Types of diet to follow

There are thousands of diets. Some are for losing weight, while others are for gaining weight, lowering cholesterol, living a long and healthful life, and many other reasons.

A diet is best described as a fixed plan of eating and drinking where the type and amount of food are planned out in order to achieve weight loss or follow a particular lifestyle.

This MNT Knowledge Center article provides details on the most popular diets according to three criteria: the number of articles that cover them, how popular they seem to be, and how often we receive feedback on them.

1). Atkins diet

woman looking at vegetables

The Atkins  diet, or Atkins nutritional approach, focuses on controlling the levels of insulin  in the body through a low-carbohydrate diet. If people consume large amounts of refined carbohydrates, their insulin levels rise and fall rapidly. Rising insulin levels trigger the body to store energy from the food that is consumed, making it less likely that the body will use stored fat as a source of energy. Therefore, people on the Atkins diet avoid carbohydrates but can eat as much protein and fat as they like. Although popular for some time, the Atkins Diet comes with certain risks. Individuals considering the Atkins Diet should speak with their doctor. A detailed look at the Atkins diet  here.

2).The Zone Diet

The Zone diet aims for a nutritional balance of 40 percent carbohydrates, 30 percent fats, and 30 percent protein in each meal. The focus is also on controlling insulin levels, which may result in more successful weight loss and body weight control than other approaches. The Zone diet encourages the consumption of high-quality carbohydrates – unrefined carbohydrates, and fats, such as olive oil, avocado, and nuts. A detailed look at Zone diet here.

3). Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet has been used for decades as a treatment for epilepsy and is also being explored for other uses. It involves reducing carbohydrate intake and upping fat intake. It sounds contrary to common sense, but it allows the body to burn fat as a fuel, rather than carbohydrates. Healthy fats, such as those in avocados, coconuts, Brazil nuts, seeds, oily fish, and olive oil are liberally added to the diet to maintain an overall emphasis on fat. The diet causes the break down of fat deposits for fuel and creates substances called ketones through a process called ketosis. This diet has risks including ketoacidosis for people with type 1 diabeties, however, and may result in diabetic coma and death. Although most studies are 2 years or less, there is some promising research in relation to diabetes management, metabolic health, weight loss, and body composition change.A detailed look at the Ketogenic Diet here.

4). Vegetarian Diet

Many people choose a vegetarian diet for ethical reasons, as well as health.

Many people choose a vegetarian diet for ethical reasons, as well as health. There are various types of vegetarian: lacto-vegetarian, fruitarian vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, living food diet vegetarian, ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, and semi-vegetarian. The majority of vegetarians are lacto-ovo vegetarians, in other words, they do not eat animal-based foods, except for eggs, dairy, and honey. Studies over the last few years have shown that vegetarians have a lower body weight, suffer less from diseases, and typically have a longer life expectancy than people who eat meat. A detailed look at vegetarianism here.

5).Vegan Diet

Veganism is more of a way of life and a philosophy than a diet. A vegan does not eat anything that is animal-based, including eggs, dairy, and honey. Vegans do not usually adopt veganism just for health reasons, but also for environmental, ethical, and compassionate reasons. Vegans believe that modern intensive farming methods are bad for our environment and unsustainable in the long-term. If everybody ate plant-based food, the environment would benefit, animals would suffer less, more food would be produced, and people would generally enjoy better physical and mental health, vegans say.A detailed look at veganism here.

6). Weight watchers diet

Weight Watchers focuses on losing weight through diet, exercise, and a support network. Weight Watchers Inc. was started in the 1960s by a homemaker who had lost some weight and was concerned she might put it back on. So, she created a network of friends. Weight Watchers is a huge company, with branches all over the world. Dieters can join either physically and attend regular meetings, or online. In both cases, there is lots of support and education available for the dieter.

7). South Beach Diet

The south beach diet  was started by a cardiologist, Dr. Agatston, and a nutritionist, Marie Almon. It focuses on the control of insulin levels, and the benefits of unrefined slow carbohydrates versus fast carbohydrates. Dr. Agatston devised the South Beach diet during the 1990s because he was disappointed with the low-fat, high-carb diet backed by the American Heart Association. He believed that low-fat regimes were not effective over the long-term. A detailed look at South beach diet  here.

8). Raw food diet

The raw food diet, or raw foodism, involves consuming foods and drinks that are not processed, are completely plant-based, and ideally organic. Raw foodists believe that at least three-quarters of a person’s food intake should consist of uncooked food. A significant number of raw foodists are also vegans and do not eat or drink anything that is animal based.There are four main types of raw foodists: raw vegetarians, raw vegans, raw omnivores, and raw carnivores. A detailed look at the raw food diet here.

9). Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean Southern European, and more specifically focuses on the nutritional habits of the people of Crete, Greece, and southern Italy. Nowadays, Spain, southern France, and Portugal are also included, even though Portugal does not touch the Mediterranean Sea.The emphasis is on lots of plant foods, fresh fruits as dessert, beans, nuts, whole grains, seeds, olive oil as the main source of dietary fats. Cheese and yogurts are the main dairy foods. The diet also includes moderate amounts of fish and poultry, up to about four eggs per week, small amounts of red meat, and low to moderate amounts of wine. Up to one-third of the Mediterranean diet consists of fat, with saturated fats not exceeding 8 percent of calorie intake. The Mediterranean diet is the most extensively studied diet to date, with reliable research supporting its use for improving a person’s quality of life and lowering disease risk . A detailed look at the Mediterranean diet here.

Western diet : Risks

Doctor Tasnime Akbaraly from Montpellier, France, and team carried out a study that found that the Western style diet, which is high in sweet and fried foods, raises a person’s risk of dying early. They published their findings in the American Journal of Medicine. Akbaraly said “The impact of diet on specific age-related diseases has been studied extensively, but few investigations have adopted a more holistic approach to determine the association of diet with overall health at older ages. We examined whether diet, assessed in midlife, using dietary patterns and adherence to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), is associated with aging phenotypes, identified after a mean 16-year follow-up.” The team found that study participants who strayed from the “Alternative Healthy Eating Index” had a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death.

Artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence refers to the intelligence of machines. This is in contrast to the
natural intelligence of humans and animals. With Artificial Intelligence, machines
perform functions such as learning, planning, reasoning and problem-solving. Most
noteworthy, Artificial Intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence by machines.
“Artificial intelligence would be the ultimate version of Google. The ultimate search
engine that would understand everything on the web. It would understand exactly what
you wanted, and it would give you the right thing. We’re nowhere near doing that now.
However, we can get incrementally closer to that, and that is basically what we work
Experts believe that AI in future will be able to make human life much easier by
providing a solution to almost all challenges. Humans will also be made aware of
potential threats from beforehand by Artificial Intelligence use. One of the fastest-
growing fields of technology and invention is that of AI. AI has established its position
in several marketing activities. And the automation of marketing processes has
increased the demand for AI implementation in the industry recently as well. AI has also
brought opportunities to marketers to expand their business and provided user
interface insight.
There are mainly two types of artificial intelligence. Type 1 includes
Narrow Artificial Intelligence – Can perform the single task example voice recognition,
General Artificial Intelligence – Having an ability to perform tasks like human beings. To
date, no such machine is developed, Super Artificial Intelligence – AI with the capability
to perform better than a human being itself. The research is still going on. Type 2
includes Reactive Machine – This machine responds quickly to a situation. It is not able to store any data for present or future use. It works according to the fed data, Limited Memory – This machine can store smaller amount of data for a limited period. Examples are self-driving cars and video games, Theory of Mind – These are the machines which would understand human emotions, there would be much smarter. But these types of machines have not yet developed. Therefore the concept totally speculative. Last but not the least Self Awareness – These types of machines attributes to a better working than that of human beings. To date, no such machine has been developed. Efforts are continuously made in the same direction. Artificial intelligence is enhancing the ability of machines to make it perform in the same way as human beings. The different emerging technologies are relatively helping in artificial intelligence to excel. The machine in form of computers, mobiles, and other devices is helping aids. The different set of data as the input given to the machine helps
it in performing any task. So in a better way, we can state that artificial learning comprises machines inbuilt with human intelligence by developing a set of data or algorithms.Technologies are advancing day by day. They are proving it to be a blessing for mankind. They make the work easier, further helping to resolve a problem in a human
way. Every technology has its both positive as well as negative impacts and so artificial intelligence too. It has its importance in different industries and research sectors but can be a curse if used up in the wrong way and can become a threat to mankind.

Customer service

Customer service is the direct one-on-one interaction between a consumer making a purchase and a representative of the company that is selling it. Most retailers see this direct interaction as a critical factor in ensuring buyer satisfaction and encouraging repeat business. Even today, when much of customer care is handled by automated self-service systems, the option to speak to a human being is seen as necessary to most businesses. It is a key aspect of servent leadership. Customer service is the interaction between the buyer of a product and the company that sells it. Good customer service is critical to business success, ensuring brand loyalty one customer at a time.Recent innovations have focused on automating customer service systems but the human element is, in some cases, indispensable.

The evolution of customer service

Customer service has evolved from the early days of rotary phones and call centers, when the phone was the only communication channel to the omni-channel world of today. Consumers can contact support via phone, live chat, WhatsApp, social media and even Amazon’s Alexa. Nevertheless, only a few companies leverage all the available technology to serve customers.

Why customer service is important?

Offering amazing customer service is important if you want to retain customers and grow your business. … Customer support is more than just providing answers; it’s an important part of the promise your brand makes to its customers. Positive reputation leads to higher growth. Reputation goes a long way in a business. It attracts customers, investors, partnerships, and employees. When seeking to improve reputation, start with excellent customer service. When everyone at a company has the same end-goal, the entire workflow becomes streamlined. Place the ultimate emphasis on your customer, then move through each department to align them behind customer service. Customer service is one of the most under-valued assets in business. If you can prove its worth, and get your team on board to harness its power, its success impacts every level of your organization.

How to improve customer service

1.   Practice Active Listening : Behind every customer service call is a real human who has a question or concern that needs to be answered. The person needs to feel understood, heard, and served. Active listening is a key skill set you can develop by practicing daily on your co-workers and family. First, you should approach each conversation with the goal to learn something and focus on the speaker. After the customer is finished speaking, ask clarifying questions to make sure you understand what they’re actually saying. Finally, finish the conversation with a quick summary to ensure everyone is on the same page. By practicing active listening, you’re not only going to possess the ability to become a truly exceptional customer service agent, but you’ll also improve your relationships outside of the office.

2. Learn to Empathise With Your Customers : Empathy is the ability to understand how the customer is feeling and where they’re coming from. While some people seem like they’re born with this trait, it’s a skill that can be acquired. When listening to the customer, try to see the problem through his eyes and imagine how it makes him feel. This is important in customer service because the customer will be more receptive if they feel understood by you. It can also de-escalate a conflict and create a more enjoyable interaction with your company.

3. Use Positive Language : When attending to customers’ problems, using positive language takes the stress away from the situation. Words are powerful and they can create trusting relationships with your customers. Verbs should be used positively. For example, instead of saying “don’t hit the red button” say “the green button is the best option.” Future tense is also positive as it doesn’t dwell on the customer’s past issues. Phrases like “Great question, I’ll find that out for you!” and “I’d love to understand more about …” can keep the customer in the present moment. Also, remember when speaking to customers to make sure you’re authentic, positive, memorable, and to stay calm and positive, even if the customer is angry.

4. Improve Your Technical Skills ; Customers may come to you with all types of problems and they want their questions answers fast. If you don’t know how to properly implement a service ticket, you’ll be wasting their valuable time. Before interacting with customers, you should fully understand how to use your live chat and ticketing system and learn to type fast.

5. Know Your Products and Services ; In order to help the customer, you must have a deep knowledge of your products and the way they work. It’s recommended that each customer service agent spends onboarding time with a seasoned product specialist so he can ask questions and fully understand the ins and out of the product. This way, you’ll be able to help customers when they’re troubleshooting issues, and you’ll know product tips and tricks you can share to make the product easier to use.

Dealing with angry customer’s

1. Stay calm ; In some cases, a customer may be visibly distressed or angry. Despite their demeanor, use a smile and body language, such as eye contact and an outreached hand for a handshake, to show that you are open to this interaction and invested in solving their concerns. Even while communicating with clients over the phone, smiling conveys warmth in your voice although they can’t see you. Using a low tone of voice might induce the speaker to also lower their pitch and volume.

2. Shift your mindset ; It might be natural to think to yourself that the situation is not your fault. However, the success of this interaction hinges largely on you not taking the customer’s anger personally. This can be done by switching from a mindset of finding blame (what or who caused this problem to happen) to a mindset where the goal is to find a solution. Saying something like, “Let’s see how I can help,” is a good way to signal this mindset. It also helps you handle the situation with less stress to yourself.

3. Acknowledge their distress : The first thing the customer is looking for from you is a recognition that something has happened to upset them. You can acknowledge their feelings without accepting blame by saying something such as, “I can see you’re upset, and I’m so sorry.”

4. Introduce yourself : Telling the customer your name and learning theirs may naturally place the interaction on a more cordial footing. Ask the customer their name, and then use it throughout and often during your conversation. This makes the interaction more personal and lets the customer know you care specifically about them rather than if you use a formal title such as “sir” or “ma’am.” For example, “Mrs. Walters, I see here that you placed the order on May 5?” or “Let’s see how many items were in your cart, Lester.”

5. Calm yourself down ;Even if you are in customer relations and interact with irate customers on a regular basis, a state of mental equilibrium will help you refresh your mind and deal with your next customer just as effectively. Speak to a friend, take some calming deep breaths or if time and rules permit, go for a short walk to clear your mind before returning to your duties.

Communication technology

Information and communication Technologies (ICT) is a broader term for Information technology (IT), which refers to all communication technologies, including the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, computers, software, middleware , video-conferencing, social networking, and other media applications and services enabling users to access, retrieve, store, transmit, and manipulate information in a digital form. ICT are also used to refer to the convergence of media technology such as audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks, by means of a unified system of cabling (including signal distribution and management) or link system. However, there is no universally accepted definition of ICT considering that the concepts, methods and tools involved in ICT are steadily evolving on an almost daily basis. To define professional skill levels for its ICT professional education products, the IEE computer society has adopted, for example, the Skills framework for the information age  (SFIA). The value of ICT strategies as a means of bridging the digital divide and as a powerful tool for economic and social development around the world should not be underestimated in agricultural and related sectors. Improving extension of ICT services to farmers would effectively improve the transmission of global open data for agriculture and nutrition for development of sensible solutions addressing food security nutrition and sustainable agriculture issue. By using ICTs, there have already “been diverse types of innovations taking place in the agriculture sector, which include commodity and stock market price information and analysis, meteorological data collection, advisory services to farmers for agricultural extension, early warning systems for disaster prevention and control, financial services, traceability of agricultural products, agricultural statistical data gathering, etc.

E-Agriculture refers to use of ICT in agriculture

In 2007, FAO and a group of founding partners launched the e culture community of practice- an online space to facilitate an exchange of knowledge and experiences of projects where ICT are used for agriculture and rural development.

To date, the e- agriculture community  has over 15,000 members from more than 170 countries and territories and about twenty international partners In 2016, the FAO and International Telecommunication Union (ITU)published the ‘E-Agriculture Strategy guide Piloted in Asia Pacific countries’. This toolkit provides countries with a framework to develop their national e-agriculture strategies, which should help rationalize both financial and human resources, as well as address ICT opportunities for the agricultural sector in a more efficient manner.On this page E- agriculture you will find all information related to the use of the ‘E-Agriculture Strategy Guide’, the related workshops organized, and the progress made in different countries. 

Types of communication technology

Technology has reinvented the way people communicate. Originally simple devices have evolved into Communication channels that create connections worldwide. There are four main types of communication technology that have contributed to the ease of sending messages: telephone, radio, television, and internet.

The telephone revolutionized verbal communication. People can talk to each other from any place in the world, strengthening relationships and eliminating the worries of long-distance communication. Speaking with someone across the country can be done just as easily as speaking with someone down the street.

As technology advanced, the device upgraded from “telephone” to “mobile phone.” What used to be a heavy piece of equipment can now easily fit in your pocket. Not only is the modern telephone portable, but the features and capabilities are also advanced.

As the telephone progressed, it adopted new types of visual and written communication. Today, text messages and electronic versions of photos are regularly sent using mobile phones, increasing the possible amount of information being shared using phones.

The telephone introduced a brand new approach to verbal, written, and visual communication, and exciting new features continue to change the communication technology game.

About twenty years after the telephone, communicating using the radio came into play. Another innovation in the realm of verbal communication, radio is used to reach sizable audiences, as opposed to just one person on the other end of a phone.

The radio’s ability to reach a large audience at a low cost continues to motivate a lot of communicators to take full advantage of the tool. Information providers, such as advertisers and newscasters, spend substantial amounts of time communicating with their massive audiences using radio technology.

Radio technology transformed the way information is delivered to large audiences and continues to strengthen mass communication.

Television is another way to reach extensive audiences, but it brought a new perk to the table: visual communication.

Some information is hard to describe using just words. Television provides audiences with the best of both worlds: information and visuals to accompany it. This advantage caused the television to replace the radio as the leading tool for mass communication.

Today, there are thousands of television channels that communicate information on almost any topic: history, sports, news, science, fiction, and so on. Whether it be for entertainment or cold hard facts, people are constantly turning to television for information.

The internet removes the need for communicators to have a separate device for each different type of communication technology. With the Internet, you can do it all in one place.

As the queen bee of interaction, the internet successfully combines all types of communication technology and houses them in one place. It provides the largest array of information and communication sources known to man.

The tools available on the internet make any type of communication effortless. Verbal and nonverbal communication can be accomplished with video conferencing software. Written messages can be sent through email. Electronic versions of pictures can be sent to and from any internet device.

Customer communication software is another example of one of these tools. While other gadgets help make communication between a business and their consumers easy, certain tools can often be considered hybrid – bringing together different types of communication.

Live chat is a rare hybrid tool that combines all types of communication – verbal, nonverbal, written, and rich media – through audio and video conferencing software, instant messaging, and file sharing capabilities.

Customers can place orders, ask questions, or troubleshoot issues through live chat, all on a single customer communication platform. This gives them access to a business and allows them to connect with an agent whenever they have a query. With live chat software, it’s never been easier to connect.

Information and communication technology

Information and communication technology refers to a connected system of interactive tools and technologies that are used to send and receive information. Whether it be an individual or an entire company, if a single entity is using multiple types of technology to communicate, they must be linked to ensure efficiency.

components of information and communication technology

These systems of interactive tools can include state-of-the-art innovations, such as artificial intelligence, and less advanced technology, like the corded telephone. The ability and newness of the device aren’t important. If multiple technology tools are being used by an individual or business, they should be connected.

Information and communication technology have changed the way people go about their days living, working, and communicating. These innovations have taken over certain duties that people never would have imagined a machine to do, such as answering phones and giving human-like responses or speaking into a device and having it write a message for you. Information and communication technology allows people to effectively communicate in the technological world.

Stay tuned : Information and communication technology is an expansive topic, and the ideas within it continue to evolve. You don’t have to be an expert, but understanding the basics and keeping up with new communication technology will help make you the best communicator possible.


Unemployment is a term referring to individuals who are employable and actively seeking a job but are unable to find a job. Included in this group are those people in the workforce who are working but do not have an appropriate job. Usually measured by the unemployment rate, which is dividing the number of unemployed people by the total number of people in the workforce, unemployment serves as one of the indicators of a country’s economic status. The term “unemployment” is often misunderstood, it as it includes people who are waiting to return to a job after being discharged, yet it does not include individuals who have stopped looking for work in the past four weeks due to various reasons such as leaving work to pursue higher education, retirement, disability, and personal issues. Also people who are not actively seeking a job but do want to work are not classified as unemployed.

Interestingly, people who have not looked for a job in the past four weeks but have been actively seeking one in the last 12 months are put into a category called the “marginally attached to the labor force.” Within this category is another category called “discouraged workers,” which refers to people who have given up looking for a job. The categories mentioned above sometimes causes confusion and debate as to whether the unemployment rate fully represents the actual number of people who are unemployed. For a full understanding, one should juxtapose “unemployment” with the term “employment,” which the bureau of labor statistics (BLS) describes as individuals aged 16 and above who have recently put hours into work in the past week, paid or otherwise, because of self-employment.

Types of Unemployment

There are basically four types of unemployment: (1) demand deficient, (2) frictional, (3) structural, and (4) voluntary unemployment.

1. Demand deficient unemployment

Demand deficit unemployment is the biggest cause of unemployment that typically happens during a recession. When companies experience a reduction in the demand for their products or services, they respond by cutting back on their production, making it necessary to reduce their workforce within the organization. In effect, workers are laid off.

2. Frictional unemployment

Frictional employment refers to those workers who are in between jobs. An example is a worker who recently quit or was fired and is looking for a job in an economy that is not experiencing a recession. It is not an unhealthy thing because it is usually caused by workers trying to find a job that is most suitable to their skills.

3. Structural unemployment

 Structural umemployment happens when the skills set of a worker does not match the skills demanded by the jobs available, or alternatively when workers are available but are unable to reach the geographical location of the jobs.

An example is a teaching job that requires relocation to China, but the worker cannot secure a work visa due to certain visa restrictions. It can also happen when there is a technological change in the organization, such as workflow automation that displaces the need for human labor.

4. Voluntary unemployment

Voluntary unemployment happens when a worker decides to leave a job because it is no longer financially compelling. An example is a worker whose take-home pay is less than his or her cost of living.

Causes of Unemployment

Unemployment is caused by various reasons that come from both the demand side, or employer, and the supply side, or the worker. Demand-side reductions may be caused by high interest rates, global recession, and financial crisis. From the supply side, frictional unemployment and structural employment play a great role.


The impact of unemployment can be felt by both the workers and the national economy and can cause a ripple effect. Unemployment causes workers to suffer financial hardship that impacts families, relationships, and communities. When it happens, consumer spending, which is one of an economy’s key drivers of growth, goes down, leading to a recession or even a depression when left unaddressed. Unemployment results in reduced demand, consumption, and buying power, which in turn causes lower profits for businesses and leads to budget cuts and workforce reductions. It creates a cycle that goes on and on that is difficult to reverse without some type of intervention. Unemployment is a serious social and economic issue that results in a tremendous impact on everything but is often overlooked. A stronger system of assessing unemployment should be put in place in order to determine its causes and how to address it better.


Humans have been drinking alcohol for thousands of years. Alcohol is both a chemical and a psychoactive drug. In chemistry, an alcohol exists when a hydroxyl group, a pair of oxygen and hydrogen atoms, replaces the hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. Alcohols bind with other atoms to create secondary alcohols. These secondary alcohols are the three types of alcohol that humans use every day: methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol.

Different Types of Alcoholic Drinks By Alcohol Content

There are many different kinds of alcoholic drinks, and some of them contain more alcohol than others.  The types of alcoholic drinks  with higher concentrations of alcohol are able to cause drunkenness and alcohol poising more quickly and in smaller doses.

Whiskey : Whiskey is a spirit made from  fermented grain. The ABV of whiskey ranges from 40% to 50%.
Rum : Rum, a distilled drink made from fermented sugarcane or molasses, has a typical alcohol concentration of 40% ABV. Some rum is “overproof,” meaning that it has alcohol concentration of at least 57.5% ABV. Most overproof rum exceeds this minimum, usually reaching 75.5% ABV, which is equivalent to 151 proof.
Tequila : Tequila is a type of liquor. The main ingredient of tequila is the Mexican agave plant. The alcohol concentration of tequila is typically about 40% ABV.
Vodka : Vodka, a liquor usually made from fermented grains and potatoes, has a standard alcohol concentration of 40% ABV in the United States.

Pros and cons of moderate alcohol use : Moderate alcohol consumption may provide some health benefits, such as:

  • Reducing your risk of developing and dying of heart disease
  • Possibly reducing your risk of ischemic stroke (when the arteries to your brain become narrowed or blocked, causing severely reduced blood flow)
  • Possibly reducing your risk of diabetes

However, eating a healthy diet and being physically active have much greater health benefits and have been more extensively studied.Keep in mind that even moderate alcohol use isn’t risk-free. For example, even light drinkers (those who have no more than one drink a day) have a tiny, but real, increased risk of some cancers, such as esophageal cancer. And drinking and driving is never a good idea.

Risks of heavy alcohol use : While moderate alcohol use may offer some health benefits, heavy drinking — including binge drinking — has no health benefits.Heavy or high-risk drinking is defined as more than three drinks on any day or more than seven drinks a week for women and for men older than age 65, and more than four drinks on any day or more than 14 drinks a week for men age 65 and younger.

Binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks within two hours for women and five or more drinks within two hours for men.Excessive drinking can increase your risk of serious health problems, including:

  • Certain cancers, including breast cancer and cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus and liver
  • Pancreatitis
  • Sudden death if you already have cardiovascular disease
  • Heart muscle damage (alcoholic cardiomyopathy) leading to heart failure
  • Stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Liver disease
  • Suicide
  • Accidental serious injury or death
  • Brain damage and other problems in an unborn child
  • Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

If you don’t drink alcohol, don’t start because of potential health benefits. However, if you drink a light to moderate amount and you’re healthy, you can probably continue as long as you drink responsibly. Be sure to check with your doctor about what’s right for your health and safety.

Mental health

“Mental health is not a destination, but a process. It’s about how you drive, not where you’re
Mental health refers to cognitive, behavioral, and emotional well-being. It is all about how
people think, feel, and behave.Mental health is an integral and essential component of health.
The WHO constitution states: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-
being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” An important implication of this
definition is that mental health is more than just the absence of mental disorders or
disabilities.It is an integral part of health; indeed, there is no health without mental health.
Mental health can affect daily living, relationships, and physical health.The COVID-19 pandemic
and the resulting economic recession have negatively affected many people’s mental health
and created new barriers for people already suffering from mental illness and substance use
disorders.It is common for everyone to experience increased levels of distress and anxiety,
particularly as a result of social isolation. Physicians and other frontline health care
professionals are particularly vulnerable to negative mental health effects as they strive to
balance the duty of caring for patients with concerns about their own well-being and that of
their family and friends. It is normal to feel fearful and anxious during tough times like this.We
must Treat ourselves with kindness and respect, and avoid self-criticism. This is the best time
for making time for our hobbies and favorite projects. We can do many things like daily
crossword puzzle, plant a garden, take dance lessons, learn to play an instrument or become
fluent in another language.Taking care of ourselves physically can improve our mental health.
We must eat nutritious meals, avoid smoking and vaping, drink plenty of water, exercise, which
helps decrease depression and anxiety and improve moods, get enough sleep. Researchers
believe that lack of sleep contributes to a high rate of depression in college students. Some
other ways by which people can overcome stress and anxiety are, volunteer your time and
energy to help someone else. You’ll feel good about doing something tangible to help someone
in need — and it’s a great way to meet new people.Try meditating, Mindfulness and/or prayer.
Relaxation exercises and prayer can improve your state of mind and outlook on life. In fact,
research shows that meditation may help you feel calm and enhance the effects of
therapy.Decide what you want to achieve academically, professionally and personally, and
write down the steps you need to realize your goals. Aim high, but be realistic and don’t over-
schedule. You’ll enjoy a tremendous sense of accomplishment and self-worth as you progress
toward your goal. As rightly said by Michelle Obama –
“Sadly, too often, the stigma around mental health prevents people who need help from
seeking it. But that simply doesn’t make any sense. Whether an illness affects your heart, your
arm or your brain, it’s still an illness, and there shouldn’t be any distinction…we should make it
clear that getting help isn’t a sign of weakness — it’s a sign of strength — and we should ensure that people can get the treatment they need.” In short we can say that mental health is as
important as physical health and we must take good care of both.


Self-awareness involves being aware of different aspects of the self including traits, behaviours, and feelings. Essentially, it is a psychological state in which oneself becomes the focus of attention. Self-awareness is one of the first components of the self concept  to emerge. While self-awareness is something that is central to who you are, it is not something that you are acutely focused on at every moment of every day. Instead, self-awareness becomes woven into the fabric of who you are and emerges at different points depending on the situation and your personality.

People are not born completely self-aware. Yet research has also found that infants do have a rudimentary sense of self-awareness. Infants possess the awareness that they are a separate being from others, which is evidenced by behaviours such as the rooting reflex in which an infant searches for a nipple when something brushes against his or her face. Researchers have also found that even newborns are able to differentiate between self- and non-self touch.

Self-Awareness Development

Researchers have proposed that an area of the brain known as the anterior cingulate cortex located in the frontal lobe region plays an important role in developing self-awareness. Studies have also used brain imaging to show that this region becomes activated in adults who are self-aware.

The Lewis and Brooks-Gunn experiment suggests that self-awareness begins to emerge in children around the age of 18 months, an age that coincides with the rapid growth of spindle cells in the anterior Cingular cortex. However, one study found that a patient retained self-awareness even with extensive damage to areas of the brain including the insula and the anterior Cingular cortex. This suggests that these areas of the brain are not required for most aspects of self-awareness and that awareness may instead arise from interactions distributed among brain networks.

Types of Self-Awareness

Psychologists often break self-awareness down into two different types, either public or private.

Public Self-Awareness : This type emerges when people are aware of how they appear to others. Public self-awareness often emerges in situations when people are at the center of attention, such as when giving a presentation or talking to a group of friends. This type of self-awareness often compels people to adhere to social . When we are aware that we are being watched and evaluated, we often try to behave in ways that are socially acceptable and desirable. Public self-awareness can also lead to evaluation anxiety  in which people become distressed, anxious, or worried about how they are perceived by others.

Private Self-Awareness

This type happens when people become aware of some aspects of themselves, but only in a private way. For example, seeing your face in the mirror is a type of private self-awareness. Feeling your stomach lurch when you realise you forgot to study for an important test or feeling your heart flutter when you see someone you are attracted to are also examples of private self-awareness.


Sometimes, people can become overly self-aware and veer into what is known as self-consciousness.5 Have you ever felt like everyone was watching you, judging your actions, and waiting to see what you will do next? This heightened state of self-awareness can leave you feeling awkward and nervous in some instances. In a lot of cases, these feelings of self-consciousness are only temporary and arise in situations when we are “in the spotlight.” For some people, however, excessive self-consciousness can reflect a chronic condition such as social anxiety disorder.

People who are privately self-conscious have a higher level of private self-awareness, which can be both a good and bad thing. These people tend to be more aware of their feelings and beliefs, and are therefore more likely to stick to their personal values. However, they are also more likely to suffer from negative health consequences such as increased stress and anxiety.

People who are publicly self-conscious have a higher level of public self-awareness. They tend to think more about how other people view them and are often concerned that other people might be judging them based on their looks or their actions. As a result, these individuals tend to stick to group norms and try to avoid situations in which they might look bad or feel embarrassed.

5 ways to improve self-awareness:

  1. Mindfulness and meditation
    Practicing mindfulness or meditation helps you to focus on the present moment and pay attention to your thoughts and feelings, without getting wrappd up in them. You are guided to let your thoughts drift by without needing to react or do anything, which helps you become more aware of your internal state. For more details on mindfulness click on the last blog Mindfulness to restore calm.
  2. Movement
    Whether you do yoga, Pilates, running, walking, or whatever form of movement that works for you, notice what your body is telling you. During movement you become more aware of your body and all the feelings that manifest in it and you become more aware of your mind and the thoughts within it, which increases your self-acceptance and self-awareness.
  3. Reflection and journaling
    A journaling practice allows you to be an objective observer of your thoughts which can help bring clarity to what you want and value. Make time to write down what has gone well today, or reflect on what has been a challenge, what has got in your way and what could you change or improve? Notice what may have triggered you today. It is equally as important to understand both sides for yourself.
  4. Ask for feedback from people you trust or loved ones
    One of the best ways to build self-awareness is to understand others’ perspectives of you and what impact you have on others. The simplest way is to ask for honest feedback. We rarely do this for fear of criticism, but if you don’t ask you will never know what others think. But don’t just rely on feedback from one person, gather a range of insights and evaluate what you want to do with that information.
  5. Work with a coach!
    You can achieve a certain amount on your own, but it’s hard and sometimes you need someone to hold a mirror up to you. Self-awareness takes time and is a lifelong journey and by working with a qualified coach it can be a truly transformational process.

Public management

Public managers carry out the managerial operations of public organizations. In practice, public management is meant to improve the quality and efficiency of services delivered by public organizations. Managers interpret the public policy to implement public services in ways that are expected to achieve the most desirable outcomes for the interests they serve.

Public managers can operate in two different areas: the internal and external management of public organizations.

Internally, public managers must understand how to manage risk and change within their respective organizations. This demands that they stay informed of societal conditions that may impact their organizations’ ability to function optimally. By acknowledging those risks, managers can act accordingly, taking preemptive measures to diminish identified risks and prepare their staff to adapt to the instability those adverse conditions may have on the organization.
Externally, public management entails leading efforts to collaborate with private groups to support the adoption of public policy. In this capacity, public managers work with private citizens and other public organizations to keep public programs running smoothly. To do this, managers perform tasks such as coordinating public human resources to assist with specific projects or helping certain communities secure the necessary financing to implement public programs.

Types of Public Administration Theory

Public Administration Theory recently has been divided into three branches. The three branches are, Classical Public Administration Theory, New Public Management Theory and Postmodern Public Administration Theory. Each of these three branches study Public Administration from a different perspective. These types of theories are some of the ways which an administrator can understand and exercise their duties as a public administrator.

Classical Public Administration Theory

Classical Public Administration is often associated with Woodrow and Max Weber . In the United States, Woodrow Wilson is known as ‘The Father of Public Administration’ , have written “The Study of Administration” in 1887, in which he argued that a bureaucracy should be run like a business. Wilson promoted ideas like merit-based promotions, professionalization, and a non-political system. Sympathy can lead to downfall in an administration, means there should be pragmatism in bureaucracy.

New Public Management Theory

New Public Management a set of administrative practices, a consulting fad, and a body of theory that interprets recent developments in public administration. Many scholars argue persuasively that scholars should pay more attention to New Public management as a theory than as a fad. New public management is part and parcel of the massive intrusion of freemarket values into public space, which threatens to drive out political values altogether. In this sense, new public management is the radical opposite of the notion of migrating political values into “private” space in the interest of further democratizing society. However, new public management theory fails to addresses political questions in a meaningful way. This theory looks at public administration from its roots of capitalism, and goes on through the perspective of global capitalism. Intentional or not, new public management has served the interests of elites, particularly corporate elites, has degraded the ability of governments to address the public interest, and has served as a vehicle for elevating the apolitical governance of free trade and other supranational organizations, which have fully embraced the political philosophy of economic rationalism and new managerialism.

Career Outlook for Public Administration and Public Management

Because the fields of public management and public administration are closely linked, many universities roll public management coursework into their Master of Public Administration programs. Public management concepts taught in such programs (e.g. public human resource management or financial management in government) are often built into the curriculum for public administration. This gives graduates the opportunity to develop the practical knowledge they need to excel at management or administrative positions in government or nonprofit organizations. Upon graduation, educated public administrators may join the ranks of political scientists, public administrators, city managers, and similar professionals who impact public policy in modern societies.

In practice, there is no conflict pitting public administration vs. public management; rather, it’s about the partnership of public administration and public management. The success of the public policy depends on the effective application of both disciplines by public organizations and dedicated professionals. A Master of Public Administration program usually offers coursework in both public administration and public management, empowering students to develop the multifaceted public leadership expertise valued by forward-thinking employers in the public sector.

Social media

Social media is a computer-based technology that facilitates the sharing of ideas, thoughts, and information through the building of virtual networks and communities. By design, social media is Internet-based and gives users quick electronic communication of content. Content includes personal information, documents, videos, and photos. Users engage with social media via a computer, tablet, or smartphone via web-based software or applications.

While social media is ubiquitous in America and Europe, Asian countries like Indonesia lead the list of social media usage.1 More than 3.8 billion people use social media.2Social media is a computer-based technology that facilitates the sharing of ideas, thoughts, and information through the building of virtual networks and communities.

The largest social media networks include Facebook, Instagram, Social media typically features user-generated content and personalized profiles. By 2023, the number of social media users in the United States is forecast to increase to approximately 257 million.

Types of Social Media

Social media may take the form of a variety of tech-enabled activities. These activities include photo sharing, blogging, social gaming, social networks, video sharing, business networks, virtual worlds, reviews, and much more. Even governments and politicians utilize social media to engage with constituents and voters.

For individuals, social media is used to keep in touch with friends and extended family. Some people will use various social media applications to network career opportunities, find people across the globe with like-minded interests, and share their thoughts, feelings, insights, and emotions. Those who engage in these activities are part of a virtual social network. For businesses, social media is an indispensable tool. Companies use the platform to find and engage with customers, drive sales through advertising and promotion, gauge consumer trends, and offering customer service or support.

Examples of Social Media

Facebook is the largest social media platform in the world, with a clear advantage over other social media, though it has similar audience to others like Twitter and Instagram. The figures for the most popular social media websites as of January 2021 are as follows:Facebook (2.74 billion users)

YouTube (2.29 billion users)

WhatsApp (2 billion users)

Facebook Messenger (1.3 billion users)

Instagram (1.22 billion users)

Whatsapp (1.21 billion users)TikTok (689 million users)

TikTok (689 million users)

Benefits of Social Media

Social media has changed the way that we all interact with each other online. It’s given us the ability to discover what’s happening in the world in real-time, to connect with each other and stay in touch with long-distance friends, and in order to have access to endless amounts of information at your fingertips. In many senses, social media has helped many individuals find common ground with others online, making the world seem more approachable.

Disadvantages of Social Media

Despite having such unique advantages, social media is considered to be one of the most harmful elements of society. If the use of social media is not monitored, it can lead to grave consequences. It is harmful because it invades your privacy like never before. The oversharing happening on social media makes children a target for predators and hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which affects any person significantly.

Thus, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored at all times. Next up is the addition of social media which is quite common amongst the youth. This addiction hampers with the academic performance of a student as they waste their time on social media instead of studying. Social media also creates communal rifts. Fake news is spread with the use of it, which poisons the mind of peace-loving citizens.

In short, surely social media has both advantages and disadvantages. But, it all depends on the user at the end. The youth must particularly create a balance between their academic performances, physical activities, and social media. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media. Therefore, we must strive to live a satisfying life with the right balance.

Communication skills

Meaning of Communication

  • The word communication has originated from a Latin word ‘communis or communicare’ which means ‘to share, impart, participate, exchange, transmit or to make common’. 
  • In general, communication refers to the process of sharing information, ideas and thoughts between individual.
  • It is the process of imparting or exchanging of information, ideas, facts, opinions, beliefs, feelings through verbal or nonverbal means between two people or within a group of people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior. 
  • The means of transferring the information from the sender to the receiver so that it is understood in the right context.

Types of Communication

Formal Communication

  • Formal communication refers to the official communication which takes place following the chain of command in the organisation. There are four directions of formal communication i.e. Downward, Upward, Horizontal, and Diagonal

Advantages of Formal Communication

  • Orderly flow of Information
  • Identified Sources
  • Authentic Information
  • Justification of Authority
  • Answerability for actions
  • Control 

Disdvantages of Formal Communication

  • Time Consuming
  • Lack of Personal Touch
  • Distortion 
  • Expensive

Communication Networks: 

Represents the pattern of contacts among the members of an organization. 

  • Chain Network: Chain network follows a formal chain of command where information flows vertically upwards or downwards. A superior and subordinate communicate with each other through vertical chain of command, both upwards and downwards. Information distortion is not likely to take place but communication system becomes time consuming. 
  • Y Network: Here C is the central person who communicates with A, B, D and E. It follows the formal chain of command where upward and downward communication takes place in the organizational hierarchy.
  • Wheel Network: All messages flow through A, who is at the centre of the wheel. He communicates with other members of the group, while members cannot communicate with each other. This communication network is found in highly formal organization structures where task-oriented approach to leadership is preferred over employee-oriented approach.
  • All Channel/Open/ Star Network: All the members in this network communicate with each other freely and regularly. It follows the informal channel of communication and provides maximum satisfaction to members. Information flows fast, though there may be problem of coordination. 
  • Circle Network: This network is similar to chain network except that information flows in a circular direction rather than vertical direction. A can communicate simultaneously with two persons, B and E but to communicate with D, he has to pass the messages through E or B and C

Informal Communication / Grapevine

Communication between individuals and groups which are not officially recognized is known as informal communication. It is also known as Grapevine.

  • The network or pathway of informal communication is known as grapevine.


  • It transmits information in every direction throughout the organization
  • Transmits information rapidly.
  • Grapevine is selective with regard to the person who receives the information

Types of Grapevine chains / Informal Communication

  • Single Strand Network: Under this communication pattern, the information flows from one person to the next person in the network. Such as, one person will give information to another person who will communicate it to the next person and similarly the third person will also communicate the same message to the next person in the network and so on. This type of chain is less reliable and accurate to pass on the message. Here, the communication process is linear.
  • Gossip Chain Network: In the gossip chain network, there is an individual who tells the message to all other members in the network directly. He is generally the central person who seeks out and transmit information to all that he has obtained. Here, every person in the network communicates with each other informally. This network is often used when the subject matter is unrelated to the nature of the job. 
  • Probability Chain Network: Under this communication pattern the information passes randomly from persons to persons. Such as, there is an individual who acts as a source of message selects any person randomly in his network to communicate the message. That second person will again, select another person randomly and passes on the message to him, likewise the communication flows to different people chosen randomly. Here, the source of information for each member of the network is different. This communication pattern is used when the information is interesting, but not significant.
  • Cluster Chain Network: In the cluster chain network, there is an individual who, acts as a source of a message, transmits information to the pre-selected group of individuals out of whom few individuals again tell the same message to other selected group of individuals. Likewise, the chain continues, and the message reaches to all in the networks. 

Advantages of Informal Communication

  • Social Relations
  • Need Satisfaction
  • Speed
  • Avenue of Expression
  • Feedback
  • Supporting the formal channel
  • Better Human Relations 

Disadvantages of Informal Communication

  • Incomplete Information
  • Distortion
  • Unreliability
  • Leakage
  • Lack of Authenticity
  • Problem in Fixing Responsibility 


We often hear that so and so is an entrepreneur who has started his or her own business. It is also the case that when we hear the term entrepreneur, we tend to associate it with a person who has or is starting their own ventures or in other words, striking it on their own. This is indeed the case as the formal definition of Entrepreneurship is that it is the process of starting a business or an organization for profit or for social needs. We have used the phrase for profit or for social needs to delineate and separate the commercial entrepreneurship from social and charitable entrepreneurship. After defining entrepreneurship, it is now time to define who an entrepreneur is and what he or she does.

An entrepreneur is someone who develops a business model, acquires the necessary physical and human capital to start a new venture, and operationalizes it and is responsible for its success or failure. Note the emphasis of the phrase responsible for success or failure as the entrepreneur is distinct from the professional manager in the sense that the former either invests his or her own resources or raises capital from external sources and thus takes the blame for the failure as well as reaps the rewards in case of success whereas the latter or the professional manager does the job and the work assigned to him or her for a monetary consideration. In other words, the entrepreneur is the risk taker and an innovator in addition to being a creator of new enterprises whereas the professional manager is simply the executor.

Attributes of Entrepreneurs

Moving to the skills and capabilities that an entrepreneur needs to have, first and foremost, he or she has to be an innovator who has a game changing idea or a potentially new concept that can succeed in the crowded marketplace. Note that investors usually tend to invest in ideas and concepts which they feel would generate adequate returns for their capital and investments and hence, the entrepreneur needs to have a truly innovative idea for a new venture.

Leadership Qualities
Apart from this, the entrepreneur needs to have excellent organizational and people management skills as he or she has to build the organization or the venture from scratch and has to bond with his or her employees as well as vibe well with the other stakeholders to ensure success of the venture.

Further, the entrepreneur needs to be a leader who can inspire his or her employees as well as be a visionary and a person with a sense of mission as it is important that the entrepreneur motivates and drives the venture. This means that leadership, values, team building skills, and managerial abilities are the key skills and attributes that an entrepreneur needs to have.

Creative Destruction and Entrepreneurship

We often hear the term creative destruction being spoken about when talking about how some companies fade away whereas others succeed as well as maintain their leadership position in the marketplace. Creative destruction refers to the replacement of inferior products and companies by more efficient, innovative, and creative ones wherein the capitalist market based ecosystem ensures that only the best and brightest survive whereas others are blown away by the gales of creative destruction. In other words, entrepreneurs with game changing ideas and the skills and attributes that are needed to succeed ensure that their products, brands, and ventures take market share away from existing companies that are either not creating values or are simply inefficient and stuck in a time warp wherein they are unable to see the writing on the wall. Therefore, this process of destroying the old and the inefficient through newer and creative ideas is referred to as creative destruction which is often what the entrepreneur does when he or she launches a new venture.

Some Famous Entrepreneurs

Given this basic introduction to entrepreneurship, we can now turn to some famous examples of entrepreneurs who have succeeded despite heavy odds because they had game changing ideas and more importantly, they also had the necessary traits and skills that would make them legendary. For instance, both the founder of Microsoft, Bill Gates, and the late Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple, were college dropouts though their eventual success meant that they had not only truly innovative ideas, but they were also ready to strike it out for the longer term and hang on when the going got tough. Even the founder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, as well as Google’s Larry Paige and Sergey Brian can be considered as truly revolutionary entrepreneurs. What all these legends have in common is that they had the vision and the sense of mission that they were going to change the world and with hard work, perseverance, and a nurturing ecosystem, they were able to self actualizes themselves.

E commerce

E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services, or the transmitting of funds or data, over an electronic network, primarily the internet. These business transactions occur either as business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C), consumer-to-consumer or consumer-to-business. The terms e-commerce and e-business are often used interchangeably. The term e-tail is also sometimes used in reference to the transactional processes that make up online retail shopping.

Types of e-commerce

Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce refers to the electronic exchange of products, services or information between businesses rather than between businesses and consumers. Examples include online directories and product and supply exchange websites that allow businesses to search for products, services and information and to initiate transactions through e-procurement interfaces.

Business-to-consumer (B2C) is the retail part of e-commerce on the internet. It is when businesses sell products, services or information directly to consumers. The term was popular during the dot-com boom of the late 1990s, when online retailers and sellers of goods were a novelty.

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) is a type of e-commerce in which consumers trade products, services and information with each other online. These transactions are generally conducted through a third party that provides an online platform on which the transactions are carried out.

Online auctions and classified advertisements are two examples of C2C platforms, with eBay and Craigslist being two of the most popular of these platforms. Because eBay is a business, this form of e-commerce could also be called C2B2C — consumer-to-business-to-consumer.

Consumer-to-business (C2B) is a type of e-commerce in which consumers make their products and services available online for companies to bid on and purchase. This is the opposite of the traditional commerce model of B2C.

Business-to-administration (B2A) refers to transactions conducted online between companies and public administration or government bodies. Many branches of government are dependent on e-services or products in one way or another, especially when it comes to legal documents, registers, social security, fiscals and employment. Businesses can supply these electronically. B2A services have grown considerably in recent years as investments have been made in e-government capabilities.

Consumer-to-administration (C2A) refers to transactions conducted online between individual consumers and public administration or government bodies. The government rarely buys products or services from citizens, but individuals frequently use electronic means in the following areas:

  • Education. Disseminating information, distance learning/online lectures, etc.
  • Social security. Distributing information, making payments, etc.

Mobile e-commerce (M-commerce) is a type of e-commerce on the rise that features online sales transactions made using mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets. M-commerce includes mobile shopping, mobile banking and mobile payments. Mobile chatbots also provide e-commerce opportunities to businesses, allowing consumers to complete transactions with companies via voice or text conversations.

Advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce

Benefits of e-commerce include its around-the-clock availability, the speed of access, the wide availability of goods and services for the consumer, easy accessibility and international reach.

  • Availability. Aside from outages or scheduled maintenance, allowing visitors to browse and shop at any time. Brick-and-mortar businesses tend to open for a fixed number of hours and may even close entirely on certain days.
  • Speed of access. While shoppers in a physical store can be slowed by crowds, e-commerce sites run quickly, which is determined by compute and bandwidth considerations on both consumer device and e-commerce site. Product pages and shopping cart pages load in a few seconds or less. An e-commerce transaction can comprise a few clicks and take less than five minutes.

The perceived disadvantages of e-commerce include sometimes limited customer service, consumers not being able to see or touch a product prior to purchase and the wait time for product shipping.

*Limited customer service: If a customer has a question or issue in a physical store, he or she can see a clerk, cashier or store manager for help. In an e-commerce store, customer service may be limited: The site may only provide support during certain hours of the day, or a call to a customer service phone number may keep the customer on hold.

*Not being able to touch or see:While images on a webpage can provide a good sense about a product, it’s different from experiencing it “directly,” such as playing music on speakers, assessing the picture quality of a television or trying on a shirt or dress. E-commerce can lead consumers to receive products that differ from their expectations, which leads to returns. In some scenarios, the customer bears the burden for the cost of shipping the returned item to the retailer.

E-commerce still represents one of the business methods that take advantage if done the right way, even if the stock market and commodities fell, but E-Commerce still able to survive and receive high transaction. E-commerce has a tremendous opportunity in the course of or business in Malaysia. In addition, it is also to introducing new techniques and styles in a transaction. Use the extensive E-Commerce in the Internet world is actually much better to bring the goodness of the individual or the state.

    E-Commerce has undeniably become an important part of our society. The successful companies of the future will be those that take E-Commerce seriously, dedicating sufficient resources to its development. E-Commerce is not an IT issue but a whole business undertaking. Companies that use it as a reason for completely re-designing their business processes are likely to reap the greatest benefits. Moreover, E-Commerce is a helpful technology that gives the consumer access to business and companies all over the world. 

Biography of A.P.J Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in the pilgrimage centre of Rameswaram on Pamban Island, then in the Madras Presidency and now in the State of Tamil Nadu. His father Jainulabdeen was a boat owner and imam of a local mosque; his mother Ashiamma was a housewife.His father owned a ferry that took Hindu pilgrims back and forth between Rameswaram and the now uninhabited Dhanushkodi.Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his family.His ancestors had been wealthy traders and landowners, with numerous properties and large tracts of land. Their business had involved trading groceries between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri Lanka, as well as ferrying pilgrims between the mainland and Pamban. As a result, the family acquired the title of “Mara Kalam Iyakkivar” (wooden boat steerers), which over the years became shortened to “Marakier.” With the opening of the Pamban Bridge to the mainland in 1914, however, the businesses failed and the family fortune and properties were lost over time, apart from the ancestral home.By his early childhood, Kalam’s family had become poor; at an early age, he sold newspapers to supplement his family’s income.

In his school years, Kalam had average grades but was described as a bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn. He spent hours on his studies, especially mathematics.After completing his education at the Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph’s College, Tiruchirapalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954.He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology.While Kalam was working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days. Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him, “I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline”.He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the IAF.

Career as a scientist;
After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (by Press Information Bureau, Government of India) as a scientist after becoming a member of the Defence Research & Development Service (DRDS). He started his career by designing a small hovercraft, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO.Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committee working under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist.In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) where he was the project director of India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965.In 1969, Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers.After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (by Press Information Bureau, Government of India) as a scientist after becoming a member of the Defence Research & Development Service (DRDS). He started his career by designing a small hovercraft, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO.Kalam was also part of the INCOSPAR committee working under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist.In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) where he was the project director of India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980; Kalam had first started work on an expandable rocket project independently at DRDO in 1965.In 1969, Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers.

Presidency; Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K. R. Narayanan. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote of 922,884, surpassing the 107,366 votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. His term lasted from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007.During his term as president, he was affectionately known as the People’s President.

Death On 27 July 2015, Kalam travelled to Shillong to deliver a lecture on “Creating a Livable Planet Earth” at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong. While climbing a flight of stairs, he experienced some discomfort, but was able to enter the auditorium after a brief rest.At around 6:35 p.m. IST, only five minutes into his lecture, he collapsed.He was rushed to the nearby Bethany Hospital in a critical condition; upon arrival, he lacked a pulse or any other signs of life.Despite being placed in the intensive care unit, Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest at 7:45 p.m IST.

Education and academic news

Education is the essential thing for our life, and it helps in the growth of human civilization. Education is necessary to understand the universe around us and convert it into something more beneficial. With the help of knowledge, we can develop a new perspective for our life. If people are educated, then they can know their responsibilities and rights quite well. Education is a very powerful medium to grow in life and perceive something important. In a human’s life, education benefits a lot in decreasing the difficulties of a hard life. The expertise obtained through the education era encourages everybody regarding their life. Education is a way to enter into several doors for possibilities to obtain more real prospects in life to improve career growth. Government is also arranging various programs to educate everyone about education and its benefits in our life especially in rural areas. Education delivers knowledge of equality among everyone in society and encourages the growth and improvement of the nation.

There was a survey conducted in the year 2014 which result in the following Education in India Statistics. A survey on ‘Social Consumption: Education’ was conducted in NSS 71st round (January-June 2014).A sample of 36479 rural households from 4577 villages and 29447 urban households from 3720 blocks were surveyed all over India. Literacy rate among persons (aged 5 years and above) in India was 76%. In rural areas, the literacy rate was 71% compared to 86% in urban areas. The difference in literacy rate among males and females (aged 5 years and above) was observed with male literacy rate higher (83%) than female literacy rate (68%). Percentage distribution of rural persons of ages 15 years & above by highest completed levels of education: 35% were not literate, 23% were literates up to the primary, 17% were of level upper primary, 20% were of levels secondary and higher secondary and 4% were graduate & above.
Percentage distribution of urban persons of age 15 years & above by highest completed level of education: 16% were not literate, 17% were literates up to the primary, 16% were of level upper primary, 30% were of level secondary and higher secondary and 18% were graduate & above.

Indian government considers education as a key area where drastic growth and development is required. So various future prospects have been considered and policies are drafted. The vision is to ensure that education in India is of the highest quality and available to the whole population without discrimination. Let us look at some projects the government wishes to implement successfully. Though the education level has increased for both youth as well as adults, still the number of illiterates is as much as the population was at the time of independence. The constituent assembly passed the Constitution of India in the year 1950. Free and compulsory education for the children till 14 years of age within 10 years from the commencement of constitution wasnoted

Science and technology

Science and technology are important parts of our day to day life. We get up in the morning from the ringing of our alarm clocks and go to bed at night after switching our lights off. All these luxuries that we are able to afford are a resultant of Science and technology. Most importantly, how we can do all this in a short time are because of the advancement of science and technology only. It is hard to imagine our life now without science and technology. Indeed our existence itself depends on it now. Every day new technologies are coming up which are making human life easier and more comfortable. Thus, we live in an era of science and technology.

Essentially, Science and Technology have introduced us to the establishment of modern civilization. This development contributes greatly to almost every aspect of our daily life. Hence, people get the chance to enjoy these results, which make our lives more relaxed and pleasurable.

If we think about it, there are numerous benefits of science and technology. They range from the little things to the big ones. For instance, the morning paper which we read that delivers us reliable information is a result of scientific progress. In addition, the electrical devices without which life is hard to imagine like a refrigerator, AC, microwave and more are a result of technological advancement.

Furthermore, if we look at the transport scenario, we notice how science and technology play a major role here as well. We can quickly reach the other part of the earth within hours, all thanks to advancing technology.

In addition, science and technology have enabled man to look further than our planet. The discovery of new planets and the establishment of satellites in space is because of the very same science and technology.
Similarly, science and technology have also made an impact on the medical and agricultural fields. The various cures being discovered for diseases have saved millions of lives through science. Moreover, technology has enhanced the production of different crops benefitting the farmers largely.

Digital marketing

Any marketing that uses electronic devices to convey promotional messaging and measure its impact. In practice, digital marketing typically refers to marketing campaigns that appear on a computer, phone, tablet, or other device. It can take many forms, including online video, display ads,and social media posts. Digital marketing is often compared to “traditional marketing” such as magazine ads, billboards, and direct mail. Oddly, television is usually lumped in with traditional marketing.

Digital marketing, also called online marketing, is the promotion of brands to connect with potential customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes not only email, social media, and web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages as a marketing channel.

Digital marketing and inbound marketing are easily, and for good reason. Digital marketing uses many of the same tools as inbound marketing—email and online content, to name a few. Both exist to capture the attention of prospects through the buyer’s journey and turn them into customers. But the 2 approaches take different views of the relationship between the tool and the goal.

Digital marketing considers how each individual tool can convert prospects. A brand’s digital marketing strategy may use multiple platforms or focus all of its efforts on 1 platform.

Inbound marketing is a holistic concept. It considers the goal first, then looks at the available tools to determine which will effectively reach target customers, and then at which stage of the sales funnel that should happen.

Important dates of year , Teacher’s Day

Teacher’s Day is the festival of birth anniversary of Bharat Ratna beneficiary Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan. He was a practical and inspirational teacher whom each student of the country used to cherish. In the memory of his contributions as a teacher, we praise the Teacher’s Day to respect our teachers and give them all the regard they deserve.

Teacher’s Day is a day for which the teachers and particularly students energetically wait for the entire year. Teacher’s Day is a celebration of joy, enthusiasm and worship that is the reason the individuals from various parts of India praise the day to offer appreciation to their teachers

Indian Schools and Colleges direct the most fabulous celebration on Teacher’s Day. Even though the School stay open, the students get a temporary leave from the regular studies and are permitted to appreciate the day in their manner. A few students take on the appearance of their teachers and arrive at the lower classes to control the students in those classes. They do as such to help their youngsters for their upcoming tests and have a sentiment of a traditional teacher.

Students additionally decorate their School and Classes and arrange some cake and snacks for their teacher. Their teachers cut the cake, and they convey some Speech on Teachers . Singing, Dancing and other fun activities are likewise a part of the celebration of the day which students perform to engage their teachers. The students likewise present a speech to show their appreciation towards their teacher. The event of Teacher’s Day help strengthens the bond between a teacher and a student.