Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior.

A primary goal of management education is to develop students into managers who can think ahead, exercise good judgment, make ethical decisions, and take into
consideration the implications of their proposed actions.

Organizations are complex systems.
Where is a need to understand how the system operates esp. in a sociotechnical system – humanity and technology.
Human behavior in organizations is
sometimes unpredictable.
Behaviors may come from deep-seated needs, lifetime experiences and personal value systems ,Human behavior in a organization can be partially understood
And Applying the frameworks of behavioral science, management and other disciplines.

There are no perfect solutions to
organizational problems well, Increase the understanding and skills – work relationships can substantially upgraded

An organization is a collection of people
who work together to achieve individual
and organizational goals. Or it can be a consciously coordinated social unit,
composed of two or more people, that
functions on a relatively continuous basis
to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

Organizational behavior is actually the study of human behavior in the workplace,
And the interaction between people and the organization, and the organization itself.

It’s basic goals focuses on the behaviour of people under a variety of even understanding the reason for the same . Managers need to remember that organizational behavior is a tool for human benefit

Organisational behaviour encompasses three broad areas which are mentioned below
1.The Behavior of People in Organisations

2.Organisational Structure

3.Behavior of organization

Anone studying about the importance of organisation and organizational behaviour will get to know it’s major aspects and Develop its skills to function effectively in the workplace. It even leads in the Growth of personality through insight into human behaviour as well as Enhance overall organizational effectiveness.

Thank you.

Consumers Perception towards OTT Platform VS Theatre.

The Internet is rapidly transforming the show business in India. the dimensions and effect of the longer-term use of digital content is very large for the country’s mobile user base, led by the launch of three G and 4 G networks and many subscribers. Audiences are using numerous different technologies to look at films, documentaries, and web series on their smartphone devices. Some examples include Netflix, Amazon Prime, Hotstar and Zee5, which provide movies and other video content through internet. it’s become a challenge to the Movie theater industry. Now that theatres are pack up and film releases are suspended during the national shutdown, cinema owners worry that the universal experience of viewing
movies will eventually change digital platforms, resulting in a dip in viewers
visiting once the screens open again.

Over-the-top (OTT) media platform refers to something sort of a digital video platform which is distributed explicitly to consumers bypassing cable, radio and satellite television channels over the web that sometimes act as distributors of these content. Over the past few years, owing to the increase in internet consumption, the media and entertainment sector has seen a
significant push. The fundamentals of the cinema industry are being redefined.

When it involves OTT platforms, on a mean every user holds minimum of
two OTT platforms, most important advantage of OTT platforms is that buyer’s access plenty of content during a freemium model where OTT platforms offer free content with a selected collection and there would be an incentive to modify to the paying subscription. OTT platforms have allowed users, at
their own convenience, to access a spread of content at low expense.
When it involves Movie theatres, Majority of the viewers choose a movie
once very month Viewers are able to spend 500-1000rupees to observe a movie. Majority of the viewers opting to observe a movie within the theatre when it’s a highly content driven movie. Thus, a change in
consumer watching habits is often seen where theatres were highly
preferred for commercial/big star movies, but now it replaced by content
driven movies. From the info, it is often said that folks prefer watching content mostly in OTT platforms and infrequently in movie theatres. Convenience is that the
biggest reason behind the utilization of over-the-top application. Second
biggest reason is choice of wide selection of content. Third on is availability of content on demand.

The Indian audience’s perception of trends within the Indian media and show business is encouraging. The Indian audience claims that these applications are transforming the Indian media and entertainment sector, and therefore the reasons for these improvements are media
convenience, content efficiency, economical media, and innovative
projects. Research reveals that the longer term of Over-the-Top (OTT)application in India is promising. But certain factors of theatres like Screen size and Sound quality, theatrical experience and ambience can’t be achieved by OTT platforms. So, people will certainly reach bent theatres, but it’ll happen slowly thanks to things, but it can never be completely erased on the existence of OTT platforms. To summarize, the report
suggests that the OTT industry has disrupted the movies industry which
because the industry dynamics changes, both mediums won’t only coexist
but even prosper together.

Thank you.

Caste Atrocities In Contemporary India.

Position related brutality in India has happened and keeps on happening in different structures. As indicated by a report by Common liberties Watch: Unfair and savage, brutal, and debasing
treatment of more than 165 million people in India has been advocated based on standing. Position is drop based and genetic in nature. It is a trademark dictated by one’s introduction to the
world into a specific rank, independent of the confidence rehearsed by the person. Caste signifies a conventional arrangement of unbending social definition into positioned
bunches characterized by drop and occupation. Caste divisions in India overwhelm in lodging, marriage, work, and gender and danger of social exclusion, financial blacklists, and actual violence. eral social connection divisions that are supported through the training.

The Dalits | Still untouchable
Article 46 of the Indian Constitution.
Today, 68 years after Autonomy, as Dalits keep on enduring the worst part of savagery and segregation featured lately by the appalling self destruction of Rohith Vemula, a Ph.D understudy
in the Hyderabad Focal College who hanged himself, accusing his introduction to the world as a “deadly mishap” in a chilling last note-we were
unable to be any further away from what the Constitution had requested from a free and reasonable India

A ghost of self destruction passed by a few Dalit students was frequenting India. Out of 25 students who ended it all just in north India and Hyderabad since 2007, 23 were Dalits. This remembered two
for the lofty All-India Foundation of Clinical
Sciences in New Delhi, and 11 in Hyderabad city alone. Deliberate information doesn’t exist for such suicides, however the issue runs far more
profound than a couple of understudies choosing to take their own lives in the wake of being crushed by the framework. Dalit problem in India peruses like a whole information sheet of misfortunes. As indicated by a 2010 report by the
Public Basic liberties Commission (NHRC) on the Anticipation of Outrages against Booked Ranks, a wrongdoing is carried out against a Dalit like clockwork. Overall, three Dalit ladies are assaulted, two Dalits killed, and two Dalit houses
consumed. As indicated by the NHRC insights set up by K.B. Saxena, a previous extra boss secretary of Bihar, 37% Dalits live underneath the destitution line, 54% are undernourished, 83 for
every 1,000 kids brought into the world in a Dalit family pass on before their first birthday celebration, 12% before their fifth birthday celebration, and 45 percent stay unskilled. The information likewise shows that Dalits are kept from entering the police headquarters in 28% of Indian towns. Dalit kids have been made to sit
independently while eating in 39% government schools. Dalits don’t get mail conveyed to their homes in 24% of towns. What’s more, they are denied admittance to water sources in 48% of our towns since distance stays a distinct reality
despite the fact that it was abrogated in 1955.

India’s caste system is perhaps the world’s longest enduring social progression. A characterizing highlight of Hinduism, station incorporates an intricate requesting of gatherings of people based on custom immaculateness. An
individual is viewed as an individual from the position into which the person is conceived and stays inside that
standing til’ the very end, albeit the specific positioning of that rank may differ among districts and over the long run. Contrasts in status are generally supported by the strict dictated by one’s deeds in past lifetimes.


The infection doesn’t see race, religion, shading, standing, doctrine, language or lines prior to striking”, while this glossed over, apparently fair- minded assertion from the Indian government has
been prevalently embraced and worldwide
worshipped, it doesn’t detract from the way that it was incredibly repetitive and proudly harsh.
Alongside the assertion—the revelation of public lockdown on 25th Walk 2020, the endorsed proportion of social separating, the cross country
burden of Fundamental Products Act, infection testing rules and any remaining activities of the individual state organizations have been in
finished dismissal to the limit contrasts and variety of the nation’s social and monetary set-up Government Initiatives . Deliberately ignoring the
standing class order and their commensurate connection in India, the state’s response to the
infection has been regardless commenced on such natural biases. Guaranteeing that the infection would influence the individuals who are
living on the 24th floor of an extravagance lofts in Mumbai and the Chamars and Musahar people group living in ghetto cum-ghettos similarly, is an endeavor to homogenize the populace while
invisiblising the individuals who are at the lower part of the financial pecking order of the station framework. Hence, the prevalent view that Coronavirus is considerably more fair-minded
than a large portion of us, is itself covered with predispositions which comes from the remaining alive station class advantage. The problem of utilizing social removing as a worldwide popular expression was only a hint of
something larger. There is more than what meets the eyes. Standing framework is that butterfly whose fluttering wings affect a wide range of associations of a person. From the way one dresses and lives and to the manner by which once makes money and makes an occupation, rank is a convincing despot which orders
everything, including this infection. It is standing based positions, for example, rummaging, sterilization, channel cleaning, their ensuing negligible social qualities, lacking compensations prompting unhygienic ghetto based way of life
which makes Dalit and Adivasi people group tortured not simply by their station personalities and its repercussions yet in addition by the deadly dangers of Coronavirus

Government Initiatives

Indian Government has enacted laws to remove untouchability and has also brought in many reforms to improve the quality of life for the weaker sections of society. Few among them are:
• Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental
human rights
• Abolition of ‘ untouchability’ in 1950
• Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe
(Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
• Provision of reservation in places like
educational institutions, for employment
opportunities etc.
• Establishing social welfare departments and national commissions for the welfare of scheduled castes and tribes.


i. some benefit based training to youngsters from adolescence can tackle the issue of casteism somewhat.
ii. Different social organizations like family,
school, and Broad communications should be given the duty to build up an appropriate, wide viewpoint among youngsters, which will invalidate the sensations of casteism, for instance,
making mindfulness about the evil impacts of sustaining the conventional rank framework.
iii. Scholarly projects should be taken up in rustic territories as the position sentiments, which further propagate casteism, are more in country
regions. These sensations of caste can be limited by the arrangement of social schooling among rural population.

Thank you.

(News)Diwali with a difference: NGO runs campaign to help marginalised people

It all starts with an attempt to go ahead in a path decided with a purpose in the present with severance and striking or facing it.

Life is what you make it . It is said that a human being with a purpose is most powerful than any other ordinary person . In this world , where obstacle strikes back of opportunities , one have to make there own path towards the destination which is to be decided in present for the future . Our value increases  based on our ability to see our worth and when difficulties strike hard in life keeping ourselves with the same pace till the storm passes .

In keeping with the spirit of the festive season, a Pune-based non-government organisation (NGO) is running a pan-India initiative by distributing “Diwali happiness kits” that include groceries and hygiene essentials , In keeping with the spirit of the festive season, a Pune-based non-government organisation (NGO) is running a pan-India initiative by distributing “Diwali happiness kits” that include groceries and hygiene essentials For many it more or less about the donation or charity but it’s not actually what they think it’s actually about this small smile and happiness on the face of the child .

Diwali an occasion, an event is an beginning and cerium of good over event , and bring a plant of hope as a light over darkness as symbolizing the victory . The way comes out with the spark of prosperous and growth many .

 All the way , A hope for small things brings a tremendous smile on a small child . It’s Just takes a matter of time to spend a moment for them . Diwali , an occasion of happiness for everyone , that brings a hope as well as joy for individuals, celebrating it in our customs of growth and prosperous for many .

Just with the one step of an individual will eventually lead a drastic change in their lives . It’s not about the donation or charity one gives , but it’s about the blessings with an opportunity for them to go ahead in their path of destination . It brings smile on the face of a child with an opportunity for them to go ahead .

The organization mainly Emphasis on the growth and development of unprivileged children which eventually lead by providing them support system.

With the start of this prosperous fevital , which brings a glint of hope for many people , children’s and poor , the NGOs are provided them a “Diwali happiness gift” ,which  includes groceries and toiletries

This Diwali let’s one make some contribution to an unprivileged one .

Thank you

Prejudice And Discrimination in our Society.


It focuses specifically on the equality groups set out in the Equality Act 2006: groups which share a common attribute in respect of age, disability, gender, race, religion or belief, or sexual orientation.
Prejudice and discrimination have been prevalent throughout human history. Those who practice discrimination do so to protect opportunities for themselves by denying access to those whom they believe do not deserve the same treatment as everyone else.. Many prejudices seem to be passed along from parents to children. The media—including television,
movies, and advertising—also perpetuate demeaning images and stereotypes about assorted groups, such as ethnic minorities, women, gays and lesbians, the disabled, and the elderly. Prejudices may bring support from significant others, so rejecting prejudices may lead to losing social support. The pressures to conform to the views of families, friends, and
associates can be formidable. In response to early socialization, some people are especially prone to stereotypical thinking and projection based on unconscious fears. People with an authoritarian personality rigidly conform, submit without question to their superiors, reject those they consider to be inferiors, and express intolerant sexual and religious
opinions. The authoritarian personality may have its roots in parents who
are unloving and aloof disciplinarians. The child then learns to control his or her anxieties via rigid attitudes. To date, solutions to prejudice that emphasize change at the individual level have not been successful. In contrast, research sadly shows that even unprejudiced people can, under specific conditions of war or economic competition, become highly prejudiced against their perceived “enemies.” Neither have attempts at
desegregation in schools been successful. Instead, many integrated schools
have witnessed the formation of ethnic cliques and gangs that battle other
groups to defend their own identities.

Prejudice tended to mean having a set of idea about someone that is based
on assumptions or preconceptions, rather than a person’s actual action. For
Example: racism, sexism, ageism, classism, homophobia, nationalism etc.
Prejudices can either be positive or negative—both forms are usually
preconceived and difficult to alter. The negative form of prejudice can lead
to discrimination, although it is possible to be prejudiced and not act upon
the attitudes. Discrimination is the actual behaviour of excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available for other groups. For
example: age discrimination, sexual orientation, national origin, sexual
harassment etc. Unfortunately due to our past history, discrimination had
been among us from since decades. And it’s still on-going. These things had
led to human conflict which resulted in crime, war, and mass murder such
as genocide. Discriminations affect people’s opportunities and well-being.
Societies continue to make distinctions based on ethnicity, race, sex or
gender and other characteristics that should have no bearing on people’s
achievements or on their wellbeing. Prejudice and discrimination could
affect health of the victim in several ways. Discrimination could determine
groups living conditions and life changes affecting such areas as education,
employment, and housing. As per humanity every single individual existing
should have equal rights and opporcunity in all the areas of life.


Therapists are not immune to prejudicial attitudes. Indeed, most schools
offer therapists little training on the role of racism, sexism, and other forms
of prejudice and discrimination in therapy. Prejudice can undermine the
therapeutic process and harm clients. Some examples of how prejudice can
affect therapy include:
Altering perceptions: A therapist’s prejudicial beliefs about a group
can affect their opinion of clients. For example, a therapist who thinks women tend to exaggerate things might not take seriously a woman’s claims of sexual abuse.
Minimizing experiences: A therapist’s prejudicial beliefs about how
prejudice and discrimination affects people can undermine their ability to help. A therapist might underestimate the extent to which police killings of unarmed black people affect black mental health, or
may be unaware of how high-profile sexual assault cases affect sexual
abuse survivors.

Not recognizing power dynamics: A therapist who harbours
prejudicial beliefs or who is unaware of the effects of prejudice might not recognize power dynamics in therapy. For example, a white therapist might not understand why a black person is reluctant to
discuss racism. In family therapy, a therapist who is prejudiced might
not notice power dynamics between male and female romantic
Gas lighting: A therapist who is blind to the effects of prejudice or who does not recognize their own prejudices may inadvertently gaslight by questioning a client’s experiences or reality.

Prejudice can manifest in other ways, too:
✓ Prejudice directed at a therapist may undermine the therapist’s
ability to help.
✓ A client may seek therapy to deal with the effects of prejudice on
their life and mental health. Prejudice can make virtually every
aspect of life more difficult, and has measurable lifelong mental and
physical health consequences.
✓ Prejudice may be a factor in couples or family therapy. To offer
comprehensive help, a therapist must recognize prejudice and
identify its role in the family.
✓ A client might seek therapy to overcome prejudicial attitudes.
Though prejudice is not a mental health diagnosis, it can have
profound and lasting effects on people and the world.
✓ Prejudice infects an entire society, but making change begins with
changing individual minds and lives.
Thank you

Gender equality.

Gender equality, referred to as sexual equality or equality of the sexes,
is that the state of equal simple access to resources and opportunities no matter gender, including economic participation and decisionmaking; and therefore the state of valuing different behaviors,
aspirations and wishes equally, no matter gender. Gender equality is that the goal, while gender neutrality and gender
equity are practices and ways of thinking that help in achieving the goal. Gender parity, which is employed to live gender balance during a given situation, can aid in achieving gender equality but isn’t the goal in and of itself. Gender equality is quite equal representation, it’s strongly
tied to women’s rights, and sometimes requires policy changes.

Gender equality isn’t solely a elementary right, however a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and property world. There has been progress over the last decades: a lot of women area unit planning to faculty, fewer women area unit forced into early wedding, a lot of girls
area unit serving in parliament and positions of leadership, and laws
area unit being reformed to advance gender equality. Despite these gains, several challenges stay: discriminatory laws and social norms remain pervasive, girls still be underrepresented in the
slightest degree levels of political leadership, And one in five girls and
women between the ages of fifteen and forty nine report experiencing
physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner at intervals a 12month

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic may reverse the restricted progress that has been created on gender equality and women’s rights. The coronavirus irruption exacerbates existing inequalities {for women or ladies for women} and girls across each sphere – from health and
therefore the economy, to security and social protection. Women play a
disproportionate role in responding to the virus, as well as frontline tending employees and careers reception. Women’s unpaid care work has inflated considerably as a results of faculty closures and therefore the inflated wants of older individuals. Girls are tougher hit by the economic impacts of COVID-19, as they disproportionately add insecure
labour markets. Nearly 60% of girls add the informal economy, that puts
them at larger risk of falling into financial condition.
The pandemic has additionally junction rectifier to a steep increase in
violence against girls and women. With imprisonment measures in situ,
many ladies area unit at bay reception with their abusers, troubled

knowledge shows that, since the irruption of the pandemic, violence
against girls and women – and notably force – has intense to access services that area unit affected by cuts and restrictions. Rising

Gender difference and discrimination to exist in our society. Still there are specific field in which men and women are not treated equally. A lot of people in India are thinks that men and women does not have equal rights and that women are dominated. Women are equally
entitled to live in freedom as well as dignity. It is important to promote common values such as respect for human rights and equality between women and men. While progress is being made to increase gender equality across the globe, people need to be more aware of disadvantages that women still continue two face and take action to promote equality.

Thank you.

Consumption of healthy food.

“Healthy” food is a term which we often hear by almost everyone. It’s not only that
people are becoming more health-conscious but also following a trend which
supports healthier food. Whether it be your favorite Film star or Youtube and
Instagram influencer everyone is emphasizing how important it is to eat healthy food. From getting a good body to clear and even-toned skin everything depends on your diet which obviously includes healthy food items. So in this age of technology where people spend most of the time on Instagram and other social media where every other influencer is flaunting their good physique and fairness everyone is intimidated to become the same by eating good and healthy food. There’s a trend which is shifting towards healthy food. From physical to mental wellbeing everything is related to healthy food. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of why people are shifting towards healthy food we have done a survey that aims at analyzing and finding opinions and behavior of people towards healthy food.

With Increasing problems in the environment, the concern for consumption of the right food has become the main concern of people. Half of the problems nowadays have only one sole reason for its cause, that is unhealthy food. People now realised how important it is, to keep and maintain a healthy body. Serving your body with healthy food will not only increase your life expectancy but also improve your
mental health. From youngsters to grandparents, everyone is so attentive as to what is on their plate. A pandemic could also be considered as a means to the end, the end is eating healthy. As we are tackling and confronting new types of diseases each day, it has become fundamental to prioritize healthy food over unhealthy. Not only laymen but also companies and everyone who is associated with producing food has
realized the changing environment and shifted their sole focus on either producing healthy food or innovating new methods to make the current produced healthy.

Eating right has now occupied space in the priority list of the people. Good food
provides umpteenth benefits starting from good mental health to healthy living,
which is now believed by a lot of people. So the shift in trend is justified by the
benefits it supplies. A lot of youngsters have started to treat themselves with the
right food so that, it doesn’t affect them adversely in the upcoming future. With
modernization we can see the drastic change in the mentality of all the classes of people, choosing healthy food over fast food. Not only government policies are in
favor of this, but even the corporates have also started paying a huge amount of
attention to it. They’ve experimented so much to provide a good taste with
appropriate nutrients, that now people will not struggle in search of healthy food.
The whole shift of population towards healthy food carries a lot of expectations
such as low-stress level, good body, better living, etc. One shouldn’t let stress
dominate over his or her mind as that has been proven to be one of the causes of
craving for fast food. With all the minute things avoided, one can expect this shift
to occupy more people in it.

Thank you.


British rule produced radical and lasting changes in Indian society and culture. It was unlike any previous period in Indian history as the British brought with them new technology, institutions, knowledge, beliefs and values. The new technology, and the revolution in communications which this brought about, enabled the British to integrate the country as never before in its history. During the nineteenth century the British slowly laid the foundations of a modern state by surveying land, settling the revenue, creating a modern bureaucracy, army and police, instituting law courts, codifying the law, developing communications—railways, post and telegraph, roads and canals—establishing schools and colleges, and so on. The British also brought with them the printing press,and the profound and many-sided changes this brought about in Indian life and thought deserve a volume in itself. One obvious result was that books and journals, along with schools, made possible the transmission of modern as well as traditional knowledge to large numbers of Indians—knowledge which could no longer be the privilege of a few, hereditary groups—while the newspapers made people in different parts of the far-flung country realize they had common bonds, and that events happening in the world outside influenced their lives for good or ill, which eventually resulted in setting up of the removal of barriers.

It is necessary to distinguish conceptually between Westernization and two other processes usually concomitant with it—industrialization and urbanization. On the one hand, there were cities in the preindustrial world, though they differed significantly from the cities of the Industrial Revolution in the West. For one thing, they needed large rural populations for their support, so that ancient and medieval countries remained dominantly agricultural in spite of a few great cities. Again, while the Industrial Revolution resulted in an increase in the rate of urbanization and “highly urbanized areas are generally highly industrialized areas, urbanization is not a simple function of industrialization.”

Finally, while the most Westernized groups are generally found in the big cities, a caution must be uttered against equating Westernization with urbanization. Even in a country such as India, it is possible to come across groups inhabiting rural areas which are more Westernized in their style of life than many urban groups. The former are to be found in areas where plantation or commercial crops are grown, or which have a tradition of supplying recruits to the Indian army.

Westernization results not only in the introduction of new institutions (for example, newspapers, elections, Christian missions) but also in fundamental changes in the old institutions. Thus while India had schools long before the arrival of the British, they were different from British-introduced schools in that they had been restricted to upper-caste children, and transmitted mostly traditional knowledge—to mention only two of the most important differences. Other institutions such as the army, civil service and law courts were also similarly affected. As a result all this included in this as a major aspect for the westernization which took place.

Thank you

Government Budget (objectives)

Objectives of Government Budget

The government plays a very important role in increasing the welfare of
the people. In order to do that the government intervenes in the economy
in the following ways.
Allocation Function of Government Budget
Government provides certain goods and services which cannot be provided
by the market mechanism that is, by exchange between individual consumers
and producers. Examples of such goods are national defence, roads,
government administration etc. which are referred to as public goods.
To understand why public goods need to be provided by the government, we must understand the difference between private goods such as clothes, cars, food items etc. and public goods. There are two
major differences. One, the benefits of public goods are available to all
and are not only restricted to one particular consumer. For example, if
a person eats a chocolate or wears a shirt, these will not be available to others. It is said that this person’s consumption stands in rival relationship to the consumption of others. However, if we consider a public park or measures to reduce air pollution, the benefits will be
available to all. One person’s consumption of a good does not reduce the amount available for consumption for others and so several people can enjoy the benefits, that is, the consumption of many people is not‘rivalrous’.
Two, in case of private goods anyone who does not pay for the goods
can be excluded from enjoying its benefits. However, in case of public goods, there is no feasible way of excluding anyone
from enjoying the benefits of the good. That is why public goods are
called non-excludable. Even if some users do not pay, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to collect fees for the public good. These non- paying users are known as ‘free-riders’. Consumers will not voluntarily pay for what they can get for free and for which there is no exclusive
title to the property being enjoyed. The link between the producer and
consumer which occurs through the payment process is broken and the
government must step in to provide for such goods.
There is, however, a difference between public provision and public production. Public provision means that they are financed through the budget and can be used without any direct payment. Public goods may be produced by the government or the private sector. When goods are produced directly by the government it is called public production.

Redistribution Function of Government Budget.

The total national income of the country goes to either the private sector, that is, firms and households (known
as private income) or the government (known as public income). Out of
private income, what finally reaches the households is known as personal
income and the amount that can be spent is the personal disposable income. The government sector affects the personal disposable income of households by making transfers and collecting taxes. It is through this that the government can change the distribution of income and
bring about a distribution that is considered ‘fair’ by society. This is the
redistribution function.

Stabilisation Function of Government Budget

The government may need to correct fluctuations in income and employment.
The overall level of employment and prices in the economy depends upon the
level of aggregate demand which depends on the spending decisions of millions
of private economic agents apart from the government. These decisions, in turn,
depend on many factors such as income and credit availability. In any period,
the level of demand may not be sufficient for full utilisation of labour and other
resources of the economy. Since wages and prices do not fall below a level,
employment cannot be brought back to the earlier level automatically. The
government needs to intervene to raise the aggregate demand.
On the other hand, there may be times when demand exceeds available output
under conditions of high employment and thus may give rise to inflation. In
such situations, restrictive conditions may be needed to reduce demand.
The intervention of the government whether to expand demand or reduce it
constitutes the stabilisation function.

It all serves the purpose directly in this field.

Thank you

Sustainable development and climate change



At present, a few new terminologies are also being used for economies such as ‘sustainable development’ and ‘green GDP’. ‘Sustainable development’ is a global terminology which is being used to address the global issues of global warming, environmental aspects increased global pollution and ecological imbalances, which are critical for survival of planet earth and is thus a broader concept not relating to any one country but for the world as a whole. It is neither the problem of one country nor can it be solved by one country. It is more macro in nature, which requires to be addressed by countries collectively through a dialogue and a consensus building at a global platform. This is about the present generation’s ability  to meet ‘its’ own needs but without compromising on the ability of the future generation to meet ‘its’ needs. It is about a better environment for the future generation rather than. what the present generation has inherited, to say the least not a worse than that inherited Even though there has been a consciousness on the issue of sustainable development, the real thrust was provided with the Earth Summit during 1992 and then through various international conventions.

All the conventions mentioned so far have flagged the underlying issues especially that of reduction in greenhouse gases emission, which is critical for sustainable development. It also addresses areas of cleaner energy, reduction in biodiversity losses, tree plantation, solar/wind energy and other such global issues in sustainable development.

India has announced its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) With respect of climate change inclusive of following aspects:

• To put forth and further propagate a healthy and sustainable way of living, based on traditions and values of conservation and moderation.

• To adopt a climate-friendly and cleaner path than the one hitherto followed by others at a corresponding level of economic development.

• To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non- fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030 with the help of transfer of technology and low cost international finance including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

• To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO, equivalent (CO.eq.) through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

• To better adapt to climate change by enhancing investments in development programmes in sectors vulnerable to climate change , particularly agriculture , water resources, the Himalayan region, coastal regions, health and disaster management.

• To mobilize domestic , new and additional funds from developed countries for implementing these mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resources required and the resource gap.

• To build capacities, create domestic framework and an international architecture for the quick diffusion of cutting-edge climate technology in India and joint collaborative R&D for such future technologies.


Climate finance means local, national or international financing through public, private and alternative sources of financing. It is critical to addressing climate change as large-scale investments are required to reduce climate change induced adversities. Climate finance is equally important for adaptation strategies as there are requirements for significant financial resources to allow countries to adapt to the adverse effects and reduce the impacts of climate change.

Thank you.

Our country INDIA.

India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend and the great grandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. “Mark Twain

India has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of the world. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the north to sun drenched coastal villages of the south and the humid tropical forests on the south-west coast, from the fertile Brahmaputra valley on its east to the Thar desert in the west. It covers an area of 32,87,263 sq. km. lt has achieved all-round socio-economic progress during the last so many years or its Independence. lndia is the seventh largest country in the world and ranks second in population. The country stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give her a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. The total length of the coastine of the mainland, Lakshadweep islands and Andaman and Nicobar lslands is 7516.6 km.

Geographical Background

Countries having a common border with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the far east and Bangladesh to the east. sri Lanka is separated from India By a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.  The country can be divided into SIX Zones mainly north, south, east, west,Central and north-east zone. It has 29 states and seven union territories.

Physical Features

The mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone,plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern peninsula.


India is rich in flora. Available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area Surveyed so far, over 46,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of india (BSI), Kolkata. The vascular flora, which forms the conspicuous vegetation cover, comprises 15,000 species.

With a wide range of climatic conditions from the torrid to the arctic, India has a rich and varied vegetation, which only a few countries of comparable size possess. India can be divided into eight distinct floristic regions, namely, the western Himalayas, the eastern Himalayas, Assam, the Indus plain, the Ganga plain, the Deccan, the Malabar and the Andamans.

TheThe western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon. Its temperate zone is rich in forests of , pine, other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees. The eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embraces Darjeeling, Kurseong and the adjacent tracts.

Faunal Resources

India is very  in terms of biological diversity due to its unique biogeographical location, diversified climate conditions and enormous Eco diversity and geodiversity. India’s immense biological diversity encompasses ecosystems, populations, species and their genetic make-up. This diversity can be attributed to the vast variety in physiography and climatic situations resulting in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from tropical , sub-tropical, temperate, alpine to desert.

India is not only rich in its physical dimensions but even in its cultural aspect .

Thank you.

Education (government initiatives).

Education , is the basic necessity for an individual .The essence of human resource development is education, which plays a significant and remedial role in balancing the socio-economic fabric of the country . Since citizens of India are its most valuable resource, the billon-strong nation needs the  care in the form of basic education to achieve a better quality of life. This warrants an all round development of the citizens, which can be achieved by building strong foundations in education. Good quality education is the foundation of new discoveries, new knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurship that trigger growth and prosperity of an individual as well as that of a nation.

To lay emphasis on the educational development of students of weaker section of the society, A number of innovative initiatives have been taken by the ministry.

Among which two are given below:

Adult Education

At the time of independence, 86 per cent of India’s population was illiterate and as such the main focus or adult education had been on its very bottom tier that is, impairing of Basic literacy. For accomplishment of this objective, a series of programmes were introduced since the First Plan period, the most prominent, being the National Literacy Mission (NLM), launched in 1988 for the adults in the age group of l5+. The programme of National Literacy Mission was revamped in 2009 in alignment with new paradigms of lifelong learning as Saakshar Bharat. Considerable progress has been made in raising the Literacy rate of the country but still the levels remain uneven across different states, districts, social groups and minorities. The overall goal of adult education is to establish a fully literate society through improved quality and standard of adult education and literacy.

The National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA) is the operating and Implementing organization at national level for all the activities envisaged in Adult Education and Skill Development. During the 12th Five Year Plan, NLMA has been striving to raise the literacy rate to 80 per cent and to reduce the gender gap to less than 10 per cent.

Of 410 districts which quality for coverage under Saakshar Bharat program, the Programme has been sectioned in 04 districts , in which many learners have been enrolled under basic Literacy.

National Council of Educational Research and Training

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) provides academic and technical supports for qualitative improvement of school education. The NCERT was established in 1961 as an apex national body to lead qualitative changes in school education. NCERT has been playing an advisory role guiding central and state governments in formulating policies, acts and government programmes. It has played a crucial role in the development of national policies on education (1968-1986) and national curriculum frameworks. The researches undertaken by the Council have led to building new perspective of schooling and also provided inputs for formulation of policies and programmes. NCERT has been designing and offering innovative and need-Based courses for teachers, teacher educators and counsellors. The curricular and other learning materials developed by the Council have helped in bringing about quality schooling. NCERT has received recognition both at national and International levels in the area of school education owing to its work done in 50 years. It is a unique institution in the country, conducting researches, preparing skilled educational professionals and developing Curriculum and curriculum materials.

Both of the initiatives have given a major impact on the Educational sector .

Thank you.

Continental Drift Theory.

Observing the shape of the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. The symmetry matches
of the coastlines on either side of the ocean. No wonder, many scientists thought of this similarity and considered the possibility of the two Americas, Europe and Africa, to be once joined together. From the known records of the
history of science, it was Abraham Ortelius, a Dutch map maker, who first proposed such a possibility as early as 1596.
However, it was Alfred Wegener—a German
meteorologist who put forth a comprehensive argument in the form of “the continental drift theory” in 1912. This was regarding the distribution of the oceans and the continents.
According to Wegener, all the continents
formed a single continental mass and mega ocean surrounded the same. The super continent was named PANGAEA, which meant all earth. The mega-ocean was called PANTHALASSA, meaning all water. He argued that, around 200 million years ago, the super continent, Pangaea, began to split. Pangaea first broke into two large continental masses as Laurasia and Gondwanaland forming the
northern and southern components
respectively. Subsequently, Laurasia and
Gondwanaland continued to break into various smaller continents that exist today.

A variety of evidence was offered in support of the continental drift are mentioned below:

The Matching of Continents (Jig-Saw-Fit)
The shorelines of Africa and South America facing each other have a remarkable and unmistakable match.

Rocks of Same Age Across the Oceans were found.

The belt of ancient rocks of 2,000 million years from Brazil coast matches
with those from western Africa. The earliest marine deposits along the coastline of South America and Africa are of the Jurassic age.


It is the sedimentary rock formed out of
deposits of glaciers. The Gondawana system of sediments from India is known to have its counterparts in six different landmasses of the Southern Hemisphere. At the base, the system has thick tillite indicating extensive and
prolonged glaciation. Counterparts of this
succession are found in Africa, Falkland Island, Madagascar, Antarctica and Australia. Overall resemblance of the Gondawana-type sediments clearly demonstrates that these landmasses
had remarkably similar histories.

Placer Deposits
The occurrence of rich placer deposits of gold in the Ghana coast and the absolute absence of source rock in the region is an amazing fact. The gold bearing veins are in Brazil and it is obvious that the gold deposits of the Ghana are derived from the Brazil plateau when the two continents lay side by side.

Distribution of Fossils
When identical species of plants and animals adapted to living on land or in fresh water are found on either side of the marine barriers, a problem arises regarding accounting for such distribution. The observations that Lemurs
occur in India, Madagascar and Africa led some to consider a contiguous landmass ‘Lemuria’ linking these three landmasses.

All this provided evidences of this theory.

Thank you.


Infosys Limited is an Indian multinational information technology company that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. The company was founded in Pune and is headquartered in Bangalore.Infosys is the second-largest Indian IT company after Tata Consultancy Services by 2020 revenue figures and the 602nd largest public company in the world

On 24th August 2021, Infosys became the 4th Indian company to cross $100 billion in market capitalization.

Infosys provides software development, maintenance and independent validation services to companies in finance, insurance, manufacturing and other domains.

One of its known products is Finacle which is a universal banking solution with various modules for retail and corporate banking.

Glass building in Pune campus

Its key products and services are:

NIA – Next Generation Integrated AI Platform (formerly known as Mana)

•Infosys Consulting – a global management consulting service

•Cloud-based enterprise transformation services •Infosys Information Platform (IIP) – Analytics platform

•EdgeVerve Systems which includes Finacle, a global banking platform

•Engineering Services Digital Marketing

Organizational structure followed in Infosys is a Functional Structure.

Under this structure, company will be organized into three main functions (Global sales function, Global delivery function and business enabling functions). In Infosys divides the industry verticals into following five segments •Financial Services Segment •Manufacturing Segment •Retail Segment •Energy, Utilities, Communications & Services Segment •Life Sciences, Healthcare & Insurance Segment

Functional structures are proved to operate well in stable environments where business strategies are less inclined to changes or dynamism, the amount of bureaucracy makes it tough for organizations to respond to changes in the market quickly . It also conducts Career development practice to help employees to showcase their skills, providing career guidance and career development activities. Infosys provides strong property rights to its employees by providing employee stock option plans. Infosys also provides health and pension benefits, but not at a very lucrative scale. It is in line with the government policies.

For its employees, Long term employment recognition and benefits like Pension Plans, Group Medical Policy, Accident Policy, Bonus, Annual Medical Check-ups, Budgets for quarterly team lunch, Annual outings as part of team building activities and flexible work hours.

Success of the organization :

Digital technology is transforming services and businesses in today’s world. It is fundamentally changing operations and delivering value to consumers. It is also a cultural modification which wants organisations to experiment with various things and get comfortable with downfalls.

Infosys is an information technology consulting company. It is an Indian multinational company that provides information technology, business consulting and outsourcing assistance. It considers itself to be a global leader in next-gen digital consulting. It is the 2nd largest IT company after TCS (Tata Consultancy Services). It is also the 596th biggest company in the entire world based on the terms of revenue.

Infosys is a provider of next-gen services. The company enables clients in more than 50+ countries to stay ahead of the innovation curve and outperform in the game. It has more than 187,000 employees working within it. 

Steps for betterment involved :

Investment Thesis

Infosys is one of India’s most pre-eminent providers of IT services. However, the company has suffered from its slow-moving legacy past (smaller, more discretionary projects) and out-of-date go-to-market strategy, resulting in low revenue growth relative to peers, margin compression, leadership churn, and high employee attrition. In light of these issues, Infosys has launched a number of initiatives to improve its performance. The company has some way to go before rectifying its position, but a number of signs are promising, with revenue growth, margins, client mining, and employee attrition improving. Ø ØEconomic Moat

Infosys’ narrow economic moat results from high switching costs (roughly 96%-98% of revenue is from repeat business and has been around these levels for many years). The company’s commitment to building lasting relationships, embedded systems and processes, and intimate knowledge of clients’ IT infrastructure means customers are averse to switching between vendors. On a gross basis, Infosys continually adds over 200 clients per year, which is an encouraging sign and cements further long-dated business given switching costs. Such switching costs ensure a certain level of operational consistency and the company’s exemplary financial health reflects this. We forecast Infosys to easily generate a return on invested capital in excess of its cost of capital for the foreseeable future, and we believe its lower-cost offshore delivery model allows for this assumption.

Risk Infosys has highlighted issues regarding relatively low revenue growth, margin compression, leadership churn, and high employee attrition. Management has taken steps to remedy this, but it is still early and there is the risk that these problems become inflated.Poor macroeconomic conditions, management turnover, founder disruption, visa restrictions, competitive threats, and foreign exchange movements are also external risks that could generate further downside for the company.

all the way it set out to be in this competitive world.

Thank you .


In our biosphere immense diversity (or heterogeneity)exists not only at the species level but at all levels of biological organisation ranging from macromolecules within cells to biomes. Biodiversity is the term popularised by the sociologist Edward Wilson to describe the

combined diversity at all the levels of biological organisation.

The most important of them are–

(i) Genetic diversity: A single species might show high diversity at the genetic level over its distributional range. The genetic variation shown by the medicinal plant Rauwolfia vomitoria growing in different Himalayan ranges might be in terms of the potency and concentration of the active chemical (reserpine) that the plant produces. India has more than 50,000 genetically different strains of rice, and 1,000 varieties of mango.

(ii) Species diversity: The diversity at the species level. For example, the Western Ghats have a greater amphibian species diversity than the Eastern Ghats.

(iii) Ecological diversity: At the ecosystem level, India, for instance,with its deserts, rain forests, mangroves, coral reefs, wetlands, estuaries, and alpine meadows has a greater ecosystem diversity than a Scandinavian country like Norway.

It has taken millions of years of evolution, to accumulate this richdiversity in nature, but one could lose all that wealth in less than two centuries if the present rates of species losses continue. Biodiversity and its conservation are now vital environmental issues of international concern as more and more people around the world begin to realise the critical importance of biodiversity for our survival and well- being on this planet.

How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India?

Since there are published records of all the species discovered and named, As how many species in all have been recorded so far, but it is not easy to answer the question of how many species there are on earth. According to the IUCN (2004), the total number of plant and animal species described so far is slightly more than 1.5 million, but we have no clear idea of how many species are yet to be discovered and described. Estimates vary widely and many of them are only educated guesses. For many taxonomic groups, species inventories are more complete in temperate than in tropical countries. Considering that an overwhelmingly large proportion of the species waiting to be discovered are in the tropics, biologists make a statistical comparison of the temperate-tropical species richness of an exhaustively studied group of insects and extrapolate thisratio to other groups of animals and plants to come up with a gross estimate of the total number of species on earth. Some extreme estimates range from 20 to 50 million, but a more conservative and scientifically sound estimate made by Robert May places the global species diversity at about 7 million.

Since life originated on earth nearly 3.8 billion years ago, there had species been enormous diversification of life forms on earth. Biodiversity to the sum total of diversity that exists at all levels of biological organisation. Of particular importance is the diversity at ecosystem levels and conservation efforts are aimed at protecting diversity.  More than 1.5 million species have been recorded in the world, but there might still be nearly 6 million species on earth waiting to be discovered and named. Of the named species, > 70 per cent are animals, of which 70 per cent are insects. The group Fungi has more species than all the vertebrate species combined. India, with about 45,000 species of plants and twice as many species of animals, is one of the 12 mega diversity countries of the world.

Various steps and initiatives have been taken by government to conserve it and still contributing towards it.

Thank you.

Juice market segmentation.

Most sold product – fruit juice (Tropicana)
Tropicana Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing fruit or
vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents.


The segmentation strategy used by Tropicana is very smart as it tries to
reach the highest profit levels for the company.
Under psychographic segmentation, it targets those health conscious and
those who prefer to drink juice instead of coffee or soda.
The main target customers are the adults who are between the ages 21-30
and are more concerned about their health and who choose a nutritious
diet Mainly in this pandemic.
Tropicana has a global strategy to focus on healthier and nutritious
• Strong credibility: this business involves strong credibility.

Customer analysis
The main consumers of these business are the health conscious youth who
would choose to drink Tropicana instead of unhealthier options like Coke
or Pepsi
Promotion Strategy
Tropicana promotes itself based on two facts, first that it is 100% pure
drink and second is that it contains a large amount of fruit in each bottle.

Least sold product – soft drink Pepsi,

In India Pepsi was introduced into the market before few months of
Cricket world cup.

Consumer analysis
It revealed they are well known about the pepsi but majority of the
people didn’t like Pepsi and for many people the color of pepsi
reflected the color of Kerosene.
More over packaging of the drink also plays a important role in its
sale and promotion and from the findings it is clearly noticed that
the availability is in urban areas only.
• Moreover color is a sensitive matter changing it suddenly and
drastically reflects the sales of the product .
Pepsi failed in the market due to lack of proper advertisement and
it’s colour .

Turnover :
This organisation selling juice direct to consumer can expect about a 50%
– 70% gross margin for a month.
The main thing to increase the turnover depend upon the following:
• Financial Projections
• Customer Demographics

Pricing Strategy:
Its products are manufactured with high quality juices with innovative
they can be consumed by middle-income group families .
The 200 ml tetra pack is priced at Rs.30 whereas the 1000 ml tetra pack
is priced at Rs. 120. In the recent years, Tropicana sales have been
increasing, as more and more people have become health conscious.

Market Structure
Monopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition such
that one or two producers sell products that are differentiated
from one another as goods but not perfect substitutes (such as
from branding, quality, or location)
As a monopolistic competitor this rm takes the prices charged by its
rivals as given and ignores the impact of its own prices on the
prices of other firms.

Thank you .

(News) Empowerment Conclave by Y4D Foundation paves the way for sustainable development of India by empowering the underprivileged.

Life becomes utterly insipid and loses its charm and meaning when the worth of an individual is not valued. Having to face a raw deal every day would mean as one is running the risk of living a monotonous life. Every day is the new beginning for something.

We live in a society that sets demands without a frontier. One would evenly poise us between cherishing the outcome and in front of another skyrocketing dream. The urge to go after the best of the best overshadows the sweetness of fruit to be achieved. With the spark of little thought in the mind which leads to open up the heart for the goal striking in life,  gives one opportunity to change the lives of many. We live in a world that sets demands without the frontier, out of which work hard for an opportunity goes beyond the scope which is important for building the youth of the nation.

Y4D is working towards shaping up a society which is sustainable for future generations by working on environment conservation and introducing values in society. It have even committed to empower the underprivileged section of our society by creating an enabling environment through Encouragement, Education and Employment so that citizens can harness their full potential and live happy and healthy lives with dignity and contribute positively to society.

In this world, where obstacle strikes back of opportunities, one has to make there own path towards the destination which is to be decided in present for the future. Development of any nation directly depends upon the youth of the nation, and the works go beyond one scope to encourage them by motivating and empowering them to ultimately prepare themselves for future goals by their full potential.

Starting with just one spark of the glint where one is capable of self-renewal,  life is worthwhile. Education is the basic necessity of an individual, which eventually leads an individual to reach the path of the desired destination.

The same happens as we go ahead without knowing the fact that whatever is going to happen next directly can be expected which is provided by Y4D Foundation which envisions the nation where each of its citizens lives a happy and content life and provides a platform for building children and youth for nation-building. Even, it emphasis on to educate the youth about financial skills and knowledge at an early stage to help them to make informed financial decisions. 

  In today’s world where more and more people are engaged in their respective works. The desired to change the requirements and going out of their goal and improvement for the same needs drastic steps.

Y4D Foundation provides an opportunity for all this, going out of the box and striking for the success and achievement of the desired goal.

Thank you.

Healthy lifestyle .

Life is what you make it . It is said that a human being with a purpose is most powerful than any other ordinary person . In this world , where obstacle strikes back of opportunities , one have to make there own path towards the destination which is to be decided in present for the future .

In today’s world were more and more people are engaged in their respective works . The desired to change the way of living just go out of their limitations and the improvement in the same seeks the time and discipline at the same time .

Happiness of an immense satisfaction of living a desired life just cannot be expressed in thoughts and words . The way of living depends on the lifestyle they have and maintain it as per the requirements. Living a life includes being happy, energised, as well as facing any situation with strong will.

In the matter of time the most important aspect of an individual’s life is going towards a goal set out . It is always said that a good health is the greatest wealth for an individual more than any thing . So , it’s totally depends on the individual to move towards the path of an successful  healthy lifestyle .

Contributions required :

The investment to our healthy lifestyle we make today will eventually be outsourced in our  future . A healthy lifestyle gives a boost to an individual and to improve their overall health . It includes everything starting from a nutritious healthy diet to adequate sleep with regular exercise .

Even doing the things one is passionate about to avoid stress and anxiety leads to surround  us with a positive energy , maintaining all this is just not difficult nor does it require a lot of work , just the utilisation of some time effectively and efficiently goes important . With the help of daily schedule one can go ahead with this .

With regards to the efforts made by an individual leads an overall development leading to prosperous growth an  individual . Being mentally and emotionally fit is both is part physical fitness . Doing exercise is just not the sole reason for being living a life as an attachment towards the need and desire .

Healthy lifestyle is really important as it not only leads an individual to lead a positive attitude towards everything but even lead an overall positive Improvement and development in their personality  .

Last but not least, have a positive attitude. Do your best to look at life as if “the glass is half full.” One must believe in themselves, have good support systems, and think positively (“I think I can, I think I can…”) to succeed.

Thank you.

How to Launch a Marketing Campaign for Your Small Business.

When one starts a business with getting the most out of whatever they plan to work out ,only when all the decision regarding the assessment is taken with full potential and with the smart work .

When running a small business or startup its just common for any business to get a most out the the work handling , but it’s for the time being and one have to make plans . Plans are just must . It’s as important for one as the backup , as no profit so , even no loss and at some  space it’s just get into the minds of many .

So , when it comes to run a small business marketing campaign that should not only work out but even  succeed , its come to the effort of an individual which will not only attract them but even make them indulge in it goes with the initiative that exists outside of your ongoing marketing tasks will include the following :

To short out the end goal :

The end should always be assured before starting , as it will not only saves one’s time but even makes anyone to plan things according and increase the success rate .

•     The goal should be decided :

Before going ahead to start a campaign , the aim of the campaign should be decided as what is actually the motive behind the compaign , weather its for the promotion of new product  or to increase the sales or just rasing awareness about the product and brand , . The goal should be decided .

The budget of the campaign should be decided :

As it will not only plan the things according but even reduce the pressure in the spot , .

Why can one afford could be easily be done by setting up the budget .

•  The identification of the audience :

To target the audience came to be an important aspect , not it now depend on the campaign which is actually about , .

So the targeted audience could be child or adult .

•       The channel of conversation :

The channel of conversation goes important as it’s the medium through one can lay out the message to the targeted audience . It can be TV, radio , or just a stage campaign .

•    The result should always be Analysed :

The result from the starting till the end should be analysed and measures could be taken within time for any of the issues .And analysing should the whole campaign , As what was exciting part and what problems did one faced . Than how many customers attracted Should one will be organising it again ,

Well  marketing campaign seems to be easy , but it takes a lot from not only the organiser but from every people involved in this and After a phase it will be successful

Thank you.

What is Sports betting ?

It all starts with an attempt to go ahead in the path decided with the purpose present with perseverance and striking tough for it . It can be as effective that one can build an empire by its saying whereas one can eventually lead the breakdown when it just come up with not a wining situation .

Whether one is waging out of the cash from their pockets or hundreds of thousands on the single stand for a timeframe . Sports betting is the largest industry which attracts people worldwide .

It’s just a chance of scope of an individual . So sports betting is all about placing the wager on the outcome by predicting the sports results . It’s not only about betting on limited source but it covers a vast culture which includes from polo , hockey , football , baseball , to mixed arts , races and even more . Every year more than anything is staked out of in this field , in golf courses from around the world .

Almost most of the sports betting being deprived of a history creation .

The frequency of sports bet upon varies by culture, with the vast majority of bets being placed on association football, American football, basketball, baseball, hockey, track cycling, auto racing, mixed martial arts, and boxing at both the amateur and professional levels. 

All about it ( how it works )  :

People were more prone to this just crossing their fingers expecting of the results .

It can be both practiced legally and illegally.  For many of the business , the global sports betting business is booming

With its starting , it was appearing just as confusing but let it be and staring from wherever one is goes to be more important way to learn things .It’s just the practice for betting in the same but if one is new to betting , learning and understanding odds goes important , and once one understands of the event likely to happen will able to out with their full potential .

Many of the business revolve around the sports betting as to encourage this to go at a higher position with respect to heading the way towards it , making them to gamble . It’s just the way one starts their business in this field .

For many , it’s more or less about enjoyment , as it’s just not about the bet . They enjoy it and just go ahead with another betting even they go out of failure .

Sports betting reflects out one’s capacity and capabilities to strive hard to reach out to the inclined force.

Thank you.

SWOC Analysis (Tropicana and maaza)


Tropicana Products, Is an American multinational company which makes fruit-based beverages and specializes in the production of orange juice.

Swoc analysis:

Strength :

• Strong brand image: Tropicana has created a strong brand image for itself and has positioned itself as a substitute for fresh juice.

• Global Presence: as ,it’s a PepsiCo product.

• Healthy option

• Strong distribution: Tropicana, as a product requires special attention during distribution. This is where PepsiCo helps Tropicana tremendously.

Weakness :

• Considered Costly: Tropicana is considered to be costly as compared to local products in the same quantity.

• Reduced Quantity: Instead of increasing price of products, Tropicana resorted to reducing quantity of product to about 8-10%.

• Low Rural Penetration: Packaged Juices are difficult to distribute and are more dependent on higher margins .


• Increasing Health Consciousness: Health awareness around the world is increasing.

• Focus on low-calorie drinks: . Tropicana should focus more on low-calorie products by including flavours .

• Tie-ups with restaurants, hotels : Tropicana can look for tying up with large chains of hotels that lead to increase in revenues.


• Presence of Fresh Juice Joints: Fresh juice is still more preferred than packaged juice.

• Promotion of healthy products may affect PepsiCo’s other products: promoting consumption of healthy products may backfire in the sales PepsiCo’s aerated drinks example Pepsi etc.

• Intense competition: Tropicana faces intense competition from many competitors around the world.


Maaza is a Coca-Cola fruit drink brand from India . Its most popular drink is its mango fruit drink.


• Presence across the world: Maaza has a market in most parts of the world.

• Customer recognition: Maaza through the characteristics taste difference from competitors has been able to secure a fan following in India.

• Powerful branding: The Company has used a variety of tools and channels for branding.


•. Monotonous advertising pitch: Both Frooti and Slice have changed their advertisements and given themselves a much-needed makeover .

•. Single Flavour: Maaza though it tried to launch other flavoured drinks like pineapple and orange eventually withdrew those drinks since they were unable to gain a significant

market share.

• Coco Cola is riding on the success story of Maaza and is overconfident of it is unbeatable. Leads to loss to invest in maaza.


• shift of preference: Across the world consumers are shifting from aerated drinks to fruit juices.

• unexploited market: unexploited resources should be efficiently utilized .

• Health consciousness


•. Competition: The Company faces a lot of competition from brands such as Slice and Frooti who are in a constant struggle to become market leaders…

• The threat of substitution: There is a lot of negative marketing on how flavours used in fruit drinks are toxic to the body. This makes people substitute these drinks with juices made from ,Challenge sudden spurt of growth: Frooti which was number three in the Indian market overtook its nearest rival Slice in 2016 through a new logo and a change of strategy.

Thank you.

Historical background and origin of 3 nursery rhymes.

A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. Rhymes were written for many different reasons. Some rhymes were written to honour a particular local event that has since been forgotten, while others were written to express feelings of love. Rhymes were also used to hide real meanings, such as when someone wanted to express displeasure toward the government or the sovereign without being executed! Another reason for rhymes is that they’re easy to remember, and therefore could be spread by word-of-mouth—an essential feature for a large population of people who could not read or write

Some of the rhymes includes:

  • Old Mother Hubbard –

The Old Mother Hubbard rhyme allegedly refers to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey and his unsuccessful attempt to get an annulment for King Henry VIII. Old Mother Hubbard is Cardinal Wolsey. The cupboard is the Catholic Church. The doggie is Henry VIII. The bone is the annulment Henry wanted in order to end his marriage to Katherine of Aragon.

  • Mary, Mary Quite Contrary

“Mary” is referring to Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII. The Catholic queen received quite a bad reputation during her short reign for executing Protestant loyalists. The garden in the rhyme is referring to the growth of a graveyard. Silver bells and cockleshells are believed to be euphemisms for instruments of torture. The “maids” is slang for a beheading instrument called “The Maiden” that came into common use before the guillotine.

  • Three Blind Mice –

The first written variation of Three Blind Mice dates from 1609. The three blind mice were three Protestant loyalists who were accused of plotting against Queen Mary I. The farmer’s wife refers to the queen who with her husband, King Philip of Spain, owned large estates. The three men were burned at the stake.

  • Ring Around A Rosy –

 Ring Around A Rosy is said to refer to the Great Plague of 1665. The plague caused a high fever and a rash in the form of a ring hence the name, Ring Around A Rosy. Putting herbs and spices in the pocket of an ailing person in an attempt to freshen up the stale air was a common practice, thus the “pocket full of posies”. “Ashes, Ashes” is an American variation of the English version which is “A-tishoo, A-tishoo” or someone sneezing. Plague sufferers had a fit of sneezing before they passed away or when “we all fall down”.While the alleged meanings of some of these rhymes may or may not be true, it sure is a fun way to remember events in British history.

While the alleged meanings of some of these rhymes may or may not be true, it sure is a fun way to remember events in British history.

Thank you



Vodafone Idea Limited is an Aditya Birla Group and Vodafone Group partnership. The Company provides pan India Voice and Data services across 2G, 3G and 4G platform. With the large spectrum portfolio to support the growing demand for data and voice, the company is committed to deliver delightful customer experiences and contribute towards creating a truly ‘Digital India’ by enabling millions of citizens to connect and build a better tomorrow. They use the power of technology to enhance our customer’s lives – through ubiquitous presence and connectivity through our PAN India urban and rural coverage, a continuously expanding 4G LTE network, integrated worry free propositions and some of the best entertainment on mobile – all packaged into a completely unmatched customer experience.

There innovative and truly differentiated offerings – be it our Prepaid Unlimited propositions, RED Postpaid plans, Truly Unlimited International Roaming products and many others – reflect the passion with which we aim to serve our customers, always!

Company analysis :

1. With a subscriber base of nearly 1058.86 million, as of March 2016, India accounted for the second – largest telecom network in the world. The subscriber base has expanded at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.96% during FY 07–16.

2. With 462.12 million internet subscriptions, as of July 2016, India stood third-highest in terms of total internet users in 2016.

3. Since 2012, the share of time spent on watching videos on mobile devices has grown by 200 hours a year.

4. As of March 2016, urban tele-density stood at 154.01% and rural tele-density at 51.37%.As of March 2016, Bharti Airtel was the market leader, with a 24.31% share in the total subscription, followed by Vodafone (19.15% share).

6. The top five players in the sector include – Bharti Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Reliance, and BSNL – accounting for 78.74% of the total subscribers in the country.

7. BSNL is the market leader with a 60.28% share, followed by MTNL (13.60%); BSNL, MTNL, and Bharti together account for 87.46% of the total fixed-line market.

Vodafone Idea ( Professionally Managed)


1. To Handle the Rising Dominance of Reliance Jio in the Telecom Industry:

 The main reason for the Vodafone-Idea merger is to Handel the rising dominance of Reliance Jio in the Telecom industry. As Jio announced to provide free services in the first 6 months. As a result, it started to capture the maximum part of the market.

2. Price War:

 The free services from the Jio started the price war between the companies in the telecom sector.

3. . Merger Brings Confidence:

 As a result in case of a price war merger brings confidence in companies with synergy benefits. Shareholders will benefit if a company’s post-merger share price increases due to the synergistic effect of the deal. The expected synergy achieved through the merger can be attributed to various factors, such as increased revenues, combined talent and technology, and cost reduction.

4. Expected To Hold A Strong Position In The Industry: Such as in some circles it became the largest cellular service provider and in some circle, it was the second-largest after Bharti Airtel. So, a joined company can focus on being the service provider.

Functioning and working Of Top-level Management:

1. Managing Director & Chief Executive Officer – Ravindra Takkar

 i) He has been closely associated with the growth and evolution of Indian telecom since Vodafone Group‘s entry in 2007. He held a number of senior roles in Strategy and Business Development and was also the CEO of Vodafone Enterprise business in India.

 ii) In addition to his responsibilities at Vodafone Idea, Ravinder also serves as Director on the boards of Indus Towers Limited, Cable & Wireless Global (India) Private Limited and Vodafone India Services Private Limited.

2. Chief Financial officer – Akshaya Moondra

 i) A member of the National Leadership Team, he is responsible for arranging and managing company finances, capital allocation, statutory and management reporting, budgetary and internal controls, revenue assurance, strategic business finance, investor relations, secretarial and other compliances

 ii) Ranked as the Top CFO in Indian listed companies across sectors for 2016 by Finance Asia and amongst Top 3 CFOs in Asia in Telecom Sector by Institutional Investor for 3-years, Akshaya joined telecom after spending over two decades in various Aditya Birla Group companies – Grasim Industries, South East Pulp, Thai Rayon, Thai Epoxy and Allied Products and Thai Acrylic Fibre.

3. Chief Operating Officer – Ambrish Jain

 i) Ambrish Jain is the Chief Operations Officer of Vodafone Idea Limited, India’s largest telecom service provider, effective 31st August 2018.

ii) A member of the National Leadership Team, he drives pan-India circle Operations and Service Delivery.

4. Chief Regulatory & Corporate Affairs Officer – P. Balaji

i) A member of the National Leadership Team, Balaji leads the company’s Regulatory, Public Policy and Government

Relations activities along with Industry advocacy, Corporate Communications, Reputation Management and CSR.

ii) Prior to his present role, Balaji was the Director –Regulatory, External Affairs and CSR at Vodafone India. He was responsible for leading the company’s Regulatory, Public Policy & Government Relations activities and also the External Affairs function overseeing Corporate Communications, Reputation Management and administering Corporate Social Responsibility and the Vodafone Foundation in India.

5. Chief Commercial Officer – Rajesh Shrivastav

i) A member of the National Leadership Team, Rajesh leads all activities related to the company’s Capex and Opex spends, and all Supply Chain aspects including Procurement, Contracting, Warehousing/Logistics, Inventory Management etc.

ii) Prior to his present role, Rajesh was the Chief Commercial Officer at Idea Cellular where he was instrumental in procuring world class equipment for Network, IT and Services including Towers, Sales/Marketing and Service Delivery requirements.

6. Chief Marketing Officer – Avneesh Khosla

i) As the CMO, he spearheads the company’s consumer initiatives and is focussed on building a strong franchise for Brand Vi – India’s newest telecom brand, born out of the world’s largest network integration.

ii) At Vodafone Idea, Avneesh is spearheading key strategic agendas around driving a strong business transformation through a digital first approach.

What Can Be Done To Fix The striking problems, some of the steps are mentioned below:

Payment of Debt:

● vodafone idea owes a huge amount of debt to the government in form of spectrum payment the only way out for it from this crisis is to pay the huge sums of money they owe. Not only is it hindering its ability to invest in new projects but it also reducing its credibility because of which firms and public are afraid of wasting money in their company.

● There could be some relief if the government decides to save the distressed telco by extending the moratorium on spectrum-related payments. After all, a majority of the company’s debt is owed to the government for spectrum.

Raising Funds From Reliable Sources:

● Vodafone idea is in dire need of funds to boost their sluggish operations and to invest in new infrastructure. Investing in new infrastructure would help Vi to compete with its competitors Bharti Airtel and Jio who has been investing intensely in new infrastructure to gain more subscribers. Recently there were news about Vi planning to raise 6000 crores but failed to do it. Now it need to raise huge amounts of funds from both internal and foreign sources so that it repays its debt and invest in new infrastructure.

Providing New Services:

● Vodafone Idea should look at new possible ways to gain lost market share they should try to introduce new services like Tele media services and digital TV services. They can also provide services which their competitors are providing at a much cheaper rate to attract customers. They should try to create an integrated ecosystem by giving discounts on other products after purchase of one of their key products or services.

Thank you.

Things Every HR Professional Needs to Do to Succeed

Some of the functions that an individual as an HR professional should perform to make the organization more successful, if staffed with an HR department are mentioned below:

• Employee Training and Development:

 Enabling employees to develop the skills they need for the future is an essential responsibility for HR. Most employers understand the value of investing in the (future) skills of their employees. After all, the success of the organization depends on how well the employees are trained for the job and what are their growth and development opportunities within the organization. It’s the responsibility of the HR department to lead these efforts in the right direction. The role of HR should be to ensure that the employees acquire the company-specific knowledge and skills to perform their tasks efficiently. It boosts the overall efficiency and productivity of the workforce, which ultimately results in better business for the company. HRM plays a very crucial role in preparing employees for bigger tasks and responsibilities, which leads to the holistic development of employees at work. And an organization that provides ample growth and development opportunities to its employees is considered to be a healthy organization.

• Building a better communication system:

The company can also focus on building a better communication system with the recruited employees. There are several types of communications, that happen in various ways like there is a grapevine for informal groups and there is chain network and wheel network for the formal groups. The appropriate network should be encouraged, according to the requirements. A company should also focus on the informal groups, as it helps them to understand the employees on a deeper level.

• Performance management: Performance management is a continual process of evaluating how employees are performing and recognizing achievement. Many organizations conduct performance reviews on a regular schedule, often regularly, with additional reviews as desired by the employees. If an employee is underperforming the employers may impose discipline or create a performance improvement plan with goals to achieve within the specific time period. For serious matters employees may be fired. All disciplinary policies should be written out in the handbook, and managers should be trained to implement them accordingly.

• Hr professionals should create a dynamic environment for an organization:

Organizations have to survive in a dynamic environment so managers should keep making changes in the organization to match the environmental changes. The employees in the organization are generally resistant to change. Efficient hr motivates employees to adopt the changes willingly by convincing them that change is not only beneficial for the organization but it improves the employee’s work also in the competitive world.

• Research and development:

The company should allocate some members for research and development which will include activities that our company undertakes to Innovate and introduce new product services. The goal should typically be to take new products and services to market and add to the company’s bottom line which allows a company to stay ahead of its competition. Through research and development companies can design new products and improve their existing offering.

• Feedback:

The company should take feedback from their employees about the work. For example – Do you have any suggestions on how to make the work environment more fun. Or, Are you having issues with your job in your current position? Or, is there a work style or culture you don’t like in the company.

• Human Resource Planning:

This HR function is all about knowing the future needs of the organisation. What kind of people does the organisation need, and how many? Knowing this will shape recruitment, selection, performance management, learning and development, and all other human resources functions.

• Job Design and analysis:

One of the foremost functions of HRM is job design. Job design involves the process of describing duties, responsibilities and operations of the job. To hire the right employees, it is imperative to identify the traits of an ideal candidate who would be suitable for the job. This can be accomplished by describing the skills and character traits of the top-performing employee. Doing so will help one to determine the kind of candidate you want for the will be able to identify their key minimum requirements in the candidate to qualify for the job. Job analysis involves describing the job requirements, such as skills, qualification and work experience. The vital day-to-day functions need to be identified and described in detail, as they will decide the future course of action while recruiting.

• Employee Hiring:

Recruitment is one of the primary functions of human resource management. HRM aims to hire efficient employees to achieve the goals and objectives of the company. All this starts with hiring the right employees out of the list of applicants and favourable candidates. An HRM helps to source and identify the ideal candidates for interview and selection. The candidates are then subjected to a comprehensive screening process to filter out the most suitable candidates from the pool of applicants. The screened candidates are then taken through different interview rounds to test and analyse their skills, knowledge and work experience required for the job position. Once the primary functions of HRM in recruitment are completed, and the candidate gets selected after rounds of interviews, they are then provided with the job offer .

• Recruitment of employees to maintain international relations:

As an HR manager, one would recommend hiring some professionally trained personal who are proficient at maintaining international relations as the business wants to bring their communication products to a new international market this year. This will ensure that there is no misunderstanding between them and their foreign counterparts . Also they will make it easy to communicate with business partners . They can also make it easy for businesses to comply with all the paperwork needed to start an international business.

• Creating an employee grievance system:

As the organisation is going to recruit more employees there may be chances that new employees are not happy with their working conditions or the new and old employees are not getting along that well so to solve every problems of the employees the HRM department should create an grievance system through which employees can file their complaints . Also every HR department member would be asked to give their best to solve problems of all employees in every possible manner .

• Providing family benefits:

As an HR manager, one would recommend the management to provide incentives to not only employees but to their families also. Incentives like family vacations and full family insurance should be given to employees so that they feel more content and satisfied with their work . Organising guest lectures for family planning would also help to improve employee satisfaction and knowledge so that they can lead a better and meaningful life.

Thank you

 A Retrieved Reformation Short story by O. Henry .                                



 “A Retrieved Reformation” concerns the surprising fate of Jimmy Valentine, a skilled safecracker who returns to society after he is paroled from prison. Major characters include Jimmy Valentine; Mike Dolan, his partner in crime; detective Ben Price and Annabel Adams, the girl with whom Jimmy falls in love.

As the story begins, Jimmy is called to the warden’s office. The warden hands Jimmy his pardon from the governor and advises him to stay out of trouble: “You’re not a bad fellow at heart,” he says. “Stop cracking safes, and live straight.” Jimmy laughs, feigning surprise, denying he had ever committed the bank robbery that had sent him to prison.

 Jimmy leaves prison  and takes a train to another town where he meets up with Mike Dolan, a friend . After picking up his key from Mike, Jimmy returns to his room above Mike’s restaurant where he had lived before detective Ben Price arrested him. Jimmy finds his safe cracking tools still hidden in the wall where he had left them. A week later, a string of bank safe burglaries in the Midwest comes to Ben Price’s attention; he knows Jimmy Valentine is back in business and sets out to catch him again.

Meanwhile, carrying his burglar tools in a suitcase, Jimmy arrives in small, remote Elmore, Arkansas, where he plans to rob the bank. Walking toward the hotel, he encounters a beautiful young woman. Their eyes meet, and in that instant, Jimmy undergoes a complete reformation: “Jimmy Valentine looked into her eyes, forgot what he was, and became another man.” After talking to a boy on the street, Jimmy learns she is Annabel Adams, whose father owns the bank. Jimmy continues on to the hotel, where he registers as “Ralph D. Spencer.” In a conversation with the hotel clerk,

Jimmy learns that Elmore does not have a shoe store and that business is good in the town. He does not rob the bank; instead, “Ralph Spencer” settles in Elmore, opens a profitable shoe store, becomes a social success, and makes the acquaintance of Annabel Adams. A year elapses. Still using his “Ralph Spencer” alias, Jimmy enjoys great success. His business is growing, he and Annabel are soon to be married, and Annabel’s father and sister have accepted him as one of the family. To cut completely the ties with his past, Jimmy writes a letter to one of his former friends, asking the man to meet him in Little Rock. Jimmy plans to give the man his set of safe cracking tools. The day before Jimmy is to leave for Little Rock, Ben Price arrives in Elmore, spots Jimmy Valentine, and learns he is about to marry the banker’s daughter. Ben Price has other ideas.

The next day before leaving town, with his burglar tools in his suitcase, Jimmy goes to the bank with Annabel, Annabel’s sister, and the sister’s two little girls, May and Agatha. Annabel’s father wants to show off the new burglar-proof safe he has recently installed. While all are admiring the safe, Ben Price comes into the bank and watches the scene; he tells a bank teller “he was just waiting for a man he knew.” Jimmy is unaware of the detective’s presence.

Without warning, May playfully locks Agatha in the bank vault, throwing the bolts and spinning the combination lock as she had seen her grandfather perform the maneuver. The safe cannot be opened, Mr. Adams exclaims in horror, since the timer and the combination had not been set. Furthermore, Agatha will soon run out of air in the vault. Jimmy and the others can hear Agatha crying out in panic. Annabel turns to Jimmy, begging him to do something, at least to try.Jimmy looks at Annabel with a “soft smile.” He asks her for the rose she is wearing. Confused, Annabel hands him the rose. Jimmy puts the rose in his vest pocket, throws off his coat, and pushes up his shirtsleeves: “With that act Ralph D. Spencer passed away and Jimmy Valentine took his place.” Using his tools, Jimmy opens the safe in record time, freeing the sobbing child.Once Agatha is safe, Jimmy puts on his coat and walks away; he hears Annabel call out to him, but he does not stop. When he encounters Ben Price, who has witnessed the dramatic scene, Jimmy tells the detective, “Well, let’s go. I don’t know that it makes much difference, now.” Price, who seems to be acting rather oddly, replies, “Guess you’re mistaken, Mr. Spencer . . . Don’t believe I recognize you.” With that, the detective leaves.

Things learn from the story

The tone of the story, with its gentle humour and sentimentality, is representative of much of O Henry’s work. Although Jimmy Valentine has no intention of abandoning his life of crime, love magically transforms him in an instant. Also, many of O. Henry’s stories develop themes which, in their simplicity, can be summed up as “the moral of the story.” In the case of Jimmy Valentine, goodness is rewarded. Cracking Mr. Adams’ safe does not send him back to prison; it prevents his being .




Tata motors limited formerly is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company . like other companies Tata motors is even facing challenges with the global semiconductor storage and disruption in the supply chain .  Even due to covid-19 and lockdown crises it is facing a struggling period . the shortage is the result of substantial in the demand due to pandemic and increased use of semiconductors in advanced Vehicle. It have already faced controversy over the development of Nano Return on investment on Tata motors shares in low. other competitive car manufacturers have been in the passenger car business for more years , therefore Tata motors limited has to catch up in terms of quality and lean production ,as it relative shares a smaller proportion of market share in passenger vehicle in India.

 Tata motors face intense competition in its domestic as well as foreign competition as well as reducing its share .The regulatory intervention is effective sales of commercial vehicle as well as domestic car sales leading to Tata motors losing money on every car sold in India Presently.


• Bargaining Power of Supplier:
Suppliers bargaining power depends upon the underlying factors affecting the
supply chain. The critical factor affecting suppliers’ ability is the importance of
suppliers, the nature of supplies and the value for the buyer’s supply chain.
• Bargaining Power of Buyers:
The buyers’ power to bargain depends upon the underlying factors and the industry. The other generic
factors that impact buyer power are buyers’ concentration, better alternatives, and competitiveness of
the market. The automobile manufacturing industry is highly competitive; significant players are
competing for each market segment.



➢ The goods and factors company is a great opportunity to automobile companies.

➢ The Indian demonetisation policy has largely affected cash intensive industries like automobile manufacturers .


➢ India’s growing economy is an opportunity for automobile manufacturers as it is considered consistent with robust growth .

➢ The intensive competition in the automobile company.


➢ The changing lifestyle of millennials whereby they have shifted from car ownership to access and buying car has become unnecessary.


➢ The Indian emission norms where by car manufacturers have to give the declaration of the emission level of cars the manufacturer will impact the automobile industry .


➢ The introduction of intelligent connected cars is a major trend which will impact the whole industry.


➢ With the government taxing automobiles only 28% and a reduction on smaller cars and SUVS this will positively impact the automobile industry and the buyer at the same time.

Strategies of Tata motors Limited :

• It is recommended that the company should fallow differentiation strategy and focus on providing unique goods and services to win over the market .

• Digitalisation: Competitive advantage Provide new revenue and value-producing opportunities. Reinvent processes, improve quality and promote consistency.

• Investment in Renewable energy :Low cost, energy efficiency, low emissions, and reusability.30 % of the world’s energy by 2024 Generates saving and commercial opportunities

• Acquisition and mergers of other businesses globally: More resources , scale of operations will increase. Benefit their shareholders Consequently increasing profits .

All the way it help Tata motor to cope up with things.

Thank you



The information technology has revolutionized various aspects of our life it has provided an easy way to go for digital payments. The common people started to move from traditional payment system towards digital payment systems which ensured safety, security and convenience. With giant technological leaps in the smart phone and easy internet access led Indian market to accept digital payments. Initially the scope of digitalization into the market was not that popular but due to changes in the technology people became more aware of digital payments. Quick transfer of payments can take place from anywhere in the world within seconds. The percentage of the digital payments through other modes is also increasing in a significant speed for instance Google pay, Paytm etc. All the transactions in the digital payments are completed through online. It is an instant and convenient way to make payments.

objectives was :

1.To study the impact of cashless transactions on individuals and their behavior
towards adopting digital payments.
2.To understand the problems faced by the people while making online
3.To analyze people’s opinion as to why digital payments can be a source of

India is a diverse country with mixed economy. Cashless economy is an economy where all the transactions are carried out digitally without using cash. Going cashless means it includes e-banking, use of debit/credit cards, Googlepay, phone pay, digital wallets, etc. A cashless country lessens the pester of carrying cash in hand to make a sufficient payment. Digitized payments have become the most efficient and convenient way of transaction. This process helps in the financial transaction. We can also define cashless economy as a flow of cash in an economy in a non-existent way. To get rid of corruption and boost our economy, the only solution is technology- to convert from cash to cashless economy. A cashless India is the first step towards making the dream of digital India a reality. The goal of cashless economy is to become a 100% cashless world. However, it’s not possible but a closer to it is possible. It helps to increase digital literacy. A cashless economy helps create huge employment in IT and software sector. The country will transform itself from informal to a formal sector. The real path of a cashless economy was laid in 2016 by the implementation of demonetisation. “Faceless, Paperless, Cashless” is one of professed role of Digital India


A system where no real cash is accessible for use is a Cashless System. Payments are made electronically i.e. through credit/debit cards, net banking and virtual wallets. The idea of Cashless economy is essential for the Digital India program and its vision is centered around changing India into a general public which is carefully competent and where there is no cash lane. The Government of India is functioning dedicatedly to push India towards a Cashless Economy. The plan is to smooth our the economy and curb corruption. Dispatch of Cashless Economy has achieved an ocean change in Indian Financial Framework. Since digital transactions are simpler and quicker, individuals are

Thank you.

Habit 4 Think Win-WinBook by Stephen Covey.

Most of us learn to base our self worth on comparison and competition . We think about succeeding in terms of someone else failing . Here, Balancing between both courage and consideration is required .when it comes to interpersonal leadership the more genuine character is the higher our level of proactivity, the more committed we are to win ,the more powerful influence will be.

In order to establish effective interdependent relationship we must commit to create in Win-Win situation that are mutually beneficial and satisfying to each party .

So one time Stephen was asked to work with a company whose president was very concerned about the lack of cooperation among his people . Stephen was told the basic problem of the company that the people are not cooperative .if this problem is solved, they would definitely be able to produce so much more . Stephen was said to help them to develop a human relations program that will solve this problem . When Stephen looked deeply into this, he found that there was real selfishness and unwillingness to cooperate, a resistant to Authority ,defensive communication .when he look into it ,he found out the reason behind This behaviour of the managers, is it because of the reward which is somewhere for not cooperating or well known that the reward are much more greater for the people who cooperate .

Covey noticed a chart on the wall of the office behind a curtain , were a numbers of racehorses all lined up on a track, super imposed on the face of each horse was the face of one of his managers ,at the end of the track was a beautiful travel poster of Bermuda , once in a week the president use to show them this chart and discuss about cooperation ,about working together and to make more money by their efforts and will asking about the one who is going to win the trip to Bermuda. It was like telling one flower to grow and watering another. he wanted cooperation , he wanted his people to work together to share idea to all benefit from the effort ,but he was setting them up in a competition with each other .One manager’s success means failure for the other managers.

The problem in this company was the result of a flawed paradigm .The president was trying to get the fruits of the cooperation from a paradigm of competition and when it didn’t work he wanted a technique , a program ,a quick fix antidote to make his people cooperate. But you can’t change the fruit without changing the root working on the attitude and behaviour would have been hacking at the leaves so we focused instead on producing personal and organisational excellence in an entirely different way by developing information and reward system with reinforced the value of cooperation.

Whether you are the president of a company or the janitor , the moment you step from Independence to interdependence in any capacity, you step into a leadership role you were in a position of influencing other people and the habit of the effective interpersonal leadership is think Win-Win.

This habit is about working in collaboration with others and not competitively it’s about getting the most out of every relationship you have ,it is where two people form a group because the value gained from sharing ideas thinking collaboratively and finding the winner is so significant developing this habit in was consistently thinking of others ,considering their values and ensuring their thoughts and feelings are at the forefront of your mind. In doing this you can ensure that your behaviour is appropriate given the time in situation and you can work with that person without any healthy conflict or upset but it’s not just about being emphatic it require confidence courage and openness as well.

Stephen covey states that in order to manage our relationship with others effectively we need think win /win . beyond being a technique it is a philosophy .

According to the author there are six Paradigms of human interaction: / win : all of the parties win agreements and solution are mutually beneficial to everyone involved . With a win/win solution , all parties feel good about the decision and feel committed to the action plan . It sees life as a cooperative , not a competitive arena .

2. win / lose : if I win ,you lose,” win lose people tend to use their power positions and authority to get their way . One alternative to win/win is win/lose, the paradigm of the race to Bermuda . Most people have been deeply scripted in win/lose mentally since birth . There is a place for win/lose thinking truly competitive and low trust situation . But most of our life is not a competition, most of life is an interdependent , reality .most result depend on cooperation between people . And the win/lose mentality is dysfunction to that cooperation .

3. Lose /win : the other way around – “I loose ,you win “. This is the paradigm of people pleasing . Lose – win people seek popularity and validation . Lose/win is worse than win/lose because it has no standards , no demand , no expectation, no vision . People who think lose/win are usually quick to please or appease. Both win/lose and lose /win are weak position , based in personal insecurities.

4. Lose/ lose : both people lose, this happens when two win-lose people get together both of whom as stubborn and ego invested if the philosophy of conflict and war. Lose/lose is also the philosophy of the highly dependent person without inner direction who is miserable and thinks everyone should be too “ if nobody ever wins , perhaps being a loser isn’t bad.”

5. Win / simply think win : people with the wind mentality don’t necessarily want others to lose its is relevant they just want to get what they want. When there is no sense of contest or competition . Win is probably the most common approach in everyday negotiation .

6. Win /win or no deal: if you can’t reach a mutually beneficial agreement then there is no deal. .According to convey , ideal paradigm is to always think Win-Win in any and all situation .As it helps to create better relationship and build character.But many times “it depend” .if you win a football game , that means the other team loses .If you work in a regional office that is miles away from another regional office , and you don’t have a functional relationship between the offices , you may want to complete in a Win/lose situation to stimulate business. However ,you would not want to set up a win /lose situation like the “race to Bermuda” contest within a company or in a situation where you need cooperation among people or groups of people to achieve maximum success . If you value a relationship and the issue isn’t that really important , you may want to go for lose/win in some circumstances to genuinely affirm the other person. Than even you might go for lose/win if you feel the expenses of time and effort to achieve a win of any kind would violate other higher values. Maybe it isn’t worth it .

To best choice , than depends on reality. The challenge is to read the reality accurately and not to translate win/lose or other scripting into any situation .

Five dimensions of win win

1. Character

Covay identifies three traits that he considered essential to win win paradigm

1. Integrity

There’s no way to go for win win in our own lives if we don’t even know in a deep sense what constitutes a win, what is in fact harmonious with our innermost values .and if we can’t make and keep commitments to ourselves as well as others, our commitment become meaningless.

2. Maturity

Maturity Is the balance between courage and consideration. if I am high on courage and low on consideration, how will I think win/ lose .if I am high and consideration and low on courage, I will think lose /win the basic task of leadership is to increase the standard of living and the quality of life for all stakeholders.

3. Abundance

The abundance mentality ,is the flow out of a deep inner sense of personal worth and security . It is a paradigm that there is plenty out there and enough to spare for everybody. it result in sharing prestige, or recognition of profit,of decision making.

2. Relationship

Without trust the best we can do is compromise ; without trust ,we lack the credibility for open, mutual learning and communication and real creativity. This especially true when dealing with someone who has a win /loss paradigm. We have to plan a communicate more and do so with genuine courtesy, respect, and appreciation for that person .even when the point of view clashes with our own .it is also important to listen with great depth not just to hear the word but to really understand the root of other person worldview .

3. Agreement

Covey provides five element for creating win /win agreement.

• Desired result – identify what is to be done and when.

• Guidelines – specify the parameters within which results are to be accomplished.

• Resources – identify the human, financial, technical ,or organizational support available to help accomplish the results .

• Accountability- set up the standard of performance and the time of evaluation.

• Consequences- specify good and bad ,natural and logical what does and will happen as a result of the evaluation

4. System

If you want to achieve the goals and reflect the values in your mission statement ,then you need to align the reward system with these goals and values .It does not matter whether dealing with a business, community, family etc .If cooperation is the goal, the reward system must line up accordingly.

5. Processes

By processes , covey appears to mean , to solve the problem . There is a four step process covey suggest :

• See the problem from the other point of view. Really seek to understand and to give expression to the needs and concern of the other party as well as or better than they can themselves.

• Identify the key issue and concern(not position ) involved.

• Determine what results would constitute a fully acceptable solution.

• Identify possible knew options to achieve those result .

Thank you

 Consumer preferences towards online food products.

   Abstract :

Food is one of the most common products for human beings. It is a basic source of survival. Today where people are at home or office or maybe at the spot of exchange, online food is one of the best and most productive ways for ordering as well as to satiate the hunger.

. Shopping for food online is a different thing from shopping for other things. Despite most of the population who, are dependent on online food services, many people Or consumers are still concern about the food safety of online food products.

Even where the internet has directly given a positive impact on consumers to get a better amount of satisfaction towards its easy access. However, even today, there are many factors affecting the consumer Behaviour towards it,  that involve ,the prices,  the accessibility , the preferences of the individual .

In this running world , online shopping is the only thing that is preferred with a believe of getting most out of whatever people need .

But whenever the term arises for shopping or ordering  food products online their attitude lead  to  An arena  in terms of their psychological state in terms of making purchases on internet .

Well , its all depend upon , identifying the problem of deciding to make purchases which are always based on there ever – evolving expectations and need .

         Introduction :

With an advancement of internet, the extension of the online food services has been boosted enabling people to search , compare prices and access to these  services conveniently .When compared to physical presence the consumers are more satisfied towards the services provided by online food delivery service and with its products .

In today’s words , the industry are providing a services leading to its 70%  in gross domestic product .Nowadays , many online food portal provide the better usage of facilities provided by the restaurant .

Many people , just from the start of the child to an working professional is accustomed to ordering the food for breakfast , lunch , dinner which is rapidly increasing in the metropolitan cities in the country .

One of the reason was for the maximum convenience and transparency .To get through to consumer needs , the person involve in the  online food servicing business constrain up with providing with increase facilities and services to them . With an updated knowledge of ones expectations will enable the firm to retain the customers to the greater extent .

The process of delivering a food from a restaurant with the help of cooperative web page created involves in  online food ordering , as it takes place .Payment of which is made with either the credit cards and with the  availability of cash on delivery. So basically, it’s a platform to reach a customer with their right  preferences and their needs .

So , with a growing online, platform to ordered the  food products is increasing with the fast pace . Due to the development in the cities and urbanization . Especially with the continuous arrival of professionals the  online food products, service segment is now thriving at a Sizzling  pace , some of the online food services includes food panda , Zomato , swiggy , just eat etc .

Even the customers , attraction towards the advertisement squeeze their time making them attracted towards it leading to of the factors for increasing sales and buying preferences . Even the most convenient method opted for their attraction was cash on delivery . It get easily delivered  their home and  with an easily assess to it putting a Breakout time free zone , buy just  a top of their  Smartphone which get  them food home .

The recent creativeness offer online food servicing accent kept them fascinating  towards it , Which involves :

  • Facebook ordering
  • Mobile ordering
  • Online coupons
  • One and only smartphones .

 Following questions are asked while doing research :

1. Why people are more prone to buy online food products?

2. What factors are affecting customers to purchase or order food online?

3. Why are people so attracted towards buying online food products ?

4. How often customer go ahead to order online food products?

.OBJECTIVES which were included

1.  changing attitude of customers from buying food from restaurants to buying

food online .

2. To study which segment is prone towards buying online food products.

3. To know the reason for preference towards online buying of food.

4. To analyse the level of satisfaction towards the consumption or purchase of online food.


  • Maximum of the respondents are in our survey is students who are pursuing graduation .
  • Most of the respondents are from 10- 20 years of age.
  • Maximum of the respondents are aware about online food products and their services.
  • Most of the respondents prefer online food products.
  • Maximum of the respondents are choosing to buy online food products and services for quality.
  • Most of the respondents said that the online food products are meeting their expectations.

9 .  Conclusion :

When compared to physical presence the respondents are satisfied with buying online food products .Main reason for the purchase of food products online comes here as to sometime , and with convenient access to it. Both male and female have the same type of behaviour towards liking and purchasing physically . Many of them are students pursuing graduation .Many buyers are attracted towards the advertisement and fascinated towards a delivery faculty at home or the work place. Where main reason for dislike of the food products goes is, the inability to touch and feel the product utmost.

 Well all after the other ,a good way of network mainly in this pace of running life. It takes consumer ,all their psychological thinking with a better expectations. Last but not the least is about the new online portals and credit cards give them a one tap access to whatever they are in need. So, it’s a medium of far more accessible than on wandering for it physically providing them comfort zones.

Thank you.

Job (opportunity knocking the door)

How early to apply for jobs:

All about it  :

Life is all of defining and setting up a goal. It is said that a human being with a purpose is most powerful than any other ordinary person. In this world, where obstacle strikes back of opportunities, one has to make there own path towards the destination which is to be decided in present for the future.

Our value increases based on our ability to see our worth, and when difficulties strike hard in life, keeping ourselves at the same pace till the storm passes.

Based on our capacity to grow beyond our scope and nutshell, it’s important to apply and move in the respective field we desired for.

Job, knowing when to apply is not a question today but the way to make us self reliance.

With the consideration of getting a desired job depends not only on eligibility but it requires knowledge. Applying for the job early means to start contributing the knowledge and time to it with full dedication.

The person, applying for the job should be ready, with respect to handling the achievement as well as  regulatory pressure as a part of their work.

Perfect timeframe :

It’s just goes beyond the scope for an individual going ahead with any type of job before completing their education. If one is able gain enough knowledge about the source , eventually it will be easy for the person to handle the things more  effectively and efficiently.

So the basic question arises is, about what should be the timeframe for getting any type of job, which is just perfect .

 The time frame in which one should start working depends on the situation which is prevailing, or it can be because of going out of the box.

 But mainly, When to start depends on the interest on the individual as well as the basic criteria for everyone, which is different in everyone’s life.

If the person is interested to be an entrepreneur than its just alright to join the company whatever they wish to, as in case of the one who have their parental business behind it.

The college students, should actually engaged in some or the other internship so that , with the college , they will eventually get a certificate of practical knowledge of the respective field, where they want to work out in their future.

So the person should start joining when they are sure about their work and about their skill, working out even in more severe conditions .

That’s why the basic thing involve is the desire for job based on the interest which needs experience.

  Jobs during college :

Even a college student can apply for a part time job which is mainly recognizable before the company where they want to take up the fortunate of being employed .

With the basic knowledge of being to their fullest , the extent for the same goes more and more importantly .

To get a desired job directly, one  have to go beyond the scope and level of experience needed for it, that’s why dreaming for big is good but the work and the efforts for the same should be started from the beginning. As the beginning is the toughest and the most important aspect of one’s journey .

A person having the judging potential will find out the way to be extracted from any given opportunity .

When a person decides to start a work, to get an experience, As per his capacities and capabilities , they  always want to get the best out of the prevailing work, To exact out exactly they are expected to .

Before the final year of the college where, more or less many of the companies are ready with their placement, students are at the end of their completion of their respective internship .

Whenever they come toward the interview for their job, Even though if one haven’t heard back from an employer ,

Without getting demotivated and stressed out from being deprived away, should  continue applying to various jobs, which will eventually greaten their chances of getting not a perfect job as but whatever is going to come should always be considered as for the convenience for the good sake .

It is actually for the employment whom that one opportunity just not work out where more desirable candidate are been waiting for .

So the basic age and the eligibility to start with the job goes when a person able to carry out his thought about the goal in their lives,  where one Is ready to workout with full of their vision. Which all goes as when a person enters into a higher education, it can be after 12th or it can be after graduation or post graduation.

But it’s all depend upon getting a job, if one is ready to work out than no one can ultimately stop them to get a job they need .

Jobs a glint :

In this arena of full of competition where candidate are seeking towards getting the perfect job where most of the people are indulge in giving various examinations, which are conducted every year. Mainly they go through various mental pressure if  are rejected in all the go.

So many other graduates doing the same thing, so many people started applying for many of the jobs whatever arises, as no one wants to skip as such just one chance to get through the experience from where expectations strike on .

If one is applying for the job so early that they just won’t have intensity it focus if you start way sooner than needed. They’ll have a sense of comfort and they’ll  just go through the motions without any urgency and Waste of time.

Also, if one start searching for jobs prematurely, ultimately having the risk of  losing the interest of many companies simply because they aren’t willing to wait that long.

Getting a job sooner is better for the representation of one’s identity.

Next stages :

Starting up of an entrepreneur can be a new form of startup for anyone but the one who goes beyond that is the best scope for anyone.

So the basic fact involved here is a person deciding to get a job According to him , and a person wants a job as per his will and desire, goes both as a different things .

It’s really a good idea to start a work as early one can . But it should be not in a hurry, as their can be chances to get more better opportunities in future perspectives .

It’s important to give yourself plenty of time to job search as you consider when to apply. Consulting with others in your view is actually, that already intake in the location you’re moving that could be highly beneficial.

 Also, One should be aware that things might not go according to plan. And that is actually in the case of many .

Once it’s time to start, you have to attack the job search 100%. And that goes more and more important with the fortunate enough to being at the right track.

If the person is already working out in an company and is applying in other companies as due to no interest or any other options, one should not quite the present job and only go ahead with this option when, completely sure about letting it go.

There are many of the people in this world who knows to move faster than one even could not image, and this is exactly from which an imperfect person fear from,

Threat must be present for a protagonists and adventurous, but what about the introverts and defenders, they are the one who have to face anything more than anyone. So start from where one is , whatever one have, and whatever one can do to achieve the successful work from being failure.

 Our value is recognised by the person who want us to get towards the successful means of direction, but the path towards it can we only measured by the hard work and persistent. All we need is to remember that whatever we are going through must be recognised by us and appreciate by us.

 So once an individual starts working as per his interest in the working field and not as per his needs, eventually leading it to extent for a greater time period As for the need get its immense satisfaction. But once they get the best job they will  utilise to their fullest towards the same .

So the question that how early should a person should start working is that when one is confident about his working experience and before that even though one is not having practical knowledge of the same can even though start, start with failures, as they get an opportunity.

But one should start,start by having what so ever.

As the life is a lesson, one should always learn something , understand, even thought losses its charm, win something.

Purpose :

The basic fundamental of life is a purpose, if one has a purpose of being to stand out at different places from the crowd then they will go up higher, even though striving with a problem.

We live in a society that sets demands without a frontier . One would evenly poise us between cherishing the outcome and in front of another skyrocketing dream . The urge to go after the best of the best overshadows the sweetness of fruit to be achieved.

Starting with just a one spark of glint where one is capable of self renewal, their life is worthwhile.  If one have decided their aim in life, and strive hard to achieve It, than no one else in the world can let them down even though obstacles strike hard.

Thank you