of Dartmouth College in the United States, the area of AI research was established. Individuals in attendance would go on to spearhead AI research for many years. Several of them claimed that within a generation, a machine will be as intelligent as a human person, and they were given millions of dollars to realise this vision. 

Types of Artificial Intelligence:

The four main categories of AI now recognised .

1. Reactive artificial intelligence

2.Limited memory artificial intelligence

3Theory of mind artificial intelligence

4.Self-aware artificial intelligence

1.Reactive artificial intelligence:

The most fundamental category of unsupervised AI is reactive machines. They can only respond to the conditions that are happening right now, hence the term “reactive,” as they are unable to build memories or use prior experiences to inform present-day decisions.

2.Limited memory artificial intelligence:

Artificial intelligence is one type that has limited memory. It alludes to an AI’s capacity to retain past information and forecasts and use it to inform future predictions. The complexity of ML design increases slightly when memory is constrained.

3.Theory of mind artificial intelligence:

The term “theory of mind” in psychology refers to the idea that humans have ideas, feelings, and emotions that influence their behaviour. Future AI systems must learn to comprehend the fact that everyone has ideas and feelings, including AI objects and human beings. To be able to interact with us, future AI systems will need to be able to adapt their behaviour.

4.Self aware artificial intelligence:

 Self-aware artificial intelligence is nothing but machines and robots performing and thinking like human beings. To be more specific, self-aware AI will be capable of functioning like the human brain.

Applications of Artificial intelligence:

*Personalized Shopping.
*AI-Powered Assistants.
*Fraud Prevention.
*Administrative Tasks Automated to Aid Educators.
*Creating Smart Content.
*Voice Assistants.
*Personalized Learning.
*Autonomous Vehicles.

Artificial intelligence used in computer:

The ability of a computer or robot controlled by a computer to perform tasks that are typically performed by humans because they call for human intelligence and judgement is known as artificial intelligence (AI).

Future of Artificial intelligence:

The Workplace of the Future and Our Everyday Lives with AI. According to a recent research from Grand View Research, the market for artificial intelligence would be worth USD 390.9 billion by 2025. By 2025, the market will expand at a CAGR of 46.2%, according to the forecast.


What is Architecture?

In contrast to the skills required for construction, architecture is the art and technique of designing and building. Sketching, conceiving, planning, designing, and building buildings or other structures constitutes both the process and the end result.

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Theory of Architecture:

The architectural theory tradition includes arguments for novel approaches to the architectural discipline and practise as well as critical commentary on or interpretations of architectural works, styles, or movements. It also includes instructions or directions for architectural design.

Importance of Theory of Architecture:

Architectural theory is the key to dispelling any ambiguity since it enables students to have a crystal-clear understanding of the facts’ constituent parts, classify them, and decipher their relationships, systematising their thinking and producing mature architectural solutions.

Types of Theory of Architecture:

This is a brief rundown of the several types of modern architectural design:

1.Productivism (technically based)
2.Rationalism (formal composition)
3.Structuralism (anthropological)
4.Populism (contextual)
5.Regionalism (locality based)
6.Deconstructivism (abstract)
7.Post-Modernism (similar to Populism)

Principles of Theory of Architecture:

A work of architecture can be identified by two qualities that set it apart from other built structures:

(1) Its fitness for human use in general and its adaptability to specific human activities
 (2) The stability and permanence of the work’s construction.
(3) The sharing of experience

Types of Architecture:

1.Residential Architecture

2.Commercial Architecture

3.Landscape Architecture

4.Interior design Architecture

5.Urban design Architecture

6.Green design Architecture

7.Indusrial Architecture

1.Residential Architecture:

Any structures intended for private occupancy, whether temporary or permanent, are considered residential buildings. Single-family, mobile, cottage, semi-detached, row home, and apartment building are the different forms of housing.

Importance of Residential architecture:

Living in a residential building has a number of benefits, including the fact that it is safer than commercial buildings and gives you more privacy. By paying a little charge, you can access a number of amenities, including swimming pools, gardens, elevators, sports facilities, and more.

2.Commercial Architecture:

A long history may be found in the practise of commercial architecture. This industry primarily focuses on the planning and construction of structures used to generate income or conduct business.

Importance of Commercial Architecture:

A significant component of the built environment is made up of commercial properties. They act as a base for the majority of the nation’s key sectors and offer public spaces where people may work, shop, socialise, and unwind.

3.Landscape Architecture:

Planning, designing, managing, and maintaining both the constructed and natural surroundings are all part of landscape architecture. With their special set of abilities, landscape architects seek to enhance the wellbeing of both people and the environment in all communities.

Importance of Landscape Architecture:

The goal of landscape architecture is to create communities and settings that are safe, secure, and beneficial to people’s health. Environments that include the natural and social worlds, urban areas and untamed areas, and land, water, and air are designed by landscape architects.

4.Interior design Architecture:

The process of delicately and creatively remodelling an existing interior space while honouring its historical significance is known as interior architecture. Interior architecture emphasises the practicality and material construction of interior spaces in addition to aesthetic design.

Importance of Interior design Architecture:

Fundamentally, a good interior design makes a space better by better suiting it for its intended use. For instance, if you’re designing a bedroom, you’ll include features that make it more calming. A well-designed office will be more productive and focused.

5.Urban design Architecture:

Urban design establishes the built and natural forms within which specific structures and infrastructure are sited, as well as the physical scale, space, and atmosphere of a location. As a result, it has an impact on the sustainability results and the equilibrium between natural ecosystems and developed settings.

Importance of Urban design Architecture:

It aids in enriching a variety of public areas, including homes, businesses, and community centres. A space’s prestige and value can be raised through urban design, which could boost the local economy, draw tourists, and improve the standard of living for residents.

6.Green design Architecture:

Green architecture is an architectural concept that supports renewable energy sources, energy efficiency, the safe reuse of building materials, and the location of structures while taking the environment into account.

Importance of Green design Architecture:

Green buildings are reducing carbon emissions, energy use, and waste. They are also preserving water, giving priority to safer materials, and limiting our exposure to toxins. The physical benefits may not be obvious to renters or visitors

7.Industrial Architecture:

Buildings in the industrial sector often use industrial architecture as its architectural design. Industrial buildings are created so that raw materials can be processed effectively and safely to create new products.

Importance of Industrial Architecture:

Industrial design must deal with complex services, offer effective strategies to handle the increasing importance of moving people and products, and encourage productive user interaction.

How to become an Architecture:

  1. After tenth grade, choose the science stream.
  2. Complete your Bachelor’s degree
  3. Submit a job application for an architect.
  4. Use training programmes to hone your skills
  5. Become a licenced or registered architect.
  6. Get Professional Certificates
  7. Complete a Master’s programme.

Is Architecture is a good career :

Certainly, there are many career options available for graduates of the decent education in architecture. The true designers of incredible structures and buildings are architects. Buildings are designed by architects, who also offer them a physical facelift as well as functional utility, safety, and economy.


Interior designing:

The art and science of upgrading a building’s interior to provide a healthier and more aesthetically pleasant atmosphere for those using the area is known as interior design. A person who designs, investigates, coordinates, and supervises such improvement projects is known as an interior designer. In addition to conceptual creation, space planning, site inspections, programming, research, interacting with project stakeholders, construction management, and design execution, interior design is a diverse career.

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Who was founded by Interior designing?

Elsie de Wolfe is credited as having invented interior design as a profession, according to The New Yorker. Although the phrase “interior designer” hadn’t yet been coined, Wolfe was the first artist to be paid for designing a house in the early 1900s, technically making her the first interior designer.

History of interior design in India:

Interior design in India has elevated from being merely a decorative and functional component of architecture to a comprehensive amalgamation of holistic, design, social, and cultural foundations that forms the basis and essential framework for a person to live happily. Understanding people, how they act in social situations, and their many attributes is the foundation of design. This entire study is translated into areas that are practical for the specific person.

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The homemaker or craftsman who would share their knowledge on the space and the design to be curated was concerned with the history of interior design in India throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. Beginning around 2700 B.C.E., cities in the Indus Valley Civilization were constructed using precise geometric grid patterns.

Types of Interior design:

There are four types of interior design.

They are;

1.Traditional interior design style

2.Modern interior design style

3.Indusrial interior design

4.Minimalist interior design style

1.Traditional interior design style:

Traditional Indian interior design features like sculptures, bells, idols, hangings, embroidered rugs, etc. are prominently present. Additional items for home décor include oil lamps, mirrors, copper, brass, and bronze artefacts. Handwoven textiles. India is renowned for its intricate fabric

2.Modern interior design style:

A sleek and uncomplicated design style that first appeared in the late 19th century is referred to as modern interior design. Modernism, in its most basic form, is a carefree way of living. Designers kept the décor simple and focused on industrial elements as a result. Nevertheless, patterns are quite scarce.

Features of Modern interior design:

*Natural Materials and Elements.
*Open and Natural Lighting.
*Neutral Walls and Textures.
*Simple, Clean Lines and Simplistic Furniture.
*Practicality and Functionality.

3.Industrial interior design style:

Industrial interior design is a type of interior decoration that combines contemporary elements with unfinished and unpolished materials. Designers can use organic, recycled, and repurposed materials while yet retaining a sleek and contemporary appearance because to this fusion of old and new.

4.Minimalist interior design style:

It has simple, uncluttered lines and a monochrome colour scheme with accents of colour. It typically blends an open floor plan with abundance of natural light, practical furniture, and a narrow concentration on the shape, colour, and texture of a select number of key components.

Scope of interior designing:

Everything from domestic spaces to commercial spaces, health and safety concerns to educational institutions are included in the scope of interior design. Interior designers are experts that collaborate with clients to design environments that are practical, aesthetically pleasing, and appealing to the wider population.

Advantages of interior design:

  1. Use interior design to maximise your space. Interior design may maximise the amount of space that is available, which is one of its key advantages.
  2. Improving the quality of life.
  3. .Use of functionality in interior design.
  4. Enhancing Your Home’s Worth.

Future of interior design :

Over the next ten years, there are expected to be, on average, 8,200 openings for interior designers, notwithstanding the modest expansion in employment. The majority of those positions are anticipated to be caused by the need to replace people who change careers or leave the workforce, such as through retirement.

Future of interior design in India:

The need for commercial space is expected to drive significant expansion in this business in the coming years. India’s fast altering workplace culture, which is also driving the nation’s commercial interior design business, is having an impact on the country’s workplace design and furnishings.


In India, the degree to which women are empowered depends on a wide range of factors, including the country’s geography, social standing (including caste and class), level of education, and age. There are initiatives to empower women at the state, local , and federal levels.

Importance Of Women Empowerment In India:

The wellbeing and socioeconomic advancement of families, communities, and nations depend on the empowerment of women. Women can realise their greatest potential when they lead secure, contented, and fruitful lives. raising happier, healthier children and contributing their skills to the workforce.

Women are still not allowed to receive a basic education in the majority of Indian villages and semi-urban areas, despite having acquired the necessary knowledge. Women are regarded as the foundation of every culture since they can do multiple duties with ease each day.

Types Of Empowerment:

According to Keshab Chandra Mandal, there are five different types of female empowerment:

1.Social empowerment

2.Educational Empowerment

3.Economic Empowerment

4.Political Empowerment

5.Psycological Empowerment

Out of these 5 types of female empowerment.Social empowerment is most frequently used in media.

1.Social Empowerment:

Having equal influence over their lives, the ability to make significant decisions, and access to opportunities are all terms used to describe social empowerment in India. A nation cannot have healthy growth without equally empowering all facets of society.

2.Educational Empowerment:

Girls who are educated are more able to succeed in their social, professional, economic, and family lives. For women, education can entail attending classes, receiving training in the development of their capacities and talents, or, better yet, receiving mentoring on crucial facets of WEE.

3.Economic Empowerment:

Women’s economic empowerment (WEE) is what we refer to as the process that enables women and girls to transition from having little control, voice, and choice at home and in the economy to having the knowledge, tools, and opportunities necessary to compete fairly in markets as well as the agency to manage and benefit from economic processes.

4.Political Empowerment:

Moreover, “bridging disparities in education, renegotiating gender roles, the gender division of labour, and tackling discriminatory attitudes” might empower Indian women. Family members can encourage women to engage, and when there is family support, they are more likely to run for office.

5.Psychological Empowerment:

The need of psychological interventions that might strengthen a woman’s inner fortitude so that, while living in a patriarchal society, she doesn’t feel like she is falling behind in any area of her life is frequently emphasised in discussions of psychological empowerment.

Schemes for Women Empowerment in India:

1.Beti Bachao Beti padhao scheme

2.Working women’s hostel

3.One- stop centre scheme

4.Women Helpline Scheme

5.Mahila police volunteers scheme

6.Swadhar Greh

7.Sukanya Samriddhi yojana

8.Pradhana Mantri Matru yojana scheme


10. Nirbhaya

11.Training and Employment program for women

12.ujjawala scheme

13.Rajiv Gandhi national creche scheme

14.Mahila shakti kendras

15.Nari Shakti puraskar

These are the schemes for womenempowerment in india.

Advantages of women Empowerment in India:

1.Next generation will be Empowered because of her.

2.If women will be empowered . she will be not burden for anyone. burden of men will be shared for her support.

4.Family can be more strong because both working hands.

5.when financial problems will be shared than results are conflict.


what is Global Warming:

The term “global warming” describes the rise in global temperatures primarily brought on by an increase in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. The term “climate change” describes the long-term, escalating changes in variables related to the climate, such as precipitation, temperature, and wind patterns.

Who named Global Warming:

According to NASA, Wallace Broecker, a geochemist at Columbia University, is widely acknowledged as having invented the term “global warming” in 1975 to refer to an increase in the Earth’s average surface temperature caused by greenhouse gas emissions.

Global Warming is A Problem:

Environmental changes brought on by global warming may have a negative influence on human health. Also, it can result in an increase in sea level, which poses a threat to biodiversity, a change in precipitation patterns, an increase in the likelihood of droughts and floods, and the loss of coastal land.

Effects of Global Warming:

In Mainly there are 8 types of effects in global warming.

They are:

1.Hotter Temperatures

2.More Severe Storms

3.Increased Drought

4.Increasing sea level

5.Loss of species

6.Not Enough Food

7.More Health Risks

8.poverty And Displacement

1.Hotter Temperatures:

The climate of Earth has warmed and cooled numerous times over millions of years. But compared to human history, the planet is warming far more quickly now. The surface air temperature of the entire planet has increased by around 2 degrees Fahrenheit over the past century.

2.More Severe storms:

According to a climate report, climate change makes heat waves, hurricanes, and droughts worse. After significant rains in the northern Shanxi region of China in 2021, rescuers construct a spillway to discharge floodwaters. According to a recent study, floods were about twice as likely due to climate change that was driven by humans.

3.Increased drought:

Evapotranspiration, or the flow of water from land and water surfaces and plants through evaporation and transpiration, is impacted by global warming, which is anticipated to cause: drought in arid areas getting worse.

4.Increasing Sea Level:

As a result of human-caused global warming, sea levels are rising everywhere, and recent rates are unparalleled in the past 2,500 years. The addition of water from melting ice sheets and glaciers and the expansion of warm saltwater are the two main contributors to sea level rise that are related to global warming.

5.Loss of Species:

Every degree of global warming increases the likelihood of species extinction. Rising ocean temperatures raise the possibility of a permanent loss of marine and coastal ecosystems. For example, the number of live coral reefs has decreased by roughly half over the past 150 years, and further warming threatens to wipe out almost all of the surviving reefs.

6.Not Enough Food:

With its impact on food production, pricing, and security, climate change further complicates issues with food security. Overheating or a lack of water can hinder crop development, lower yields, and have an impact on irrigation, soil quality, and the environment that agriculture depends on.

7.More Health Risks:

These disruptions have a negative impact on people’s health in a number of ways, including an increase in respiratory and cardiovascular disease, injuries and early deaths brought on by extreme weather events, shifts in the prevalence and geographic distribution of food- and water-borne illnesses and other infectious diseases, and dangers to people’s mental health.

8.Poverty And Displacement:

By 2050, a rise in sea level might have an impact on more than 570 coastal cities. Up to 1 billion people may be forced to relocate during that time due to environmental risks, particularly sea level rise and natural disasters. A person who has been displaced may fall into poverty as a result of losing their home, job, and social connections.

How to Reduce Global Warming:

  1. Adjust a light. One compact fluorescent light bulb will replace one normal bulb, saving 150 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.Reduce your driving.
  2. Increase recycling.
  3. Inspect your tyres.
  4. Make use of less hot water.
    6.Avoid buying items that come in a lot of packaging.
  5. Modify the thermostat.


The greatest emperor in the Vijayanagar empire’s history was Krishnadevaraya(17 January 1471-17 October 1529). He presided over the Tuluva Dynasty as its third king. By overthrowing the sultans of Bijapur, Golconda, the Bahmani Sultanate, and the Gajapatis of Odisha, he rose to power. Of all the Hindu kings of India, he was one of the most powerful.

Early life:

Tuluva Narasa Nayaka and Nagamamba, his queen, were the parents of Krishna Deva Raya. Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya’s army was commanded by Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, who eventually assumed leadership to stop the Vijayanagara Empire from collapsing and founded the Tuluva dynasty. He wed Tirumala Devi, the princess of Srirangapatna, and Chinna Devi, a well-known dancer from Kodagu who served as his royal dancer. [Needs citation] He was the father of Tirumala Raya, Vengalamba, and Tirumalamba (all descended from Tirumala Devi) (from Tirumala Devi). His daughters were wed to Vijayanagara princes Prince Tirumala Deva Raya and Prince Aliya Rama Raya. [Needs citation]

Sri Krishna Devaraya War With kalinga History:

Bengal, the Andhra region, and Odisha were all part of the huge empire that the Gajapatis of Odisha ruled. The Gajapati Raja Prataparudra Deva controlled the coastal Andhra region, and Krishna Deva Raya’s victory at Ummatur gave him the motivation he needed to expand his campaign there. In 1512, the Udayagiri fort was under siege by the Vijayanagar army. The Gajapati army was starved to death during the campaign, which lasted a year. Afterwards, along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnama Devi, Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati. The Gajapati force was then confronted at Kondaveedu, where the Vijayanagara armies, following a few months of establishing a siege, started to retire because of significant fatalities. After that, Timmarusu found a hidden access to the unprotected eastern gate of thefort and launched a nighttime assault that resulted in the fort’s capture and the detention of Prince Virabhadra, the Prataparudra Deva’s son. Krishandevaraya planned to invade Kalinga, but Prataparudra learned of this and devised his own strategy to overthrow Krishandevaraya and the Vijayanagara Empire at the fort of Kalinganagar. Vasireddy Mallikharjuna Nayak then succeeded him as governor of Kondaveedu. But, cunning Timmarusu learned of Prataparudra’s scheme by buying off a Telugu who had left Prataparudra’s service. Prataprudra was pushed to Cuttack, the Gajapati Kingdom’s capital, when the Vijayanagara Empire finally invaded. In the end, Prataparudra submitted to the Vijayanagara Empire and delivered his daughter, Princess Jaganmohini, to Sri Krishnadevaraya as his bride. The entire territory owned by the Vijayanagara Empire was given back by Krishandevaraya.

Achievements of Sri Krishna Devaraya:

The expansion of the Vijayanagara Empire through military conquests, support for the arts and literature, and encouragement of a powerful and stable government are only a few of Krishnadevaraya’s accomplishments. Also, throughout his rule, he constructed numerous temples, irrigation systems, and forts. He was also renowned for his encouragement of poets and scholars, some of whom wrote pieces in his honour.

Achievements of Sri Krishna Devaraya as Author:

Krishna Deva Raya wrote Amukthamalyadha in Telugu and Jambavati Kalyanam and Ushaparinayam in Sanskrit. Most of the south Indian temples were renovated by him.

Ashtadiggajas Of Sri Krishna Devaraya:

Eight court poets were called Ashtadiggajas. They are Allasani Peddana, Pingali Surana , Madayyagari Mallana, Dhurjati, Ramaraja Bhushanudu, Tenali Rama Krishna, and Nandi Thimmana.

Allasani Peddana:

The author of the epochal tale “Manu Charitra” is Allasani Peddana. The Telugu literary monument “Manu Charitra” by the poet Allasani Peddana, who lived in the first half of the sixteenth century, is a potent representation of the imperial culture of Vijayanagara, the final of the major premodern south Indian nations.

Pingali surana:

Pingali surana was one of the poet in Ashtadiggajas of sri krishna devaraya. Surana wrote Garuda Puranam, Prabhavatee Pradyumnamu, Raghava Pandaveeyam and Kalapurnodayam

Madayyagari Mallana:

Mallana was a Telugu poet and one of the Ashtadiggajas in the court of the king Krishna devaraya.He wrote the famous Book Rajashekara Charitra.


Dhurjati wrote the Kalahastiswara Shatakam. Telugu poet Dhurjati served the monarch Krishnadevaraya at his court.

Ramaraja Bhushanudu:

Telugu poet Ramarajabhushanudu, better known as Bhattumurthi, was also a well-known musician. In the court of Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Kingdom, he was one of the Ashtadiggajas of Sri krishna Devaraya.

Tenali Rama Krishna:

Indian poet, philosopher, and thinker Tenali Ramakrishna who was known as “vikatakavi” served as the Vijayanagar king Krishnadevaraya’s personal counsellor.

Nandi Thimmana:

Nandi Thimmana, a Telugu poet , was one of the Astadiggajas at the court of King Krishnadevaraya. Because of his well-known poetry on a woman’s nose, he is frequently referred to as Mukku Thimmana


A group of diseases that result in too much sugar in the blood (high blood glucose)is called Diabates.

In Now a daysDiabates is the most common Disease .suppose Out of 100 member people,8 members are suffered diabates.

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There are Three types of Diabates.

They are:

1.Type 1 Diabates

2.Type 2 Diabates

3.Gestational Diabates

1.Type 1 Diabates:

Diabetes type 1, also referred to as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic illness. Little to no insulin is produced by the pancreas in this situation. The hormone insulin is used by the body to let glucose (sugar) into cells where it can be used to make energy.

2.Type 2 Diabates:

The body’s ability to control and utilise sugar (glucose) as fuel is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Too much sugar is circulating in the bloodstream as a result of this long-term (chronic) disease. Ultimately, cardiovascular, neurological, and immune system issues might result from excessive blood sugar levels.

3.Gestational Diabates:

When diabetes is discovered for the first time while pregnant, it is called gestational diabetes (gestation). Gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar, similar to other types of diabetes (glucose). High blood sugar levels brought on by gestational diabetes can harm both you and your unborn child’s health.

A close-up of a pregnant woman having her blood sugar/ glucose checked.

Control of Type 1 Diabates:

If you have type 1 diabetes, you must administer insulin or wear an insulin pump each day. Your body needs insulin to regulate blood sugar levels and supply energy. Insulin cannot be taken as a tablet. That’s because it would be destroyed by the acid in your stomach before it could enter your bloodstream.

Control Of Type 2 Diabates:

Although there is no cure for type 2 diabetes, you can manage the condition by decreasing weight, eating healthfully, and exercising. You may also require diabetic drugs or insulin therapy to control your blood sugar if diet and exercise are insufficient.

Control Of Gestational Diabates:

Typically, gestational diabetes develops in the middle of pregnancy. It is most frequently detected between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy by doctors. Gestational diabetes is frequently controllable with a good diet and regular exercise. A woman with gestational diabetes may occasionally need to take insulin as well.

General Ways To Control Diabates:

  1. Shed excess pounds. Diabetes risk is decreased with weight loss.
  2. Exercise more frequently. The advantages of regular exercise are numerous.
  3. Consume wholesome plant foods. Your diet benefits from the vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates that plants supply.
  4. Consume healthy fats.
  5. Avoid fad diets and opt for healthy alternatives.
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When a person actively seeks job but is unable to do so, they are said to be unemployed. As a major indicator of the state of the economy, unemployment is often used.The unemployment rate is the most popular way to quantify unemployment. By dividing the total work force’s size by the number of unemployed people, it is determined.

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Causes of Unemployment:

  • The Caste System
  • Inadequate Economic Growth
  • Increase in Population
  • Agriculture is a Seasonal Occupation
  • Loss of Industries
  • Low Rates of Saving and Investment
  • Ineffective Economic Planning
  • Labor Immobility

Caste System:

In some places, certain castes are not permitted to work. Frequently, the job goes to someone from a specific community rather than one of the deserving candidates. Accordingly, unemployment results from this.

Inadequate Economic Growth:

According to research firm Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, India’s growth rate of 6% to 8% is insufficient to generate enough jobs for the country’s economy, and the government must step in to ease the labour market issue.

Increase in Population:

Mass unemployment and low employment are the result of the economy being transformed by the constantly expanding population. The ratio of workers to the overall population rises as population grows. As a result, unemployment and low employment rise together with a growth in the labour force.

Agriculture is a Seasonal Occupation:

Since India’s agriculture is primarily dependent on the monsoon season, agricultural laboures are idle throughout the other seasons. This means that the labour is unpaid during the offseason as well. When they don’t have work, they are unemployed for the rest of the year.

Loss of Industries:

Demand for goods and services decreases when the economy weakens. As a result, companies look to fire workers. Unemployed workers do not have enough money to buy necessities, which further affects the revenue for enterprises.

Low Rates of Saving and Investment:

For instance, as borrowing costs decrease, people are more likely to spend money on products and services, and businesses are better able to buy things like real estate and equipment to help them grow. Additionally, businesses have the power to increase employee hiring, which affects employment.

Ineffective Economic Planning:

Growth of unemployment – The most significant planning failure in India has been the increase in the jobless rate. It indicates that neither the organised nor the unorganised sectors were able to produce productive employment possibilities as a result of the planning process. Increase in Price Level – Inflation is yet another significant failure of Indian Planning.

Labor Immobility:

Increased structural unemployment is likely as a result of labour immobility. This is due to the fact that the companies that are expanding and in need of labour, often known as sunrise industries, may not always be able to hire the same people who have been displaced from the decreasing, or sunset,industries.

How to Reduce Unemployment In india:

It is essential to offer the underprivileged, particularly women and young people, quality jobs that both secure money and give them influence. Rapid economic growth has the potential to result in a high rate of expansion of lucrative jobs, which can lower poverty.

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Digital marketing, often known as online marketing, is the promotion of brands utilising the internet and other digital communication channels to reach potential clients. As a marketing channel, this encompasses text and multimedia messaging in addition to email, social media, and web-based advertising. Digital marketing is essentially any marketing campaign that uses digital communication.

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Types of Digital marketing:



3.Social Media Marketing

4.Content Marketing

5 Email Marketing

6.Mobile Marketing

7.Marketing Analytics

8.Affliate Marketing

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Benefits of Digital Marketing:

  • World Wide. Geographical restrictions on traditional marketing make it difficult, expensive, and labor-intensive to launch a worldwide marketing campaign.
  • Local Reach, Reduced Cost, Ease of Learning, Effective Targeting, Multiple Strategies, A Variety of Content Types, and Enhanced Engagement.

Stages of Digital Marketing:

5 Stages of Digital Marketing
1. Establishing and Outlining Your Digital Marketing Strategy.
2: Implementation and Traction.
3: Conversion and expansion
4.Understanding client desires.
5: Re-plan and research.

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In now a days inforamation technology is very useful to learn What type of information have you need.

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Advantages of Information Technology:

1.Expand your Knowledge

2.Learn what information what we need

3.It improves our knowledge

4.Easy and quick Communication

5.Technology allows to increase production

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Why Information technology is Important:

Information technology refers to the use of systems, particularly computers and communications, for the archiving, retrieval, and transmission of data. Our lives revolve heavily around it. The use of computers, the Internet, and mobile devices is essential. Due to their extensive use over time, we frequently take them for granted.

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