All about the increase in marriage age of girls in India.

The government on Tuesday 21st December 2021, introduced a bill in Lok Sabha which focuses on the amendment of the prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 to raise the marriage age for girls from 18 to 21 years and bring it at par with men. This bill has successfully started socio-political debates over whether social attitudes can be fully legalised.

The government made it clear that the bill seeks to override all existing laws which govern the parties in relation to marriage. All the existing laws like the Indian Christian Marriage Act, the Divorce Act, the Hindu Marriage act and all others will be brought in consonance to this particular amendment. This bill will come into force two years from the date it receives the signature of the President.

According to the government on the Prime Minister it is necessary for the girls to be married at the right age this bill will empower Young women by increasing their access to education and reducing infant mortality rate and maternal mortality ratio. However there have been a lot of protests against this bill as a number of elites and people believe that this bill will only strengthen patriarchy and might prove to be problematic instead of improving the condition of women in India.

Various women organisation have show their concern regarding this bill according to them the scope of this bill is very narrow as it focuses only on increasing the marriage age rather than focusing on the circumstances that early marriage is a symptom of. Increasing the age of marriage will either harm or have no impact by itself under the root causes of the women’s disempowerment are addressed. As it is a no hidden the fact that the Indian society is deeply entrenched in patriarchy and this act might come handy for parents and allowe them to control the autonomy of young girls and to penalise them for their sexual choices.

People are also concerned that if a married girl of 18 on 19 years faces matrimonial problems and issues and approaches the code for a solution then her husband might plead that the marriage is void and she is devoid of her matrimonial rites. For solving this problem the government it need to specify the condition of women in under age marriage and the government needs to ensure that these women will not lose their matrimonial rights.

The task force had asked the government to increase the number of educational institutions for girls and provide better accessibility to such institutions. Government needs to provide skill training ,better opportunities to girls then only such acts and laws will be able to truly achieve their objectives. Government needs to focus on bringing in structural changes by providing better employment opportunities, a safe and sound environment and society. These are the more pressing issues at the moment and trying to solve them will actually impose a financial burden on the government whereas implementing an act in the parliament won’t be imposing any kind of economical or financial burden on the government. The priorities need to be sorted before making any further amendments in the constitution.

Emile Durkheim

David Emile Durkheim(15 April 1858-15 November 1917) was a French sociologist. He played a great role in development of sociology as an academic discipline. He played a great role during the period of enlightenment. He inherited the conservative tradition. Durkheim legitimized sociology in France,his work ultimately became a dominant force in the development of sociology in general and of sociological theory in particular. 

He was politically liberal and feared social disorders. He viewed social disorders as an unnecessary part of modern world and stated that social reforms can be used to reduce them.

Major works:

1.The Rules of Sociological Method 

He stated that the main aim of sociology is to study social facts. Social facts are the ways if thinking,acting and feeling which are external,coercive and outside individuals. He reasoned that if he could link individual behavior to social facts then it would become easy to understand sociology as an academic discipline. Durkheim differentiated between two types of social facts, ie, material social facts and non material social facts. Material facts include bureaucracy, governance and economy etc whereas non material facts include religion, culture, ethics etc. Durkheim mainly focused on the study of non material social facts.

2. The Divison of Labour in the Society.

In this work, Durkheim basically focused on the comparative analysis of what held old and modern societies together. He stated that primitive societies were held together by non material social facts  or strongly held common morality or what he called collective conscience. But as the world grew so did the complexities and this resulted in the weakening of collective conscience. The initial bond in the modern world was an detailed division of labour which held people together in dependency relationship but the modern division of labour brought with it several pathologies and proved to be an insufficient technique of holding the society together. Durkheim did not favour a revolution to solve these problems instead he suggested a variety of reforms that could patch up the modern system and keep it stable.

3. Suicide 

Durkheim adopted a very scientific approach in investigating the matter of suicide. He stated that suicide was not committed only by psychological or personal reasons but it also involved various social as well as economic reasons. Suicide was not a doing of an individual but it had collective efforts of various elements. Rather than focusing on individuality of suicide he focused on the rate of suicide and incidence. He noticed that suicide rates were different among different caste,class,sex,society, ethnicity etc. Thus he proved that suicide is affected by various other reasons including psychological factors. 

4.The Elementary Forms of Religious Life

Durkheim examined primitive society in order to find the roots of religion and he found out that society was the source of religion. Society defined certain things as religious and others as profane. He also studied totemism. Durkheim concluded that society and religion were same, religion was the way society expressed itself in the form of non material social facts.

Emile Durkheim’s works contributed a lot in development of sociology, he cleared the initially vague facts and matters. He also set up a journal devoted to sociology named L’annèe Sociologique, this made sociological understanding more easy. Sociologists and the students of sociology will forever be grateful to him  for his enormous and intricate contributions

Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Prevention

Juvenile delinquency is an act wherein a minor commits a crime or involves themselves in any immoral or anti social activities. Such minors are called juveniles or juvenile delinquents. This term not only involves legal facts but it also involves moral,social as well psychological issues. Juvenile detention centers and courts etc are included in the juvenile legal system. With the help of data and statistics it is clearly portrayed that the rate of crimes committed by minors is increasing at a sharp rate  so it becomes important to understand the causes and prevention of juvenile delinquency.

 Causes of juvenile delinquency:
A behavioural study conducted by psychologists on juveniles tells that minors commit crimes because their mind tells them to do so and in doing that they feel satisfied and contented. 
Another factor leading to minor crimes is a dysfunctional family. As it is known that family plays the greatest role in anyone’s life and it not only affects how people behave in society but it also determines how people view and analyse life. In some cases children feel neglected when they have working parents and this isolation leads them into doing wrongful acts. Sometimes families collectively fail in passing on the values,ethics and morals of life to their kids making them hostile and toxic. Sometimes being in bad company or being in touch with inappropriate people also leads to juvenile delinquency. For example,being in touch with smugglers motivates kids to commit such crimes. Unnecessary ostracism is also contributing in juvenile crimes. For instance when a child is ridiculed for belonging to a particular or so called community,they might start feeling criminal instincts in them. And apart from all these things the major factor promoting juvenile delinquency in wide spread poverty,income gap and economic inequality. When a economically poor child commits a crime like theft for the first time there is a moral element involved in the act, he knows it’s wrong and might as well promises himself not to do such thing again but the next day also,he has to fight for survival so he chooses the easier path and slowly and gradually it becomes his habit and his system gets conditioned to it. Mental health and psychological factors also affect the rates of juvenile delinquency.

Prevention of juvenile delinquency:-Education is the major prevention mechanism of juvenile delinquency. There are various programs which teach children about the ills of drugs,gangs,weapons etc. There various programs focusing the needs of parents educating them how to raise children,how to provide healthy space to them etc. Education provides an opportunity to people of all age to open up. Recreational activities also surprisingly prevent juvenile crimes. These activities build up stronger communities and they spread positive and optimistic thoughts in children’s lives. These actives may include singing,dancing,acting etc. Various socially concerned organizations carry out parent-child interaction training programs,the objective of these programs is to provide a safe and desirable space to parent and children so that they can work things out. Prevention of ruthless bullying and making children feel safe is also a good way to reducing crimes committed by children. Apart from these,the legal systems of various countries are trying to deal with the problem of juvenile delinquency. 

Although it is true that minors must be given a second chance but if not handled carefully and intricately, juvenile delinquency can become humanity’s worst nightmare. 

Kisan Diwas

“If agriculture goes wrong, nothing else will have a chance to go right in the country” -MS Swaminathan

Kisan diwas or farmers day in India is celebrated every year on 23rd December which is also the birth anniversary of India’s fifth Prime Minister Chaudhary Charan Singh.

This day is dedicated to all the farmers across India and to observe their efforts and sacrifices towards taking Indian economy to higher and advanced levels. This day is also marked to celebrate the efforts and ideas of Shri chaudhary charan Singh towards betterment of Agriculture sector in India. This year kisan diwas comes after the end of year long protests carried out by the farmers mainly from Punjab and Haryana following the rollback of three farm laws by the central government. 

India has been celebrating Kisan Diwas aka Shri Chaudhary Charan Singh’s birthday since year 2001.

Chaudhary charan singh was born on 23rd December, 1902, in Uttar Pradesh, in a middle class peasant family. He was a socialist and was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi’s ideas of non-violence etc. He was also a part of country’s freedom struggle.He was the main brain behind land reforms in Uttar Pradesh. He took massive efforts in the formulation and finalisation of the Debt Redemption  Bill 1939. This was one of the very significant advancement in Agricultural sector as this act brought great relief to rural debtors.For his efforts towards agricultural advancement Charan was given the title of “Champion of India’s peasant’s”.

He designed a transformation bill known as Land Holding Act of 1960 which came into force while he was the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh and he also worked for Zamindari Abolition Act of 1950. Chaudhary charan singh died on January 14th,1980. India will forever be grateful and debted to him for his efforts and endeavours.

Farmers are the pride of our nation,we don’t realise how much they contribute in the growth of Indian economy. They are the ones who put their soul and blood in the soil to bring forth its fortunes,they are the ones who give it life. Without them India would collapse as an economy as well as a nation. This farmer’s day let us pledge and promise to recognize and appreciate the efforts of our farmers as they are one of the real heroes of our nation.

Rape culture

Rape culture is a setting in which crimes like rapes, sexual assault and sexual abuse are normalized because of the attitude and reaction of the society towards gender and gender inequalities. Rape culture basically includes victim blaming, misogynistic remarks, slut shaming,objectification of genders,not supporting sexual assault victims and not considering the trauma of rape on anyone etc. 

Rape culture not only affects the psyche of a victim but it also damages the concept of social cohesion.It is one of the reasons why rapes and sexual assaults are increasing at a faster rate all over the world. The term ‘Rape Culture’ was first used in the 1970s in the USA during the second wave of the feminist movement.

Rape culture gives birth to a lot of rape myths like women ask for it,women who were short dresses get raped more often etc. Society also uses the aggressiveness of men as an excuse of rape thus normalizing rape. In promoting rape culture sexual objectification of women also play a massive role and in objectifying women media plays the main role. The way women are portrayed in movies creates a worng perception in the minds of men that women are some toys and men have all right over them.

Another factor promoting rape culture is victim blaming. It is a phenomenon where a victim is partially or completely held liable for the crime that was committed against  them. For example, saying that a women was raped because of the length of her dress and because she was drunk is victim blaming. It can happen among a victim’s peers or other people in the society. Victim blaming is one of the reasons why women are afraid to come out as rape or sexual assault victims,they are scared of being ostracized by the society. Victim blaming has serious consequences as it helps for the perpetuate a pervasive rape culture. Due to this phenomenon rape victims suffer from various mental illnesses like depression, anxiety etc,this also increases the suicide rate.

Slut shaming is another factor promoting rape culture. This phenomenon is very similar to the phenomenon of victim blaming. It is the practice of disparaging women for violating the “appropriate sexual behavior” norms. For instance,being criticized for wearing short clothes is a most common example of slut shaming. 

Rape culture not only affects women but it also affect the psyche of men. It is linked with gender roles thus it deeply affects the psychological condition of all the genders. It has created a worng perspective in the minds of people, ie,if a women gets raped or sexually assaulted then she is supposed to be looked down upon and she becomes a disgraceful person. On the contrary,it is the men that need to learn the importance of controlling themselves. Women and men both are same,they have the right to decide what they want in their life,how should they dress up etc and no can hinder that. One of the most common rape myths is “she was asking for it” ,to be very clear and specific there is no gravity in this phrase. In moments like these,we need to use common sense and ask ourselves a question that why would a woman ever ask for mental as well as physical pain and discomfort. 

Rape culture also hides away the importance of consent as it normalizes various inappropriate sexual behaviors like passing bad comments on a women’s body and clothes. After a sexual assault has taken place women find it difficult to come out and report the crime because they fear that the authorities might not trust their claims. Some victims don’t come out and hide the crimes because they think that they have lost all the respect,grace and honour in the society. It is not their fault because these futile norms and myths have been conditioned in them by the society.

To conclude,it can be said that the problem of rape culture is very deep rooted in our society and it is affecting each and every person with different gravity. It is a disease that is making us all ill. Victim blaming and slut shaming needs to be stopped before it’s too late. Put your common sense and empathy before your toxic masculinity. Stop anyone and everyone who jokes about sexual assault and rape and most importantly listen and support the survivors. 

The meaning and importance of Self Love

“To fall in love with yourself is the first secret of happiness”

-Robert Morley

This quote magnifies the importance of loving, trusting and nourishing ourselves. So the question arises that what does self love actually mean?

Self love is a mental condition when a person loves themself and recognizes their value and importance.Self love is not only a basic necessity but it also helps in all round development and growth of human beings. Self love is a subjective issue it can refer from one person to another because we all have different ways of loving and treating ourselves. Self love has various components some of them are mentioned below:-

1.Believing in yourself 

2.Prioritizing yourself over others

3.Not being harsh on yourself

4.Being ruthlessly and completely honest to yourself 

There can be various other ways of loving oneself.To talk about the history of self love, it was first promoted by the Beat generation of the 1950 and in the early years of the Hippie era of the 1960. As and when human Civilization grew the emergence and importance of self love was witnessed by people all around the globe.

In today’s modern and complex world where everyone is always trying to be better than others,the significance of self love gets ignored. People make excuses that they are too busy to take out time for themselves and to love themselves but it is very important to give yourself a break and tell yourself that you are very proud of yourself. We can’t accomplish anything if we don’t recognize our importance and efforts. And so is the case with self love, a person madly in love themself is in a mentally better position than a person who doesn’t recognize their value. People are mostly  trying to be perfect version of theirselves but according to me perfectionism in itself Is a flawed ideology, there is nothing that is totally perfect. Being perfect is just a futile concept created by people to satisfy themselves. Trying to be perfect can turn into your worst nightmare,in the process you might become hostile,unsympathetic,toxic and mentally unstable. Slowly and gradually these mental Illnesses will start affecting your physical as well as spiritual health. You might inherit eating disorders etc.self love makes you a happy and well adjusted person, it makes you more comfortable with others as it removes the element of jealousy. It helps in reducing stress be in academic, professional or personal. In our day to day lives there are various stressful moments, it has become almost impossible to be completely stress free but when we love ourselves then we can comfort  and manage ourselves in a much better way. In a health psychology meta-analysis of 15 studies, researchers found that when people accept themselves as they are they are motivated towards making positive changes in their lives.So basically self love motivates and pushes is to make healthy choices and decisions. It also improves emotional and mental strength. In tough and dark times,it is easy to give up hope, but then self love converts the negative things into positive ones. It helps you in critically communicating with yourself thus helping you to come out of tough times quickly and easily. 

There is a saying that you cannot love and unless you love yourself thus loving yourself also strengthens your relationships. It helps you in creating healthy boundaries and protect you from going into toxic and emotional stressful relationships. Self love makes you a more confident person.You believe in you abilities and you know how capable you are. It makes you realise you strengths,worth and value and this way it make you a more confident person. Self love helps you enhance and develop all the qualities  that are required for being successful.It helps you in inspiring others and having an optimistic outlook in life.

Easy as it may seem it is not exactly simple to love yourself. Most people find it quite difficult  to love themselves. Accept the way you are,don’t try be totally perfect because  it is not possible. It’s completely alright to take breaks when you feel like because you definitely deserve breaks considering all the hard work you do.most importantly  don’t compare yourself with others rather try competing with yourself,this kind of competition is considered to be healthy. Loving yourself might take time initially but it is totally worth it and you before anyone else deserve all your love and affection.