CHILD LABOUR: STILL PREVALENT IN INDIA?

“CHILD IS THE FATHER OF MAN”, thus said WORDSWORTH years ago. Moreover, it is the child who is a citizen of tomorrow. It is in the condition of a child that there lies the future of any society or nation. Children are the real mirrors of the society. The quality of life of a child reflects how progressive a society is. And with the dawn of the 21st century, one of the challenges that has appeared globally is the problem of CHILD LABOUR.

Child labour is a kind of crime where children are violated to work at a very young age and do the duties just like grown-ups by practicing in business activities. As per the International Labour Organization (ILO), a rule has been established according to which children up to the age limit of fifteen should not be involved in any job forcibly. The use of the children for financial work makes children denied of childhood, proper literacy, mental, physical, and social well being. In some countries, this practice is completely forbidden; however, it has become an international matter in most of the states as it is ruining the future of children extensively. Child employment is a severe matter in most of the developing nations. Small children under the age of 14 are being involved in economic work activity by the people of high-class society. They are ignoring the reality that children are the future and hope of the nation. Millions of children are lacking in primary education and depriving their childhood in our country, which is a terrible warning. These children do not get the opportunity to live a healthy life since they are not delighted physically, intellectually and culturally strong.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR:. Child Labour happens due to a number of reasons. While some of the reasons may be common in some countries, there are some reasons which are specific in particular areas and regions. When we look at what is causing child labour, we will be able to fight it better.Firstly, it happens in countries that have a lot of poverty and unemployment. When the families won’t have enough earning, they put the children of the family to work so they can have enough money to survive. Similarly, if the adults of the family are unemployed, the younger ones have to work in their place. Moreover, when people do not have access to the education they will ultimately put their children to work. The uneducated only care about a short term result which is why they put children to work so they can survive their present.Furthermore, the money-saving attitude of various industries is a major cause of child labour. They hire children because they pay them lesser for the same work as an adult. As children work more than adults and also at fewer wages, they prefer children. They can easily influence and manipulate them. They only see their profit and this is why they engage children in factories. Hence, We should stop this!! This is not right. But, the question is HOW CAN WE ERADICATE IT?

ERADICATION OF CHILD LABOUR. If we wish to eradicate child labour, we need to formulate some very effective solutions which will save our children. It will also enhance the future of any country dealing with these social issues. To begin with, one can create a number of unions that solely work to prevent child labour. It should help the children indulging in this work and punishing those who make them do it.Furthermore, we need to keep the parents in the loop so as to teach them the importance of education. If we make education free and the people aware, we will be able to educate more and more children who won’t have to do child labour. Moreover, making people aware of the harmful consequences of child labour is a must.In addition, family control measures must also be taken. This will reduce the family’s burden so when you have lesser mouths to feed, the parents will be enough to work for them, instead of the children. In fact, every family must be promised a minimum income by the government to survive.In short, the government and people must come together. Employment opportunities must be given to people in abundance so they can earn their livelihood instead of putting their kids to work. The children are the future of our country; we cannot expect them to maintain the economic conditions of their families instead of having a normal childhood.

GIFTS OR BOUNTIES OF NATURE

Nature is our very existence, for, if it was not for nature we would not have got the gift of oui existence even, we would not have been created. Life on earth is the greatest gift of nature and it can be found on this earth in several hues and shapes. Everything that we see around-the hills, trees, Plants, mountains, flowers, sun, moon, stars, clouds, birds, and animals consist of Nature. It is the greatest gift of GOD because it is this very nature that sustains us. We cannot think of our existence without Nature. If man is the crowning glory of Nature then Nature is the base of man’s life and existence.

On earth, the gift of life is visible in so many forms, shapes and sizes, all occupying different areas of existence like the areas of land, air and water. Different species of living beings live on land and water, and, nature has provided for each one small or big a convenient mode, atmosphere and a body to exist and grow, in its own environment.Besides living beings, we see life in other shapes those of huge trees and small plants. In the shape of these plants, nature has provided enough for the maintenance of this life on earth. Nature is present before us wherever we turn our eyes. It is present in every colour, shade, hue, shape and size. The air we breathe, the land we live on, the vaulted sky above our heads make life possible on earth. There are countless species of flora as well as fauna. After having created life and living beings on this planet, Nature has given the correct and healthy environment for the existence and the continuous growth of these shapes of life. The very air we breathe in to live, the food we eat to exist and grow, the water we drink to quench our thirst are all basic gifts of nature, without which life could not have existed and grown on this planet.

Thus to be able to see and appreciate the gifts of nature, we do not have far to go, as, all the life that exsits is a gift of nature. Besides life, the scenes we have the pleasure of seeing on this planet are also other gifts of nature which we get to enjoy the life given to us while we are here on earth. The very power to see with our eyes all the beauty around us is also one of the greatest gifts of nature, if it were not for eyes, how would we see and appreciate the nature around us. Our seas, oceans, rivers, lakes, and ponds are teeming with infinite variety of fish and aquatic plants and other kinds of creatures. Deep underneath lies a whole world which is yet not completely discovered. Moreover, the store of precious stones underneath also is a Great gift of Nature.

The gifts of nature to us living beings are uncountable, but we know about them and appreciate their importance only when, we either don’t have them or, we lose them. Just imagine a single day without seeing daylight or enjoyment or love, then, would life be worth living. Thus, with life we must realise that, nature has accorded to us all other gifts with which we can enjoy life.For understanding the gift that this planet is for us, we just have to take a look around us. Besides the different types of lives we see a variety of land formations, water formations and of course so much in the sky to admire. These gifts we see when we go trekking on hills or on holidays to hill resorts or beaches or see waterfalls. All these add to the beauty, variety and the grandeur of this planet, all of which is a gift package for us mortals.So much for the human being alone, for the animals the jungle has been provided as their habitat. The varieties of animals from the huge elephant and rhinocerous to the tiny rabbit, all coexist in the thick of the mighty jungles. All this that we see is for us to enjoy and coexist with. Nature has provided such immense variety for us to live with, appreciate and enjoy, all these are finally the gifts of nature to man the highest form of life in this world. The creatures in the air and sea, and the others that live on land are all for man to enjoy in some way or the other, as, man is the noblest of nature’s creations, and he thus gets it all.

CONSERVATION: FORESTS AND WILDLIFE

Protection and conservation of forests and wildlife are essential to maintain the earth’s health and environment. The earth is the only known living planet and it is because of its special environment and ecology which are life-supporting. Forests are part and parcel of our environment. They are one of the most valuable resources and gifts of nature. They play a key role in the maintenance of climate, rain-patterns, water and soil conservation. They are the natural home of many types of animals, birds, reptiles, insects tic. They supply timber, fuel, medicines, wood for paper pulp and raw materials for many industries. The increasing depletion and destruction of wildlife is a sauce of great concern. On out of every seven persons of the world live in India. India has 16 per cent of the world’s population with only 2.4 per cent of its land area.

India is very rich both in flora and fauna but many plant and animal species are already extinct and many other are on the road to extinction. In spite of various acts and rules-regulations against exploitation of wildlife, the real conservation has still a long way to cover. India is a huge country and one of the major wildlife producer countries of the world and yet there is a skeleton staff to safeguard the interest of wildlife. Poachers are on the prowl even in sanctuaries and protected forest areas. They have become fertile influential people and traders in animal-skins, horns, etc.

Protection and conservation of forests and wildlife are essential to maintain the earth’s health and environment. The earth is the only known living planet and it is because of its special environment and ecology which are life-supporting. Forests are part and parcel of our environment.They are one of the most valuable resources and gifts of nature. They play a key role in the maintenance climate, rain-patterns, water and soil conservation.They are the natural home of much type- of animals, birds, reptiles, insects etc. They supply timber, fuel, medicines, and wood for peeper-pulp and raw materials for many industries. The increasing depletion and destruction of wildlife is a source of great concern. One out of every seven persons of the world live in India.

India has 16 per cent of the world’s population with only 2.4 percent of its land area. There is much pressure on our natural resources including forests. In these times of increasing consumerism and nature- hostile activities, the forest-cover is depleting and deteriorating very fast.The conservation of wildlife which includes native plants and animals, depends on protection of forests. Wildlife is the direct product of the land resources and habitat conditions. The neglect of forests moans the destruction of the wild animals.Wildlife, like we human beings, need food, water, and shelter. Destruction of forests, wetlands, marshes, points, grasslands etc. eliminates their sources of food, water and habitat. The National wildlife action Plan launched in 1983 provides the framework of strategy as well as programme for conservation of wildlife.

India is very rich both in flora and fauna but many plant and animal species are already extinct and many other are on the road to extinction. In spite of various acts and rules- regulations against exploitation of wildlife, the real conservation has one of the major wildlife producer counties of the world and yet there is a skeleton staff to safeguard the interests of wildlife. Poachers are on the prowl even in sanctuaries and protected forest areas.They have become fertile hunting grounds for illegal hunting and killing of animals. The rich and influential people and traders in, animal-skins, horns, etc. have been indulging in hunting, killing and trading of wildlife with impunity. They carry telescopic rifles and other weapons, use traps and poison food and kill the animals. As a result of ecological imbalances and depleting forest-cover, the wild animals come out at night in search of food in the villages and attack human beings and domestic animals and fowls. In some parts of Uttar Pradesh the hyena and wolf-menace was very much in the news. Many children were killed by the wolves and hyenas.Similarly, in Pauri Garwal district of UP some leopards turned into man-eaters. Faced with the scarcity of animals for prey in the forest and continuing attacks from poachers, they become man- eaters. And once a man-eater is always a man- eater because man is the softest target.On many an occasion, the villagers injure more animals then they kill and so the injured animals turn into man-eaters and attack villages at night for food. When a human kill takes place, every leopard or tiger is regarded as man-eater and there is indiscriminate killing consequently, the number of these felines is decreasing fast.Thousands of snails, frog, rats, earthworms, cockroaches and other animals are killed for dissection in schools, colleges and laboratories for experiments. Snakes are also killed indiscriminately out of ignorance as greed. This destroys and disturbs the fragile ecological balance. Tigers are subjected to utmost brutality by man, the most intelligent and evolved animal on the earth.

Conservation of forests and wildlife is also important from aesthete point of view. They make life beautiful and colourful. Without them human life will lose much of its beauty, charm and meaning. Their proper protection and conservation also means a continuous and adequate supply of food, fodder, medicines, timber etc. Forests and wildlife and renewable resources which need to be diligently protected, preserved and increased in a planned way. There is a need to spread the awareness about forest and wildlife conservation. Social forestry can be taught in schools as a subject.More and more trees should be planted, protected and seen growing and maturing. There should be a ban on mobile zoos and animal rights activists should come forward to wage a war on behalf of the mute and innocent animals.

INSOLVENCY PROCEEDINGS AGAINST INDIVIDUALS

The Proceedings against an Individual are governed by Section 249 of Insolvency and Bankruptcy code, 2016 as amended in 2019 and made operational by Central Government from 01.12.2019.And By Provincial towns insolvency Act 1909 and Provincial insolvency act 1920 and are enforced by the courts.Section 249 of IBC, 2016 Provides for Amendment of Act 51 (Recovery of debts due to banks and financial Institutions Act) of 1993. In cases of Individuals Section 249 provides it for minimum default of Rs. 1 thousand is necessary to trigger a suit against an Individual or It can be triggered by filing a suit in Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRTs) which would have circuit sittings in all district headquarters. Clause 1A of Section 8 of Recovery of debts due to banks and Financial institutions, Insolvency resolution and bankruptcy of individuals and partnership firms Act 1993 (as amended by section 249 of IBC 2019 amendment Bill) Provides for the power to the central government to establish Debt recovery appellate tribunals which would exercise powers and authority to entertain appeal under Part III of IBC, 2016 And Also to establish Debt recovery tribunals Under clause 1A of section 3 in the same act named above.

OBJECTS AND REASONS OF IBC 2016 There is no single law in India that deals with insolvency and bankruptcy. Provisions relating to insolvency and bankruptcy for companies can be found in the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985, the Recovery of Debt Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993, the Securitization and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 and the Companies Act, 2013. These statutes provide for creation of multiple fora such as Board of Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) and National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) and their respective Appellate Tribunals. Liquidation of companies is handled by the High Courts. Individual bankruptcy and insolvency is dealt with under the Presidency Towns Insolvency Act, 1909, and the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920 and is dealt with by the Courts. The existing framework for insolvency and bankruptcy is inadequate, ineffective and results in undue delays in resolution, therefore, the proposed legislation. The Code seeks to provide for designating the NCLT and DRT as the Adjudicating Authorities for corporate persons and firms and individuals, respectively, for resolution of insolvency, liquidation and bankruptcy. The Code separates commercial aspects of insolvency and bankruptcy proceedings from judicial aspects.JURISDICTION OF PROVINCIAL INSOLVENCY ACT 1920The scheme of Section 60(2) and (3) is thus clear – the moment there is a proceeding against the corporate debtor pending under the 2016 Code, Any bankruptcy proceeding against the individual personal guarantor will, if already initiated before the proceeding against the corporate debtor, be transferred to the National Company Law Tribunal or, if initiated after such proceedings had been commenced against the corporate debtor, be filed only in the National Company Law Tribunal. However, the Tribunal is to decide such proceedings only in accordance with the Presidency-Towns Insolvency Act, 1909 or the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920, as the case may be. It is clear that sub-section (4), which states that The Tribunal shall be vested with all the powers of the Debt Recovery Tribunal, as contemplated under Part III of this Code, for the purposes of sub-section (2), would not take effect, As the Debt Recovery Tribunal has not yet been empowered to hear bankruptcy proceedings against individuals under Section 179 of the Code, as the said Section has not yet been brought into force. Also, we have seen that Section 249, dealing with the consequential amendment of the Recovery of Debts Act to empower Debt Recovery Tribunals to try such proceedings, has also not been brought into force. The liability of a guarantor arises as soon as the principal debtor defaults in paying back the loan. It is to be noted that a contract of guarantee focuses upon the breaking of a promise, whereas the IBC focuses upon the existence of a default. Contrary to the proceedings under the IBC which can only be conducted in NCLT, a breach of guarantee contract can be brought into DRT, that too when ‘public money’ is involved. The rights available to a creditor to proceed against the personal guarantor of a corporate debtor are many-fold, i.e. he can either go to DRT solely for the purpose of debt recovery, or he can file insolvency proceedings against the personal debtor. Para 19 in the case of state bank of India Versus Ramakrishna provide:“We are afraid that such arguments have to be turned down on a careful reading of the Sections relied upon. Section 60 of the Code, in sub-section (1) thereof, refers to insolvency resolution and liquidation for both corporate debtors and personal guarantors, the Adjudicating Authority for which shall be the National Company Law Tribunal, having territorial jurisdiction over the place where the registered office of the corporate person is located. This sub-section is only important in that it locates the Tribunal which has territorial jurisdiction in insolvency resolution processes against corporate debtors. So far as personal guarantors are concerned, we have seen that Part III has not been brought into force, and neither has Section 243, which repeals the Presidency-Towns Insolvency Act, 1909 and the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920. The net result of this is that so far as individual personal guarantors are concerned, they will continue to be proceeded against under the aforesaid two Insolvency Acts and not under the Code. Indeed, by a Press Release dated 28.08.2017, the Government of India, through the Ministry of Finance, cautioned that Section 243 of the Code, which provides for the repeal of said enactments, has not been notified till date, and further, that the provisions relating to insolvency resolution and bankruptcy for individuals and partnerships as contained in Part III of the Code are yet to be notified. Hence, it was advised that stakeholders who intend to pursue their insolvency cases may approach the appropriate authority/court under the existing enactments, instead of approaching the Debt Recovery Tribunals.”ATTACHMENT OF DEBTOR’S PROPERTY“Under Section 56 of the Provincial Insolvency Act, 1920, the estate of the insolvent vests in the receiver only for the purpose of its administration and to pay off the debts to the creditors. The receiver acquired no personal interest of his own in the property. The receiver appointed by the court takes possession of the properties in the suit on behalf of the court and administers the property on behalf of the ultimate successful party as an officer of the court and he has no personal interest in the property vested there under.Section 56 of the Provincial Insolvency Act (5 of 1920) empowers the Court at the time of the making of the order of adjudication or thereafter to appoint a receiver for the property of the insolvent and to further provide that “such property shall thereupon vest in such receiver”. The word “vest” employed therein is only for the purpose of the receiver to administer the estate of insolvent for payment of the debts after realizing, and the property of the insolvent vests in the receiver not for all purposes but only for the purpose of the Insolvency Act and the receiver has no interest of his own in the property.

GLOBAL WARMING: CONCERN FOR THE WORLD

“GLACIERS ARE MELTING”, “HURRICANES WILL BECOME STRONGER”, “ARCTIC LIKELY TO BECOME ICE-FREE” WHY?? GLOBAL WARMING!

“Global Warming isn’t a prediction. Its happening”! YES! Its happening.

We all have heard the term GLOBAL WARMING. GLOBAL WARMING has been an active threat in all our lives. It has been causing disasters and destroying habitats around the world. We have to CONSERVE our ENVIRONMENT and PLANET. We must take care of the place we live in. We need to realise that how valuable our environment and climate is and that we cannot risk it at any cost. But, before knowing the steps that we need to take to protect our environment from this danger we must know:

WHAT IS THIS GLOBAL WARMING? WHAT CAUSES IT? Well, Global Warming as the term itself suggests is the “consistent rise in the overall average temperature of the planet”. GLOBAL WARMING is the phenomenon of a gradual increase in the temperature near the EARTH’S SURFACE. This phenomenon has been observed over the past one or two centuries. This change has disturbed the climatic pattern of the Earth. Over the past 50 years, the GLOBAL AVERAGE TEMPERATURE has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. And experts see this trend is accelerating: All but one of 16 hottest years in NASA’s 134 year record have occurred since 2000. Climate change deniers have argued that there has been a “pause” or a “slowdown” in rising global temperatures, but several recent studies, have disproved this claim. And Scientists say that unless we curb GLOBAL WARMING EMISSIONS average temperatures increase up to 10 degrees Fahrenheit, over the next century. There are several causes of GLOBAL WARMING, which have a negative effect on humans, plants and animals. These causes may be natural or might be the outcome of human activity.

“GLOBAL WARMING is a gradual increase in the EARTH’S TEMPERATURE generally due to the GREENHOUSE EFFECT caused by increased levels of CARBON DIOXIDE, CHLORO FLOURO CARBONS (CFCs) ,and other pollutants”. It occurs when CARBON DIOXIDE and other Air pollutants and GREENHOUSE GASES collect in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that have bounced off the EARTH’S SURFACE. These pollutants trap the heat in the atmosphere and cause the planet to get hotter. That’s what’s known as the GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

Here are other causes: *Deforestation: Cutting down the trees has been a major factor in causing Global warming. Plants are the main source of oxygen. They take in CARBONDIOXIDE and releases Oxygen thereby maintaining ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCE. Forests are being depleted for many domestic and commercial purposes. This has led to an ENVIRONMENTAL IMBALANCE, thereby giving rise to GLOBAL WARMING.

*USE OF VEHICLES: The use of VEHICLES, even for s very short distance results in various gaseous emissions vehicles burn FOSSIL FUELS which emit a large amount of CARBONDIOXIDE and other toxins into the atmosphere resulting in a temperature increase.

Just like all these factors there are many other factors Ranging from man made factors like INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, OVERPOPULATION, USES OF FOSSIL FUELS, to NATURAL FACTORS like, VOLCANOES, WATER VAPOUR, FOREST FIRES, etc. causing a rise in earth’s atmosphere.

But Can we say that the World is IGNORING this fact? The world is not aware of this situation? No! It would be wrong to say that!

“Change only happens when individuals take Actions”. – “Aliya haq”, Deputy director of NRDC. SPEAK UP! There are many changes that we can bring about in our life, ranging from STOP CUTTING TREES, PLANT MORE TREES! The GOAL is simple! CARBON DIOXIDE IS THE CLIMATE’S WORST ENEMY.

There can be many ways to stop GLOBAL WARMING by governmental means, but INITIALLY, it starts with with us! Talk to your friends, family, and make sure Representatives are making good decisions.

DALHOUSIE AND UTILITARIANISM

Lord Dalhousie was the one who introduced railways, electric telegraph and uniform postage in India. Born and brought up in an age which ideologically belonged to Bentham and his followers,9 it was indeed difficult for Dalhousie, though essentially a conservative, to escape their influence. Dalhousie gave first proof of his utilitarianism when in I845 he joined Peel Cabinet, which had succeeded Melbourne, as President of the Board of Trade. Dalhousie laid before Peel “a sound and statesman like scheme” for placing British railways under the direct control of the state. Dalhousie scheme was not accepted, for in those days Parliament looked coldly upon any scheme which savoured of state interference with individual or class interests. But what Dalhousie could not achieve in England, he achieved in India.Bentham thought that an absolute authority would be the best machine to produce the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people and the British colonies like India appeared to the philosopher as the best fields for experimentation in reforms. It is true that Dalhousie was not the only Governor-General to wield absolute powers in India; his predecessors also did the same. But what is interesting to note here is that, unlike his predecessors, Dalhousie actually looked upon himself as an Oriental monarch, the source of all power and dispenser of all favour. Dalhousie’s modus operandi was basically the same as that of an authoritarian reformer. While in India, he acquainted himself ‘thoroughly with the system of Government and its administration, with the condition, the resources and the wants of the country’. He made a clear distinction between those functions which must be carried out by an authoritarian government and those which were to be executed by a third party. While education, the electric telegraph and the uniform postage came under the first category, railways came under the second. The first group consisted of ‘works which affect the general wellbeing of the community … and which, producing no immediate return must be executed by the Government if they are to be formed at all’. Since the second group, such as the introduction of railways, would bring immense profits to some commercial groups in England, they must be executed by them.Dalhousie approached the problems of infanticide, female education and the remarriage of Hindu Widows with the spirit of a Bentham. In the connation his appointment of the Commissioners of the Post Office to investigate the abuses of the postal system is one of the most direct proofs of his utilitarianism during his stay in India. Indeed, the way in which he sought to execute his social measures for the material improvement of the people owes much to Bentham’s ideas. In India the origin of the departments of railways, electric telegraph and post office may be traced to the same influences which were at work in Dalhousie’s mind. ‘My own opinion’, he wrote on 30 June 1854, ‘has long been decidedly in favour of placing a single authority at the head of every public department. In that form only can sustained promptitude of action be maintained and real responsibility enforced.’In the utilitarian philosophy of an authoritarian government, unity of authority is as essential as uniformity of management. Dalhousie accepted this principle and he was always careful that his social measures should be uniform, in other words, systematic. He insisted that the railway codes in one Presidency should not vary from those in another. Since the railways were an all-India enterprise, the codes to govern them should be uniform. Local Government could modify them to suit local conditions but the basic codes must be the same for the three Presidencies. It must, however, be remembered that Dalhousie never gave explicit expression to his beliefs in utilitarian principles. The classic example among some of Dalhousie’s predecessors who had accepted utilitarian-ism as their second faith was provided by Bentinck. In a farewell dinner at Grote’s house, just on the eve of his departure for India as its Governor-General, in December i827, Bentinck had said to James Mill; ‘I am going to British India; but I shall not be Governor- General. It is you that will be Governor-General.’ Viewed as a whole, Dalhousie’s regime contributed greatly to the transformation of Oriental India into Western India. The series of Western innovations he had introduced and the reforms he had carried out, Dalhousie thought, would strengthen the grip of the British Raj over India. It was perhaps the greatest limitation of Dalhousie that he failed to see the future that a modern country would give birth to a modern nation. In history things often happen which their authors do not intend to happen, and after they have happened they make them famous.

In India today, Dalhousie is remembered more as a catalyst in the growth of Indian nationalism than as a torch-bearer of British imperialism or as the man at the root of the mutiny which swept the Indian sky in I857.

FREE DUMP OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION

Diverse Country worth a Population of 1.3 Billion. The Diversity lies in the fact that, According to Census of India of 2001, India has 122 major languages and 1599 other languages. However, figures from other sources vary, primarily due to differences in definition of the terms “language” and “dialect”. The 2001 Census recorded 30 languages which were spoken by more than a million native speakers and 122 which were spoken by more than 10,000 people. Secular nature of the country also shows us the diversity of the country. A Country which incorporates in itself around 6 religions which altogether has different practises. And A Country of this huge stretch from north to south and from east to west needs a tolerant and incorporating governance.
Today, we are living in a world where we are forced to stand for the national anthem at a movie theatre, we are told what we can and cannot eat, what we can and cannot see, and what we can and cannot speak about. Dissent, especially in the university space, is being curbed, and sloganeering and flag raising have become tests for nationalism. We have a 21-year old University student who is subject to severe online hate, abuse, and threats, only because she dared express her views. In any society, at any given point of time, there will always be people holding divergent views. Such views are integral and inevitable in a healthy, functioning democracy. Nowhere has this been better expressed than by the judgment of the Bombay High Court in F.A. Picture International v CBFC, where the Court said:
“History tells us that dissent in all walks of life contributes to the evolution of society. Those who question unquestioned assumptions contribute to the alteration of social norms. Democracy is founded upon respect for their courage. Any attempt by the State to clamp down on the free expression of opinion must hence be frowned upon”
Unfortunately, however, our institutions of learning are under attack today and there is a concerted attempt to destroy any independent thought. Today, sadly, in this country I love, if anyone holds a view that is different from the government’s “acceptable” view, they are immediately dubbed as “anti-national” or “desh-drohi”. This marker of “anti-national” is used to intimidate and browbeat voices of dissent and criticism, and more worryingly, can be used to slap criminal charges of sedition against them.
Present Society has turned into a platform which calls for Freedom of Expression to be provided to them with Immediate effect as It has been around 68 Years of our Constitution to be Implemented and Fundamental rights been inalienable then too Citizens are been booked by law but Violating the Fundamental right of Citizens of freedom of speech and Expression that’s why the Topic has been Given an expression of “Free-Dump” In place of Freedom as this Freedom is being dumped by the Public servants such as Police as well as the Government by arresting students of college for expressing their views for the government policies as well as also lathi charging on girl student for protesting providing for right causes.
Constitution provides for the Citizens this right to express their views without being booked by law but otherwise provides for the same giving people the incentive to express whatever they feel Infront of Government as no Government is perfect and cannot takeaway the fundamental rights of people with the help of other laws.

RIGHT TO EDUCATION: OVERVIEW AND LOOPHOLES

“Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance”

-Former PM Jawaharlal Nehru

India gained Independence from British colonial rule, after prolonged freedom movement and struggles. With Independence, India became the master of its own destiny and the process to make India a super power and self-reliant began soon. One of the challenges that the country was going to face was with regard to financial viability, as soon after Independence, the economic growth of the country was near to negligible with very low Tax collections. In the Midst of these situations, the country had to invest on human resources in order to build a responsible and knowledgeable work force for the future. As the country was in a state of desperateness, people were not financially strong to even bear the costs of educating their children. Constituent assembly of India, while deliberating with regards to the Obligation of State to educate children, considered all these factors & situations and consequently placed this obligation under Directive principle of state policy (Part IV) rather than Fundamental rights (Part III). We find this observation from the language of Article 45 of the Constitution of India, wherein the obligation on the state to educate children up to the age of Fourteen years, was deferred for Ten years from the adoption of the Constitution. But the turmoil in the Indian Politics never realized this obligation into a reality, the duty of the state underlined in Article 45 came to fora only after 55 years of Independence when 86th Constitutional Amendment act was passed by the legislature that included the Article 21A in the Indian constitution making Education a fundamental Right, also it specified the need for a legislation to describe the mode of implementation of the same which necessitated the drafting of a separate Education Bill.Consequently Right to Education Bill, 2005 (Hereinafter RTE Act) was drafted and was further enacted in 2009. It was a landmark day for the people of India, since one of the Visions of our Constitution framers was coming to life that was Right to compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 to 14 years. The Legal framework was put into place, but the hopes of the majority of population faded with each passing year. The Schools established under the abovementioned legislation, was inadequate and most of the schools even failed to pass the norms already in place governing the education system. One of the Achievements of Right to Education was that it motivated village population to allow girl students to enroll, and it subsequently saw rise in enrollment ratio with changes in some states. But, several discrepancies began to be grounded with regards to “Schools with No Education”, “Schools with No Sanitation” and Schools with No Structures”. On many occasions, even students being taught under a banyan tree was called a school under the Aegis of RTE Act, which talks about serious structural lapses on the implementation of such fundamental right. The Constitution also provides for Article 21 that is Right to Life, which has been interpreted in a very wide manner. If we were to compare the protection of Article 21A with that of 21, it would be like state saying “You have the right to life and liberty, But Sorry we are not accountable for your food”, even Right to food is a fundamental right. This example is to portray the stark differences in the Implementation of a fundamental right, revered by our constitution framers. The Situation would further worsen, if attempts are not made to sincerely take effort in uplifting the standards of Education of poor and under-privileged children. This would portray development of a country in toto.

As in the words of Abraham Lincoln, “The best way to predict your future is to create it”, If India has to achieve the goals of becoming a Super power and self-reliant, it needs to take strides in order to develop its Public Education Infrastructure.

DOES CRZ SUFFICE FOR THE PROTECTION OF COASTAL REGION?

India is a country surrounded by water on its three sides, which makes it a peninsula, which provides coastal area of 7516.6 km. Coastal environment plays a vital role in a nation’s economy by virtue of their resources, productive habitats and rich biodiversity. This region also plays an important role in not only contributing towards GDP but also providing Livelihood to around 200 Million people.
With the rise in Population, development and accelerated growth, protection of the coastal zones have become very important. With the Intention to amplify the protection of coastal regions, the Union Government Enacted Coastal regulation zones Notification, 1991 (CRZ) under the Environmental Protection Act, 1986. Since its enactment, it has provided hopes to the people dependent on Coasts for their livelihood and Environmentalists who are concerned about the health of the coasts. But in essence, the regulatory authority established under the said notification has not been able to act with due diligence in matters pertaining to violation of CRZ.
According to several reports, more than 27000 violations of CRZ were reported in the state of kerela, and the numbers were able to be published in public domain only because the same was asked by the Supreme court in one of the case filed by filmmaker Major Ravi regarding CRZ violations. Recently, concretisation work was being carried out on Vainguinim beach, Goa in stark violation of CRZ rules, and even Goa Coastal Zone Management Authority failed to act to the several letters addressed to it stating such violations. Such Negligence have potential to convert these beautiful beaches into Human less desert.
It is not a new phenomenon that courts have come up to rescue when the relevant statutory authorities have not been able to perform their functions efficiently and their negligence was leading to disasters. According to CRZ, for any construction near the coast within 500 metre from the high tide line and the same distance from a low-tide line, a permission has to be sought from the Coastal zone management authority, and if the same is not sought, any erected building could be labelled as illegal and would be demolished. Such demolition orders are not new from any court.
Supreme Court in a landmark case ordered for demolition of Buildings in Maradu, Kerela and subsequently around 1800 structures were finalised by the state government as illegal and demolition of the same were proposed. Yet Again, the issue of vanguinim beach CRZ violation has revealed the sorry state of affairs for the protection of Coastal regions.
Within Past few months, India has been striked with two strong cyclones, “tauktae” and “Yaas” and we find some relation between the aggregating natural disasters in southern region with change in land patters along its coastal regions. Reports suggest that States like Tamil nadu and West Bengal have lost significant amount of Mangrove forests, which are known for having complex root systems efficient in dissipating sea wave energy and protecting coastal areas from tsunamis, storm surges and soil erosion. The Impact of such changes could in future be devastative for the Coastal states. Till date, the authorities have somehow managed to save several coasts from illegal construction but the loopholes has to be filled and actions have to be made swift, which will then fulfil the objectives of Environmental Protection act, 1986.

Thus, Strong implementation of CRZ is very important.

RELIGIOUS STEREOTYPES ASSOCIATED WITH LARGEST MINORITY IN INDIA

India is a country dominated by religion. Constitution framers also had this concern, while drafting it that how would democratic state ensure equality for every citizen in the country. The resultant concern was depicted in the form of Article 15 and Host of rights under Article 25 to 28. Even if, the constitution did not explicitly used the word “Secularism” as it was adopted, still the spirit could have been figured through these articles. But, Substitution of word “Secularism” was done through 42nd amendment of the constitution. Even if the constitution ensures the principle of religious freedom and right to dignity, Several Instances in the form of Massacres, portrays the impact of religious stereotypes playing a major role than the guarantees by the constitution. The Killing of More than 1000 people, mostly belonging to the largest minority community in India in Godhra Riots 2002 was a major setback to the secularism guaranteed by the constitution. When a person tries to understand the reasons associated with such events, one has to take into consideration the religious stereotypes been falsely rumoured from years in the country and how the politicians have taken mileage of such stereotypes and filled their vote banks, Instead of sweeping these false rumours and slamming those who speak of it.Some of the Stereotypes such as Hearing an Islamic name and thinking of him/her belonging to an educationally weak background, but this stereotype gets smashed in the face, when one gets to know that APJ Abdul Kalam, who also belonged to same community and His education level was at par with top intellectuals around the world. Another Stereotype is that “they are very unclean”, The largest Minority community in India has a significant amount of population residing in western nations, where they are well off and such stereotypes do not run over there, Thus judging any community through their personal spheres is not a practice that has to be encouraged rather, it acts as a defaming agent. Some of the questions, also part of such stereotype are: Are You Pakistani, Are You a terrorist.Further, the list of such stereotypes are not exhaustive but the importance of discussing them and resorting to reduce such stereotype threat should be something on the priority list. Stereotype threat effects are very robust and affect all stigmatised groups. Stereotype threat leads to a vicious circle. Stigmatised individuals experience anxiety which depletes their cognitive resources and leads to underperformance, confirmation of the negative stereotype and reinforcement of the fear. We find that majority of stereotypes with respect to the minority community comes from those individuals who are themselves at self-doubt or under some threat which reduces their cognitive mind to think of repercussions of such statements. India has already faced fierce riots and massacres where huge numbers of civilians have been killed and it forces us to think upon such expectations. It is a high time that people have to take efforts to destroy these stereotypes, so that India could breathe fresh air in its diversity.

OLYMPICS: WHY INDIA HAS ALWAYS BEEN BEHIND THE LINE?

“I would not stop till I had filled up a bucket with my sweat. I would push myself so much that in the end I would collapse and I would have to be admitted to hospital, I would pray to God to save me, promise that I would.”
– Late Shri Milkha Singh ji

Every sports person around the world wants to achieve the highest glory in sports by securing an Olympic medal, as it is considered as the most competitive and oldest championship for sportspersons worldwide. Even our most cherished sprinter Late Shri Milkha singh ji saw this dream to bring medal for India in Olympics but missed by a whisker in 1960 Rome Olympics. In lieu of the dream, players devote their time and money for more than a decade to come at par with players around the world and compete them.India, after independence has participated in 18 Olympic Events but the performance have not been equivalent to even the countries who gained Independence at the same juncture as India. The Sorry state of affairs for the Olympic preparedness can be attributed towards several factors. One such being “Sports vis-à-vis education”, people in India do not consider sports being a profitable field and thus try to restrain their children from opting any sports such as wrestling, judo, swimming, etc. as a career option, Instead they force their children towards being doctor or engineer. The Second factor is “Lack of Political will”, from years we have seen lack of adequate funds for even the players who represent the country in International Events. Dutee chand, Ace Sprinter who qualified for 2016 Rio Olympics stated “My main concern is to acquire a new pair of spike shoes, as mine are worn out. The running shoes are quite expensive, and I request the state government to provide a set of tracksuit and a pair of running shoes so that I could give my best performance.” This statement came at a time when Target Olympics Podium Scheme was already flagged off in 2014, but its implementation was stagnant. There have been development in the political will since 2016 Rio Olympics, after which various sports federations have been revived and Sports Budget have been raised significantly in 2019-20 Budget. The third factor is “Lack of Social Outlook”, India is a developing country where significant number of people are below poverty line, who fight for even two times of meal in a day. People are struggling for employment and society has also absorbed the same kind of tendency. Even today, First salary from of an Engineer son or daughter is valued more in society rather than an Olympic medal. An observation of this situation after Inception of 21st century reveals that there has been change in this outlook. After the drought of an Olympic gold for 28 Years, when Abhinav Bindra won Gold at Beijing olympics, it acted as an eye opener for the Indian Society. The Olympic medals won by Two women ( Sakshi Malik and P.V Sindhu) at Rio De Janeiro gave a boost to women empowerment in India.There are other numerous factors, which play an important role in reducing the chances of India getting Olympic medal but India has been taking long strides since 2014 in strengthening its sports infrastructure and providing every facility and equipment to the potential players. We have seen improvement in performances of players through other international tournaments. Hopes are high and fingers are crossed for the Indian Contingent for Tokyo Olympics 2021.

DOWRY: INEVITABLE IN INDIA?

In a PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY such as ours that accords sub-ordinate status to women, the position of a GIRLCHILD is indeed VULNERABLE. In case of FINANCIAL DIFFICULTY, it is the GIRLCHILD whose education is sacrificed in order to manage the household and take care of the younger children at home. This has led to a situation where the GIRLCHILD is treated as a guest in her own home. The DOWRY SYSTEM deeply rooted in the CULTURE and CUSTOMS of most COMMUNITIES in INDIA is a cause of harrasment for most women.

DOWRY means “transfering WEALTH in any form from the BRIDE’S family to the GROOM’S! The DOWRY means the demand made by the bridegroom’s family from the bride’s parents for the payment of money as well as other costly gifts in the shape of land, house, clothes, and jewels, a condition precedent to the alliance. It is a way to showcase love and care and help the newly wedded couple start their journey without any difficulty. But with time, it has found different meanings, and as a result, young girls around the nation suffer from various crimes and domestic violence.

It is basically a HINDU INSTITUTION, which is now spreading to other communities. DOWRY, in fact, is not a recent development. History is full of examples where daughters have been, married off with immense wealth given away to them in the wedding. Gifts, presents, and things given to the daughter in marriage is nothing bad at all. It is more of a token of their LOVE and HAPPINESS. But, when the parents of the groom make demands in order to fulfill their desires at the expense of the bride’s family, it becomes not only a legal offence but a moral and ethical one too. When people try to extract the expenses made by them on their son’s upbringing and EDUCATION from the bride’s family, it takes the SHAPE OF DOWRY. DOWRY, thus, smears the sacred relationship of marriage and converts it into a base, mean, and cheap, financial deal!

The Dowry system has been in our country since ever, and even after the legal intervention, it is getting harder to eradicate it for so long. The simple process of transfer of poverty has become a deep-rooted problem for our society. And many tough girls and their families have to go through hardship every time in our country. Dowry is a punishable crime in our nation. To protect young girls from various dowry-related injustice, reports against dowry are given priority. But most crimes are never reported, the domestic violence is at an increasing rate. The lack of proper education and awareness is a major reason for these increasing crimes. Many young girls are even pushed to the face of death for dowry.

The dowry system brings a dark cloud above the heads of the bride’s family. Fathers of young girls fear the day of their daughter’s marriage and save money for that particular day. In the northern part of India, the dowry system is quite more prevalent, along with casteism. Dowry is nothing but a nightmare for women. Every woman goes through the ugly phase, where she is made to feel like she is a liability. The country is continuously fighting against the dowry system. Various NGOs have come forward and raised the issue by spreading awareness among the population. The beautiful gesture of providing a helping hand towards the newly wedded has taken an ugly turn. Dowry is a punishable crime, and anyone who is, by any means, tries to support or even hide the truth will have to face legal consequences. Both the parties, the giver and taker, of dowry will be punished under the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.

DESPITE many acts and provisions taken in favour of WOMEN, from PROTECTION against DOWRY, There have been still many active cases of DOWRY:. Bengaluru may be on the international map as an IT hub. But the city saw a rise in the number of dowry cases annually. In the first 16 days of the current year, 17 dowry cases were filed across police stations in the city. The number of cases filed under the Dowry Prohibition Act witnessed a rise from 690 in 2018 to 739 in 2019. The number had stood at 727 in 2017. The number of dowry deaths saw a jump from 48 in 2018 to 52 in 2019, with none reported so far in 2020. Though 2017, 2018 and 2019 saw an average of more than two cases a day, this year’s average for the first 16 days has been a tad above one case per day. Police point out that the nature of cases has become more disturbing and serious, often involving attacks on women who are victimised by the socio-economic menace.

Hence, it will be difficult to say that DOWRY IS ERADICATED FROM INDIA. Being a DEMOCRATIC COUNTRY, where we are developed so far, WOMEN in INDIA still faces the Problem of DEVELOPMENT. We put their dignity everytime at stake, whenever, wherever someone asks them for DOWRY, and successfully, the girl’s parents fulfill it. It’s high time that the SOCIETY should realise the DIGNITY of a WOMAN, the SANCTITY OF MARRIAGE, and UNITE to fight against the EVIL custom of DOWRY!

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANCE

The term of Industrial Revolution is normally reserved as a set of events that occurred in Britain roughly from 1760 to 1830. The Industrial Revolution brought about a “modern” economy in which technological progress did not just happen from time to time in isolated sectors but became a sustained and continuous process, resulting eventually in unprecedented economic growth and increases in living standards in much of the world. Its effects led to a full reformation of production, consumption, locational patterns, international relations, demographic behavior and almost every aspect of the human condition.

The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION was a period of time that sparked the beginning of a major change in the MODERN SOCIETY from OLD DAYS of FARMING and AGRICULTURE to a shift in URBANISATION and MODERN MACHINE manufacturing. Prior to the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, most of the manufacturing was done in people’s houses using hand tools and other basic machines. However, with the newly advanced machines and factories, the mass producing of products would soon be more efficient and manufactured significantly faster. Not only were MACHINES and FACTORIES an essential part of the REVOLUTION, the DEVELOPMENT of IRON and TEXTILE INDUSTRIES along with the STEAM ENGINE allowed for improvement in transportation, Communication, and Banking. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION also brought forth many job opportunities and allowed people to start a new life in the cities. As, many people before the INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, lived in small rural communities where their activities and work were based on FARMING and AGRICULTURE.

One of the famous inventions of the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine. The first steam engine prototype was built by a Frenchman named Denis Papin, but the first useful atmospheric steam engine was built in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. Newcomen engines which noisy and voracious in their fuel use was served mostly as pumps. The conversion of steam engine unto a source of industrial power was the Scottish inventor James Watt who introduced improvements to the steam engine. Watt turned steam power from an atmospheric pump to a true steam engine. A high-pressure engine was then developed which provided increased power from lighter and smaller engines counterparts and thus ideal for transportation. After years of experimentation, they were successfully adapted to locomotives by Robert and George Stephenson in 1825.

A second industry often acknowledged with the most dynamic aspects of the technology of this time is textiles. By the middle of the eighteenth century, cotton was a small and rather unimportant sideshow in the British textile industry, famous for its woolens. Cotton’s growth during the Industrial Revolution was truly amazing. Value added in cotton went from less than half a million pounds in 1760 to around 25 million in the mid- 1820s. It is no wonder that some economic historians have thought of this industry as the “leading sector” in the Industrial Revolution. The reason for this success was cotton’s physical characteristics. It lent itself uniquely to mechanization and mass production and produced a good that was of even quality, attractive and above all inexpensive.

A third area in which the Industrial Revolution achieved major advances was iron making. One important innovation was the use of new fuels in the smelting of iron core in blast furnaces. The replacement of charcoal by coke (purified coal) in blast furnaces remedied the costly need to access remote forest areas. Blast furnaces became bigger, hotter and more efficient as more powerful machinery was used to blow air into furnaces.

The origins OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION took place in BRITAIN because it had great deposits of IRON and COAL which proved essential for INDUSTRIALIZATION, because BRITAIN was powerful and POLITICALLY stable.

The Second industrial revolution is known as the Technological Revolution and it was followed on First Industrial Revolution. The second revolution was started from 1870 until 1960 and it was developed rapidly in Western Europe country, United States and Japan. During that period, electricity became the primary source of power for factories and they used the power of electricity to develop different types of technology. The power of electricity caused the factory can produce the large amount of goods in the shortest time and lower cost. The second industrial revolution, it was more force on the steels, railroads, electricity and chemical development.

MISUSE OF COLLATERAL SECURITY UNDER SECTION 138

In a Fast Paced World, Buying desired products at a deferred payment method (Loan) is the only option left with majority of people who do not have that much purchasing power as that of commodity. In these instances, many times people intentionally provide misstatement or misrepresent in front of financier to get loan and misuse them or in another situation they may lure financer into giving loan and end up in using it for Illegal Means.
Collateral security can be understood as a form of secondary protection sometimes required by a bank and intended to guarantee a borrower’s performance on a debt obligation.
For an Example: A bought a Lorry out of loan given by B with an assurance to pay monthly installments until the full loan gets recovered to the creditor, A issues some postdated cheques for the installments, after some days, A with slight diligence A makes effort and hides the lorry and pretends in front of Creditor that lorry has been stolen and Your (creditor) legal fight would be with the insurance company and not me.
Here, A is Debtor and B being Creditor with the Lorry being the Collateral i.e. If A defaults on the payment, B has the right to sell the lorry and adjust the loan.
Debtors can very well take advantage of Section 138 of Negotiable Instruments act and can misuse collateral given to the creditor for the loan. After the dishonoring of cheques, debtors can take refuge under the term “Security cheque”.
This Point of researcher is very well balanced by a series of judgments given by several high courts and The hon’ble Supreme Court. In the case of Sampelly Satyanarayana Rao vs. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited, The question whether a post-dated cheque is for “discharge of debt or liability” depends on the nature of the transaction. If on the date of the cheque liability or debt exists or the amount has become legally recoverable, the Section is attracted and not otherwise. Though the word security was written in the Agreement, the said expression refers to the cheques being towards repayment of installments. The repayment becomes due under the agreement, the moment the loan is advanced and the installment falls due. Once the loan was disbursed and installments had fallen due on the date of the cheque as per the agreement, dishonour of such cheques would fall under Section 138 of the Act. Here the complainant was Held Liable and he could not take protection for “Security cheque”.
In an Another Case, Shanku Concretes Pvt. Ltd. & Ors. Vs. State of Gujarat, Complainant giving 15 lacs to accused and accused issued 7 postdated cheques in discharge of debt, cheques were dishonoured, Court Held that No Offence of under Section 138 was is made out as cheques were issued as collateral security byaccused and not to discharge any existing debt.In Another case of Goa Handicrafts, rural & small scale Industries Development Corporation Ltd. Vs. M/s/ Samudra Ropes Ltd., When the cheque is not to be deposited and it is deposited, it does not entail a penal liability.Another Case of M.S Narayana Menon also affirms the point of researcher that cheque if issued or for any other purpose the same does not come within the purview of sec. 138 of Negotiable instruments act.In Cheque Bounce cases, the creditor’s position is strong as he has a cheque. The creditor has to issue a demand notice letter keeping in view the provisions of Section 138, the complaint application should contain the provisions of Section 138 only then the creditor is entitled to the benefit of Sections 139 and 118. Otherwise, the defendants can avail the benefit of lack of pleading. If the provisions of Section 138 (a) (b) (c) are not present in the complaint application, the position is not valid and can be dismissed.

Therefore, with the gap in law, collaterals continue to suffer.

SEX EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS: IMPORTANT OR NOT?

“HIGH SCHOOLS MUST PROVIDE YOUNG PEOPLE WITH ADEQUATE SEX EDUCATION BECAUSE NOW, IGNORANCE CAN BE HARMFUL”.

One of the much debated topics across the WORLD is the IMPORTANCE OF SEX EDUCATION IN SCHOOL! Sex, is a SENSITIVE topic,that, as a rule is not usually discussed by parents with their children. Parents may feel often uncomfortable when asked by their CHILDREN about how children are conceived, and born and other related topics! But, DON’T YOU PEOPLE THINK ITS IMPORTANT TO TALK ABOUT SEX EDUCATION TODAY? TELLING and EDUCATING OUR YOUTH/CHILDREN about the IMPORTANCE OF SEX EDUCATION? WHAT IS SEX EDUCATION? Well, there can be many benefits of knowing about this Important topic in today’s generation.

SEX EDUCATION refers to a BROAD PROGRAMME designed to impart KNOWLEDGE or TRAINING regarding values, attitudes, and practices affecting family relationships. The real PURPOSE behind SEX EDUCATION is the TRANSFIGURATION of a MALE CHILD into MANHOOD, and of a FEMALE CHILD into WOMANHOOD. It is the education that provides KNOWLEDGE on PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, MORAL, BEHAVIOURAL, and PSYCHOLOGICAL CHANGES and DEVELOPMENTS during PUBERTY. SEX EDUCATION is acquiring information about the DEVELOPMENT of our BODIES, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR, SEXUAL CHARACTER. It teaches the ADOLESCENTS about the role of boys and girls in FAMILY and SOCIETY, RESPONSIBILITY and ATTITUDE of BOYS and GIRLS towards Each other, etc within SOCIAL CONTEXT.

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? SEX EDUCATION aids people to get the INFORMATION, MOTIVATION, and ABILITIES to make the RIGHT DECISIONS about SEX and SEXUALITIES. Teenagers need this kind of information in order to make right Choices for themselves and to protect themselves. There is CONTROVERSY in whether SEX EDUCATION should be taught at SCHOOLS, but the fact that TEENAGERS are not aware of this information, leads to them making WRONG and BAD DECISION on account of their ignorance. Relying to that, we realize that SEX EDUCATION is IMPORTANT to be inserted in a person’s life. Therefore, SEX EDUCATION should be MANDATORY in HIGH SCHOOLS.

While, SCHOOLS DOING THEIR PARTS, PARENTS SHOULD ALSO start EDUCATING their CHILDREN about SEX EDUCATION, as early as possible. There are many debates between the VIEWS of PARENTS, regarding the AGE at which SEX EDUCATION should be introduced at SCHOOLS. There are some PARENT groups who considers that SEX EDUCATION should not start until grades 5 or 6. Whereas there are others who say that SEX EDUCATION should be taught to CHILDREN when they are in 3 or 4 grades. They find this age suitable for the children for giving knowledge about their SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR and BODIES. There are numerous reasons why SEX EDUCATION is RELEVANT!

SEX EDUCATION plays a RELEVANT role in children’s life as it would help them to understand their BODIES and not to be SURPRISED when their BODIES start changing during PUBERTY.

SEX EDUCATION plays a RELEVANT role in the REDUCTION of TEENAGE PREGNANCIES. It has been proven that SEX EDUCATION can help to scale down TEENAGE PREGNANCIES and BIRTHS. In 2002, researchers from the UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON did a study on heterosexual teens, aged 15-19. The results showed that 9% received no Education at all whereas 66% were taught SEX EDUCATION with mention of BIRTH CONTROL. The children who received this EDUCATION, were 60% less likely to become PREGNANT, or get someone else Pregnant, than those who received no EDUCATION at all. In this study, it is evident that SEX EDUCATION does help to reduce TEENAGE PREGNANCIES and That it should be taught. The INFORMATION you should get on SEX EDUCATION should be from APPROPRIATE SOURCES such as SCHOOLS. Getting the PROPER SEX EDUCATION needed, reduces the number of TEENAGERS with SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES(STDs).

The sole aim of such an EDUCATION would be to teach children to establish and accept the roles and Responsibilities of their own GENDER by acquiring the knowledge of SEX. Understanding the SIMILARITIES and DIFFERENCE BETWEEN two GENDERS, in terms of BODY and MIND will set up s foundation for the future development in their acquaintance with friends and lovers and their interpersonal relationships. An effective SEX EDUCATION at SCHOOL along with adequate COMMUNICATION between CHILDREN and PARENTS can bring about a lot of change, as it’s high time! One should talk about it openly.

SUPERSTITIONS: STILL PREVALENT IN INDIA?

INDIA, the land of DIVERSITY, CULTURE, CUSTOMS, TRADITIONS, FESTIVALS, and CELEBRATIONS, got INDEPENDENT from the UNITED KINGDOM on 15th August 1947. Since, then we call ourselves FREE- free from any kind of BONDAGES, EXPLOITATION, and from any kind of SLAVERY. It’s been already 74 years of “INDEPENDENCE”, from DEVELOPMENT OF OUR ROADS, to have WATER SUPPLY to ALMOST EVERY REGION, from BUILDING AEROPLANES to HAVE CONQUERED TIME AND SPACE, from NEW TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS to SENDING SATELLITES TO THE SPACE! ALL THESE DEVELOPMENTS, YET NOT DEVELOPED! ALL THESE ACHIEVEMENTS, YET HAVE LOST! WHY??? SUPERSTITIONS!! There is no other country like INDIA in the world. Here, SCIENCE and SUPERSTITIONS go hand in hand. While we have sent powerful ROCKETS into space, at the same time we also fret if a Black Cat crosses our path! From trying to alter our DESTINY with GEMSTONES, to warding off evil from lemon and chilly totems, from not sweeping after SUNSET, to not CUTTING NAILS on SATURDAYS, It has been seen that people in INDIA still believes in many SUPERSTITIONS.

BUT, WHAT ARE SUPERSTITIONS? WHAT ARE THEY LIKE? WHAT ARE THE SUPERSTITIONS STILL PREVALENT IN INDIA? Well, WIKIPEDIA SAYS, SUPERSTITIONS refers to any belief or practice that is caused by SUPERNATURAL CASUALTIES and which contradicts MODERN SCIENCE. But, in simple terms, It may be defined as ILLOGICAL, or UNREASONABLE BELIEFS, ACCEPTANCE OF CERTAIN PHENOMENON, as it is without trying to know it’s cause! It also involves belief in OMENS, CHARMS, DEMONS, WITCHES, USELESS CEREMONIES and in the EXISTENCE OF SUPERNATURAL BEINGS. In this age of SCIENTIFIC REASONING, LOGIC and PROGRESS, SUPERSTITIONS still cloud the MIND of COMMON MAN.

The WEST- to an extent has been successful in erasing out SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS through the spread of EDUCATION and PUBLIC AWARENESS. But, HAS INDIA BEEN SUCCESSFUL IN WARDING OFF THESE SUPERSTITIONS? Well, we all know!! The Answer is NO! SUPERSTITIONS have greater hold in the still DEVELOPING COUNTRIES including INDIA! INDIA for long was considered as a LAND OF SNAKE CHARMERS, MAGICIANS, WITCHES, and STRANGE SIGHTS. The more PROGRESSIVE and SCIENTIFIC we are, the more BACKWARD, SUPERSTITIOUS and IGNORANT we are in this MODERN ERA!

SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS and PRACTICES often vary from one person to another, or from one culture to another. SUPERSTITIONS are usually attributed to LACK OF EDUCATION, however this has not always been the case in INDIA, as there are many Educated people and societies who still believes in certain kinds of SUPERSTITIONS. SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS and PRACTICES vary from one region to another region, ranging from harmless acts like LEMON and CHILLY TOTEMS, to MOST HARMFUL and DANGEROUS acts like WITCH-BURNING. SUPERSTITIONS are long held BELIEFS that appeared to be rooted in coincidence or cultural traditions rather than LOGICS and FACTS. SUPERSTITIONS are often connected to the RELIGIOUS PRACTICES that are widespread in the Past. Being part of TRADITION and RELIGION, these beliefs and practices have been passed down from one generation to another for CENTURIES. The INDIAN GOVERNMENT has tried to put new laws prohibiting such practices into effect, but due to rich history of such SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS AND PRACTICES, these laws often faced a lot of opposition from GENERAL PUBLIC NARENDRA DHABOLKAR in 2013, an ANTI- SUPERSTITION SPECIALIST was fatally shot by two bikers for requesting the enactment of a law that prohibited BLACK MAGIC. Here are some of the OLD-AGE BELIEFS that we can’t seem to let go off:.

* DO NOT SWEEP AFTER SUNSET: This is an activity you’re prohibited from doing once the SUN is DOWN, or else you might have to endure some ROTTEN LUCK soon. There seems to be no LOGIC behind this, But people do still follow this. *DO NOT CUT NAILS AFTER SUNSET: Cutting NAILS after dark is a strict NO-NO, unless you want to invite some UNWELCOME MISFORTUNE into your life. *ECLIPSES ARE BAD OMEN FOR PREGNANT WOMEN: Pregnant Women in INDIA have a hard time during ECLIPSES. Not only they are suppose to stay indoors during the entire time, they are not even allowed to sit CROSS-LEGGED. GOD forbid the baby should be born with ugly marks all over its BODY.

*LEMON AND CHILLIES CAN WARD OFF THE EVIL: As long as you hang a string of SEVEN CHILLIES and a LEMON outside your home, NO EVIL will dare APPROACH YOU. This charm also applies to one’s place of work.

*WEARING GEMSTONE BRINGS YOU GOOD FORTUNE: INDIA, we frequently consult some astrologers who advices us to wear certain GEMSTONES to improve our FATE. It gives them assurance that no tragedy will ever strike them.

*IF A BLACK CAT CROSSES YOUR PATH, THEN YOUR TASKS GET POSTPONED: At some point, Black Cats are associated with evil forces. It is said in HINDU COMMUNITY, that if a black cat crosses your path while you are going somewhere, don’t go!! As your task will either be delayed or get postponed. There seems to be no LOGIC behind THIS. But people in INDIA still follow this, ILLOGICALLY.

The LIST of such SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS and PRACTICES is ENDLESS and all of them are amusing in Their own ways. The belief in EVIL EYE, WEARING OF TABEEZ AND CHARMS to ward off ill-luck are all kind of SUPERSTITIONS found in INDIA. It is most discouraging to see that many a times Educated people are in a habit of indulging into SUPERSTITIONS as much as the illerate ones in the country. At some point and places, we have been successful in evading SUPERSTITIONS and to an extent a little more effort is needed to completely remove them from our daily lives!

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE CONCEPT AND DEVELOPMENT!

All systems and societies naturally Develop. In this age and day, DEVELOPMENT is moving at breakneck speeds, thanks to advancements in technology. The only problem is that not everyone considers the downsides that comes along with UNBALANCED ECONOMIC GROWTH including Impacts on people’s well being and ENVIRONMENT.

Thus, comes the CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT! It’s about time people start to change their perspective on UNBALANCED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT by viewing the world in a completely different way which would help people achieve the SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS. Now, WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? Well, According to WIKIPEDIA, “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT is the organising principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the NATURAL RESOURCES and ECOSYSTEM SERVICES on which the ECONOMY and SOCIETY depends”. But, In simple terms, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT can be defined as “DEVELOPMENT that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Sustainable development involves satisfying the needs of the present population without endangering the capability of the future population to satisfy it’s own needs. It’s about improving the well being of everyone wherever they are and achieving this milestone collectively! DEVELOPMENT also digs DEEPER. This means, We want COMPANIES to expand, everyone to afford NUTRITIOUS FOODS wherever they live, QUALITY and AFFORDABLE EDUCATION for everyone, and our ECONOMIES to grow EXPONENTIALLY. We want to develop INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES while keeping the ENVIRONMENT SAFE! Sustainable development is not about the ENVIRONMENT. It’s focus is much broader than that. It’s all about meeting the diverse needs of people in different communities, SOCIAL COHESION, creating EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES to ensure a STRONG and HEALTHY SOCIETY! It also focuses on finding better ways of doing things without affecting the quality of our life. Countries are now, recognizing the IMPORTANCE OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES, people are switching to cycling instead of driving that will improve their health! Farmers are practicing CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE and INDUSTRIES are realising as to how much they can save through ENERGY EFFICIENCY! Understanding SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT and it’s GOALS is the first step to learning what we can do to make it happen.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT has become a popular catchphrase in contemporary DEVELOPMENT DISCOUESE! But, the question here is,. HOW THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EMERGED? HOW THIS CAME INTO EXISTENCE? HOW FAR IT HAS COME? And how did this idea get RELEVANT? Well,.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT has its roots in Ideas about”SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT” which were developed in EUROPE during the 17th and 18th century, while the MODERN CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT is derived from the 1987- BRUNDTLAND REPORT, and the 20th century ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS. In response to a growing awareness of the DEPLETION OF TIMBER RESOURCES in ENGLAND, JOHN EVELYN argued “sowing and planting of trees has to be regarded as a national duty of every landowner, in order to stop the ” DESTRUCTIVE OVER-EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES” in his essay “SYLVA”, 1662. Another Milestone was the 1968 article by GARRETT HARDIN that popularised the term ” TRAGEDY OF COMMONS”. He argued that if individuals act independently, Rationally and focused on pursuing their interests, they’d end up going against the COMMON INTERESTS of their COMMUNITIES and exhaust the planet’s NATURAL RESOURCES. In this way, human free access and unlimited Consumption of finite resources would extinguish these same resources! Hence, to his eyes, Mankind needed to radically change its way of using COMMON RESOURCES to avoid disaster in the future- this would be the way to keep on a SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT track. LIMITS TO GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1972:. A few years after HARDIN’S ESSAY, CLUB OF ROME, in 1972 ran a computer simulation that aimed to predict the CONSEQUENCES of what could happen in a planet with limited resources. One of the first uses of the term SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT in Contemporary sense was by the “CLUB OF ROME” in 1972 in its classic report on “THE LIMITS TO GROWTH”. They argued that if the pattern of LIMITLESS GROWTH continued, then there would arise problems of SUSTAINABILITY. And the very same year, in 1972, THE FIRST UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT was held, also known as “Stockholm Conference”. As the World’s knowledge of global Politics evolved the first historical conferences were organized. It was the FIRST BIG WORLD LEADERS MEETING organized by the UNITED NATIONS to discuss the human impact on the Environment and how it was related to ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. AFTER THIS, many meetings in the international scenario were organized , be it:. 1979- WORLD FIRST CLIMATE CONFERENCE, another one being 1992- RIO DE JANEIRO EARTH SUMMIT in RIO, BRAZIL. So, we can say Concerns over ENVIRONMENT got much higher in 21st century.

Since the BRUNDTLAND REPORT, the CONCEPT of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT has developed beyond the Framework to focus more on the GOAL OF “SOCIALLY INCLUSIVE and ENVIRONMENTALLY SOCIAL-ECONOMIC GROWTH!

NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT: STILL RELEVANT TODAY?

The RAPID DECOLONISATION process that followed after the SECOND WORLD WAR brought into existence numerous states in AFRICA, ASIA, and THE CARRIBBEAN which were mostly SMALL or MIDDLE-SIZED and were UNDERDEVELOPED and POLITICALLY WEAK. They faced twin tasks of NATION-BUILDING as well as TACKLING the INTERNAL dissenting forces within their societies. Alongside they had a HERCULEAN task of COPING up with UNDERDEVELOPMENT and working towards DEVELOPMENT. It is these nations whose governments came together under the Umbrella of the NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM).

The NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM) belongs to the DEVELOPING WORLD and is a COALITION of SMALL and MIDDLE-SIZED STATES of the DEVELOPING WORLD, mostly “FORMER COLONIES”. Taking its roots from the BELGRADE CONFERENCE in 1961 with the participation of 25 countries, NAM has grown over the years through several conferences and now more than 100 countries are its members. The NON- ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. The MOVEMENT originated in the 1950s, as an efforts by some countries to avoid the POLARISED WORLD of the COLD WAR between COMMUNIST and CAPITALIST STATES. The BANDUNG CONFERENCE of 18-24 APRIL 1955 in INDONESIA was an AFRO- ASIAN CONFERENCE, and it marked the beginning of the NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT although it was formally initiated at the BELGRADE CONFERENCE in 1961. Post- Second World War also witnessed the outbreak of COLD WAR resulting in the hostilities of the two major powers, THE UNITED STATES and THE SOVIET UNION. The COLD WAR was further fuelled when the USA adopted a policy of CONTAINMENT OF COMMUNISM throughout the world, as the USSR was doing the same. The newly independent states that wanted to tide over their own problems of development and shared a similar kind of EXPLOITATIVE COLONIAL PAST, wanted to belong to neither of the camps and envisioned a POSITION OF NEUTRALITY- NON ALIGNMENT. The NAM originated under the leadership of JAWAHARLAL LAL NEHRU (INDIA), MARSHAL TITO ( YUGOSLAVIA), KUSNO SUKARNO (INDONESIA), KWAME NKRUMAH (GHANA), and GAMAL ABDEL NASSER (EGYPT). They forged a strong coalition of states from ASIA, AFRICA, EUROPE, THE ARAB WORLD and LATIN AMERICA and the CARRIBBEAN. NEHRU made it very clear, that INDIA would belong to ONE-CAMP- “THE CAMP OF PEACE” “GOODWILL” and “COOPERATION”. The NON-ALIGNED countries devised a flexible organisational structure and they meet from time to time in different regions of the world to garner support for some specific issues and also to promote their objectives. The NAM has been a major Movement in INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, primarily aiming at changing the existing GLOBAL STRUCTURE and creating a more JUST, EQUAL AND PEACEFUL WORLD ORDER. In essence, it is an ANTI- IMPERIALIST MOVEMENT. WHAT ARE ITS OBJECTIVES? Well, there are many OBJECTIVES OF NAM, BUT listed some of the important ones:. * Peace and disarmament, especially the reduction of tensions between the major powers. * Independence, including the right of self-determination of all colonial peoples and the RIGHT OF EQUALITY BETWEEN ALL RACES. * ECONOMIC EQUALITY, and many more! The NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM) which was born in the backdrop of the COLD WAR TENSIONS between the two super powers, worked for PEACE, COOPERATION, SECURITY, DISARMAMENT, INDEPENDENCE, DEVELOPMENT, among NATIONS. There have been many questions amongst various scholars and writers about the relevance of NAM today. IS IT STILL RELEVANT TODAY? EVEN AFTER THE END OF COLD WAR? WELL, why this question even arises? Perhaps it will be not an exaggeration to say that today we are living in an all together- new world! The breaking up of USSR into 15 new REPUBLICS, the UNITED GERMANY and a new EUROPE as a new socio-economic, political entity. Some people argue that, the NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT (NAM) was the product of the COLD WAR and BIPOLAR ISM: and that since the COLD WAR Is ended, and SOVIET UNION is no more, NAM has lost its RELEVANCE. According to some others, the task approached by the NAM , has been accomplished. For instance, COLONIES have gained INDEPENDENCE leading to no more COLONIZATION OF COLONIES, APARTHEID is being dismantled, the COLD WAR IS ENDED. SO, hence, there was no need and relevance of it.

But, as we say there are always two sides of COIN: and hence, RELEVANCE OF NAM can be classified as follows: *Earlier, the NAM was a POLITICAL MOVEMENT, but now the movement is shifting it’s Political concept to ECONOMIC. It is also true that the BIPOLARITY of the world is ENDED, after the COLD WAR but still, the world has an economic gap between the DEVELOPED AND THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Obviously, as long as the ECONOMIC GAP exists between these countries, the NAM continues as RELEVANT in today’s world order too! * NAM continues to hold relevance,to maintain WORLD PEACE! It mainly aims to establish a peaceful and prosperous world. * NAM as an international organization is still relevant due to its principles. The idea of preserving the INDEPENDENCE of every NATION, to save it’s TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY and SOVEREIGNTY still holds its relevance.

Hence, in the end we can say that NAM can never be irrelevant. As whatever the world is- MULTIPOLAR, UNIPOLAR, OR BIPOLAR, NON-ALIGNMENT as a FOREIGN POLICY of the THIRD WORLD STATES will continue to remain Valid. Therefore, it is still believed that the NAM has significant relevance in the present day world.

MENSTRUATION: STILL A TABOO?

“WE ALL ARE HERE IN THE WORLD DUE TO MENSTRUAL BLOOD AND STILL IT IS CONSIDERED IMPURE”.

A MENSTRUAL TABOO is any SOCIAL TABOO concerned with MENSTRUATION. The word “MENSTRUATION” is etymologically related to “MOON”. The term “MENSTRUATION” and “MENSES” are derived from the LATIN Mendis(MONTH). MENSTRUATION is a phenomenon unique to girls. Also referred to as “monthly”,”date”,”problem”,”time”or,”monthly birthday” amongst others, is a natural biological process that all women regularly undergo during a major period of their lives. MENSTRUATION is the natural part of reproductive cycle in which blood from the UTERUS exists through the VAGINA. It is a natural process that first occurs in girls usually between the age of 11 and 14 years and is one of the indicators of onset of PUBERTY, among them. Despite, being a phenomenon unique to girls, this has always been surrounded by MYTHS, SECRECY, and TABOOS that exclude women from many aspects of SOCIO-CULTURAL life. All around the World, and throughout history WOMEN have been shamed, sequestered, and medicalised for bleeding regularly. Such TABOOS about MENSTRUATION present in many societies, impact on girl’s and women’s emotional state, mentality, lifestyle, and most importantly, health!

In INDIA, even mere mention of the TOPIC has been a taboo in the past and even to this date. Culturally, in many parts of INDIA, Menstruation is still considered to be IMPURE and DIRTY. The origin of this myth dates back to the VEDIC time,and is often been linked to INDRA’S SLAYING OF VRITRAS. Women in the HINDU FAITH, are prohibited from participating in normal life while MENSTRUATING. She must be purified before she is allowed to return to her family and her day to day chores of her life. Many girls and women are subject to restrictions in their daily lives while MENSTRUATING. Not entering the “PUJA ROOM” is one of the major restrictions on URBAN GIRLS and WOMEN whereas NOT ENTERING KITCHEN is among RURAL GIRLS while MENSTRUATING.

MENSTRUATING GIRLS and WOMEN are also restricted from offering PRAYERS and TOUCHING HOLY BOOKS. The underlying basis for this myth is also the CULTURAL BELIEFS of IMPURITY associated with MENSTRUATION. It is further believed that MENSTRUATING WOMEN are UNHYGIENIC and UNCLEAN and hence the food they prepare and handle are contaminated and no one else can have it. In some cultures, its believed that a women should avoid sleeping with her husband during MENSTRUATION. It may sound ridiculous as many modern women have also seen it following.

Interestingly, in ASIA, including INDIA such beliefs are still practiced. However, there seems to be no logical or scientific explanation behind this behaviour. In some parts of INDIA, some strict dietary restrictions are also followed during MENSTRUATION such as, sour food like curd, pickles, tamarind are usually avoided by MENSTRUATING GIRLS and WOMEN. It is believed that such food will disturb or stop the MENSTRUAL flow. In some parts of KARNATAKA and MAHARASHTRA, a prevalent practice is of MENSTRUATING WOMEN living in a different room amd restricting their daily activities. Where as in some parts, perceptions of HINDUISM centre on notions of purity and pollution. All women regardless of their Social Caste, incur pollution through the bodily process of MENSTRUATION. Such TABOOS about MENSTRUATION present in many societies impact on girl’s and women’s emotional state, mentality, lifestyle and most importantly health.

Its interesting that so much embarrassment, awkwardness, and shame surround a NATURAL BODILY FUNCTION Experienced by half the population at some point in their lives. On one hand, many SANITARY NAPKIN ADVERTISEMENTS encourage women to “touch the pickle” and continue pursuing their interests like playing BASKETBALL, FOOTBALL, DANCE, but on the other hand, our traditions and customs restrict these activities. This creates a confusion among ADOLESCENT GIRLS and if they try to question this, they don’t always receive an answer. We don’t hide toilet paper away, yet some women get flustered if a TAMPON or SANITARY NAPKIN drops out of their handbag. WOULDN’T YOU FIND THIS RIDICULOUS?

And yet, that’s what we do all the time with SANITARY PRODUCTS, as though the evidence that we have PERIODS, is something to be ashamed of!

GLOBALIZATION: “A THREAT TO THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE”?

As a central concept in the present day international scenario, GLOBALIZATION is hard to define. Still, scholars have made attempts to provide a basic understanding of the concept. Globalization is a significant factor in competitive world that integrate and mobilize cultural values of people at the global level. In the age of rapid technical progression, many countries are unified and transformed due to the process of globalization. The concept has got inextricably linked with the process of transformation touching upon every aspect of SOCIAL, POLITICAL, and ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT around the globe. It can be seen as a process by which the POPULATION of the world is increasingly bonded into a single society. GLOBALIZATION has a huge impact on cultural, social, monetary, political, economic, and communal life of countries. But, WHAT IS THIS GLOBALIZATION? HOW IT HAS IMPACTED RHE THE WORLD? HOW HAS IT IMPACTED US? THE PEOPLE IN THE SOCIETY?

Well, In Broader sense, the term “GLOBALIZATION” means combination of economies and societies through cross country flows of information, technology, ideas, goods, services, capital, finance, and people. In the SOCIAL front, globalization signifies closer interaction of people and homogenisation of culture and values and the world being transformed into a “GLOBAL VILLAGE”. POLITICALLY, it refers to the complex networks of global governance and shared Political values resulting in the development of a tendency towards homogenisation of global Political culture. ECONOMICALLY, it is manifested in the form of LIBERALISATION tendencies, privatisation, deregulation leading to a FREE MARKET REGIME.

The term GLOBALIZATION encompasses various aspects including expanded international trade, telecommunications, monetary co-ordination, multinational corporations, cultural exchanges of new types and scales, migration, and refugee flows, and relations between the world’s rich and poor countries. Globalization is marked by LIBERALISATION, PRIVATIZATION, FREE TRADE, DEREGULATION OF TARIFF BARRIERS, INTERNATIONALISATION OF NATIONAL ECONOMIES, GLOBAL MOVEMENT OF CAPITAL, INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY. Therefore, Globalization signifies: * Opening up of national economies to foreign capital, foreign direct investment and foreign technologies. * Efforts of integrating national economies with the global economy. * Free trade, meaning free flow of trade and removal of tariff and trade barriers, protective regimes including granting of Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status. * PRIVATIZATION is the key to LIBERALISATION which means less and less control of state over ownership of means of production and distribution. * Globalized social movements have resulted in global civic activism and range from movements for human rights, women’s issues, Greenpeace and other environmental movements to HIV/AIDS.

“GLOBALIZATION AND THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE STATE”. The WESTPHALIAN MODEL OF STATE SYSTEM has come under the threats of Globalization. Though the states, still surviving, exercise their power and authority in certain respects, but the core of the WESTPHALIAN MODEL, that is, the CONCEPT OF SOVEREIGNTY, has deeply undermined in a fast globalizing world. The concept of sovereignty pertains to a specific reference, to a specific territory where governments exercise absolute authority. But the FORCES OF GLOBALIZATION have rendered the territorial limits useless. In other words, there has been a deterritorialization of the world. The state in a globalizing world has to work along with the forces which are not under its control even such as surveillance by global governance agencies, nationalism, global ecological problems, satellite communications, electronic money transfers, multinational companies, migration, information flows, technology transfers and most importantly, nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction. Scholars have pointed out that the concept of ABSOLUTE SOVEREIGNTY was developed under conditions of relatively low level of interdependence among the states. However, the complex level of interdependence with large flow of capital, labour, technology and information across borders has now emerged within the changing patterns of SOVEREIGNTY and its meaning and conditionally are continuously changing in a FAST GLOBALIZING WORLD.

The GLOBAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM has also limited the STATE SOVEREIGNTY. In several fields, Ranging from conflict management, to human rights and environmental movements more than the state it is now the agencies such as THE UNITED NATIONS, THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF), the WTO, the WORLD BANK, and various regional arrangements have significant roles to play.

Global Social Movements have also now come to undermine the SOVEREIGNTY OF STATES. These Social Movements to some extent succeed in bringing about changes in the policies of the states.

Hence, it might seem that under such circumstances, Globalization has really brought an end to state sovereignty. But, experiences show that STATES do continue to be the most powerful actors and, in times of turbulence, such as global economic crisis states have again reaffirmed their authority as ultimately it is the governments who are providing bailout packages for the financial institutions in their respective countries.

“In no way have STATES become less SIGNIFICANT”.

The MENACE OF TERRORISM

“The September 11, 2001 attacks on the twin towers of the WORLD TRADE CENTER, NEW YORK, the symbol of prowess and of prestige of the most powerful state in the world, came as a rude shock not only to the AMERICANS but also to the people in other parts of the world”. The attacks signalled to the fact that states are no longer impermeable and even a SUPERPOWER like the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA can easily become a victim of attacks launched, not by states, but by invisible actors, the most dangerous being the forces of TERRORISM, which are at work globally.

Since, the 9/11 attacks in 2001, TERRORISM has been a key concern worldwide, with the United States leading a WAR ON TERROR, and with continued attacks around the world by religious extremists. But, the question is WHAT IS THIS TERRORISM? ARE THE TERRORISTS SIMPLY FANATICS TO BE DEFEATED? CAN WE PREVENT THIS TERRORISM?

Well, A common definition of TERRORISM is the systematic use or threatened use of VIOLENCE to intimidate a POPULATIONor GOVERNMENT, for RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL, and IDEOLOGICAL GOALS. TERRORISM is a method which an organized group or party sought to achieve its avowed aims chiefly through the systematic use of VIOLENCE. The central point is that TERRORISM is an act which uses VIOLENCE to achieve its ends and is characterized by certain forms of actions such as ASSASSINATIONS, BOMBINGS, TAKING PEOPLE AS HOSTAGES, and HIJACKING OF PLANES.

The word “TERRORISM” was first coined in the1790s to refer to the terror used during the FRENCH REVOLUTION by the revolutionaries against their opponents. The JACOBIN party of MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE carried out a REIGN OF TERROR involving MASS EXECUTIONS by the guillotine. Although, TERRORISM in this USAGE implied an act of violence by a state against its domestic enemies, since the 20th CENTURY the term has been applied most frequently to violence aimed, either, directly or indirectly, at Governments in an attempt to influence POLICIES or TOPPLE an existing regimes. Most of the countries in the world like AFGHANISTAN, PAKISTAN, INDIA, UNITED STATES, UNITED KINGDOM, BRAZIL, CANADA, EGYPT, FRANCE, GERMANY, INDONESIA, and others suffer from terrorist onslaughts. There are or were many Terrorist organisations like, THE PROVISIONAL IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY(IRA) of IRELAND, the RED BRIGADES OF ITALY, THE JAPANESE RED ARMY OF JAPAN, and other ARAB TERRORIST GROUPS such as BLACK SEPTEMBER ORGANISATION OF PALESTINE, etc. which are disrupting peace and security of the world. But the new epicenter of terror since 9/11 tragedy is the AL-QAIDA and the names associated with it.

Many Terrorist attacks have happened in INDIA. Like, the PULWAMA ATTACK, 2019 one of the deadliest terror attacks on our brave SECURITY FORCES, in PULWAMA, JAMMU AND KASHMIR, shocked the Nation. In the attack, almost 40 CRPF personnel were killed. URI attack on September 18, 2016, was the worst attack on our Army where we lost some of our 17 JAWANS, ATTACKS being done by the PAKISTAN based Militant group. The 26/11 Mumbai attacks in 2008 is also one of the most horrific attacks in the country’s History. Like this, Several attacks have destroyed PEACE and SECURITY of our country.

But, there have also been some relaxations lately in the country, since THE MODI GOVERNMENT’S DECISION to revoke the autonomous status of JAMMU AND KASHMIR in 2019. It has improved the region’s SECURITY situation. According to the last report of the INDIAN MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS, there was a significant improvement in the security situation in the country due to containment of SEPARATIST AND COMMUNIST TERRORIST ORGANISATIONS. Hence, Of all regions in INDIA, TERRORISM- induced violence and deaths are primarily seen in JAMMU AND KASHMIR.

Since, it is HAS BECOME A GLOBAL PROBLEM, IT REQUIRES GLOBAL INITIATIVES!

SCIENCE: IN SERVICE OF MAN

“The Consistent efforts and the struggle for the expansion of everything in Life, be It: systematic Knowledge, nature, innovations, materials created a need for describing and Understanding the nature”. This need led to the birth of what is known today as “SCIENCE”. WE LIVE IN THE AGE OF SCIENCE. Science is a great BLESSING to mankind. Nothing better has happened in the history of man than the advent of SCIENCE in human life, and today, Science has become an important part of our lives. SCIENCE is a systematic and logical study towards how the UNIVERSE works. Science is a dynamic subject. Science can also be defined as the systematic study of the nature and behaviour of the material and physical universe, based on OBSERVATIONS, EXPERIMENT, and MEASUREMENTS and the formulation of laws to describe these facts, in general terms.

The world into which SCIENCE came, was a world of IGNORANCE, SUFFERING and HARDSHIP. Science has come to relieve us from sufferings, to remove our ignorance, and to lighter our toil. SCIENCE, has helped Man to lead a better life, than ever before! In all walks of life, man has made wonderful progress. You can see the use of SCIENCE in each and every aspect of our life. SCIENCE is an essential element in our life. Basic knowledge of SCIENCE is mandatory for everyone as it makes life easier and open our mind in many ways. Let’s see how!

HOW SCIENCE IS HELPFUL FOR US?
“HOW IT HAS BEEN SUCCESSFUL IN RELIEVING US FROM THE SUFFERINGS”?

Well, “SCIENCE IS A FAITHFUL SERVANT OF MAN”. It serves us in all walks of our life. It is our servant in the home, in the field, and in the factory. There are many events in our life, which makes us realize the PRESENCE OF SCIENCE. The FABRIC we wear, the brush and paste we use, COOKING, BOILING OF WATER, ELECTRICITY, TRANSPORT, CELL PHONES, etc., Everything is the consequence of advancement of SCIENCE. Science is involved in everything and Life is UNIMAGINABLE without it. SCIENCE has transformed our daily life. Gone are the days when only rich men could afford LUXURIES. Science has made them Cheap and has brought them within the reach of everybody. Books, music, and all other forms of entertainment has brought to our door, e.g, Radio, Television, and Cinema.

SCIENCE is our most faithful MEDICAL ATTENDANT. It shows every care for our health. Because of SCIENCE, we are cured of many deadly diseases. It has given us the power to reduce epidemics. Science has helped in reducing the death rate and has also enhanced the living age of humans.

SCIENCE HAS REDUCED DISTANCE. It has given us very swift means of COMMUNICATION, TRANSPORT, STEAM ENGINE, TELEPHONES, TELEGRAPH, LAPTOPS, AND, COMPUTERS. Science has annihilated TIME AND SPACE. Man can travel anywhere now. It has made it possible to send messages or talk to someone in any part of the world, in the twinkling of an eye. The work of MONTHS and YEARS can be done in HOURS.

SCIENCE is the greatest blessing to the Housewives. A thousand devices have been placed at her disposal to lighten the toil. Then there are so many Electricity-run kitchen appliances in which cooking is a pleasure. Science has provided us with COMPUTERS and MACHINES, which have greatly increased our efficiency. We are better connected to people today and INFORMATION is only a click of the mouse away.

Hence, SCIENCE has made our everyday lives very comfortable. It is an essential element in our daily life. The advancement in SCIENCE have brought about many changes in our lives. The CIVILIZATIONS have progressed LEAPS and BOUNDS. It has entered our life so powerfully that we have even started thinking in a scientific way. AND,

“WE WANT TO KNOW HOW AND WHY OF EVERYTHING”.

CASTE DISCRIMINATION: STILL PREVALENT IN INDIA

“Crimes against the historically marginalized SCHEDULED CASTES and SCHEDULED TRIBES by the upper caste represents an extreme form of PREJUDICE and DISCRIMINATION. Similar to the hate crimes in other parts of the world, these groups have remained target to the crimes and atrocities at the hands of the upper caste people mainly on account of their low caste identity in the form of rape, abuse by Police Personnel, harrasment, illegal land encroachments, forced evictions and so on”! Hence, it has been rightly said by MAHATMA GANDHI that,. “The purification required is not of UNTOUCHABLES but of the so called- SUPERIOR CASTE”.

INDIA is a country which is known to be very cultural throughout the world and a person can find many RELIGIONS and CASTES in here. However, the culture rooted deep in the country also has various problems. Even after 74 years of INDEPENDENCE, we are a country that has a prevalent problem of CASTEISM. It is a SOCIAL EVIL, but still holds a prominent place in INDIAN CULTURE. But,. “WHAT IS THIS CASTE SYSTEM”? THE SYSTEM THAT HAS DESTROYED SO MANY LIVES! HOW DID IT EMERGE? DOES IT STILL EXISTS? Well, YES! IT STILL EXISTS.. The CASTE SYSTEM in INDIAN CULTURE is prevailing for ages. CASTEISM refers to discrimination based on the caste of a person. From ancient times until now, the caste system has always held a sturdy base in Indian society. CASTE in INDIA was used as an identification of an individual as to which family the person belonged to, which also meant which field of work he was involved in because of his family. The FOUR PRIMARY CASTES of the HINDU COMMUNITY are: BRAHMANS, KSHATRIYAS, VAISHAYAS, AND SHUDRAS. The first three classes were considered upper and the last class, that is, SHUDRAS were considered as LOWER CASTES. Later, they were known as SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES! The Caste system was made to divide work among groups of people to maintain balance in the society with the distribution of occupation. But since this caste system was carried out from one generation to another in families, it soon became HEREDITARY. Hence, Became the Source of Exploitation of the lower castes. Basically, the religious and social circles dictate CASTEISM in India. Mostly, people living in rural AREAS, are facing this problem tremendously. During the early times, the villages were segregated on the basis of their CASTES. They were made to live in separated colonies. Even the place for buying food and getting water were different from the upper castes. For instance, the higher castes people that is, BRAHMANS never touched anything which belonged to the people of lower castes. When we look at the PRESENT SCENARIO, the impact may not be as severe as in the Early periods, but it is still worrying. The people of the upper castes are very much looked up to, and given access to all amenities. Whereas on the other hand, the ones from the lower CASTES, are not given such respects even today in certain areas. Sometimes, they even don’t get the same rights. According to the ARTICLE 15 of the INDIAN CONSTITUTION, “THE STATE is PROHIBITED FROM DISCRIMINATING ANY CITIZEN ON THE basis of CASTE, RELIGION, SEX, CREED, LANGUAGE, RACE, PLACE OF BIRTH OR ANY OF THEM”.

ARTICLE 17 states that “UNTOUCHABILITY IS ABOLISHED AND ITS PRACTICE IN ANY FORM IS FORBIDDEN”. BUT, has these laws and articles been implemented fully? Has these articles been successful in eradication of caste based discrimination from INDIA? WELL, THE ANSWER IS NO! Despite many schemes,articles, and provisions, there are many parts in INDIA where the SCHEDULED TRIBES AND SCHEDULED CASTES still face significant differences.

At the height of COVID-19 LOCKDOWN in APRIL, MADHU, a young boy in his 20s found himself out of work in BENGALURU. He returned to his hometown in ALUR MANDAL of Karnataka’s Hassan District. He was in love with a girl who belonged to politically dominant community. Her family did not want her to marry a DALIT. So, after some days he was shot dead by the girl’s uncle to end the relationship. There are so many girls and boys like MADHU, in INDIA who have been murdered brutally just because they were from the LOWER CASTE. This shows the ugly reality of CASTE VIOLENCE AND CASTE DISCRIMINATION even in the URBAN AREA.

According to the ANNUAL CRIME IN INDIA REPORT 2019 published by NATIONAL CRIMES RECORD BUREAU (NCRB), a crime against a scheduled castes and schedule tribes has recorded an increase of over 7% and 26% respectively in 2019. Hence, it is high time, one should realise that THIS CASTE SYSTEM IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF INDIA. It is high time one has to do away with this. As it has been rightly said by DR.B.R AMBEDKAR that,. ” CASTE IS A STATE OF MIND. IT IS A DISEASE OF MIND”. And one should not associate with this kind of disease.

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: “STILL A LONG WAY TO GO”?

“YOU CAN TELL THE CONDITION OF A NATION BY LOOKING AT THE STATUS OF ITS WOMEN”. . – JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU According to the provisions of the CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, it is a legal point to grant EQUALITY to WOMEN in all spheres of society just like male! THE DEPARTMENT OF WOMEN AND AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT functions well in this field for the PROPER DEVELOPMENT of the WOMEN AND CHILD in India. Women are given a top place in INDIA, from the ancient time, however they were not given EMPOWERMENT to participate in all areas. They were restricted to some areas only. BUT, the question here is,. “WHAT IS WOMEN EMPOWERMENT”? “WHAT IT’S LIKE TO EMPOWERING WOMEN”? Well, In simple terms,. WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IS “THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN”. It is made up of two words: WOMEN AND EMPOWERMENT. EMPOWERMENT means to give power or authority to someone. Hence, It refers to making women POWERFUL to make them CAPABLE OF DECIDING FOR THEMSELVES, by breaking all personal limitations of society and family. IT MEANS “INCREASING THE POWER OF WOMEN”. Women have capabilities to make a world of difference in the great march of civilization. But, Today, “ARE WOMEN REALLY EMPOWERED”? “CAN THEY TAKE THEIR OWN DECISIONS”? “ARE THEY REALLY FREE”?

Well, The Answer is not “ALL OF THEM”. The Status of Women in India has been subject to many changes over the span of recorded Indian history. HISTORY says that WOMEN were ILL-TREATED. Their position in society deteriorated early in India’s ancient period, especially in INDO-ARYAN speaking regions, and their subordination continued to be refined well into India’s early modern period. Women have always been the most vulnerable and oft-explioted segments of the society in any age, any time, any place, and any society. They have been since ages VICTIMS of HUMILIATION, EXPLOITATION AND VIOLENCE. The SATI PRATHA in the ancient times to the GIRL CHILD ABOLITION in the present scenario, women continue facing such violence. But, It’s not like, that now People and Governments are oblivious about Their situation and condition.

There have been many provisions and schemes taken up by various Governments in their respective countries. In INDIA, GOVERNMENT has come up with many schemes such as, “BETI BACHAO, BETI PADHAO” YOJANA, MAHILA SHAKTI KENDRA, WORKING WOMEN HOSTELS, and many schemes in favour of them.

ARTICLE 15(3) mentions the welfare of women and children can be stated as,” Nothing in this article shall prevent the state from making any special provision for women and children”.

MINISTRY FOR WOMEN AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT has collaborated with FACEBOOK on NOVEMBER 19, 2019, to enhance digital literacy and online safety for women in India. The GOVERNMENT OF INDIA has taken the safety and empowerment of women into serious consideration. The growing injustice towards WOMEN had to be minimised and these schemes and their implementation are the solutions to this problem. Several Women have served in various senior official positions in the INDIAN GOVERNMENT, including that of THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA( MRS. PRATIBHA PATIL), THE PRIME MINISTER ( INDIRA GANDHI),CHIEF MINITERS(SUCHETA KRIPLANI), MEMBERS IN PARLIAMENT and THE SPEAKER OF LOK SABHA. This shows that GOVERNMENTS are becoming more and more active in amelioration of women’s condition in our society. However,. Many Women in India continue to face significant difficulties from many sectors. In some societies, WOMEN are still discriminated on the basis of GENDER. They are not given the same freedom as Men. Girls of many societies (especially in RURAL AREAS OF INDIA) are still not allowed to take a decision regarding their lives. What can a Government do with their schemes? If there are not many girls to adapt it. Discrimination against women is still deeply rooted within our Society. Women are still paid less, compared to men. Women are still strict by their culture and family. She cannot go out at nights, with or without a Guy! She cannot has a say in decision making. Even Today, in COMBODIA, WOMEN are determined or recognized by their husbands and Fathers. IS THIS THE EMPOWERMENT? WE OFTEN TALK ABOUT? IS THIS THE FREEDOM WE WANT TO ACHIEVE? No!!!! EMPOWERING WOMEN IS TO GIVE HER THE RIGHT! THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE EQUALLY IN SOCIETY, EDUCATION, IN DECISION MAKING. Women should be allowed HIGHER EDUCATION as men. Women should be allowed to decide whether she wants marriage of not!!! But Can we expect this in INDIA??

As THE UNION MINISTER HARDEEP SINGH PURI has rightly said, ” WOMEN EMPOWERMENT HAS COME A LONG WAY, BUT WE HAVEN’T ARRIVED YET”.

WORLD: TOWARDS CLIMATE CHANGE.

“IT SHALL BE THE DUTY OF EVERY CITIZEN OF INDIA TO PROTECT AND IMPROVE THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT INCLUDING FORESTS, LAKES, WILDLIFE, RESOURCES, AND RIVERS TO HAVE COMPASSION FOR LIVING CREATURES”. – ARTICLE 51-A, DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY. An Environment is everything that is around us, including both Living and non- Living things such as SOIL, WATER, ANIMALS, and PLANTS which adapt themselves to their surroundings. The Environment plays an important role in the existence of life on the planet EARTH! It is nature’s gift that helps in nourishing life on the planet EARTH. Environment plays an important role in HEALTHY LIVING and EXISTENCE OF LIFE in on EARTH. But, “ARE WE REALLY LIVING HEALTHY”? “ARE OUR ENVIRONMENT BEING ENOUGH PROTECTED FOR NOURISHING LIFE ON EARTH”? Well, We all know the answer of it! The way we all are living our lives so selfishly, only focusing on our personal needs, by utilising all natural resources it won’t be wrong to make a statement that we have failed to be a RESPONSIBLE CITIZEN! “RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE PROTECTION OF OUR ENVIRONMENT”. “RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE PROTECTION OF OUR MOTHER NATURE”. Here, the question that arises is that what has happened around the world that has affected our ENVIRONMENT so badly? What has caused the AIR to be IMPURE? What is making SEA LEVEL rise more and more, leading to severe FLOODS, CYCLONES, across the whole world? INDEED, IT IS CLIMATE CHANGE. Today, CLIMATE CHANGE is an accepted fact unlike a decade ago, where scientists and governments were arguing about its existence! In simple terms,. It refers to the RISE IN AVERAGE SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON EARTH. CLIMATE CHANGE is a LONG-TERM SHIFT in WEATHER CONDITIONS identified by changes in TEMPERATURE, PRECIPITATION, WINDS and OTHER INDICATORS. IS CLIMATE CHANGE REAL? There is a broad based agreement within the scientific community that CLIMATE CHANGE IS REAL. An overwhelming scientific consensus maintains that CLIMATE CHANGE is due primarily to the human use of FOSSIL FUELS, which releases CARBON-DIOXIDE and other GREENHOUSE GASES into the air. The GASES trap heat within the ATMOSPHERE, which can have a range of effects on ECOSYSTEMS, including RISING SEA LEVELS, SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS AND DROUGHT THAT Render landscapes! The UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION concur that CLIMATE CHANGE is indeed occuring and is almost certainly due to human activities. As, concentrations of Green House Gases have increased, the EARTH has warmed. Today’s INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES including, NEW ZEALAND have built their economies on BURNING FOSSIL FUELS to provide ELECTRICITY, TRANSPORT and to develop industries. Developing countries are now beginning to do the same!

Humans, Thus are increasingly influencing the CLIMATE and Earth’s temperature by burning FOSSIL FUELS, DEFORESTATION, USAGE OF FERTILIZERS and LIVESTOCK FARMING. Sixteen of the SEVENTEENTH WARMEST YEARS, on record have been in 21st century. Wikipedia says that though there have been previous periodics of climate change, since the Mid 20th century, humans have had an unprecedented impact on Earth’s CLIMATE CHANGE and caused change on Global change. The INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC), which includes more than 1300 scientists from the UNITED STATES, and other countries, forecasts a temperature rise of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century. Global Climate change is projected to continue to change over this century and beyond. The magnitude of CLIMATE CHANGE beyond the next few decades depends primarily on the amount of heat trapping gases emitted globally and how sensitive the Earth’s climate is. HURRICANES WILL BECOME STRONGER, leading to CYCLONES like, TAUKTAE( the most recent one) another one, named AMPHAN and many more. ARCTIC LIKELY TO BECOME ICE- FREE, and many more.

Hence, Climate change is one of the most critical GLOBAL CHALLENGES of our times. Recent events have emphatically demonstrated our growing vulnerability to CLIMATE CHANGE. Climate change impacts will range from affecting agriculture further endangering FOOD SECURITY- to SEA LEVEL RISE, SPECIES EXTINCTIONS, and spread of VECTOR BORNE DISEASES AND DISEASES LIKE CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) which has led to severe disruptions of our lifestyle. Hence, the issue is of immense importance for every global citizen. This is why IT REQUIRES GLOBAL INITIATIVES AGAINST IT.

THE WORLD IS ACTING NOW! MITIGATING CLIMATE CHANGE is about reducing the release of greenhouse gas emissions that are warming the planet. There have been many GLOBAL INITIATIVES to prevent CLIMATE CHANGE started by various sectors. THE UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP) stimulates worldwide awareness of the Environment and enhances political attention and action through WORLD ENVIRONMENT DAY, commemorated each year on 5TH JUNE. UNEP is asking countries and governments to focus on their GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS and how to Reduce them. It tries to raise voice AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE. WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO) is also initiating a campaign against CLIMATE CHANGE. Since 1998, ASEAN also has taken many initiatives and actions on the ground to address land and forest fires and haze pollution. To Conclude, it is now clear that initiatives to prevent CLIMATE CHANGE are started, but most importantly these initiatives must be continuous and sustainable. And every citizen will need to understand the importance of taking action on their own and contribute to prevent CLIMATE CHANGE. As LEONARDO DI CAPRIO well said: “The Argument is Over. Anyone that doesn’t believe that CLIMATE CHANGE is happening doesn’t believe in SCIENCE”.

COVID-19: IMPACT ON EDUCATION.

“There are many things in our life which makes it worth Living, and EDUCATION is one of them”. Education is an important issue in an individual’s life. It is a path through which one can achieve anything in the future,be it: knowledge, fame, money, respect, success and many more. It is the key to have many opportunities in our life, OPPORTUNITIES which can help one rise and achieve anything in the future. Education grants us a good status in a society. As educated people, we are considered as a valuable source of knowledge for our society. BUT, ARE WE STILL THAT MUCH VALUABLE FOR SOCIETY SINCE 2 YEARS? IS THE CURRENT SITUATION IN THE WORLD CAN PROVIDE YOU THE OPPORTUNITY? THE OPPORTUNITY YOU NEED TO EXCEL IN THE FUTURE? We don’t know!! HAS OUR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS BEEN COMPROMISED? This is the exact question running in everyone’s mind be it, Parents, Government and Students since 2020. Yes, The Year 2020 was a major turning point for the students and their Education worldwide.

ON DEC, 31 2019, CHINA reported a new virus to the WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO), which later came to known as COVID-19. The “CO” stands for ‘CORONAVIRUS’, “VI” stands for ‘VIRUS’ and “D” stands for ‘DISEASE’. The Virus, which causes symptoms ranging from itchy throat, cold, cough, lack of smell and taste, to nuemonia, has killed lakhs globally and infected millions. Who could have thought the virus emerged in China, would spread across the whole world and infect millions in such a way that everyone’s life would change. The disease has been declared as a ‘Pandemic’ by the WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO). Amid. COVID-19, Several countries around the world, had implemented LOCKDOWN MEASURES and other restrictions in bid to stop the transmission of the Coronavirus. The disease has been so deadly that it has caused thousands death globally and many loses to the countries. Many countries stopped Rail and Air services, Schools, colleges, Restraus, Temples, and every other public place where a full fledge gathering could take place were shut. Government believed it was the best possible way to prevent and slow down transmission of the COVID-19 among the public.

Of all the Effects it had, the most affected one were the “STUDENTS AND THEIR EDUCATION”. The COVID-19 Pandemic has affected EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS worldwide, leading to total closures of schools, universities, and Colleges! The Governments of many countries decided to temporarily close EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS in an attempt to reduce the spread of the deadly VIRUS. Well, WIKIPEDIA says that, as of JANUARY 2021, Approximately 825 million learners are currently affected due to school closures in response to the Pandemic. At the peak of the Pandemic, many countries in Europe and Central Asia Region closed their schools, colleges and universities to contain the virus. School Closures have brought significant disruptions to Education across the World. School Closures have not only impacted STUDENTS, TEACHERS, FAMILIES, but have far reaching ECONOMIC AND SOCIETAL CONSEQUENCES. The disease started spreading so fast that the GOVERNMENT had to take a decision and ended up in closing schools and colleges abruptly! Given the Abruptness of the situation, Teachers Students, and Administrators were unprepared for this transition and sudden change! And were forced to build emergency remote learning systems almost immediately and one of its limitations was the lack of personal interaction between Teacher and Students. The Impact was more severe for the disadvantaged students and their families. As being weak in studies they couldn’t understand what to do, what to learn, how to access new things and adapting new changes, causing Interrupted learning, child care problems and consequent Economic cost to families who could not work. Amid Pandemic, DIGITAL LEARNING only seemed the best way for the students to carry on to Thier studies that lacked behind due to this Pandemic. It happened so suddenly, that both the teachers and students couldn’t understand the next step! Hence, leading to the gap between Students and their Studies. As a result when things resumed in a better way recently many students found that they remember Nothing! Pandemic also affected the quality standard of knowledge and learning as many examinations were canceled and children were promoted to the next levels without even giving their examinations! Resultantly, it will have a deep impact in Thier coming future! As we all know the Importance of BOARDS EXAMINATION! It trains you to be Strong. It is the basic level that one individual has to pass for their strong Career! It leaves the way for us to have a good career. Hence, EDUCATION is important for all of Us to have a good career. It enhances the opportunities for a better and easier employment.

Hence, EDUCATION is a sector in which Government has to be responsible and try to compensate the families and Students who have suffererd due to this Global Pandemic by Interrupted Learning and many more!

YOUTH ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION.

“LIFE IS PRECIOUS,VALUE IT”.

INDIA homes a large majority of the YOUTH in the world compared to any other country! Due to this, it won’t be wrong to say that India’s future lies in the Youth’s hands today. But here arises the most important question that:

“ARE THEY AWARE OF THIS”?

“DO THEY UNDERSTAND THIS”? The Answer is Not Many! Today, they are facing a Crisis, more than any other time or Era.That is ALCOHOL ADDICTIONS. ALCOHOL is a drug of choice among youth. Regardless of the repurcussions, they are consuming it and even getting addicted. The rate at which they are consuming it has no bounds at all. Besides, the youth of today’s era thinks it as having fun. The rate of their alcohol consumption have been increasing steadily, and that brings multiple heath concerns along with it. Damaging of sense organs, Impacting Liver, Suicides, our mental health and many more. Unlimited Consumption also leads to accidents due to Rash driving while drinking. The CONSTITUTION OF INDIA has given us many major freedoms due to which one has full freedom to do what he/she wants. But at the same time it has also placed some restrictions. That means you can enjoy your Full freedom but only till you are not affecting someone’s else’s freedom. You cannot do anything as you please, while drinking, as it affects the people and functioning of our society as well. Many young people are experiencing the consequences of alcohol consumption too much, at too early an age. As a result, Youth Alcohol consumption has become a public problem in our country. But the astonishing fact is that why do they drink? What can they achieve by drinking Alcohol? Well, the answer won’t be that hard to guess. As children move from Adolescence to young adulthood, they experience dramatic, physical, mental, and emotional feelings. Some handles them preety well. But for those who cannot even understand what is happening in and around their lives, ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION BECOMES THE ANSWER. Due to hormonal changes, puberty the ones who cannot stand up to this rough world, ALCOHOL BECOMES THIER ESCAPE. ESCAPE FROM REALITIES OF LIFE, ESCAPE FROM THIER FEELINGS, ESCAPE FROM THEIR FAMILIES, FRIENDS, THEIR LIFESTYLES, Everything!

The youth becomes the most vulnerable part of society to Alcohol. Especially- the students in high schools and colleges. In order to try new and adventurous things, or under peer pressure or many a times taking initiative on their own, they get caught into the vicious cycle of alcohol consumption unknowingly and innocently. Gradually, they get habitual and with time they seem to enjoy it. They get addicted, and the fact is sometimes some enjoy it! They enjoy being Addicted. But by the time they realise, it gets too late for them to break away without any outside help. In all this process everything and everyone in society gets affected. Sometimes, the addict struggles all alone even if he wants to break free but his addiction does not let him do so and resultantly he fails in all his attempts. A continuous intake of Alcohol results in an overpowering desire or compulsion to continue taking it and to obtain it by any means. They get so addictive that they can do anything for it. This results in many crimes like Robbery, Murder, Threats and many more!

Thus, it is high time people and the youth understand the importance of LIFE and starts valuing it and taking it more seriously. Alcohol consumption today is a major social problem which, though concerns an individual but ,in turn, affects the society at large. It is a widespread and critical problem not only in India but also Western societies and has become a matter of grave concern. Thus, this should be controlled and major steps should be taken by not only higher authorities but by the youths themselves towards their health and future. As their is a famous saying: GOD HELPS THOSE, WHO HELP THEMSELVES!