A firewall is defined as a type of hardware & software program that monitors and filters incoming and outgoing network traffic based on a defined set of security rules. It can be said that it acts as a barrier between internal networks and external sources. Purpose of a firewall is to prevent malicious or unwanted data traffic from entering the computer and protect computer from viruses and attacks. A firewall can be a network security device or a software program on a computer. This means that the firewall comes at both levels, i.e., hardware and software. A hardware firewall is a physical device that attaches between a computer network and a gateway. For e.g. broadband router, etc. On the other hand, a software firewall is a program installed on a computer that works through port numbers and other installed software. Apart from this, there are cloud-based firewalls. These are commonly referred to as FaaS (firewall as a service). A primary advantage of using cloudbased firewalls is that they can be managed centrally. These are best
known for providing perimeter security. Some Operating Systems like Windows 10 comes with built-in firewalls.

How does a Firewall Work & it’s functions:

A firewall system analyses network traffic based on pre-defined rules. It filters the traffic and prevents traffic coming from unreliable or suspicious sources. It only allows incoming traffic that is configured to accept. Usually, firewalls intercept network traffic at a computer’s entry point, known as a port. Firewalls perform this task by allowing or blocking specific data based on pre-defined security rules. Incoming traffic is allowed only through trusted IP addresses or sources. Firewalls have a variety of functions and capabilities with built-in features:

  • Network Threat Prevention
  • Application and Identity-Based Control
  • Hybrid Cloud Support
  • Scalable Performance
  • Network Traffic Management and Control
  • Access Validation
  • Record and Report on Events

Limitations of Firewall:

There are some limitations to firewall which makes use of antivirus necessary. These limitations are:

  • Firewalls cannot stop users from accessing malicious websites, making it vulnerable to internal threats or attacks.
  • Firewalls cannot protect against the transfer of virus-infected files or software.
  • Firewalls cannot prevent misuse of passwords.
  • Firewalls cannot protect if security rules are misconfigured.
  • Firewalls cannot protect against non-technical security risks, such as social engineering.
  • Firewalls cannot stop or prevent attackers with modems from dialling in to or out of the internal network.
  • Firewalls cannot secure the system which is already infected.

Types of Firewall:

There are mainly three types of firewalls, such as software firewalls, hardware firewalls, or both, depending on their structure. Each type of firewall has different functionality but the same purpose. A hardware firewall is a physical device that attaches between a computer network and a gateway. For example- a broadband router. A hardware firewall is sometimes referred to as an Appliance Firewall. Whereas, a software firewall is a simple program installed on a computer that works through port numbers and other installed software. This type of firewall is also called a Host Firewall. The following are types of firewall techniques that can be implemented as software or hardware:

  • Network Layer Firewall – filtering is done based on source and destination IP addresses.
  • Context Aware Application Firewall – filtering is done based on the user, device, role, application type, and threat profile.
  • Proxy Server – filtering of web content requests like URL, domain, media, etc.
  • Reverse Proxy Server – placed in front of web servers, reverse proxy servers protect, hide, offload, and distribute access to web servers.
  • Network Address Translation (NAT) Firewall – hides or masquerades the private addresses of network hosts.
  • Transport Layer Firewall – filtering is done based on source and destination data ports, and filtering based on connection states.
  • Application Layer Firewall – filtering is done based on application, program or service.
  • Host-based Firewall – filtering of ports and system service calls on a single computer operating system.
  • Next Generation Firewall – It has higher levels of security than packet-filtering and stateful inspection firewalls. Unlike other firewalls, this monitors the entire transaction of data, including packet headers, packet contents, and sources. They are designed in such a way that they can prevent more sophisticated and evolving security threats such as malware attacks, external threats, and advance intrusion.
  • Cloud Firewalls – This type of firewall is considered similar to a proxy firewall. The reason for this is the use of cloud firewalls as proxy servers. However, they are configured based on requirements. There most significant advantage is scalability.
  • Stateful Inspection Firewall – Stateful multi-layer inspection firewalls include both packet inspection technology and TCP handshake verification. These types of firewalls keep track of the status of established connections. In simple words, when a user establishes a connection and requests data, the SMLI firewall creates a database (state table). The database is used to store session information such as source IP address, port number, destination IP address, destination port number, etc. Connection information is stored for each session in the state table.

8051 Micro-Controller

Microcontrollers: It is a programmable integrated circuit (IC) that consists of a small CPU, RAM and I/O pins. Microcontroller units (MCUs) are widely used in many devices.

A microcontroller is a small and low-cost microcomputer, which is designed to perform the specific tasks of embedded systems like displaying microwave’s information, receiving remote signals, etc.

The 8051 microcontroller was invented in 1980’s by Intel. Its foundation is based on Harvard architecture and this microcontroller was developed principally for bringing it to be used in Embedded Systems. At first it was created by using NMOS technology but the use of NMOS consumed more power to work therefore Intel re-launch the microcontroller 8051 using CMOS technology and new edition came up with edition of letter ‘C’ in the title name, therefore the new modified version of microcontroller is called by name 80C51. The 8051 microcontroller programming is performed in embedded C language using Keil software.

Some Features of 8051 Micro-Controller are:

  • It having four register banks
  • 64K bytes on-chip programmable memory (ROM)
  • 128 bytes on-chip data memory (RAM)
  • Address bus is 16-bit unidirectional
  • Data bus is 8-bit bidirectional
  • 128 user defined flags
  • 16 bit timers
  • 32 general purpose registers each of 8-bit
  • 8051 microcontroller offers a number of special features such as ADC, UARTs, Op-amp, etc.

Architect of 8051 Microprocessor

Block Diagram of Internal Architect of 8051 Micro- Controller

CPU (Central Processing Unit): CPU act as a mind of any processing machine. It synchronizes and manages all processes that are carried out in microcontroller. User has no power to control the functioning of CPU. It interprets the program stored in ROM and carries out from storage and then performs it projected duty. CPU manage the different types of registers available in 8051 microcontroller.

Interrupts: Interrupts is a sub-routine call that given by the microcontroller when some other program with high priority is request for acquiring the system buses the n interrupts occur in current running program.

Types of interrupt in 8051 Microcontroller:

  • Timer 0 overflow interrupt – TF0
  • Timer 1 overflow interrupt – TF1
  • External hardware interrupt – INT0
  • External hardware interrupt – INT1
  • Serial communication interrupt – RI/TI

Memory: For operation Micro-controller required a program. This program guides the microcontroller to perform the specific tasks. This program installed in microcontroller required some on chip memory for the storage of the program. Microcontroller also required memory for storage of data and operands for the short duration. In microcontroller 8051 there is code or program memory of 4 KB that is it has 4 KB ROM and it also comprise of data memory (RAM) of 128 bytes.

Bus : Bus is a group of wires which uses as a communication canal or acts as means of data transfer. The different bus configuration includes 8, 16 or more cables. Therefore, a bus can bear 8 bits, 16 bits all together. The two types of bus used in 8051 microcontroller:

  • Address Bus: 8051 microcontrollers is consisting of 16 bit address bus. It is generally be used for transferring the data from Central Processing Unit to Memory.
  • Data bus: 8051 microcontroller is consisting of 8 bits data bus. It is generally be used for transferring the data from one peripherals position to other peripherals.

Oscillator: As the microcontroller is digital circuit therefore it needs timer for their operation. To perform timer operation inside microcontroller it required externally connected or on-chip oscillator. Microcontroller is used inside an embedded system for managing the function of devices. Therefore, 8051 uses the two 16 bit counters and timers. For the operation of this timers and counters the oscillator is used inside microcontroller.

Application of 8051 Microcontroller:

The 8051 microcontroller applications include a large amount of machines because it is used for incorporating inside a project or to assemble a machine using it. The major applications of 8051 Microcontroller:

  1. Energy Management : In energy management system the measuring device is used for calculating the energy consumption in industrialized and domestic applications. These systems are manufactured by integrating the microcontrollers inside their architecture configuration.
  2. Automobiles : Microcontroller 8051 is to be used for providing automobile solutions. They are largely be used in hybrid motor vehicles to control engine variations.
  3. Touch screens: The advanced degree of microcontroller integrate the touch sensing ability within their design .Transportable devices such as cell phones, media players and gaming devices are some example of microcontroller integrated with touch screens.
  4. Medical Devices: Microcontroller is used in various medical devices such as glucose and blood pressure measurement machine for monitoring and measuring the exact result in real-time computational environment.

Electric Vehicles

An electric vehicle is one that operates on an electric motor, instead of an internal-combustion engine that generates power by burning a mix of fuel and gases. An electric car such as Nissan Leaf, Ford Focus Electric or Tesla Model S, Chevrolet Volt is a great way for you to not only save money but also help contribute towards a healthy and stable environment. Therefore, such as vehicle is seen as a possible replacement for current-generation automobile, in order to address the issue of rising pollution, global warming, depleting natural resources, etc. Though the concept of electric vehicles has been around for a long time, it has drawn a considerable amount of interest in the past decade amid a rising carbon footprint and other environmental impacts caused by fuel-based vehicles. Although, there are still a lot of vehicles running in world which makes use of ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) which means an engine which generates mechanical power by combustion of a fuel. The number of electric vehicles on road is increasing tremendously and major player in this electric vehicle segment is Tesla. Tesla is famous for Elon Musk being it’s CEO and manufacturing Luxurious Electric Vehicles with a lot of features in them like self-driving,etc. However, other motor companies are also increasing the manufacturing of Electric Vehicles like TATA Motors in India and many other.

By buying an electric car, although you may end up paying more for your vehicle, the positives greatly overshadow the negatives. However, there are still two sides to consider when you’re thinking about investing in an electric vehicle.

EV’s get their power from rechargeable batteries installed inside the car. These batteries are not only used to power the car but also used for the functioning of lights and wipers.

Electric cars have more batteries than a regular gasoline car. It’s the same kind of batteries that are commonly used when starting up a gasoline engine. The only difference comes in the fact that in electric vehicles, they have more of them, which are used to power the engine.

Advantages of Electric Vehicles:

There are a lot of other advantages to electric vehicle apart from saving money on gas.

  • No Gas- Electric cars are entirely charged by the electricity you provide, meaning you don’t need to buy any gas ever again. Driving fuel-based cars can burn a hole in your pocket as prices of fuel have gone all-time high.
  • More Convinient- The electric vehicle is easy to recharge, and the best part is you will no longer need to run to the fuel station. Even a normal household socket can be used for charging an electric car.
  • No Emmission- The biggest advantage of an electric vehicle is that electric cars are 100 percent eco-friendly as they run on electrically powered engines. They do not emit toxic gases in the enviornment.
  • Low Maintenance- Electric cars run on electrically powered engines, and hence there is no need to lubricate the engines, anything related to the combustion engine or a ton of maintenance tasks that are usually associated with a gas engine. Therefore, the maintenance cost of these cars has come down. You don’t need to send it to the service station often as you do for a standard gasoline-powered car.
  • Safer to Drive- Electric cars undergo the same fitness and testing procedures test as other fuel-powered cars. An electric car is safer to use, given their lower center of gravity, which makes them much more stable on the road in case of a collision. They are even less likely to explode in the absence of any combustible fuel or gas.
  • Reduced Noise Pollution- Electric cars put a curb on noise pollution as they are much quieter. Electric motors are capable of providing smooth drive with higher acceleration over longer distances.
  • Battery Life- Batteries are an integral part of an electric vehicle. Most electric vehicle batteries are lithium ones, and their costs are improving every year.The full capacity of a lithium-ion battery cell should be good for 300 to 500 cycles. A good battery could last you up to ten years.

Disadvantages of Electric Vehicles:

  • Recharge Point- Electric fuelling stations are still in the development stages. Not a lot of places you go to on a daily basis will have electric fuelling stations for your vehicle, meaning that if you’re on a long trip or decide to visit family in a rural or suburban area and run out of charge, it may be harder to find a charging station. You may be stuck where you are.
  • High Initial Investment- As EVs are very new, you may be surprised when you take a look at the sticker price for EVs. Even the more affordable brands can be around $30,000 to $40,000.
  • Short Driving Range and Speed- Electric cars are limited by range and speed. Most of these cars have a range of about 50-100 miles and need to be recharged again. You just can’t use them for long journeys as of now, although it is expected to improve in the future.
  • Long Recharge Time- While it takes a couple of minutes to fuel your gasoline-powered car, an electric car takes about 4-6 hours and sometimes even a day to get fully charged.
  • Battery Replacement- Depending on the type and usage of battery, batteries of almost all electric cars are required to be changed every 3-10 years.

Health and Fitness

Health can generally be measured on major three parameters: Physical, Psychological and Nutritional. Physical health means the physical appearance of a person; Nutritional health means the presence of essential nutrients in the body to fight diseases with immunity. Psychological health means the ability in a person to maintain patience, calm and composure in all circumstances of life.

Health professionals consider cancer, diabetes and several other mental and physical health issues such as depression, lethargic attitude, etc to deficiencies in fitness and well-being of a person. Unhealthy and unfit lifestyle of a person also results in premature death. Obesity and lack of physical fitness in young generation sets the stage for diabetes, heart disease, and other serious health problems.

Walking, running, cycling, playing, swimming, gardening, skipping, weight-lifting and Yoga are some of the important activities which help us maintain fit and healthy lifestyle. A person who is fit both physically and mentally is strong enough to face the ups and downs of life, and is not affected by drastic changes in the circumstances.

One should also spend time outdoors in the sun, inhaling fresh air and taking part in healthy activities. Staying active makes you stay energetic.

Out of the several components that affect one’s health, following are the seven key physical components to ensure the overall good health, fitness and mental well-being:

  1. Cardiovascular/Aerobic Conditioning
  2. Strength Training and Muscular Development
  3. Stretching – Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons
  4. Core Stability – Both physical and mental
  5. Nutrition and Supplementation – Balanced Diet

Eating healthy and nutrients rich food, exercising, taking sufficient sleep, avoiding intake of harmful substances are just few simple ways to stay healthy and fit. These are directly related to our mental, physical and emotional health.

Fitness and mental well-being are essential parts of a healthy life. The benefits of an active and healthy lifestyle are undeniable by all means.

Whether you decide to increase your activity levels slightly or develop and participate in a thorough fitness plan, it will pay you off in the long run. Exercise is good for your health of various organs of your body and makes you feel stronger.

Nutrition and fitness are essential for a healthy living. Not only we look and feel good, but by eating the right nutritional food and doing the right amount of exercise, we could also lower the chances of getting some pretty serious life-threatening diseases.

Things to be done for maintaining balanced healthy and fit lifestyle:

  1. Keeping body hydrated – Drink ample water
  2. Washing hands before and after meals – Maintain sanitation
  3. Regular exercise
  4. Intake of nutrients
  5. Regular, sound sleep

Conclusion: Sound health not only means keeping a health body but it also includes a healthy mental condition. Our health depends upon several factors such as food, pollution, regular sleeping habits, fresh air, water, sunlight, and healthy mental condition. Morning walks and physical exercises are very helpful for ensuring the fitness of our mind and body.


My article for this issue elaborates, the topic of reincarnation is one that has fascinated me for many years, ever since a childhood tragedy led to me to reflect upon and question deeply what I had been taught on the topic of the afterlife by the religious tradition in which I was raised. That I am not alone in having a fascination with this topic is evidenced by the sheer volume of popular books and articles on the idea of rebirth produced and consumed every year. While it is a mainstream idea in those parts of the world where the Dharma traditions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism) predominate, recent opinion surveys have shown that as many as one in five Americans also profess a belief in some form of reincarnation. Scholars are not exempt from this widespread interest. Indeed, there would seem to be an upswing in scholarly interest in this topic, as the articles in this special issue indicate. This interest ranges from the historical, to the literary, to the theological and philosophical. The articles gathered here raise varying questions from equally varying perspectives on the topic of reincarnation. What do particular traditions and texts teach about reincarnation? How is reincarnation conceptualized differently in different religious and cultural contexts? These are questions of a more historical and descriptive variety. What evidence can be presented either for or against reincarnation as a really occurring phenomenon, and not merely a subject of personal belief? What philosophical or theological arguments can be marshalled either for or against the idea of reincarnation? These are questions about the veracity of claims regarding reincarnation, about whether or not there really is such a thing, and what it might mean to answer this question either affirmatively or negatively. The articles collected here take up these questions, and more, providing a broad (though I would not say comprehensive) overview of this topic. The primary focus of the articles in this collection has been upon reincarnation as approached from either Hindu or Christian perspectives. These are two traditions whose adherents have engaged with one another on this topic with some frequency. For many Hindus, some version of the doctrine of reincarnation is axiomatic, and foundational to spiritual practice. For Christians, reincarnation has been a vexed issue, with many Christians being attracted to the idea from the earliest days of the church to the present, but with the mainstream of the tradition rejecting the idea as incompatible with foundational Christian teachings. It has thus been a natural topic of Hindu-Christian polemics. Some of these polemics have been described in articles found in this collection (e.g., the articles by Nalini Bhushan, Gérard Colas, and Usha Colas-Chauhan), while other articles in this collection are themselves contributions to this polemical literature (e.g., the article by Bradley Malkovsky, which argues from a Christian perspective, and my own, which argues from a Hindu perspective). Some of the articles collected here describe, in depth, articulations of rebirth that arise from particular Hindu texts and traditions (e.g., the articles of Gerald Larson, Jonathan.

Animal Farm: Book Review

Eric Arthur Blair, one of the best novelist of all time according to me and for many other novel readers. I think, I should have used the correct name to introduce him GEORGE ORWELL one of the best of all time and now no one will disagree, right?

When I first heard the name of the book Animal Farm I refused to read it just because of its title, I thought it is going to be the story of animals basically for kids, but my friend kept pushing me to read it, I was only convinced to read it because it had only 90 pages and I do not have to worry about my time or energy either.

After reading about 30 pages I got confused a bit, I was hoping it to be a kid book with a bed time story but it was something else George Orwell was talking about animals and its struggle but somehow in my mind I have created an image with animals as normal people and humans as government and slowly I was soaked into the story.

 Story starts with Mr Jones of manor Farm who came home drunken and forgot to feed his livestock. The ensuring rebellion under the leadership of pigs Napoleon and Snowbell leads to the animals taking over the farm. Vowing to eliminate the terrible inequities of the farmyard, the renamed Animal Farm is organized to benefit all those who walk on four legs. But as time passes, the ideals of the rebellion are corrupted, then forgotten. And something new and unexpected emerges.

He emphasize on learning, reading and writing and how can the government manipulate if you don’t know how to read, and how can anyone play with you emotionally, writer has touched very tiny things during democracy and aristocracy. And if people are not aware their democracy can be converted into aristocracy. These words seems bigger but the writer has explained it beautifully and simply. He talked about some people who trust government blindly, and also those who knows many things but never speaks, and taking all these character together will give you best 3 hours of reading the book.

Book starts with “All animals are equal” and ends with “all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others” .  Let me add a twist in this what if I change the word animals with human beings. “All human beings are equal, all human beings are equal, but some human beings are more equal than others”. After reading those changed sentences the multiple things strikes to me, many of today’s problems in many countries around the globe including racial and ethnic religious tensions.

Writer wants to show the mirror to the world and he does it in his style for some it’s a book of animals, a kid book, but for many it’s the experience, an interesting book with a political satire. Many says it’s the book that depicts the Russian revolution but for me it’s for the revolution of the whole world. Animal Farm by George Orwell is a brilliant political satire and a powerful, affecting story of revolutions and idealism, power and corruption.

Various Types of Banking

Banking is defined as the business activity of accepting and safeguarding money owned by other individuals and entities, and then lending out this money in order to conduct economic activities such as making profit or simply covering operating expenses. There are several different types of Banking, all serving different types of needs of the
customers, given following:

Branch Banking:

  • Branch banking is engaging in banking activities such as accepting deposits or extending loans at facilities or locations away from a bank’s home office or headquarter.
  • Branch banking allows a financial institution to expand its services to an area outside of the home location, functioning as an extension of the home location. It can be a more cost-effective approach because not all the locations are required to offer the same levels of services as the home location, allowing smaller offices to provide key services while larger locations provide additional services.
  • The advantage of branch banking is that it helps in better management, more inclusion and risk diversification.
  • The disadvantage of branch banking is that it might encourage outside local influences.

Unit Banking:

  • In unit banking, all the operations are performed from a single branch.
  • It is a limited way of banking where banks operate only from a single branch or a few branches in the same area taking care of the local population of that area.
  • The size of the unit banks is small as compared to branch banking.
  • Due to the small size of the Unit Banks, decision making is very fast as the management enjoys more autonomy and discretionary powers at their disposal.
  • Due to the single unit of the Bank, the risks are not diversified.
  • A customer having an account in a specified branch must undergo all banking activities through that branch

Mixed Banking:

  • Mixed Banking is the system in which banks undertake activities of commercial and investment banking together.
  • It can also be described as the dual functioning of investment banking and commercial banking.
  • These banks give short-term and long-term loans to industrial concerns. Industries don’t have to run to different places for differential financial needs. Mixed Banking thus promote rapid industrialization.
  • Mixed Banking may however pose a grave threat to liquidity of a bank and lead to bad debts.

Wholesale Banking:

  • Wholesale banking involves banking services for high net-worth clients like corporate, commercial banks, mid-size companies etc.
  • It is provided by banks to organisations like Corporate Clients, Institutional Customers (such as pension funds & government agencies), International Trade Finance Businesses, Medium Scale Companies, Mortgage Brokers, Real Estate Developers and Investors and services offered to other banks or financial institutions.

Retail Banking:

  • Retail banking means where banking transactions are held directly with customers. The Bank provides all kinds of personal banking services like savings accounts, current accounts, transactional accounts, mortgages, personal loans, debit and credit cards etc. to the customers directly.
  • Retail banking is the type of banking that is visible to general public.

Universal Banking:

  • The concept of Universal Banking was conceptualized by R.H. Khan in India.
  • Universal banking is a system of banking under which big banks undertake a variety of banking services like commercial banking, insurance, investment banking, merchant banking, mutual funds etc.
  • It involves providing all the above services to the customers under one roof by financial experts who can handle multiple financial products.
  • This makes the banking operations economical and boosts investorconfidence. However, if these kinds of banks fail, it costs huge losses as well as causes a huge dip in consumer confidence.

Virtual Banking:

  • Virtual Banking refers to a banking system wherein the Banking operations are performed online.
  • One of the biggest advantages of Virtual Banking is that Banking operations become very cost effective as banks don’t need to have physical offices.
  • Low Banking operations costs are passed on to the customers by the Banks in the form of waiver of fee or offering higher rate of interests on accounts.
  • The Indian markets still have fears instilled in them with respect to virtual banking and they consider branch banking more suitable as they can visit the branch and be assured of their transactions.

Chain Banking:

  • Chain banking system refers to the type of banking wherein a group of persons come together to own and control three or more independently chartered banks.
  • Despite of common control and ownership, each of the banks can maintain their individual existence and operations.
  • The banks in the chain are assigned different functions so that there is no overlapping of interests and no loss in profits of the respective banks.

Correspondent Banking:

  • Correspondent Banking is considered the most profitable way of doing business as the Banks do not have any physical presence or any limited permissions in respect to Banking operations.
  • Correspondent banks thus act as banking agent for a home bank and provides various banking services to customers where otherwise the home bank does not operate.
  • It helps Banks’ customers perform banking operations and transactions at any place with ease without the physical presence of their Bank branches there.


8085 is pronounced as “eighty-eighty-five” microprocessor. It is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by Intel in 1977 using NMOS technology.

It has the following configuration −

  • 8-bit data bus
  • 16-bit address bus, which can address up to 64KB
  • A 16-bit program counter
  • A 16-bit stack pointer
  • Six 8-bit registers arranged in pairs: BC, DE, HL
  • Requires +5V supply to operate at 3.2 MHZ single phase clock

It is used in washing machines, microwave ovens, mobile phones, etc.

Architecture of 8085 microprocessor

8085 is an 8-bit, general purpose microprocessor. It consists of following functional units:-


Block Diagram of 8085 Microprocessor
  1. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU):
    It is used to perform mathematical operations like: addition, multiplication, subtraction, division, decrement, increment, etc.
  2. Flag Register:
    It is an 8-bit register that stores either 0 or 1 depending upon which value is stored in the accumulator.
  3. Accumulator:
    Accumulator is used to perform I/O, arithmetic and logical operations. It is connected to ALU and internal data bus. 
  4. General Purpose Registers:
    There are 6 general purpose registers. These registers can hold 8-bit values. These 8-bit registers are B, C, D, E, H, L. These registers work as 16-bit registers when they work in pair like: B-C, D-E, H-L.
  5. Program Counter: 
    Program Counter holds the address value of the memory to the next instruction that is to be executed. It is a 16-bit register.
  6. Stack Pointer:
    It works like stack. In stack, the content of register is stored that is later used in the program. It is a 16-bit special register.
  7. Temporary Register:
    It is a 8-bit register that holds data values during arithmetic and logical operations.
  8. Instruction registers and decoder:
    It is a 8-bit register that holds the instruction code that is being decoded. The instruction is fetched from the memory. 
  9. Timing and control unit:
    The timing and control unit comes under the CPU section, and it controls the flow of data from CPU to other devices. It is also used to control the operations performed by the microprocessor and the devices connected to it. There are certain timing and control signals like: Control signals, DMA Signals, RESET signals, Status Signal. 
  10. Interrupt control:
    Whenever a microprocessor is executing a main program and if suddenly an interrupt occurs, the microprocessor shifts the control from the main program to process the incoming request. After the request is completed, the control goes back to the main program. There are 5 interrupt signals in 8085 microprocessors: INTR, TRAP, RST 7.5, RST 6.5, RST 5.5
  11. Address bus and data bus: 
    Data bus is bidirectional and carries the data which is to be stored.  Address bus is unidirectional and carries location where data is to be stored.
  12. Serial Input/output control:
    It controls the serial data communication by using Serial input data and Serial output data.

Working of 8085 Microprocessor

Now after having an idea about the functional units of the 8085 microprocessor, let us proceed further to understand the operation of the 8085 microprocessor.

We already know that the function of a microprocessor is to execute instructions. Also, to execute an instruction, it first needs to be fetched then decoded and then executed. And to fetch an instruction, firstly the address of the instruction must be known.

The address of the instruction is present in the program counter. This address is then placed on the 16-bit address bus and is then forwarded towards the memory. From the memory, the instruction present at that memory location is fetched through the 8-bit data bus.

Here, in the above figure, we can clearly see that we have combinedly used data bus and address bus so as to reduce the number of lines. As we know that at a particular time the processor will access either the data bus or the address bus.

Further when the instruction is fetched from the memory, then through internal buses the instruction is provided to the instruction register. At this particular point of time fetching the instruction from the memory is over.

Now, it’s time for the processor to decode the instruction. So, it is then fed to the instruction decoder.

We already have the idea that both data and instruction in the memory is stored in the form of an opcode. So, the fetched opcode is analyzed by the instruction decoder present inside the processor in order to execute the instruction.

But, a noteworthy point over here is that, after an instruction is fetched from the memory, then PC increments itself thereby providing the address location of the next instruction. As PC does not play any role in decoding and executing.

However, after execution of first instruction, the next is fetched form the memory.

Now, this is all about fetching and decoding, now what about the execution of the instruction.

In the above figure, we can see the timing and control circuit. This circuit basically sends the control signals to the various units of the microprocessor to execute the instruction.

Suppose, the instruction is ADD A and B. This simply tells the ALU to add the data present in B register with the data present in accumulator i.e., A register. But, in 8085 the decoded instruction is simply ADD B. So, automatically, the ALU adds the value present in the accumulator with the data in register B.

Also, in 8085 the outcome of the operation is stored register A  which is nothing but an accumulator.

Further when an instruction ADD C is decoded by the 8085, then data at C register is added to the data present in register A and is stored at register A. Due to such cumulative action, register A is termed as an accumulator.

Basically, the timing and control circuit timely sends the signals to the accumulator to release its value for proceeding execution. Also, this timing and control circuit sends signals to the register select that tells it to choose the particular register.

Once the data is fetched from a particular register then it is stored in the temporary register and it is used by the ALU. It is to be kept in mind that a programmer can only access the general purpose register as the temporary register is used by the processor to hold the 2nd operand of the operation.

Now, once the operation is executed, then the result is fed to the accumulator through the data bus. But a flag register is also present that holds the status of the result present at the accumulator.

As we have also discussed in the functional unit that a flag register holds a sign, carry etc. related information of the generated result.

After every instruction execution performed by the ALU, the status of the flag register gets changed. So, ALU produces the result and its status simultaneously after each operation.

As we have already discussed that W and Z are the temporary registers but these are not accessed by the programmer as both are used by the processor to hold the temporary value stored by it.

So, this is all about the block diagram and working of 8085 microprocessor.

Applications of 8085 microprocessor

8085 finds its major applications in programmable calculators as well as in numerical control and environment monitoring systems. These are also used in switching, banking and financial systems.

Lead Acid Battery


The storage battery or secondary battery is such a battery where electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy and this chemical energy is then converted to electrical energy as and when required. The conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by applying external electrical source is known as charging of battery. Whereas conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy for supplying the external load is known as discharging of secondary battery. The battery which uses lead and lead peroxide for the conversion of the chemical energy into electrical power, this type of battery is called a lead acid battery. The lead acid battery is most commonly used in the power stations and substations because it has higher cell voltage and lower cost. Efficiency of Lead Acid Battery is 50-95%.

Construction of Lead Acid Battery:

The Lead Acid Battery is made up of different parts:

Labelled Diagram of Lead Acid Battery
  • Container– The container of the lead acid battery is made of glass, lead lined wood, ebonite, the hard rubber of bituminous compound, ceramic materials or moulded plastics and are seated at the top to avoid the discharge of electrolyte. At the bottom of the container, there are four ribs, on two of them rest the positive plate and the others support the negative plates. The material of which the battery containers are made should be resistant to sulfuric acid, should not deform or porous, or contain impurities which damage the electrolyte.
  • Plates– The plate of the lead-acid cell is made up of lead and active material. they all form some type of grid, it is essential for conducting the electric current and for distributing the current equally on the active material. The grids are made up of an alloy of lead and antimony. The plates of the battery are of two types. They are the formed plates or plante plates and pasted or faure plates.
  • Active Material– The material in a cell which takes active participation in a chemical reaction (i.e. absorption of electrical energy) during charging or discharging is called the active material of the cell. The active elements of the lead acid are:
    • Lead peroxide (PbO2) – It forms the positive active material. The PbO2 are dark chocolate broom in colour.
    • Lead – Its form the negative active material. It is grey in colour.
    • Dilute Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4– It is used as an electrolyte. It contains 31% of sulfuric acid.
  • Separators– The separators are thin sheets of non-conducting material made up of chemically treated leadwood, porous rubbers, or mats of glass fibre and are placed between the positive and negative to insulate them from each other.
  • Battery Terminals– A battery has two terminals the positive and the negative.

Working of Lead Acid Battery:

During charging of battery, current is passed through it which causes some chemical changes inside the battery. This chemical changes absorb energy during their formation. When the battery is connected to the external load, the chemical changes take place in reverse direction, during which the absorbed energy is released as electrical energy and supplied to the load.

The lead acid storage battery is formed by dipping lead peroxide plate and sponge lead plate in dilute sulfuric acid. A load is connected externally between these plates. In diluted sulfuric acid the molecules of the acid split into positive hydrogen ions (H+) and negative sulfate ions (SO4 2-). The hydrogen ions when reach at PbO2 plate, they receive electrons from it and become hydrogen atom which again attack PbO2 and form PbO and H2O (water). This PbO reacts with H2 SO4 and forms PbSO4 and H2O (water).

SO4 2- ions are moving freely in the solution so when they will reach to pure Pb plate where they give their extra electrons and become radical SO4. As the radical SO4 cannot exist alone it will attack Pb and will form PbSO4. As H+ ions take electrons from PbO2 plate and SO4 2- ions give electrons to Pb plate, there would be an inequality of electrons between these two plates. Hence there would be a flow of current through the external load between these plates for balancing this inequality of electrons. This process is called discharging of lead acid battery. During discharging,

  • Both of the plates are covered with PbSO4.
  • Specific gravity of sulfuric acid solution falls due to formation of water during reaction at PbO2 plate.
  • As a result, the rate of reaction falls which implies potential difference between the plates decreases during discharging process.

Now, when we connect an external DC source to the termial, Hydrogen ions (cation) being positively charged, move to the electrode (cathode) connected with negative terminal of the DC source. Here each H+ ion takes one electron from that and becomes hydrogen atom. These hydrogen atoms then attack PbSO4 and form lead and sulfuric acid.

SO42- ions (anions) move towards the electrode (anode) connected with positive terminal of DC source where they will give up their extra electrons and become radical SO4. This radical SO4 cannot exist alone hence reacts with PbSO4 of anode and forms lead peroxide (PbO2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). So, during charging,

  • Lead sulfate anode gets converted into lead peroxide.
  • Lead sulfate of cathode is converted to pure lead.
  • Terminal potential of the cell increases.

Stock Exchange

What is Stock Exchange?

A stock exchange also called as securities exchange (for example, NYSE, BSE, NASDAQ, etc), is a facility where stockbrokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments. Stock exchanges may also provide facilities for the issue and redemption of such securities and instruments and capital events including the payment of income and dividends. Securities traded on a stock exchange include stock issued by listed companies, unit trusts, derivatives, investment products and bonds.

Stock exchanges often function as “continuous auction” markets with buyers and sellers performing transactions via open outcry at a central location such as the floor of the exchange or by using an electronic trading platform (such as Zerodha, Upstox, Groww,etc) . To be able to trade a security on a certain stock exchange, the security or shares of that particular company must be listed on that stock exchange. Usually, there is a central location at least for record keeping, but trade is increasingly less linked to a physical place, as modern markets use electronic communication networks, which give them advantages of increased speed and reduced cost of transactions. There is usually no obligation for stock to be issued through the stock exchange itself, nor must stock be subsequently traded on an exchange. Such trading may be off exchange or over the counter. This is the usual way that derivatives and bonds are traded. Increasingly, stock exchanges are part of a global securities market.

How does a Stock Exchange Functions?

Stock markets are a bridge between the companies and the potential buyers. This can also be termed as a professional relation between a seller and a buyer. Giants list their stocks on the stock exchange thus allowing the market
buyers to invest in them with a probability of very lower risk in the purchase.

The purpose here is to raise money which can be further invested into the growth of their firms. That supply and demand help determine the price for each security, or the levels at which stock market participants — investors and traders are willing to buy or sell. Computer algorithms generally do most of those calculations. The stock purchase and selling these days works completely online and is a faster way of performing the tasks. There was a time in history when the trading used to go offline, and window purchase was the trend of the time.

What are benefits of Stock Exchange?

The few benefits of stock exhanges and how it alters or affects countries market scenario are as follows:

  • Increased Evaluations – People tend to prefer the companies listed on the stock markets for their investments and returns.
  • Deeper Profile Impact – Companies listed on the stock exchange have higher recognition than the privately held companies, which makes it the safer ground to play.
  • Easy Access to Worthy Capitals – Companies listed here are more prone to being invested into. They can get access to a larger crowd if they want the shareholders to buy stakes.
  • High Returns on Investment – This is an unarguable point for every investor. The game of investment is vested into larger returns.
  • Enhances the brand value – The companies work, day and night for the market recognition. The stock exchanges provide them with the opportunity to get to the people.
  • Lower risk on Cost Capital – Companies listed on exchange have a lower credit risk that helps the banks to provide for capitals on their name. Privately held companies are at a greater risk of diverging capitals.

Bombay Stock Exchange

The BSE, formerly known as the Bombay Stock Exchange Ltd. is an Indian stock exchange located at Dalal Street, Mumbai. As India’s largest exchange provider – and having a market capitalization of $218,730 billion – it is 9th largest stock exchanges in the world. The exchange also offers trading in equities, ETFs, mutual funds, fixed income
as well as currency and commodity derivatives.


India a developing nation, dreaming to become a global economic power in future but are we on the right track its still a myth which needs few concerns. Taking states and region there is huge inequality, few regions are well developed while some states are impoverished and poor. States like Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are mineral rich states but still way below in human development index and way bad in comparison to some of the poorest country of the world. While states like Maharashtra and Gujrat are way better in these norms.

This condition, today ways back in 1980s when country started to grow, but its growth remained in very few states. Since then if we see, more than half of India’s GDP is still generated by 5 states – Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Gujrat which is 47% of total (2018-19). Despite being similar size, the level of development is not same across all these states, especially in context of Per Capita Income and Per Capita GDP. The difference between the richest and the poorest states has been on a steady rise, indicating a steady rise in overall inequality as well. According to report, the difference between top 5 richest state and poorest states has risen by 145% to 322% in 2018-19 on comparing to start of century. Private investments are typically attracted to those areas which are already developed and equipped with basic infrastructure. But also, the poor states have geographically difficulties, and it is one of the major factors behind the leftover. Bihar and Eastern states are examples of it. While some experts have held ‘over-centralized’ economic policies of the government as responsible for this growth inequality. License raj and corruption are other few norms of it. Policy of subsidized the mineral transportation from the resource rich states to location-based production units acts as kick in the teeth for them. This policy harmed economic growth of mineral rich states like Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh etc.

Criminalization, rise of extremist ideas like Naxalism, insurgency in northern states and caste wars etc. have also played significant roles in strengthening regional disparity. Other problems like the failure of land reform policies impoverished already poor people and the lands rights were concentrated in a few hands. Other than pan India disparity, we also witness intra-state disparity in Indian states ‘Intra -state disparity’ refers to some regions within a state which are extremely backward as compared to the other parts of the same state.

The uneven growth impacts the overall development of the country up to a considerable level, had all states grown the average growth rate of 5 states, which is 7.2%, in 2014 India would have a Per Capita GDP income around 1900 US dollars, which would be 1.5 times the actual data. This inequality leads to increase in rate of crimes and insurgencies in the states.

But problem is until it is solved, so to improve there must be a dire need to address the growing regional economic disparity through region-specific comprehensive economic policies, if India wants to achieve ‘equitable development’. It is also important to improve skills of poor state population as industries attract to good skilled labor. Government if want to improve then they must invest in both Social and Physical infrastructure. Social infrastructure includes Health, Education and skill development while Physical infrastructure include Roadways, Railways and Electricity. The union government can also nudge the states under competition federalism to perform better and undertake more measures of reforms.

Types of Life Insurance in India- Risks and Benefits

There are various types of Life Insurance present in market, Each having its own risks and benefits. In life, unplanned expenses are a bitter truth. Even when you think that you are financially secure, a sudden expenditure can shake you up financially and it can also leave you in huge amount of debts.

Since, we cannot plan ahead for contingencies arising from such incidents, insurance policies offer support to minimise financial liability from unforeseen occurrences.

Life Insurance is a policy in which the policyholder can ensure financial freedom for his/her family members after death. Suppose you are the sole earning member in your family, supporting your wife and children. In an event of your death, your family would be left financially devastated. Life insurance policies ensure that such a thing does not happen by providing financial assistance to your family in the event of your passing.

There are 7 types of life insurance policy. These are:

Term Insurance or Term Plan: It is a life insurance plan that provides financial coverage to the beneficiary of the insured person for a definite period of time. In the event of the death of the policyholder during policy term, the beneficiary can claim death benefits from the insurance company.

Risks: In this term plan, no payout is provided to the insured person or beneficiaries if the insured person outlives the policy term.

Benefits: It is a pure death risk cover plan that offers high coverage or sum assured at low premiums.

Whole Life Policy: Whole Life Insurance Plans are insurance plans which provide insurance cover to the policyholder for the rest of his/her life provided the premium is paid on time. Policyholder receives maturity benefit in case he/she survives the policy term. The nominee appointed receives the death benefit in case of death of policyholder. A whole life policy is a type of life insurance that provides guaranteed death benefits during the entire life of the policyholder. The coverage is extended for as long as the insured lives, as long as the premiums are paid up and the policy is not surrendered. These plans are designed to cater to those who do not want a fixed tenure, but rather have insurance cover till whenever they meettheir demise. The policy will also build up a cash value which makes the premiums higher than some other plans.

Risks: If the insurance company changes its policies or policy terms, goes bankrupt, or has some bad years, the return to policyholder will be impacted negatively. Investing a large amount of money in this single policy exposes the policyholder to a larger risk.

Benefits: This policy covers whole life of the assured, or for up to 100 years in some cases. This insurance policy also offers partial withdrawals on completion of certain premium payment term.

Endowment Plan: An endowment policy is essentially a life insurance policy which, apart from covering the life of the insured, helps the policyholder save regularly over a specific period of time so that he/she is able to get a lump sum amount on the policy maturity in case he/she survives the policy term. This maturity amount can be used to meet various financial needs such as funding one’s retirement, children’s education and/or marriage or buying a house. A life insurance endowment policy pays the full sum assured to the beneficiaries if the insured dies during the policy term or to the policy holder on maturity of the policy if he/she survives the term.

Risks: Protection is provided only for the specified period. Premiums are usually much higher than a whole life or term insurance plans. Many insurers do not provide the renewability facility for endowment policies. Returns are usually low.

Benefits: If the assured outlives the term of the policy, the insurer offers the maturity benefit. These plans may offer periodical bonuses (paid either on maturity of the policy or to the beneficiaries under death claim). Endowment plans have surrender values, paidup values, and loan values.

Unit Linked Insurance Plan: It is a market-linked product that aggregates the very best of investment and insurance. It is a plan that links to the capital market and offers flexibility to invest in equity or debt funds as per the risk appetite of the investor. Such a dual benefit of ULIP makes them attractive in terms of investment.

Risks: The returns cannot be guaranteed. Returns are poor because a host of charges are associated with the scheme, such as administrative charges, mortality charges, and so on.

Benefits: If the market does well, profits are good. It provides mortality insurance cover. ULIP investments are flexible, the policyholder can switch from one policy to another. ULIP provides tax exemption benefits to the policyholders under section 80c. Even the sum assured received by the nominee after the demise of the policyholder is tax free.

Money Back Policy: These plans protect the insured and his/her family’s financial interests from death or critical illness of the policyholder. These include both investment and insurance and it starts to pay an amount that is called a “survival benefit” over the lifetime of the policy. The survival benefit is given after a few years from the start of the money back plan and continues till the maturity of the policy. In case of the death of the policy holder, the nominee receives whole of the maturity amount irrespective of number of the “survival benefits” paid.

Risks: Tenure is very long (usually up to 20, 25, and 30 years).

Benefits: Survival benefits paid at regular interval during the policy tenure. On maturity of the plan, the remaining part of the sum assured is paid (known as maturity benefit). In case of death of the assured, insurer pays the entire Sum Assured to the beneficiaries.

Children Policy: It serves two purpose that is insurance cum investment. It financially secures the child’s future and also finance the turning points in his/her life such as higher education and marriage. These plans are best designed to ensure the future of the child in the event of the unfortunate demise of the parents and also build a corpus over a time so as to utilize it at prime moments.

Risks: Considering an additional charge such as premium allocation charges, and others, returns could be low return in the initial stage and lead to additional loss on leaving policy before tenure’s completion.

Benefits: Helps in building the corpus for your child’s education and marriage. Most child plans provide one-time pay-out or annual instalments after the child turns 18. Some child plans even waive off the payment of future premiums on demise of the life insured. The Policy continues till it’s maturity.

Retirement Plan/ Annual Plan: An annuity is a plan that helps the policyholder/ insured to get a regular payment for life after making a lump sum investment. The life insurance company invests the money of the investor and pays back the returns generated from it.

Risks: Annuity plans are one of the costliest types of investment. Most plans charge surrender penalty for early withdrawal.

Benefits: Guaranteed pay-out. Some annuity plans pay out a higher income than available standard annuities if during the occurrence of health issues.

Deep Bar and Double Cage Rotors

What is the need of Deep-Bar and Double-Cage Rotor?

Conventional Squirrel Cage motors suffer from the disadvantages of low starting torque because of low rotor  resistance. The starting torque can be increased by using the bar material of higher resistivity. However high rotor resistance reduces the full-load speed, increases rotor ohmic loss and lower efficiency. Therefore in order to achieve high starting torque without effecting the efficiency, the rotor resistance is made higher at the time of starting & low under normal operating conditions. In wound rotor induction motors these conditions are met  by connecting external resistance in rotor circuit at the time of starting & resistances are cut out in steps as the motor attains its normal speed. In squirrel cage motor this is not feasible as the  conductors are short-circuited by end rings. In order to attain the above desired conditions following types of rotors are used:

  • Deep bar rotor
  • Double cage rotor.

Deep Bar Rotor:

Figure below shows a cage rotor with deep and  narrow bars. A bar may be assumed to be made up of number of narrow layers connected in parallel. It is seen that the top most layer element ‘A’ is linked with minimum leakage flux and therefore its leakage inductance is minimum. On the other hand, the bottom layer ‘C’ links maximum flux,  therefore its leakage inductance is maximum.

Deep Cage Rotor

At starting the rotor frequency is equal to the supply frequency. The bottom layer element ‘C’ offers more impedance to the current flow then upper layer ‘A’. Therefore the maximum current flows through the top layer and minimum through bottom layer. This unequal current distribution causes the effective rotor  resistance to increase. With a high rotor resistance at starting condition, the starting torque is relatively high & starting current is low as desired. Now under normal operating conditions, the slip and the rotor frequency are very small. The reactance of all the layers are  small compared to their resistances. The impedances of all the layers are nearly equal, so current flows through all the parts of the bar equally. The resulting large cross-section area makes rotor resistance small, resulting in good efficiency at low slips.

Double Cage Rotor:

An induction motor with two rotor windings or cages is used forn obtaining high starting torque at low current. The stator of a double cage induction motor is similar to that of ordinary induction motor. In double cage rotor there are two layers of bars as shown. The outer cage bars have a  smaller cross-sectional area than the inner bars and are made of high resistivity materials like brass etc.

Double Cage Rotor

The inner cage bars are made up of low resistance material like copper. Thus the resistance of outer cage is greater than that of inner cage. There is a slit between the top and bottom slot. Thus the leakage flux linking the inner cage winding is much larger than that of outer cage. The inner cage winding, therefore has a greater self inductance. At starting voltage induced in the rotor is same as the supply frequency. Hence the leakage reactance of the inner cage winding is much larger than of the outer cage. Therefore most of the starting current is flowing in the outer cage winding which offer low impedance to current flow. The high resistance outer cage winding, therefore develops high starting torque. As the rotor speed increases, the frequency of rotor emf decreases.

At normal speed, the leakage reactance of both the winding becomes negligibly small. The rotor current division between the two cages is governed mainly by their resistances. Since the resistance of the outer cage is about 5 to 6 times that  of inner cage, most of the rotor current flows through the inner cage. Hence under normal operating speed, torque developed mainly by low resistance inner cage.

One Piece: Review

Is it really worth watching 900+ episodes ? Is it really worth giving my time?  These type of question may come in your mind before starting One piece which is absolutely natural.

I am going to be really frank and clear to you all,  I myself dropped this series just because it has 600+ episodes,  and when I started there were many series with much better graphics and animation that I could not hold on to one piece  for long,  but that cannot be blamed just because the show started in 1999 and we have to bear it for certain episodes (in starting for graphics) but when story took control over your mind there is no going back , you will be attached with the character to the fullest.

Story Starts with a boy named Monkey D. Luffy or a.k.a The Straw Hat Pirate(title came from his worn-out straw hat that he always have on). he sets off to find Shanks, his pirate idol to return his straw hat as promise and find One Piece to be able to earn the title of Pirate King. Along the way he gathers all kinds of oddballs for his crew, The Straw Hat Pirates . It’s not just the story of pirates and navy , but it’s much more than that , it will carry you on roller coaster of emotions where you will laugh, cry, feel almost all the emotions .

One Piece arcs can be surprisingly amazing. There were times when I rolled over my bed because of some plot twist. It has a very interesting setting as well, from starting it grabs your attention and don’t get loose , in the end of every season it gives you such an arc that you’ll stick to it again because one piece always left some unanswered question for the viewers which make us stick to it. One of the biggest reason for its success is that the shadow of protagonist never overlaps with another character and this enables other characters to put their light on the viewers and we did not get bored seeing the protagonist only . Story also depicts some harsh realities of the world like , how badly humans are treated or how badly humans behave with others  which is distressing to watch but we cannot turn our back from the truth and this makes it more exciting for the audience to watch. From taking you to the green land to rough desert from high mountain to deep sea, the creation  of another world is smoothly choreographed that you will see yourself floating into it.  And that my friend, is what an adventure anime should really be.

This Series have some of the best backstories in the anime world which will not even make you cry but also put so much anger into you that you want to go and punch the villain. Backstories is  one the strength of this anime/manga, you may get attracted towards the villains too with some of the backstories and you will be able to justify their deeds to a some point as well.

Wealth-Fame-Power (yes, we know these words  from the introduction of One piece, right ?), you will come across these three words from the starting of the series but behind these 3 words you will find  Trust-Friendship-Promise  which soak emotions deep into our heart . One Piece knows exactly when to do comedy and when to get emotional they have able to maintain the balance till now and we can hope it will not disappoint us . In search of comedy they never deviate from there 3 unspoken root of Trust-Friendship-Promise and these 3 forces  puts so much adrenaline in the viewers that it is coming from past 20 years and can go for 10 more years.

And that’s where the negative starts of this anime, after so much year when you see closely story has gone only about 60%, they have wasted so many episodes just for the sake world building which can be expected by shonen (it gives priority to setting the new world) and when they have so much episodes in their bag and story is so long then there is no need for filler episodes in my opinion. It has a slow start no doubt about it, some may take 8 episodes and some may take around 280 episodes to get attracted towards it and that is why people complains about it so much.

 So back to our original question Is one piece worth watching?

Obviously it is, once you have watched it surely it’s going to be in your top 5 anime list. If you’re new to this anime world and want to see something unique then this is your anime go for eye, and anime lovers if you’re fan of shonen then how can you miss its one of the best. Don’t get worried about 900+ episodes we all know how it feels when an anime gets over so, what better than never getting finished so watch 2 episodes a day, no need to watch it continuously or wrap 900 episodes in a single blow watch it in your free time, this anime will not leave you/or finishing soon if you start today it will be with you for years. You are not going to regret the time you will give to one piece.

It is an action adventure comedy drama superpower anime One Piece has had a total estimated circulation of approximately 3.1 billion copies in Weekly Shōnen Jump magazine  ,you may understand by the number only it’s not worth missing.. Thank you for reading.

Naruto: Review

Naruto is one of the most popular and best anime of all time and is known as big 3 of anime industry along with One Piece and Bleach. It is written by Masashi Kishimoto and hats off to him for writing such a great master piece. It was first aired on Oct 3, 2002 on Tokyo TV and is animated by Studio Pierrot.

Watching Naruto Uzumaki the protagonist of this series grow from a naughty, hyperactive and knuckle headed ninja into a more mature, responsible and determined Teenager and eventually Becoming the Hokage and completing his childhood dreams was one hell of an adventure. Naruto will shake you up to the core while watching it, the plot twists, the back stories of characters, the world development and powers are all perfectly illustrated in the series. The Naruto Series is divided into two seasons, which are Naruto and Naruto Shippuden. While the first season Naruto revolves around the childhood story of the main protagonist Naruto Uzumaki, his friends and adventures. The Naruto Shippuden takes place after he comes back from a long time training with a legendary Ninja, “Jiraiya Sensei”.  

Now the story takes place in shinobi world, where our protagonist Naruto Uzumaki goes to a ninja academy in order to become a ninja. He is an orphan and lives alone. Nobody in the village he lives want to talk to him and go near him nor do they want their children’s to go near Naruto and talk or play with him. Naruto clearly struggles to find his place in the village. Things are like this because, some moments prior to birth of Naruto Uzumaki, a huge demon known as kyuubi or Nine-Tailed Fox attacks the hidden leaf village (the village where naruto lives). The village struggles to stop the rampage of the nine tailed fox. So, in order to put an end to Kyuubi rampage, the leader of the village, the fourth hokage sacrifices his life and uses a forbidden technique on the fox and sealed the beast inside the newly born Naruto.

So, the first season revolve around Naruto making friends, passing form academy, learning different techniques and train under his Sensei Kakashi Hatake and Jiraiya Sensei and their missions and adventure. The first Season finishes like this.

The First Season is all about knowing the world in Naruto learning about other villages like the Mist Village, Sand Village and various events and history of Leaf Village. All of the character development is done in this season, villains and dangers to the world and village are introduced. Writer was successful in creating a base for a story and attract the viewer’s towards the story and create an emotional connection with the viewers, and has successfully evoked interest in minds of lot of Anime Viewers. The BGM used in Naruto is just great and fits right with scenes also the show opening songs are great and have its own vibe. The animation is also good, considering it is a show form 2002. But apart from these things, some things just didn’t felt right like, this season was not that well organized as there were a lot of fillers and we had to skip a lot of episodes, straight away. Also, the story development sometimes feels off track and at some point’s, one may even lose their interest and get bored of Naruto. Some people might also not like the animation as it is old and not that good. But believe me, complete it once and you will never once regret giving your time, watching this series.

Now, the 2nd season continues after Naruto coming back to leaf village from 2.5 yeears training with Jiraiya Sensei. Naruto has become more confident and responsible towards fulfilling his dream of becoming Hokage and getting recognised by village as someone who protects and maintains peace. This season is where things get interesting and the story takes you on rollercoaster of emotions. Where you will laugh, cry, become motivated and a lot of things will happen. Previous Villains will emerge as Heroes, protecting everything from the shadows. An organization named Akatsuki will be on move to destroy leaf village and we will get a deep dive into back story of characters such as Pain, Back Story of Uchiha Clan Slaughter by Itachi Uchiha and why was Sasuke Uchiha his little brother only was left alive among Uchiha’s? Things like this will get disclosed, and there will be start of 4th Great Ninja War, where we will see a lot of God Level characters like Madara Uchiha, Hashirama Senju (both regarded as God of Shinobi) and other previous Hokage’s in action. Tailed Beasts, Sage of Six Paths and there history will be disclosed. The real villain lurking and controlling everything from shadows will appear and our Team 7 will be reunited to fight them. Also, I would like to honourably mention some characters like Itachi Uchiha and Pain (Nagato). These are some characters whose powers and story will send Goosebumps to your bones. Dialogues like “We are pain, We are God”, and the level of fight and action are just amazing. After watching such characters I realised one thing that the villains in Naruto are not villains, they are just the previous heroes, who got their heart broken due to certain reasons and lost faith in the world. All these peoples just wanted to maintain peace, the only thing different was their meaning of peace and their method of attaining peace. Although, till the end of the story, Sakura will still remain useless. Except that all other characters grow and become mature and more powerful.

So, finally I would like to suggest you to watch Naruto strongly, because it’s just great series to watch. Like, you don’t have to be mature to watch this series, you will become mature after watching this series. The supporting characters like sasuke, sakura, shikamaru, gara, etc, are well developed and their involvement is greatly illustrated. Again the sound track of Naruto Shippuden does a great job and I really liked the opening song Blue Bird. Before starting Naruto one might think that spending 300 episodes to explain a 2 day war might not be great, but I must say that that’s why Naruto is great.

Well, something’s still remains which may irritate you like the fillers, there again a lot of fillers but that can be skipped with help of resources from internet. But if you want to deep dive into series you should watch fillers as well, because via fillers you get to know more about characters and their bonds. Apart from this Sakura is still there to keep you irritated throughout series. So, just stop thinking and start watching the show, Enjoy Watching!!!


Definition: The communication is a dynamic process that begins with the conceptualizing of ideas by the sender who then transmits the message through a channel to the receiver, who in turn gives the feedback in the form of some message or signal within the given time frame.

Communication is a process which involves transmission of information from one point to another through a succession of processes. Effective communication is when the message conveyed by the sender is understood by the receiver in exactly the same way as it was intended. There are basically two modes of communication:

  • Point-to-Point: A point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two communication endpoints or nodes. An example is a telephone call, in which one telephone is connected with one other, and what is said by one caller can only be heard by the other.
  • Broadcasting: A broadcast communication network is a communication network which uses broadcasting for communication between its nodes. They take messages from a single sender and transmit to all endpoints on the network. For example, Radio, Television, etc.

There are three basic element of communication system namely transmitter, channel and reciever. The simple block diagram for communication system is given below:

Block Diagram of Communication System

Different blocks in block diagram of communication system are discussed below:

  • Sender: The sender or the communicator is the person who initiates the conversation and has conceptualized the idea that he intends to convey it to others.
  • Encoding: The sender begins with the encoding process wherein he uses certain words or non-verbal methods such as symbols, signs, body gestures, etc. to translate the information into a message. The sender’s knowledge, skills, perception, background, competencies, etc. has a great impact on the success of the message.
  • Message: Once the encoding is finished, the sender gets the message that he intends to convey. The message can be written, oral, symbolic or non-verbal such as body gestures, silence, sounds, etc. or any other signal that triggers the response of a receiver.
  • Communication Channel: The Sender chooses the medium through which he wants to convey his message to the recipient. It must be selected carefully in order to make the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. The choice of medium depends on the interpersonal relationships between the sender and the receiver and also on the urgency of the message being sent. Oral, virtual, written, sound, gesture, etc. are some of the commonly used communication mediums.
  • Receiver: The receiver is the person for whom the message is intended or targeted. He tries to comprehend it in the best possible manner such that the communication objective is attained. The degree to which the receiver decodes the message depends on his knowledge of the subject matter, experience, trust and relationship with the sender.
  • Decoding: Here, the receiver interprets the sender’s message and tries to understand it in the best possible manner. An effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the message in exactly the same way as it was intended by the sender.
  • Feedback: The Feedback is the final step of the process that ensures the receiver has received the message and interpreted it correctly as it was intended by the sender. It increases the effectiveness of the communication as it permits the sender to know the efficacy of his message. The response of the receiver can be verbal or non-verbal.
  • Noise: Noise is the unwanted disturbance present in communication which deteriorate’s the quality of message signal sent and decreases the quality of communication process. Noise can be present at any stage of communication processes.

Hall Effect Sensor


The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and to an applied magnetic field
perpendicular to the current. It was discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879. For clarity, the original effect is sometimes called the ordinary Hall effect to distinguish it from other “Hall effects” which have different physical mechanisms. The Hall coefficient is defined as the ratio of the induced electric field to the product of the current density and the applied magnetic field. It is a characteristic of the material from which the conductor is made, since its value depends on the type, number, and properties of the charge carriers that constitute the current.

A Hall effect sensor is a device that is used to measure the magnitude of a magnetic field. Its
output voltage is directly proportional to the magnetic field strength through it. Hall effect sensors are used for proximity sensing, positioning, speed detection, and current sensing applications. A Hall effect sensor is a transducer that varies its output voltage in response to a magnetic field. Hall effect sensors are used for proximity switching, positioning, speed detection, and current sensing applications.


Hall Effect Sensors consist basically of a thin piece of rectangular p-type semiconductor material such as gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium antimonide (InSb) or indium arsenide (InAs) passing a continuous current through itself. When the device is placed within a magnetic
field, the magnetic flux lines exert a force on the semiconductor material which deflects the charge carriers, electrons and holes, to either side of the semiconductor slab. This movement of charge carriers is a result of the magnetic force they experience passing through the
semiconductor material.

Hall Effect Sensor

As these electrons and holes move side wards a potential difference isproduced between the two sides of the semiconductor material by the build-up of these charge carriers. Then the movement of electrons through the semiconductor material is affected by the presence of an
external magnetic field which is at right angles to it and this effect is greater in a flat rectangular shaped material. The effect of generating a measurable voltage by using a magnetic field is called the Hall Effect after Edwin Hall who discovered it back in the 1870’s with the basic physical principle underlying the Hall effect being Lorentz force. To generate a potential difference across the device the magnetic flux lines must be perpendicular, (90 degree) to the flow of currentand be of the correct polarity, generally a south pole.

The Hall effect provides information regarding the type of magnetic pole and magnitude of the magnetic field. For example, a south pole would cause the device to produce a voltage output while a north pole would have no effect. Generally, Hall Effect sensors and switches are designed to be in the “OFF”, (open).

Advantages of Hall Effect Sensor:

  • Hall Effect sensors are not affected by ambient conditions, such as dust, humidity, and vibrations and are due to are insensitive to some ambient conditions based on the principle that these sensors display a constant flow of an electrical current making their characteristics constant over time.
  • Hall Effect sensors do not have contact with neighboring mechanical parts, making these sensors strong and sensitive enough to detect movement. These sensors do not wear over time thus maintain quality and unlimited use.
  • Hall Effect sensors are built from semiconductor material that display low carrier density, hence conductivity is smaller and their voltage is larger.
  • Hall Effect sensors depends on carrier mobility, which eliminates any perturbations due to surface elements; thus, making these conductors reproducible and highly reliable.
  • Production of an output voltage signal independent of the rate of the detected field.

Disadvantages of Hall Effect Sensor:

  • The Hall Effect sensor is not capable of measuring a current flow at a distance greater than 10 cm; however, use of a magnet strong enough to generate a magnetic field wide enough may make this possible.
  • Hall Effect sensors work on the principle of a magnetic field, making it possible for external magnetic fields to interfere with this and bias the measurement of a current flow.
  • Temperature affects the electrical resistance of the element and the mobility of majority carriers and also the sensitivity of Hall Effect sensors.
  • Even with well-centered electrodes, the offset voltage still presents as an output voltage in the absence of a magnetic field.
  • An offset voltage occurs when there are physical inaccuracies and material nonuniformities. It can be as high as 100 mV for a 12V source. To solve this problem, an additional control electrode would need to be added and through this a necessary current can be injected to obtain a null output when no magnetic field is present.

Applications of Hall Effect Sensor:

Hall Effect sensors are considered as magnetic sensors with a wide range of applications. Some of the most popular and effective ways of utilizing Hall effect sensing devices are listed below for both analog and digital output sensors. Analog output sensor applications include:

  • Current sensing
  • Variable speed drives
  • Motor control protection/indicators
  • Power supply sensing
  • Motion sensing
  • Diaphragm pressure gage
  • Flow meters
  • Direct current electricity
  • Encoded switches
  • Rotary encoders

Digital output sensor applications include:

  • Wireless communication
  • Pressure sensors
  • Proximity sensors
  • Flow sensors
  • Valve position sensors
  • Lens position sensors
  • Shaft position sensors Summary

Thermal Imaging


Thermal imaging is the technique of using the heat given off by an object to produce an image of it or to locate it.First developed for military purposes in the late 1950s and 1960s by Texas Instruments, Hughes Aircraft and Honeywell. In recent times it is being used in firefighting, law enforcement, industrial applications, security, transportation, medical and many other industries.

It is the technique of using the heat given off by an object to producean image of it. Works in environments without any ambient light and can penetrate obscurants such as smoke, fog and haze. Normally grey scale in nature: black objects are cold, white objects are hot and the depth of grey indicates variations between the two. Some thermal cameras, however, add color to images to help users identify objects at different temperatures. An image generated from a Thermal Imaging Camera. The persons skin (as a heat source) is shown as ‘white hot’ whilst the background (which is cold) is shown as black.

Thermal Imaging Camera: A thermal imaging camera records the intensity of radiation in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum and converts it to a visible image.

Thermal Imaging Camera, Thermal Image, Spectrum

Working of Thermal Imaging Camera:

A thermal imaging camera consists of five components: an optic system, detector, amplifier, signal processing and display.

All objects emit infrared energy, known as a heat signature. An infrared camera (also known as a thermal imager) detects and measures the infrared energy of objects. The camera converts that infrared data into an electronic image that shows the apparent surface temperature of the object being measured.

Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame and the output may be either an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image.

An infrared camera contains an optical system that focuses infrared energy onto a special detector chip (sensor array) that contains thousands of detector pixels arranged in a grid.

Each pixel in the sensor array reacts to the infrared energy focused on it and produces an electronic signal. The camera processor takes the signal from each pixel and applies a mathematical calculation to it to create a color map of the apparent temperature of the object. Each temperature value is assigned a different color. The resulting matrix of colors is sent to memory and to the camera’s display as a temperature picture (thermal image) of that object.

Many infrared cameras also include a visible light camera that automatically captures a standard digital image with each pull of the trigger. By blending these images it is easier to correlate problem areas in your infrared image with the actual equipment or area you are inspecting.

Types of Thermal Imaging Cameras:

COOLED THERMAL IMAGER: Cooled detectors are typically contained in a vacuum-sealed case and cryogenically cooled. Cooling is necessary for the operation of the semiconductor materials used else they would be blinded by their own radiation. Cooled infrared cameras provide superior image quality. Bulky and expensive to produce and run. Cooling is power-hungry and time consuming hence the camera needs time to cool down before it can begin working again.

UNCOOLED THERMAL IMAGER: Un-cooled detectors use a sensor operating at ambient temperature or a sensor stabilized at room temperature using control elements. Resolution and image quality tend to be lower than cooled detectors. Smaller and less costly to produce and run. Fast operation and consumes less power.

Components of Thermal Imaging Camera:

  1. An optic system
    • Lens
  2. Detector
    • Cooled Detector
    • Uncooled Detector
  3. Amplifier
  4. Signal processor
  5. Display
    • Standard Video Monitor

Thermal Imaging Applications:

  1. Industrial Applications
  2. Medicine Applications
  3. Security Applications
  4. Building Constructions
  5. Night Vision

Linear Variable Differential Transformer(LVDT)


It is a common type of electromechanical transducer that can convert the rectilinear motion of an object to which it is coupled mechanically into a corresponding electrical signal. A LVDT linear position sensors are readily available that can measure movements as small as a few millionths of an inch up to several inches, but are also capable of measuring positions up to ±30 inches (±0.762 meter). Hence, a LVDT is a linear position sensor with a proportional analog output.


LVDT is a transformer consisting of one primary winding P and two secondary winding S1 & S2 mounted on a cylindrical former. The two secondary winding have equal number of turns and placed identically on either side of the primary winding.

Construction of LVDT

A movable soft iron core is placed inside the former. Actually the movable core is made of nickel iron with hydrogen annealed. Hydrogen annealing is done to eliminate harmonics, residual voltage of core and thus provides high sensitivity. The movable core also is laminated in order to reduce eddy current loss. The assembly of laminated core is placed in a cylindrical steel housing and end lids are provided for electromagnetic and electrostatic shielding. The displacement to be measured is attached to this movable soft iron core.

Working of LVDT:

Since the primary winding of Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) is supplied with AC supply, it produces an alternating magnetic flux in the core which in turn link with the secondary winding S1 and S2 to produce emf due to transformer action.

Electrical Equivalent circuit of LVDT

Let us assume that the emf produced in secondary winding S1 is Es1 and that in S2 is Es2. The magnitude of Es1 and Es2 will depend upon the magnitude of rate of change of flux (dØ / dt) as per the Faraday’s Law. The lower the value of ‘dt’, the more will be the emf induced.
But lower value of ‘dt’ means that core is moving faster. Thus LVDT- Working Principle: we can say that the more is the movement of core, the greater will be the magnitude of emf induced in secondary windings.

To get a single output voltage from the Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT), both the secondary winding are connected in series but in phase opposition. Due to this connection, the net output voltage E0 of the LVDT is given as below.
E0 = Es1 – Es2
Since the secondary windings of LVDT are identical and placed symmetrically on either side of core, therefore under normal position the flux linkage of both the secondary winding S1 & S2 will be same.
This means Es1 = Es2 and hence net output voltage E0 of LVDT = 0. This position of soft iron core is called NULL position. Thus NULL position of Linear Variable Differential Transformer is the normal position of movable core where the net output voltage is zero. Now, as the core can either be moved toward right or left to the null position. Let us now consider such movement of core under two cases.

secondary winding are connected in series but in phase opposition

Case-1: Core is moved left to the NULL position
When core of LVDT is moved to the left of the NULL position ‘O’ as shown in figure above, the flux linkage of secondary winding S1 will become more than that of winding S2. This means the emf induced in winding S1 will be more than S . Hence E > S2. Es1 Es2 and net output voltage,
E0 = (Es1 – Es2) = Positive.
This means that the output voltage E0 will be in phase with the primary voltage.

Case-2: Core is moved right to the NULL position
When the core of LVDT is moved toward right of NULL position the emf induced in secondary winding S2 will be more than that of S1. This means Es2 > Es1 and hence net output voltage,
E0 = (Es1 – Es2) = negative.
This means that the output voltage of LVDT will be in phase opposition (180 degree out of phase) with the primary voltage.

Applications of LVDT:

There are various applications of LVDT:

  1. LVDT is used in those applications where displacement ranging from fraction of a mm to few
    cm. As a primary transducer, it converts the mechanical displacement into electrical signal.
  2. The LVDT sensor works as the main transducer, and that changes dislocation to electrical signalstraight.
  3. This transducer can also work as a secondary transducer.
  4. LVDT is used to measure the weight, force and also pressure.
  5. Some of these transducers are used to calculate the pressure and load.
  6. LVDT’s are mostly used in industries as well as servomechanisms.
  7. Other applications like power turbines, hydraulics, automation, aircraft, and satellites.

Universal Motor


A Universal motor is a type of electrical motor which can run on DC supply or single phase AC supply of same voltage with similar characteristics are called as Universal motor.  Universal motors are series-wound (i.e. the armature and field windings are in series), due to which high torque is produced and they can run at high speed (about 3500rpm). These motors run at a higher speed on DC supply than they run on AC supply of the same voltage. This is due to the reactance voltage drop that is present only in AC and not in DC.

Connstruction of Universal Motor:

In Universal Motor, some modification are done which lets it run on AC supply as well as on DC supply. However, the construction is similar to that of Series Wound DC motor.

Construction of Universal Motor

It consists of a stator on which the field poles are mounted. Field coils are wound around the field poles. Both the stator field circuit and armature of a universal motor are laminated. Lamination is necessary to reduce the eddy currents that are produced while operating on AC.

The rotary armature is of wound type having straight or skewed slots and commutator with brushes resting on it. The commutation on AC is poorer than that for DC because of the current induced in the armature coils. Hence, the brushes which are used in this motor have high resistance.

It is manufactured in two types:

  • Non-Compensated Type (Low H.P.)- The Non-compensated type has two poles, having entire magnetic path laminated. Armature is of Wound type.
  • Compensated Type (High H.P.)- The Compensated type has distributed field winding consisting of main field winding and compensating winding.
Compensated Type Universal Motor

Working of Universal Motor:

When Universal motor is fed with a DC supply, it works as a DC series motor. In this case, when the current flows in the field winding, it produces an electromagnetic field. The same current also flows in the armature conductors. When a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a mechanical force. This mechanical force causes the rotor to rotate. Fleming’s Left-hand rule gives us the direction of this force.

When Universal motor is fed with AC supply, a unidirectional torque is produced. This is because the armature winding and the field winding are connected in series and are in the same phase. Hence, when the polarity of the AC changes, the direction of the current in the armature and the field winding also changes. The direction of the magnetic field and the direction of armature current reverse so that the direction of force experienced by armature conductors remains the same. Hence, whether AC or DC supply is supplied, universal motors work on the same principle that DC series motors work on.

Properties of Universal Motor:

  • They run at high speed.
  • They have high starting torque.
  • They have Compact size and are lightweight.
  • They are noisy because of the commutator and brushes.
  • The efficiency of universal ranges from 30% for small motors to 75% for large motors.

Speed-Load Characteristic of Universal Motor:

Application of Universal Motor:

Universal motors are used in applications where high speed and good speed control is necessary. The various applications for which universal motor is used are:

  • Universal Motors are used in table fans, hairdryers and grinders.
  • They are used in portable drill machines.
  • They are used in polishers, blowers and kitchen appliances.

Three-Phase AC Induction Motor- Construction and its Working

What is 3-phase Induction Motor?

An electrical motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. For AC Supply, the most widely used motor is a three phase induction motor because these types of motor does not require a starter and have various other advantages to them. These types of motor are also known as Self-Starting Induction Motor.


There are only two main parts of induction motor:

  • Stator- It is stationary part of the motor and is made up of silicon steel stampings i.e. thin sheets and these stampings are slotted. These slots are formed on inner side of stator. In, these slots a three phase winding is accommodated, the winding may be connected in star or delta. The three ends of this winding are brought out from terminal box, where three phase AC supply is connected.
Diagram of Three Phase Induction Motor
  • Rotor- It is the moving part of the induction motor. There are two types of induction motors present based on construction of rotor:
  • Squirrel Cage type rotor: This is simples and most rugged construction. The rotor consist of a cylindrical laminated core with skewed rotor slots. The rotor conductors which are thick copper rods are placed in these slots and welded to end rings. The rotor conductors are permanently short circuited and hence an external resistance can’t be added in between. The rotor body is made up of silicon steel stampings. The Construction of this rotor looks like cage of squirrel.
Squirrel Cage Rotor
  • Wounded Type Rotor with Slip Rings: In this type of induction motor, the rotor is wound for same number of poles as that on the stator. The rotor is made up of laminations with slots on the outer periphery in which a three phase rotor winding is placed in star connection. The remaining three terminals are brought out and connected to slip rings mounted on the shaft. The slip rings are made up of copper or phosphor bronze and has three brushes resting on them. The external connection and additional resistance can be added at brushes.When running under normal conditions, the slip rings are short circuited by a metal collar which is pushed along shaft and brushes are lifted from slip ring to avoid friction and mechanical losses. This type of rotor is also called as slip ring type rotor because of use of slip rings in it.
Slip-Ring Rotor

Working of Three Phase Induction Motor:

The stator of the motor consists of overlapping winding offset by an electrical angle of 120o. When we connect the primary winding, or the stator to a 3 phase AC source, it establishes a rotating magnetic field which rotates at the synchronous speed.

Production of Torque

Let, us consider a rotor is stationary and the rotor conductors are present on it and the direction of magnetic field be clockwise. A magnetic field moving clockwise is equivalent to a conductor moving in anti clockwise direction in a stationary field. Now, according to Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction, a voltage will be induced in the conductor and a current will start to flow in the rotor conductors.

By right-hand rule the direction of induced current is downwards as shown in above figure b. Now the current flowing in rotor conductors produces its own magnetic field due to which a force starts acting on the rotor conductors, whose direction can be determined by using left-hand rule. Now, we see that the direction of force is in the same direction as that of the rotating magnetic field i.e. clockwise.

Now, since the rotor conductors are present in slots rotor, the force acts in tangential direction to the rotor and a torque is developed. Now, similarly the torque is developed on all the rotor conductors in same direction. And now since the rotor is free to move it starts moving in the clockwise direction. Hence, the three phase induction motor is self starting. The speed of motor can be varied by increasing or decreasing supply current and various other methods.

Some of the advantages like low cost, rugged design less complex, and easy to maintain AC motors results in many of the industrial operations are performed with the use of AC machine.

DC Generator- Construction and Its Working

What is a DC Generator?

DC machines can be classified into two types called as DC Motor and DC Generator. A DC generator is an electrical machine which converts mechanical energy into electricity or electrical energy. When conductor slashes magnetic flux, an emf is generated, According to Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction. A DC generator can also be used as a DC motor without changing its construction. The main advantage of DC Generator is its simple construction and design.

Construction of DC Generator:

Different parts of DC Generator are:

Construction of DC Generator
  • Armature or Rotor: Rotor is a rotating part of DC generator that rotates on its axis. A rotor in a DC machine includes slotted iron laminations with slots that are stacked to shape a cylindrical armature core. The function of the lamination is to decrease the loss caused due to Eddy Current.
  • Field Coil or Stator: It is a non-moving part of DC generator, it provide magnetic fields where the coil spins. It includes two magnets with opposite polarity facing each other.
  • Yoke: It is an outer frame and it provides mechanical strength to whole assembly of motor. It is made up of cast iron or steel.
  • Pole Shoe: It enlarges region of pole, so that the flux can be spread out within the air-gap as well as extra flux can be passed through the air space toward armature. The materials used to build pole shoe is cast iron or steel.
  • Pole: It is an electromagnet and the field winding is wounded on pole and are connected either in series or in parallel with the armature winding. When the field winding is energized then the pole gives magnetic flux. The materials used for this are cast steel, cast iron.
  • Commutator: Commutator is present on Shaft of the machine, commutator works like a rectifier that changes AC voltage to DC voltage within the armature winding. It is designed with a copper segment.
  • Brushes: The brushes of a DC motor are made with graphite and carbon structure. Its function is to transfer the current from coil to load connected in the circuit of electric generator.

Working of DC Generator

The Working principle of DC Generator is that, when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a varying magnetic field, an emf is induced in the conductor, according to Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction.

Working of DC Generator

Now, according to Fleming’s right-hand rule, the direction of the induced current changes when the direction of motion of the conductor changes. For Example, Let us consider an armature rotating clockwise and a conductor at the left moving upwards. When the armature completes a half rotation, the direction of the motion of the conductor will be reversed downward. Hence, the direction of the current in every armature will be alternating. But with a split ring commutator, connections of the armature conductors get reversed when a current reversal occurs. Hence, we get unidirectional current or direct current at the terminals.

The emf equation of the DC generator is given by the equation:

Eg= PϕZN/60A


Z is the total number of armature conductor,

P is the number of poles in a generator,

A is the number of parallel lanes within the armature,

N is the rotation of armature in rpm,

E is the induced emf in any parallel lane within the armature,

Eg is the generated emf in any one of the parallel lane,

N/60 is the number of turns per second.

Also, the input power is not fully transformed into output power, which is due to losses associated with the DC Generator. There are mainly four type losses which are Hysteresis Loss, Eddy Current Loss, Iron-Core Loss, Copper Loss.

Applications of DC Generators:

Applications of DC Generator are:

  • The separately excited type DC generators are used for power and lighting purposes.
  • The series DC generator is used in arc lamps for lighting, stable current generator and booster.
  • DC generators are used to reimburse the voltage drop within Feeders.
  • DC generators are used to provide a power supply for hostels, lodges, offices, etc.

DC Motor- Construction and its Working

What is a DC Motor?

DC machines can be classified into two types called as DC Motor and DC Generator. An Electrical Motor is a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. In a DC motor, we supply it with direct current which is then converted into mechanical rotation or energy. DC motor was invented in 1886 by William Sturgeon. There are a lot of applications of DC motor like fans, elevator, cranes, etc. A DC motor can run on DC supply as well as single phase AC supply.

Construction of DC Motor 

Construction Of DC Motor

Different parts of DC Motor are:

  • Armature or Rotor: The armature of a DC motor is a rotating part that rotates on its axis. It is a cylinder of magnetic laminations that are insulated from one another. The armature is perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder and is separated from the field coil by an air gap.
  • Field Coil or Stator: It is a non-moving part on which winding is wound to produce a magnetic field. This electromagnet has a cylindrical cavity between its poles.
  • Yoke: It is an outer frame and it provides mechanical strength to whole assembly of motor. It is made up of cast iron or steel.
  • Pole Shoe: It enlarges region of pole, so that the flux can be spread out within the air-gap as well as extra flux can be passed through the air space toward armature. The materials used to build pole shoe is cast iron or steel.
  • Pole: It is an electromagnet and the field winding is wounded on pole. Whenever field winding is energized then the pole gives magnetic flux. The materials used for this are cast steel, cast iron. It can be built with the annealed steel laminations for reducing the power drop because of the eddy currents.
  • Commutator: It is a cylindrical structure that is made of copper segments stacked together but insulated from each other. The primary function of a commutator is to supply electrical current to the armature winding. It helps in producing steady rotating torque.
  • Brushes: The brushes of a DC motor are made with graphite and carbon structure. These brushes conduct electric current from the external circuit and provide it to the rotating commutator.

Working of DC Motor

The Working principle of DC motor is, when kept in a magnetic field, a current-carrying conductor gains torque and develops a tendency to move. So, when electric fields and magnetic fields interact, a mechanical force arises. This is the principle on which the DC motors work.

Production of torque in a DC Motor

A magnetic field arises in the air gap when the field coil of the DC motor is energised. The created magnetic field is in the direction of the radii of the armature. The magnetic field enters the armature from the North Pole side of the field coil and “exits” the armature from the field coil’s South Pole side. The conductors located on the other pole are subjected to a force of the same intensity but in the opposite direction. These two opposing forces create a torque that causes the motor armature to rotate.

Applications of DC Motor:

There are various applications for which DC motor is used:

  • Lathe Machine
  • Fans
  • Machine tools
  • Drilling Machine
  • Conveyors
  • Cranes
  • Elevators, etc.

In Ceiling Fans, DC motor fans are preferred because they are less nisy and consume less energy than the AC motor fans. They alllso have different speed options to them.

C++ Programming Language

CPP (also referred as C++) is a general-purpose & cross-platform programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979, which was developed as an improved/enhanced and more powerful version of the C programming language which brings the OPPS (Object Oriented Programming) feature. It is a compiled language. We can also say that C++ is the superset language of C.

It is a middle-level language which facilitates us form programming drivers, kernels (low-level) to even higher-level applications like games, GUI’s, desktop apps etc.

C++ supports all the syntax that is supported by C language and also it has its own syntax which is more simplified as compared to C. This Language was udated three major times in its history which was in 2011, 2014 and 2017 to C++11, C++14 and C++17.

For Example a ‘Hello World’ code for C++ programming language loolks like this:

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

int main() {

  cout << “Hello World!”;

  return 0;


OUTPUT: Hello World!

The following are the features and important points to note about C++:

  • C++ is a simple language in a sense that programs can be broken down into logical units and parts, has a rich library support. Its STL library provides a rich variety of predefined functions which are very easy to implement as compared to other languages.
  • C++ programs compiled on a Operating System will not run on other Operating System. But it is independent of the machine configuration.
  • It is a mid-level language because we can do lower-level programming as well as higher level programming.
  • C++ has higher speed of execution as compared to any other language except C because C is the fastest executable language.
  • It can be used to develop applications that can be used on mutiple platforms.
  • It is one of the most important feature of any language. It helps C++ to make maintainable and extensible programs and also we can build large scale applications.
  • C++ provides us pointer support which aids users to directly manipulate storage address. It is very helpful in Low-level programming.
  • It has support of some awesome build-in libraries support like the STL (Standard Template Library), and also 3rd party library support like the boost libraries for fast development.
  • C++ is almost similar to Java and C#, which makes it easier for programmers to switch between languages.
  • Many different IDE have been developed for this language which includes a lot of features.
  • The programmers base of C++ is large, since it is a very old language. Hence, a user facing any problem in this language can get support or find problem to its solutuion easily.

Applications of the C++ Language:

  • Operating Systems and Systems Programming. Example: Linux kernel based Operating Systems.
  • Browsers. For Example: Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox.
  • Graphics Designing applications and Gaming engines like Photoshop, Unreal-Engine etc.
  • Database Engines like MySQL, MongoBD, Redis etc.
  • Cloud/Distributed Systems.

Insulated Electrical Cables- Construction and their Types


Electrical Cables are the cables which are used in Electrical power systems for transmission and distribution of electric power and for many other purposes. Insulated Cables are the type of cables which are insulated with help of different type of materials, but what is a cable? A cable can be a single thick conductor wire which is called as Single Strand Cable or a thick wire made up by using multiple strands of seperate thin wire which is called as Multiple Strand Wire or Cable, where the material of these wires are metals like Copper, aluminium or steel or of mixed materials like ACSR (Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced Cable). Similarly, insulation on cable can also be made up of various types of materials like rubber, PVC (poly vinyl chloride), etc.

These insulated cables are used for transferring from electrical power from one electrical/electronic device to another electrical/electronic device or we can say that these insulated cables connect various circuits with each other in the power system. These cables connect source of generation of electricity with the various loads present.

The transmission or distribution of electrical power is done by help of either overhead cables or underground cables. Usually, most of the transmission and distribution is done by overhead cables but places which are highly populated, the electrical distribution in such places is done by using underground cables.

General Construction of cables:

  • Conductor: The conductor present may be single conductor or more than one conductors. The conductors are stranded in order to provide flexibility to the cable. Some examples of the material of the conductor are ACSR (Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced), Cadmium Copper Conductor, Steel Cored Copper Conductor, etc.
  • Insulation: Each conductor is covered with proper insulation of right thickness. The insulating materials commonly used are impregnated paper, vulcanized bitumen, varnished cambric, etc.
  • Inner Sheath: It is also called as lead sheath or metallic sheath. As the sheath used is usually used is made up of aluminium or lead. This provide mechanical strength and restricts the interaction of insulation with moisture or any other reactive gas.
  • Bedding: It consist of paper tape compounded with fibrous material like jute strands. its purpose is to restrict moisture and protect metallic sheath from corrosion. It also protect sheath from mechanical injury.
  • Armouring: This is made up of layers of galvanized steel which provides mechanical strength and prevents mechanical damage.
  • Outer Sheath or Serving: This the last layer of the cable. It is layer made up of fibrous material like jute clothing, its main purpose is to protect the wire from the atmospheric conditions.

Different Types of Cables:

There are many different types of Electrical cables which each serve a different purpose, Some of these cables are:

Low Tension Cable: These cables are used for voltage levels upto 6.6kV. Paper is used as insulatuion in these type of cables. Over this paper insulation another insulation of impregnated paper is provided after that lead sheath, bedding, aromouring and serving are provided.

Single Core LT Cable

Medium and High Tension Cable: These are Three core cables i.e. multi core cables and are used for voltage leel upto 66kV. It is of two types, belted cables and screened type cables. The screened type cables are further divided into H-type Cables and S-L (Seperate Lead) type Cables.

Belted cables: These cables are used for voltage level up to 11kV. The cores are not circular in shape and insulation present is of impregnated paper and these cores are belted together with help of paper belt. Gaps are filled with fibrous material like jute and then it is covered with sheath and other things.

Screened type cables: These cables are used for voltage levels upto 22kV – 33kV In H-type cable there is no paper belt used and each conductor is insulated with paper covered with metallic screen of aluminium foil. In Sl- type, each core is first insulated with impregnated paper and then with separate lead sheath.

Super Tension Cable: These are used for voltage levels upto 132kV to 275kV. It is also of two types:

Oil filled Cable: In this the channes or ducts are provided within or adjacent to the cores through which oil under pressure is circulated. It has concentric stranded conductor, built around a hollow cylicndrical steel spiral core. This hollow core acts as channel for oil.

OIl filled Cables

Gas Pressure Cable: In this a inert gas like nitrogen at high pressure (12-15atm) is introduced. There is no bedding and serving in this cable. The working power factor of these type of cables are high.

Gas Pressure Cable


A Transformer is an electrical device which works on principle of Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction. It transfers electrical power from one circuit to the other circuit by electromagnetic induction. It is a passive electrical device. It used for increasing low AC voltages at high current (called as step-up transformer) or decreasing high AC voltages at low current (called as step-down transformer), which is required for transmission and distribution of electricity.

Parts of Transformer:

A transformer has three main parts:

  • Primary Winding: It is connected to an external AC source and its purpose is to produce magnetic flux inside of transformer.
  • Secondary Winding: The flux produced by primary winding passes through the core and gets linked with the secondary winding. This winding is also present on the same core and provides the output of the transformer.
  • Magnetic Core: The flux produced by the primary winding, that will pass through this low reluctance path linked with secondary winding and create a closed magnetic circuit.

How does a Transformer work?

In a transformer there are two Windings (coils) which are called as ‘primary coil’ and ‘secondary coil’ of transformer. These coils are wound up on a soft iron core on the two opposite sides. So, when the AC voltage is connected with primary winding, an alternating flux is produced inside of transformer and surrounds the primary winding. Now if another coil is brought closer to this primary coil, the continuously changing flux will get linked with the coil and induce a voltage in it according to Faraday Law of Electromagnetic Induction and the current will flow in the circuit attached to the winding. The voltage may be higher or lower than supplied voltage depending upon the number of turns of coils. The winding which gives the output voltage due to voltage induced in it is known as the ‘secondary winding’ and the winding in which the AC voltage is provided is called ‘primary winding’.

Now, increase or decrease in voltage by transformer depends upon the number of turns present in secondary and primary winding. If there are more turns on the primary coil than the secondary coil than the voltage will decrease, which means transformer will work as a step down transformer and if there are less turns on the primary coil than the secondary coil than the voltage will increase, which means the transformer will work as a step up transformer.

Now, both these winding are wound up on a same magnetic core which is usually of soft iron. This is done because in open air very little flux will get linked with secondary winding and the current induced will be very small. That’s why we use magnetic core or soft iron core, whose purpose is to provide a low reluctance path, through which the maximum amount of flux produced by the primary winding is passed through and linked with the secondary winding.

Some important formulae related to transformer are,

The transformer turns ratio is the number of turns of the primary winding divided by the number of turns of the secondary coil. Denoted by K.

No. of turns in primary coil = Np                       No. of turns in secondary coil = Ns

Voltage in primary coil = Vp                                     Voltage in secondary coil = Vs

                                                       Np/Ns = Vp/Vs = Is/Ip K

Emf Equation of Transformer:

Erms = 4.44fNΦmax where,

f = flux frequency in Hz = ω/2π,

N= Number of turns in winding

Φmax = Maximum flux

Erms= RMS value of EMF.

What is an ipo?

IPO (Initial Public Offering) is a process by which a private company whose shares are only held by promoters goes public and offers its shares to public for holding or trading purposes for the first time. The shares get listed on stock exchanges of our country which are NSE (National Stock Exchange) or BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange).

Why does a company offers a IPO?

Every company needs money, IPO’s are usually offered when a huge amount of money is required by company because a lot of money is raised through an IPO. It may be for expansion of the company, repayment of debt, or for meeting general corporate purposes or any other reason. Getting listed on stock exchanges also increases liquidity, this opens up the path for stock options and attract traders. A public company can always issue more stocks. This makes acquisitions and mergers easy as the stocks can be issued as a part of the deal.

How does a company offer an IPO?

Companies hire investment banks to market, create demand, and set the IPO price and date, and more. The RDHP (red herring prospectus) is produced and submitted along with other documents, it is then verified by SEBI (Security and Exchange board of India). The RDHP file is most important document for retail investors and is a must read before applying for the IPO. A RDHP document contains all information about company like its profit, revenue, future plans, debt, etc.

Should we invest in the IPO?

Deciding for applying for an IPO of a new company is pretty much risky. Well, equity market itself is very much risky. So, how will be choose the right IPO for us, which will give us profit.

Since, there is no track record of past as company is going to list for first time. We can conduct background check on company. IPO prices usually fall after listing in gains, this is because of lock up period. A lockup period is period of time in which company executive and investors are not allowed to sell their shares, after end of lock-up period the share prices experience drops. Also, we can check up the valuations of the company like, on what P/E ratio they are trying to get listed, what is their segment and how much is their share in that segment market, who are its competitors? And etc. Do your own research on IPO but one should also consider asking his financial advisor or listening to the reviews of experts on things and one should consider their risk taking capacity and their risk to reward ratio.

How to apply for an IPO?

So, first of all if we want to apply for an IPO we need to have a demat account. Demat account is an account in which the shares purchased by an investor are held. One can open a demat account very easily as there are a lot of discount brokers present like Zerodha, Upstox, etc. The whole process of account opening is very easy and hassle free and an account can be opened within few minutes. Now, we can apply for the IPO via these apps or by Internet Banking through banks. If you use broker you need to pay through UPI, and if you apply via net banking the amount is blocked by bank in your account.


Picking the right IPO poses a bit of a challenge to investor, but if one is able to successfully overcome it, IPOs could be very rewarding and can give you great returns. So, stay alert, stay aware and Happy Investing!!!

What are Mutual funds? Are they safe way of investing?

In this new era, it is very important for an individual to look up for opportunities to expand himself in every aspect. One of these aspects of one’s life is money, which plays an important role in one’s life. Money, is something which is required by everyone, because in this world in which we are living most of the exchange of commodities, goods and services are provided by the exchange of money. Hence, we know that growth of our money is very important as we ourselves grow in our lives.

But, the question arises here, what most of the people in our country do? We Indians have mentality to grow our knowledge, earn a good paying job and seek for more growth in job. But what do we do with the money we get as our salaries? We keep that in bank account for eternities or we just spend it on buying some expensive stuffs, which are not even required by an individual, Or if investment comes in one’s mind he simply goes to bank and creates an F.D. (Fixed Deposit) of a particular amount, which then again have very low rate of returns (about 5%-6%). We Indians have mentality to let ourselves work but not let our money work, we are simply afraid of doing or trying something new especially when money is involved and we take the route what most of the people of our country take and end up doing nothing.

There are lot of ways of investing in this new area, there is Stock Market, Crypto Currencies, Corporate and Gold Bonds, etc. Now, here we are going to discuss about one such way of investing our money which requires only a little knowledge for investors to have and can earn great returns for its investors. One of the ways of Investment we will be discussing is Mutual Funds.

A Mutual Funds is a type of investment trust which collects money from the investors who share common interest and are looking for investment in common investment classes, these are generally managed by an industry expert, which are hired by the mutual fund houses. Mutual Fund House are the companies which have various types of investment plans in various asset classes like equity, debt, gold, money market, liquid, hybrid, foreign investment, etc. There are various schemes offered by a Mutual Fund House and we can invest in any of the asset class we would like to acquire. The only thing to keep in mind is to research properly about funds a person is going to invest in and check with our risk to reward ratio like if it is an equity fund, then what type of shares the fund is going to invest, if it is debt fund, then to which type of companies debt will be given. If we are going to invest in a particular fund we have to look for risks the fund carries, the amount which we are going to invest and amount of returns or reward which we may get by investing in that fund. Mutual Funds are usually for Long-term investors who are less bothered about doing research on companies and want to invest their extra capital somewhere which is not required by them in short term and they can keep invested in it for years. In, Simple words Mutual fund is way of hiring an expert who does investment for you and manages your portfolio.

Various types of Mutual Funds have various types of returns ranging from more than 100% to as low as 6-8% and also various types of fund have various types risk related with it. The amount of risk basically depends upon the type of investment class a person is invested in. The Mutual Funds activities and transactions are regulated by SEBI and RBI. So, thee is no chance of a scam happening with investors and there money invested will bes safe only risk there is to them is the risk of the asset class, Also, mutual funds are subject to market risks. The types of Mutual fund for different types of investors will be discussed on next time. Till then keep investing, let money make more money and Happy Investing!!!

Importance of ISRO

Why government increased ISRO budget, while the country and Economy of India were facing issues?

Improve Quality of life on Earth.

There was a time when we humans only gathered and hunted,but someone then came up with the idea of agriculture, others might have asked why grow anything when we have so much work to do gathering and hunting, the answer for this is the same as why we need space agencies. The FASAL (Forecasting Agricultural Output using Space, Agro-meteorology and Land based Observations) programme was created by isro under which a centre named Mahalanobis National Crop Forecast Centre (MNCFC) was established in New Delhi in April 2012, which operationally uses space-based observations, at national level, for pre-harvest multiple crop production forecasts of nine field crops. This not only increases the yield but also helps us calculate the perfect time for growing of different crops similarlya weather forecasting satellite Oceansat-2, launched on September 23, 2009 facilitates the study of ocean productivity, detection of algal blooms, sustainable fisheries management, etc. The satellite also provides data for forecasting of sea state, sea surface wind vector, coastal climate and weather. The cost of this mission is nearly equal to feed all of our country for roughly 8 days, but with the data we get in returnt for this amount we are giving our farmers the power to feed a lot more people for decades.

Economy and Developing new Gadgets

Out of the 13,949 crore rs. ISRO get, they are not just putting that much money in a rocket and launching it to mars or moon, most of this money actually goes to the salaries to the most skilled workers and innovative minds of the country. Some might say that why not leave this work on private space agencies like Skyroot Aerospace Private Limited or international
ones like spaceX? Private agencies are already doing their work but they are and will always be interested in profitable programes and will never take interese in crop or soil or weather forecasts. Through isro we also have developed many new gadgets and even robots like the latest one Vyommitra which will be soon travelling to space in Gaganyaan, a crewed orbital spacecraft.


This is the most important one even though it is soft. We have sent men to the moon and rovers to the mars not because its a quick payoff anyone can exploit but because as humans we have a list of questions we are willing to find answers to like how big is the space? Is there life anywhere other than earth? How did life begin? or how was the solar system born? Also isnt it facinating to think that one day one us will be the first one to set foot on mars like Neil Armstrong did on the moon? It could be anyone including u and me, what we need to do is just believe in ourselves and our scientists and engineers working day and night just so we can live a better life then our ancestors did.

Cyber Attack

We are living in a digital era and now a days, almost everyone use computer and internet. Due to most of things are easily accessible online to us and we can perform various tasks digitally, our dependency on digital things has increased vastly, which has led to the increase in illegal computer activity, due to which people who are less aware of how things work in digital world are becoming venerable to such type of crimes. These crimes includes sharing of personal information publically or stealing of money from bank account.

A cyber-attack (which is usually performed by Cyber Criminals) is exploitation of computer systems, technology-dependent organizations and networks. Cyber-attacks use malicious code to alter computer code, logic or data, resulting in consequences that can compromise data of user or organization and lead to cybercrime, like information and identity theft. The people who commit cybercrime are called as Cyber Criminals. They commit such crimes in hope of gathering important data, or generating profits, etc. Cyber Crime is punishable by law in India, According to the IT ACT.

Various types of Cyber Attacks:

Cyber Attack can be classified into two Categories which are:

  • Web Based Attack
  • System Based Attack

Web Based Attack:

These are the attacks which occur on a website or web applications. It can be further classified into following type of attacks:

  • Injection Attack: It is the attack in which some data will be injected into a web application to manipulate the application and fetch the required information. E.g. SQL Injection, code Injection, log Injection, XML Injection etc.
    • SQL Injection – The cybercriminal exploits a vulnerability by inserting a malicious SQL statement in an entry field. The system does not filter the user input correctly for characters in an SQL statement. Criminals use SQL injection on websites or any SQL database.
    • XML Injection – an XML injection is an attack that can corrupt the data. After the user provides input, the system accesses the required data via a query. The problem occurs when the system does not properly scrutinize the input request provided by the user. Criminals can manipulate the query by programming it to suit their needs and can access the information on the database.
  • DNS Spoofing: In this a data is introduced into a DNS resolver’s cache causing the name server to return an incorrect IP address, diverting traffic to the attacker’s computer or any other computer. The DNS spoofing attacks can go on for a long period of time without being detected and can cause serious security issues.
  • Session Hijacking: It is a security attack on a user session over a protected network. Web applications create cookies to store the state and user sessions. By stealing the cookies, an attacker can have access to all of the user data.
  • Phishing: It is a type of attack which attempts to steal sensitive information like user login credentials and credit card number. It occurs when an attacker is masquerading as a trustworthy entity in electronic communication.
  • Denial of Service: It is an attack which meant to make a server or network resource unavailable to the users. It accomplishes this by flooding the target with traffic or sending it information that triggers a crash. It uses the single system and single internet connection to attack a server.
  • Man in the Middle Attack: It is a type of attack that allows an attacker to intercepts the connection between client and server and acts as a bridge between them. Due to this, an attacker will be able to read, insert and modify the data in the intercepted connection.

System Based Attack:

These are the attacks which are intended to compromise a computer or a computer network. Some of the system-based attacks are:

  • Sniffing: Sniffing is similar to eavesdropping. Criminals can do network sniffing with a software application, hardware device, or a combination of the two. Sniffing views all network traffic and it can target a specific protocol, service, or even string of characters such as a login or password.
  • Spoofing: Spoofing is an impersonation attack, and it takes advantage of a trusted relationship between two systems. If two systems accept the authentication accomplished by each other, an individual logged onto one system might not go through an authentication process again to access the other system. An attacker can take advantage of this arrangement by sending a packet to one system that appears to have come from a trusted system. Since the trusted relationship is in place, the targeted system may perform the requested task without authentication.
  • Trojan-Horse: It is a malicious program that occurs unexpected changes to computer setting and unusual activity, even when the computer should be idle. It misleads the user of its true intent. It appears to be a normal application but when opened/executed some malicious code will run in the background.
  • Worm: It is a type of malware whose primary function is to replicate itself to spread to uninfected computers. It works same as the computer virus.
  • Virus: It is a type of malicious software program that spread throughout the computer files without the knowledge of a user. It is a self-replicating malicious computer program that replicates by inserting copies of itself into other computer programs when executed. It can also execute instructions that cause harm to the system.
  • Buffer Overflow: It occurs when data goes beyond the limits of a buffer. Buffers are memory areas allocated to an application. By changing data beyond the boundaries of a buffer, the application accesses memory allocated to other processes. This can lead to a system crash, data compromise, or provide escalation of privileges.
  • Zero Day Attack: Itis a computer attack that tries to exploit software vulnerabilities that are unknown or undisclosed by the software vendor to the public.