INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANCE

The term of Industrial Revolution is normally reserved as a set of events that occurred in Britain roughly from 1760 to 1830. The Industrial Revolution brought about a “modern” economy in which technological progress did not just happen from time to time in isolated sectors but became a sustained and continuous process, resulting eventually in unprecedented economic growth and increases in living standards in much of the world. Its effects led to a full reformation of production, consumption, locational patterns, international relations, demographic behavior and almost every aspect of the human condition.

The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION was a period of time that sparked the beginning of a major change in the MODERN SOCIETY from OLD DAYS of FARMING and AGRICULTURE to a shift in URBANISATION and MODERN MACHINE manufacturing. Prior to the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, most of the manufacturing was done in people’s houses using hand tools and other basic machines. However, with the newly advanced machines and factories, the mass producing of products would soon be more efficient and manufactured significantly faster. Not only were MACHINES and FACTORIES an essential part of the REVOLUTION, the DEVELOPMENT of IRON and TEXTILE INDUSTRIES along with the STEAM ENGINE allowed for improvement in transportation, Communication, and Banking. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION also brought forth many job opportunities and allowed people to start a new life in the cities. As, many people before the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, lived in small rural communities where their activities and work were based on FARMING and AGRICULTURE.

One of the famous inventions of the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine. The first steam engine prototype was built by a Frenchman named Denis Papin, but the first useful atmospheric steam engine was built in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. Newcomen engines which noisy and voracious in their fuel use was served mostly as pumps. The conversion of steam engine unto a source of industrial power was the Scottish inventor James Watt who introduced improvements to the steam engine. Watt turned steam power from an atmospheric pump to a true steam engine. A high-pressure engine was then developed which provided increased power from lighter and smaller engines counterparts and thus ideal for transportation. After years of experimentation, they were successfully adapted to locomotives by Robert and George Stephenson in 1825.

A second industry often acknowledged with the most dynamic aspects of the technology of this time is textiles. By the middle of the eighteenth century, cotton was a small and rather unimportant sideshow in the British textile industry, famous for its woolens. Cotton’s growth during the Industrial Revolution was truly amazing. Value added in cotton went from less than half a million pounds in 1760 to around 25 million in the mid- 1820s. It is no wonder that some economic historians have thought of this industry as the “leading sector” in the Industrial Revolution. The reason for this success was cotton’s physical characteristics. It lent itself uniquely to mechanization and mass production and produced a good that was of even quality, attractive and above all inexpensive.

A third area in which the Industrial Revolution achieved major advances was iron making. One important innovation was the use of new fuels in the smelting of iron core in blast furnaces. The replacement of charcoal by coke (purified coal) in blast furnaces remedied the costly need to access remote forest areas. Blast furnaces became bigger, hotter and more efficient as more powerful machinery was used to blow air into furnaces.

The origins OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION took place in BRITAIN because it had great deposits of IRON and COAL which proved essential for INDUSTRIALIZATION, because BRITAIN was powerful and POLITICALLY stable.

The Second industrial revolution is known as the Technological Revolution and it was followed on First Industrial Revolution. The second revolution was started from 1870 until 1960 and it was developed rapidly in Western Europe country, United States and Japan. During that period, electricity became the primary source of power for factories and they used the power of electricity to develop different types of technology. The power of electricity caused the factory can produce the large amount of goods in the shortest time and lower cost. The second industrial revolution, it was more force on the steels, railroads, electricity and chemical development.