The Evolution in Educational System of India
“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.” – Nelson Mandela
It is said that education is the key to freedom, a power to change the world and make world a better place to live. Education is a continuous process which enriches our mind with the light of knowledge and provides us the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. There was a time when India had a high illiteracy rate, but slowly with the time things are changing for the better. The Education System of India has developed gradually.
Education during British Rule
The British East India Company planned to educate a small portion of Indians for their own benefit. They wanted some educated Indians who could assist them in their work and also wanted to know the customs and laws better. Various Universities were established by Britishers to follow their purpose. Calcutta Madarsa was established by Warren Hastings for study and teaching of Muslim Law. Jonathan Duncan set up the Sanskrit College for study of Hindu Law and philosophy at Varanasi. Slowly, English was being used as the medium of teaching and learning.
Changes after Independence
Pre-Independence the education was only available for the elites, this scenery was changed Post Independence. Now Education was accessible to large number of society. After Independence India was in a very poor condition, Under-Developed India was the biggest challenge that came forth. A large number of people were illiterate ,though from 18% of literacy rate in 1951 has raised up to 73 % as of 2011.Today, India has very strong and widespread education system which is successfully competing with the world.
Committees set up
- University Education Committee (1948) : The Commission was inspired under the leadership of Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan, this committee aimed upon setting up Universities to provide education for the development of overall personality. This Commission also stressed over the purpose of “Women should get good education as men get”.
- Secondary Education Commission (1952-1953) : It is also known as Mudaliar Commission.The main recommendations of this commission was to provide seperate schools for girls to the places it was needed. It also focused over providing special facility to study of Home Science. Target of this Commission was to the need of training Indians in a democratic way of life.
- Kothari Committee (1964-1966) :
Kothari Commission is also known as the Indian Education Commission .Daulat Singh Kothari was the chairman of this committee, it was set up to formulate the general principles and guidelines which was very much needed for the development of the education system. It stressed at providing free and compulsory education to all till the age 14. It focused over the development of languages specially by implementing ‘three-language formula’ , and keeping in check with the quality of education being provided.
Educational policies of India
National Policy Education (1968)
This was first such kind of policy that came up in 1968.It focused over the culture based curriculum and strengtening the structure of resource support, compulsory education for all children till the age of 14. It also aimed at better training and qualification of teachers. To promote the standardisation of language Hindi was adopted as national language and elementary to higher education was made an integral part of urban and rural India.
Education in Pandemic
Covid-19 has changed the whole chalk and duster dynamic of conventional education system. Lockdown made everything to shut down including schools, colleges and coachings. where everything came to pause and when there was no light found at the end of the tunnel, E-learning came up and reshaped the educational system of India. Distinctive hike in e-learning have taken place due to pandemic. But to standardise education the government of India should reach out to the students who are unable to afford such technologies and devices for education and learning.