Education had for some decades been more focused on pointless mechanical learning and only the ability to repeat and remember knowledge provided in the books. Problem-solving abilities were limited to mathematics and only a few experiments were carried out in the science labs. Today, however, as time is changing learning, more emphasis is given to improving essential skills and thinking that will prepare students for real-world navigation after school.
In past several years, rote memorization and the helps to sustain and repeat information have been the aim of education. Problem-solving was constrained to mathematics, and experimental research occurred in the scientific laboratory. Today, learning is progressing towards building skills that will prepare young people to experience in and beyond the real world.
Expert in critical thinking: G. Randy Kasten claims that lifelong learners can benefit from the opportunity to think critically. It is one skill that separates innovators and followers. The interpretation of critical thinking is not unanimously understood, but Kasten says It’s just the capacity to recognize why things are the way they are, and the possible repercussions of actions. Today’s students have been under a consistent onslaught of information , especially from sources on the internet, friends, parents, and mainstream press, and it quickly becomes clear that they need to learn how to analyse what they see and hear every day, so that they can recognise false ideas and look further than superficial appearances.
According to Lee Watanabe-Crockett on the Global Digital Citizen Foundation blog, critical thinking isn’t always about thinking clearly or coherently — it’s about thinking independently. He says Critical thinking about something implies trying to formulate your own viewpoints and sketching your own inferences, irrespective of outside influence. It’s about analytical discipline, and seeing the links between concepts. For teachers a methodology recommended by Watanabe-Crockett is plainly to start with a question. The problem has to be one that promotes brainstorming and discussion. The solution would include analysis and problem-solving, all of which are closely related to critical thinking.
Knowing what additional data to discard and what to pursue involves mastering the correct use of information, or fluency in information. That is not enough to acquire knowledge. Students must evaluate it to help decide whether or not it is valid, and then apply the data to the question or issue. Another approach Watanabe-Crockett advocates is the use of peer groups. Colleagues can be a great source of knowledge and students can learn problem-solving strategies while working in conjunction. Role play is a technique that can be used by students to practice analytical thinking. Watanabe-Crockett says, Pair students and make them investigate a historical controversy. Ideally, it will include an encounter between two prominent historical figures, and then direct them to determine which character they will want to play. In this dispute, they should each have opposing viewpoints. Their hardest task will be to each propose a solution. Having to study carefully to consider the point of view of both their adversary and their own helps them understand and justify their decisions.
Getting students to think critically particularly considering them set goals. Dividing the process into three parts can be helpful: planning a task, monitoring and reviewing the task, and doing a post-task assessment and reflection.