Education in India is the prime constituent of Human Resource Development which in turn shapes the socio – economic fabric of our country. No doubt the earlier visionaries have laid such great stress on developing the intellectual capital of our country.
The government’s utmost priority to eradicate illiteracy can be gauged from the fact that it has incorporated education as a constitutional and fundamental right for children between the age group of 6 to 14 which is compulsory and to be imparted free of cost.
The government through its various programmes and campaigns has accorded education the status of a nationalistic crusade in its endeavour to completely eradicate illiteracy from the country.
Education in India – Demographics
The literacy rate as per census 2011 was 74.04% of the populace which is way below the world average of 83.4% in 2008. Census statistics reveal that the rapid growth in literacy transpired after 1991, which was triggered due to the ushering of the computer era. However the literacy rate is favourably skewed towards the male populace and also localised to the urban areas, which over the years has diminished rapidly.
The current statutory budget allocation on the education sector has been 3.8% of the GDP but the ground level implementation and response has been phenomenal due to the introduction of the mid day meal, adult education, distance learning and audio visual learning programmes undertaken by the government and NGO’s which have been very effective in promoting literacy.
Education in India – Quantification.
After China and U.S., India has the largest higher education system in the world in terms of enrolments. As per MHRD Annual Report 2011-2012, the number of students enrolled in Indian universities and colleges in the year 2012 was 1.6 crore. India also has the largest higher education system in the world in terms of the number of institutes.
The number of universities in India in FY 2012 was 659 and colleges were 33023. The Human Resources Development Ministry has projected 30% of students to pursue higher education by 2020 which will entail a further addition of 800 universities and 35000 colleges to the current tally. Of the total national student population 15% pursue the technology/engineering degree programmes while 85% pursue the bachelor’s degree programmes.
The Indian education sector is expected to grow at a compound annual rate of 16% in the forthcoming five years. Analysts anticipate the current market size of the Indian education sector to grow to Rs 6,02,140 crore in FY – 2015 from Rs 3,41,180 crore in FY – 2012. A large student pool, leading to generation of substantial revenues has enthused market players to substantially invest in the sector. Foreign direct investment to this sector in FY 2012 stood at Rs 18.73 crore.
Education in India – Future
A knowledge society has immense potential to graduate up the value chain in the era of increased globalisation. This aspiration of the Indian middle class to further their lifestyles has unleashed its propensity to substantially invest in harnessing the growth of intellectual capital. No doubt that the world looks at India as “The Talent Powerhouse”.
Education in India today is a fervent zeal of every citizen and prosperity is its fruit. Education system in India is not that much regularized in terms of examination, the type and system of examination gets on changing as the current need in the society. Generally there are three types of examination, first is the general examination conducted by various board across the country for the secondary and higher secondary levels. Second are the entrance exams which are conducted for securing admission in particular college and university .Third are the competitive exams for obtaining the job at specific segment in the country.These types of examination are more of focusing on allotting a job opportunity to the students. Student can take up these exams only after the completion of any graduation degree or in the final year of completion. These exams are of the objective type only covering the various aspects of current market needs and wants. Competitive exam tries to pull out the best talent possible for a particular job profile. Curriculum of competitive exam generally includes reasoning ability, mathematics, data interpretation and general knowledge. It is the exam which s not confined to particular sector or faculty it test the overall ability and knowledge of the student.