Media propaganda

“A rumour is a social cancer: it is difficult to contain and it rots the brains of the masses. However, the real danger is that so many people find rumours enjoyable. That part causes the infection. And in such cases when a rumour is only partially made of truth, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly where the information may have gone wrong. It is passed on and on until some brave soul questions its validity; that brave soul refuses to bite the apple and let the apple eat him. Forced to start from scratch for the sake of purity and truth, that brave soul, figuratively speaking, fully amputates the information in order to protect his personal judgment. In other words, his ignorance is to be valued more than the lie believed to be true.”
― Criss Jami, Killosophy

Propaganda is a common thing occurring in today’s media. Propaganda is used in order to promote or publicize a point so that in can reach millions and millions of people through media. The main objective of propaganda is to provide false information and thereby manipulate the audience into believing something different from the reality. Propaganda in media commonly occurs in several different flavours.

One of the most popular forms of propaganda is known as bandwagon. It is the power of persuading the customer by showing them what others are doing. This type of propaganda sort of sets an attribution to performing a particular activity to be enjoyable or common to others, making others inadvertently do the same. This kind of manipulation is often done in advertisements for example when people are shown to enjoy a particular kind of chocolate, the viewers of that advertisement tend to buy the same the following day at the supermarket.
“The President in particular is very much a figurehead — he wields no real power whatsoever. He is apparently chosen by the government, but the qualities he is required to display are not those of leadership but those of finely judged outrage. For this reason the President is always a controversial choice, always an infuriating but fascinating character. His job is not to wield power but to draw attention away from it. On those criteria Zaphod Beeblebrox is one of the most successful Presidents the Galaxy has ever had — he has already spent two of his ten presidential years in prison for fraud.”
― Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy
There exist several benefits to propaganda in any subject. One of the core benefits as well as objectives of spreading propaganda is the ability to control the response of people in a particular situation. It is also thought of to be a kind of sublte brainwashing done to people in order to make them believe that they are acting upon their own free will, while they dictate what they should do from behind. Such propaganda in media can manipulate the views of millions of the viewing audience and thus can impact the lives of several negatively. In modern times, the Government has limited the use of propaganda in certain advertisements in order to protect the views of the public. They have imposed a limit upon the amount of propaganda allowed to be used in different kinds of advertisement, marking how much may prove to have a bad impact on people’s views. Such has not occurred in media, and thus, even today, much of the information which we receive from media continue to offer to us biased views. People should work to bring about a change and also be wary of such kinds of practises.

Population

“The world has a very serious problem, my friend’ Shiva went on. ‘Poor children still die by their millions. Westerners and the global rich — like me — live in post-scarcity society, while a billion people struggle to get enough to eat. And we’re pushing the planet towards a tipping point, where the corals die and the forests burn and life becomes much, much harder. We have the resources to solve those problems, even now, but politics and economics and nationalism all get in the way. If we could access all those minds, though…”
― Ramez Naam, Crux
Population defines the total number of human beings living in an area. Population helps us perform a variety of tasks such as estimate the amount of resources that may be consumed in a certain area. Population is a very important factor in today’s world because it effects not only unemployment and the medical industry, but also effects the agriculture as well as food industry. When the population of a country increases then all the crisis factors arises. Coming up to the food and agriculture crisis, we get to see that people do not get sufficient amount of food because the portion of land cultivable in a certain country is limited. There comes the issue of food shortage in a country and also the available food is given to the common people at a much higher rate than what the normal rate is. Coming to the medical industry we see that there are crisis of beds, medicines and other medical facilities. This is because any country with high population cannot cope up with any kind of disease on a large scale. Coming to COVID-19 we see that India faces a lack of beds, medicine and vaccination. It is not the fault of the Government, but the fault of India’s population. There are a limited number of hospitals as well as hospital rooms. A single room can only afford to place a particular number of beds. We also get to see that many doctors have stepped out from this fatal situation of patients. We also get to see that many patients who are in deadly conditions do not get sufficient amount of treatment which any citizen should get.
“The Civilized… murder their children by producing too many of them without being able to provide for their well-being. Morality or theories of false virtue stimulate them to manufacture cannon fodder, anthills of conscripts who are forced to sell themselves out of poverty. This improvident paternity is a false virtue, the selfishness of pleasure.”
― Charles Fourier
Even the employment sector is highly effected by the huge population of any country because we get to see that the number of seats in any company is limited. But if the applicants are huge, no company can give jobs to all of the large number of capable graduates. Even we get to see that after a particular age, some people lose their jobs. This is because companies try to hire freshers who have newly graduated from their respected colleges and they tend to remove their old employees and higher the new ones. This is due to high population, since otherwise there would be enough seats for a fresher to join even when there were seniors at the same job. Thus we see that in almost every sector of a human’s daily life large population can make a huge impact in a negative manner. The best step a Government can take is to ban the number of children in a particular family.

Physical exercise

“Typically, people who exercise, start eating better and becoming more productive at work. They smoke less and show more patience with colleagues and family. They use their credit cards less frequently and say they feel less stressed. Exercise is a keystone habit that triggers widespread change.”
― Charles Duhigg, The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business
There is an old saying – “health is wealth”. Achieving good health is not possible without the aid of regular exercise. Most exercise can cure several common diseases that plague young children. People of different age groups prefer to perform different types of categories, mostly according to their stamina. Most elderly people prefer to go on morning and evening walks instead of going to the gym. However, free hand exercises are meant for people of all age groups. Educational institutions such as schools and colleges have included a fixed time period so that children can perform physical exercise. Sports teachers equipped with the knowledge of various kinds of outdoor games are recruited in such educational institutions. This helps them obtain a much needed gap in between their regular study time. In regard to exercise, good practices are followed in regard to sports. These sports include kho-kho, kabadi, monkey-dance on trees etc. Young boys climb on trees to fetch fruits to eat. Children living in cities are quite used to play popular sports such as football, hockey and cricket. Many schools have inter-school competitions regarding these sports, creating a much-needed competitive atmosphere.
“At present, in this vicinity, the best part of the land is not private property; the landscape is not owned, and the walker enjoys comparative freedom. But possibly the day will come when it will be partitioned off into so-called pleasure-grounds, in which a few will take a narrow and exclusive pleasure only,—when fences shall be multiplied, and man-traps and other engines invented to confine men to the public road, and walking over the surface of God’s earth shall be construed to mean trespassing on some gentleman’s grounds. To enjoy a thing exclusively is commonly to exclude yourself from the true enjoyment of it. Let us improve our opportunities, then, before the evil days come.”
― Henry David Thoreau, Walking
With increasing stress on the people of today’s generation, proper recreation should be supplemented with regular physical exercise in order to keep one’s body healthy. An unhealthy body can be a target of a myriad of physical illnesses. It decreases the immunity of one’s body. There are several free options that one can avail in order to have some exercise instead of paying the hefty fees in order to enrol in some physical education class. This includes thing such as going out to play with friends, regular morning walks, performing free hand exercises and other activities such as swimming and boating. The Internet has enabled us to gain the knowledge of various things for free – physical exercise is just one such thing. Good health is a combination of a healthy body and mind. Physical exercise is just the best way to be healthy in life. There are other means of being healthy such as the intake of nutritious food, intake of proper medicines, taking enough rest and spending time in proper living conditions. But neither of these can surpass the benefits of physical exercise which is a boon to both the body and mind at the same time.

Crimes and the justice system

“Death Penalty’ in rarest of rare cases, should adorn criminal justice system in India, which would operate as a deterrent mechanism. Abrogation of capital punishment and it’s obliteration from the law, would be a great folly. In the human rights perspective, concretising the human rights of the criminal (perpetrator of a particular offense attracting Capital punishment) by negating Human Rights of the victim is again a murder of justice.”
― Henrietta Newton Martin
In the modern society, the criminal justice system put into place by the Government is quite important in order to control anti-social behaviour. However, it isn’t an easy task to punish criminals. This is because there is a process of finding out who is actually guilty, before the process of punishing the person. History has been lined with such cases of innocents being punished due to no reason of their own, while the guilty gets away.
A majority of crime is more often than not, not reported to the police. This may be due to fear of getting punished by the perpetrators before the police can intervene. They may also think that the crime committed against them was too minor for it to be reported or be taken by anyone seriously. The prior is often common among victims of abuse. Most teenagers don’t report being bullied to their teachers or parents due to embarrassment or lack of courage to face up against them. This is quite a similar case to when most crime is not reported.

“There are some human rights that are so deep that we can’t negotiate them away. I mean people do heinous, terrible things. But there are basic human rights I believe that every human being has. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in the United Nations says it for me. And it says there are two basic rights that can’t be negotiated that government doesn’t give for good behaviour and doesn’t take away for bad behaviour. And it’s the right not to be tortured and not to be killed. Because the flip side of this is that then when you say OK we’re going to turn over — they truly have done heinous things, so now we will turn over to the government now the right to take their life. It involves other people in doing essentially the same kind of act.
(PBS Frontline: Angel on Death Row)”
― Sister Helen Prejean
The criminal justice system consists of several police departments, courts and corrections. Each and every part of it plays an important role in punishing the guilty. Often we find multiple agencies collaborating with each other in order to find the culprit of a crime. Law is said to be a set of regulations, rules and principals by which a society is run while crime is said to be committing an act forbidden by the law, to which a punishment has been attached. The science of psychology believes that people commit crimes due to abnormal mental conditions. Crime may be influenced by a myriad of factors which includes cultural issues such as education, politics and law-enforcement, as well as economic conditions. There has been several theories in regard to the reason as to why an individual may commit a crime. Some of them are psychological, sociological, economic, cultural and anthropological. Crime statistics are used to measure the rate of crime in a society. Thorough research over the years has indicated how these values may be quite conflicting, due to the very nature of various types of crime and their tendency to be unreported.

Basic human rights

“Everyone is so locked into the current way of doing things, they never see the larger picture or other, more responsible and efficient possibilities. A REAL economy is always wanting to limit consumption/manufacturing as much as possible by assuring the strategically “best” and “adaptable” productions at all times, while keeping balance with human needs and public health.

It is a total shift in intent than what we have today.”
― Peter Joseph
The Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs are as follows:
• Physiological needs – The first level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is know as Physiological needs. The things which are necessary for human survival consist of things such as food, water, sufficient rest, clothing, shelter, overall health and reproduction. This is really necessary to move on to the next level of the hierarchy.

• Safety needs – The next lower level after physiological level is known as safety needs. This group includes protection from violence and theft, emotional stability and well-being, health security as well as financial security.

• Love and belonging needs – The next lower level after the safety needs level is known as love and belonging needs. This level includes friendships and family bonds – both with a person’s own family and extended family such as spouses and partners.

• Esteem needs – The next lower level after the love and belonging needs level is the esteem needs level. The primary elements of this level are self respect and self esteem. The author of these levels tells us that self-esteem can be divided into two types – on the basis of respect and acknowledgement for others and esteem based on our own self assessment. Self confidence and independence issue from this self assessment, which is also a type of self-esteem.

• Self – actualization needs – The next lower level after the esteem needs level is known as self – actualization needs. It describes the fulfilment of a person’s full potential.
“If the steam engine freed human beings from feudal bondage to pursue material self-interest in the capitalist marketplace, the Internet of Things frees human beings from the market economy to pursue nonmaterial shared interests on the Collaborative Commons. Many—but not all—of our basic material needs will be met for nearly free in a near zero marginal cost society. Intelligent technology will do most of the heavy lifting in an economy centered on abundance rather than scarcity. A half century from now, our grandchildren are likely to look back at the era of mass employment in the market with the same sense of utter disbelief as we look upon slavery and serfdom in former times. The very idea that a human being’s worth was measured almost exclusively by his or her productive output of goods and services and material wealth will seem primitive, even barbaric, and be regarded as a terrible loss of human value to our progeny living in a highly automated world where much of life is lived on the Collaborative Commons.”
― Jeremy Rifkin, The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism
India is already in a very critical situation in providing employment to every citizen of the country who actually needs the employment. It is not only because of the Government, but also because of the lack of seats in jobs. This is because of the growing population of our country. Population also leads to a shortage of food in the country which contributes to a higher price of food. Maintaining such a huge population for the Government is quite a herculean task. This is because it isn’t possible for the Government to reach out to each and every citizen of the country.

Homelessness

“Bleak, dark, and piercing cold, it was a night for the well-housed and fed to draw round the bright fire, and thank God they were at home; and for the homeless starving wretch to lay him down and die. Many hunger-worn outcasts close their eyes in our bare streets at such times, who, let their crimes have been what they may, can hardly open them in a more bitter world.”
― Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist
Homelessness is the state of living without any permanent home or residence. It is a very difficult ordeal to go through. The homeless person is usually devoid of any place to sit down, fall asleep or store their belongings. Such occurrences are pretty scary when it occurs to us once in a while, but it takes quite a heavy toll on these homeless people who have to endure it day after day. The prime cause of such vast majority of people being homeless are the sky – rocketing prices of houses these days. Other factors such as single parenting, high poverty rates, decreased mental health and trauma and also the lack of education and training influence homelessness. Several facilities now exist in today’s day and age in order to fight homelessness. However, these facilities lack the resources necessary to aid the homeless people. It is one such issue that can plague people of all age groups. Not only are the people who live on the streets homeless, some who even rent temporary accommodation throughout the year are also homeless. The story of a person becoming homeless varies widely from person to person. Research hasn’t yet been able to pinpoint it to a single solid reason. However, statistics from various homelessness centres show that most of the teenagers who seek such help are known to be victims of abuse, eviction or family breakdown. Some of the young also become homeless due to the loss of a loved one such as their guardian. This deals a heavy blow on them and their suffering becomes twice fold. Before they can obtain help, most of such people have to sleep rough on the streets or wherever they can find a place to spend the night. A majority of these people are uneducated and thus cannot get a job. Almost all of them cannot financially support themselves, let alone others who are homeless along with them. They do not even have enough money or receive enough financial support so that they can join an educational institution in order to pursue a degree.

“The homeless people’s suffering belongs to amusement of our political order under a game over the right of marginalised group being transformed into citizens for merely punishment and humiliation. The Public Space Protection Orders is a penalty over one’s condition suffering – it is a fine over the disempowered for being disempowered. This act allows power to fragment the homeless into sub-humans punishable for the state of utter misery.”
― Bruno De Oliveira
Most homeless people fall victim to drugs at an early state. This almost guarantees that they will never be able to get off the street. In case of such addicts, even the money that they earn from begging is spent on drugs instead of the food that they desperately need. Homelessness is also a trait very common in places struck by natural disasters. Thousands of people who were financially well – off before, now lose the shed above their heads and have no other choice than to live on the streets. The high prices of commodities in such areas also contribute to the fact that it is almost impossible for them to recover in the absence of external help.

The COVID-19 Pandemic

“We have a chance to do something extraordinary. As we head out of this pandemic we can change the world. Create a world of love. A world where we are kind to each other. A world were we are kind no matter what class, race, sexual orientation, what religion or lack of or what job we have. A world we don’t judge those at the food bank because that may be us if things were just slightly different. Let love and kindness be our roadmap.”
― Johnny Corn
The COVID-19 pandemic has been a major influencer of our lives. The effect of the pandemic highlighted our various social and economic backgrounds, our status as people and citizens of India. While many people lost their jobs due to the pandemic, some were forced to work in the front lines forced to face the brunt of the disease while being exposed to it, while others slowly started adapting to web-based work. Thousands of jobs have been lost due to this pandemic. The number of infected as well as casualties to this disease has been massive. Recent statistics have shown that minorities were far more susceptible to be effected by this disease due to much lesser privileges available to them. Most people suffering from this disease are far more unlikely to get treatment in the absence of a pre – existing insurance plan. The cost for treatment of COVID-19 is so high that most of the middle class cannot afford it. Government hospitals do not possess enough beds for the treatment of patients. Moreover, their equipment is mostly poor or outdated.
“A reflective human mind would look at the COVID-19 pandemic and will be reminded that this life will end one day for him from one or the other material cause. But, it does not matter whether it will be due to any disease or accident. However, his life and life of others is not meaningless.”
― Salman Ahmed Shaikh, Reflections on the Origins in the Post COVID-19 World
Many people live far away from grocery and medical stores leading them to be far more susceptible to fail recovering from the disease. Proper care in case of COVID-19 patients is a necessity. The most used strategies of prevention of COVID-19 are social distancing and wearing of masks. People should always wear masks while going out and not to go out into crowded places unless absolutely necessary. The front-line workers should always use proper protection in order to protect themselves from COVID-19. Repeated sanitization should always be performed as it is a really good method to prevent COVID-19. The Government should be providing aid to those people who are unable to pay for the treatment of COVID-19. The number of victims of COVID-19 has far lessened over time. The CBSE board has taken a decision to cancel the class 10 board exams and postpone the class 12 board exams amidst the current situation due to the new strain of coronavirus. But it has been noticed around the country that class 10 students are celebrating on the occasion of cancellation of their board exams. This is not a good decision because the CBSE board has taken this decision just to prevent the gathering of students in this pandemic situation. This has been a brilliant decision on the part of the CBSE board. However, the students are misusing this opportunity by gathering in masses and partying in order to celebrate the cancellation of their board exams. They should dedicate this time to studying as they would have if they had their normally scheduled exams. Not studying will ultimately defeat the purpose of the CBSE board’s decision.

Junk food

“The food problem is a flavor problem. For half a century, we’ve been making the stuff people should eat–fruits, vegetables, whole grains, unprocessed meats–incrementally less delicious. Meanwhile, we’ve been making the food people shouldn’t eat–chips, fast food, soft drinks, crackers–taste ever more exciting. The result is exactly what you’d expect.”
– Mark Schatzker, The Dorito Effect: The Surprising New Truth About Food and Flavor
Junk food is extremely hurtful and is gradually destroying the immune systems of the current generation. Even the actual term “junk food” signifies how risky it actually is for our bodies. Nevertheless, most people consume it on a daily basis since it tastes so good. This is due to the fact that very little mindfulness is spread about the hurtful impacts of low quality nourishment. The consumption of junk food is thought to be the most straightforward method of gaining undesirable weight. The amount of fats and sugar in junk food makes the body put on unhealthy weight rapidly. This weight is actually not good weight, it is unhealthy weight due to the consumption of high percentages of fats and cholesterol which may have negative effects on the human body in the long run. In today’s day and age, junk food is thought to be the main reason for obesity.

“Animals’ taste systems are specialized for the niche they occupy in the environment. That includes us. As hunters and foragers of the dry savannah, our earliest forebears evolved a taste for important but scarce nutrients: salt and high-energy fats and sugars. That, in a nutshell, explains the widespread popularity of junk food.”
– Mary Roach
Although junk food looks and tastes great, these are due to certain reasons. Junk foods satisfy caloric needs of the body through high amounts of sugar and fat. Often, very harmful chemicals are used in junk food in order to make them look good. These chemicals when consumed in large quantities may have long term side effects. Regular consumption of junk food can cause various illnesses such as diabetes and hypertension. This may slowly lead upto kidney failure. Junk food also leads to fast spiking in energy levels. This leads to a feeling of pleasure but does not satisfy our daily vitamin and mineral requirements. It also contributes to frequent mood swings. Junk food increases body blood sugar and pressure levels. The risk of heart disease increases in such individuals. Junk food also causes damage to the liver. It also causes diabetes in children. Over a long period of time, lack of fibers in junk food causes damage to digestive system. This is a cause of constipation. Junk food should be replaced with healthy food. We should always consume a balanced diet. Junk food companies fool people by advertising with bright colours and over exaggerated pictures. Junk food is quick to get i.e easily accessible. Thus it easily appeals to their customers. In modern busy lives, people are too busy to prepare food for themselves. Thus they prefer to depend upon fast food joints to provide them with a quick and easy fix. Hygiene is often lacking in junk foods because fast food joints do not pay attention to cleanliness. Junk food also makes us crave more food due to the unbalanced nutrition that it provides.

Child labour

“They began work at 5:30 and quit at 7 at night. Children six years old going home to lie on a straw pallet until time to resume work the next morning! I have seen the hair torn out of their heads by the machinery, their scalps torn off, and yet not a single tear was shed, while the poodle dogs were loved and caressed and carried to the seashore.”
― Mother Jones
The normal age for a youngster to be capable to work is estimated to be 15 years. These kinds of work takes away a child’s opportunity of having proper education as well as physical and mental growth. Although illegal in many countries, it is far from being eradicated. Child labour occurs for a myriad of reasons. Since most businesses want to save on money, they employ children for low amounts of payment for the same amount of work allotted for a grown up. Since most youngsters are far fitter and physically agile than most of the elderly, businesses often employ them in order to save on money. These conditions can be improved by educating parents about the benefit of going to school and educating oneself. In addition to this, making the children themselves aware of the negative effects of child labour is crucial. The number of members in a family should be controlled, so that there are less mouths to feed, and the work done by parents is sufficient. Job opportunities should be increased so that parents can earn enough so that they do not have to make their offsprings work in order to earn extra cash. The Government should make more laws discouraging child labour. Harsh penalties may be imposed on people employing children for labour. In most developing nations, child labour is a major problem. The future of millions of children are ignored in the process of earning some spare cash.
“Before child labor laws, there were businesses that treated their ten-year-old employees well. Society didn’t ban child labor because it’s impossible to imagine children working in a good environment, but because when you give that much power to businesses over powerless individuals, it’s corrupting. When we walk around thinking we have a greater right to eat an animal than the animal has a right to live without suffering, it’s corrupting.”
― Jonathan Safran Foer, Eating Animals
India is the leading country in child labour in comparison to other Asian countries, with a 33 million children undergoing various forms of child labour. According to the 2011 Census information, 10.13 of these workers are between the ages of 5 – 14. World Day against Child Labour is an ILO (International Labour Organisation) endorsed holiday previously dispatched in 2002 with the goal to bring issues to light and promote activism in order to prevent child labour. According to UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund), around 150 million children are involved in child labour, when looked upon worldwide. 1 in every 11 kids works to earn a living, as per insights by ActionAid India. The five states which are the greatest contributers to child labour in India are – Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, according to information given out by Save the Children NGO. The national capital of India – Delhi, in itself, is liable for a portion of 1 million child labourers alone. A new investigation by CRY (Child Rights and You) of census data in the country shows that the diminishment in child labour per year is a mere 2.2 percent, throughout the last 10 years. Additionally, it has uncovered that child labour has grown by more than 50% in metropolitan regions.

Corruption

“One of the saddest lessons of history is this: If we’ve been bamboozled long enough, we tend to reject any evidence of the bamboozle. We’re no longer interested in finding out the truth. The bamboozle has captured us. It’s simply too painful to acknowledge, even to ourselves, that we’ve been taken. Once you give a charlatan power over you, you almost never get it back.”
― Carl Sagan, The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark

Corruption is the criminal act of dishonesty. It is an evil act said by an individual or a group. Most importantly, people in positions of authority are the most susceptible to corruption. Corruption is a representation of greed and selfish behaviour. India is full of corruption in today’s day and age. The politicians and several leaders of our nation are quite corrupt and hence India’s economy has been suffering.
Some of the common methods of corruption are:
• Bribery – Bribery is the demonstration of offering someone money or something of significant value in order to convince them to accomplish something for oneself.
• Extortion – Extortion is the crime of acquiring something from someone, especially through force or threats.
• Fraud – Fraud is a purposeful deception intended to furnish the culprit with an unlawful gain.
• Embezzlement – Embezzlement alludes to a type of whie-collar crime in which an individual or element abuses the resources dependent on him or her.
• Collusion – Collusion is a non-competitive, secret, and sometimes illegal agreement between rivals which attempts to disrupt the market’s equilibrium. The act of collusion involves people or companies which would typically compete against one another, but who conspire to work together to gain an unfair market advantage.
• Abuse of discretion – Abuse of discretion is a norm by which appellate courts review certain decisions by lower courts.
• Favouritism, nepotism and clientism – Favouritism, nepotism and clientism include preferring of not the culprit of corruption, but rather somebody identified with them, such as a friend, relative or member of an affiliation.
• Cronyism – Cronyism is the arrangements of companions and partners to places of power, without proper regard to their capabilities
• Patronage – Patronage is the help, advantage, or moneytary guide that an association or individual gives on another
“You know, it’s pretty easy reading this book to see why I was angry and confused for all those years. I lived my life being told different stories: some true, some lies and I still don’t know which is which. Children are born innocent. At birth we are very much like a new hard drive – no viruses, no bad information, no crap that’s been downloaded into it yet. It’s what we feed into that hard drive, or in my case “head drive” that starts the corruption of the files.”
― Nikki Sixx, The Heroin Diaries: A Year in the Life of a Shattered Rock Star

The Government should take steps to do away with corruption. They should put up banners and hoardings throughout the city. Advertisements should be given. Hand outs should be distributed outside public buildings regarding these matters. Advertisements should be played on national television in order to spread this knowledge far and wide. The Government should include this in the curriculum for young children in order to educate them about corruption. Parents should encourage their children to fight against corruption. Children should be introduced to proper laws. The capacity to decide what is right and what is wrong should be instilled into them from a very young age. Going ahead, this will ensure a brighter future for India.

Road accidents

“ There’s a difference between driving and texting. When your driving your eyes have to be open and on the road watching the cars around you, road signs, and traffic lights. Along with your mind on the road and destination. Which means you are multitasking. When your texting your eyes are on your cell phone screen and key pad. Along with your mind on what your going to say next. So how can you do both? Please stop! ”
― Jonathan Anthony Burkett, Neglected But Undefeated: The Life Of A Boy Who Never Knew A Mother’s Love
Road accidents refer to the collision of vehicles with another vehicle or person or some inanimate object. We see numerous road accidents everyday. This comes even after so much improvements in technology. The question arises as to why this is happening. In the case of India, there is one death in every four minutes due to road accidents. The main culprits to this problem are low awareness about roads and drunk driving. Automobile companies too need to take more safety precautions while manufacturing cars. We as the citizens of India should unitedly request for better equipped cars with more safety precautions. Improper visibility due to various bad weather conditions and rash driving further contribute to the death toll. The Government should station police officers at close intervals to monitor traffic speed and motion detecting cameras to take note of overspeeding vehicles. Also, speed caps can be introduced on vehicle manufacture in order to curb over speeding of vehicles. Road accidents can cause permanent injuries that include broken bones, concussions, haemorrhages and other injuries. That being said, with proper care, most road accidents are avoidable.
“Everything started to move in slow motion. A vehicle was coming up the hill in the opposite direction, facing us but in its own lane. With vehicles parked on both sides of the road, this meant that there was just a narrow passage area for both vehicles to pass through. However, he had yet to reduce his speed, and now I knew which car he was going to hit. I was frozen stiff with fear in the front passenger seat, as I helplessly watched him slam into the back of a parked car. I was not wearing a seat belt, so upon impact my head crashed into the windshield. I was then slammed back into my seat, but with such force that everything went black.”
― Drexel Deal, The Fight of My Life is Wrapped Up in My Father
The main reasons for road accidents that are due to equipment failure can be classified as due to failing of break, bursting of tyre, tread separations or problems in steering or suspension. Traffic rules have been created in order to mitigate the possibility of such road accidents. Every day’s morning newspaper is covered with the deaths of people who are dead or severely injured. Despite so many precautions, road accidents are surprisingly common in India. These accidents mostly occur to those who do not obey traffic rules. Many people think that the worst consequence of breaking a traffic rule is a fine, but they fail to see the bigger picture. Such people in the long run end up paying for this mistake with their life. People in vehicles must always remember to wear their seat belts. Driver should stay below the recommended speed limit. Cars should be driven in their own lanes. It must be taken utmost care of to wear a helmet before stepping out.

Pollution

“ One hundred and fifty years ago, the monster began, this country had become a place of industry. Factories grew on the landscape like weeds. Trees fell, fields were up-ended, rivers blackened. The sky choked on smoke and ash, and the people did, too, spending their days coughing and itching, their eyes turned forever toward the ground. Villages grew into town, towns into cities. And people began to live on the earth rather than within it. ”
― Patrick Ness, A Monster Calls

In today’s world, pollution is quite a relevant topic. Pollution has existed since the creation of the earth, and still continues to exist to this day. Pollution is the contamination of the natural environment that causes negative effects and long-lasting damage. Several types of pollution exist. Some of these are:
• Air pollution – Air pollution is the pollution of air due to harmful substances present in it. The contributors of air pollution are vehicle emission, dust and dirt, poisonous gases etc. Ozone gas (O3) is a major contributor of air pollution. When it combines with air, it is known as “smog”. Air pollution is caused by the increased levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Frequent climatic changes can also cause air pollution.
• Water pollution – Water pollution is the contamination of water due to chemicals or microorganisms, often a body of water, degraded enough to render it toxic to humans consuming water from it. A few categories of this are groundwater, surface water, surface water, ocean water, point source, nonpoint source and transboundary. The effects of water pollution can be seen from the huge number of deaths that it has caused over the ages. Drinking contaminated water causes various illnesses in people every year. These diseases include cholera, giardia and typhoid. This type of pollution is prevalent even in well off nations.
• Soil pollution – Soil pollution is the degradation of a portion of land due to the presence of chemicals or other changes in natural soil. Such pollution is characteristically aused by industrial activity, improper use of fertilizers in agriculture and improper disposal of waste. Soil pollution has a plethora of effects. Short term effects include headaches, nausea, coughing, chest pain, irritation in eyes, fatigue and weakness. Long term effects due to prolonged exposure to soil pollution are permanent damage to nervous system, depression of CNS, damage to vital organs and a higher than average risk of developing cancer.

“Because, underneath all of this is the real truth we have been avoiding: climate change isn’t an “issue” to add to the list of things to worry about, next to health care and taxes. It is a civilizational wake-up call. A powerful message—spoken in the language of fires, floods, droughts, and extinctions—telling us that we need an entirely new economic model and a new way of sharing this planet. Telling us that we need to evolve.”
― Naomi Klein

Pollution can be reduced by raising awareness about it. This can be done by the Government. The Government can educate young children about pollution by including it as a compulsory part of school curriculum for them. Banners and hoardings can be put up on streets. Advertisements can be played on national television. The only way to fight pollution is to learn about its harmful effects and let everyone take steps to curb every kind of pollution. Use of plastic products should be used and replaced by sustainable and eco-friendly products. Ultimately, pollution only causes a negative effect on the environment and the life of man. Thus we must take action against pollution before it gets any worse.

Disaster management

“ There is a portent of stormy weather ahead to which we had better give heed…No one knows when emergencies will strike…Set your houses in order. If you have paid your debts, if you have a reserve, even though it be small, then should storms howl about your head, you will have shelter for your wife and children and peace in your hearts. That’s all I have to say about it, but I wish to say it with all the emphasis of which I am capable. “
– Gordon B Hinkcley

Every nation should outline a plan beforehand in order to tackle disasters when they strike. These disasters may be either man-made or natural. These things involve the loss of life and property.

Some examples of disasters are:
• Chemical emergency – Under specific conditions, the chemicals used in our daily lives can become harmful to the human body. Even in the case of chemicals we come across in our daily lives, large quantities of them can be harmful. Exposure to chemicals usually occurs by breathing it in, consuming contaminated food, water, medicine or touching or coming in close proximity with toxic chemicals.
• Drought – A drought is characterised by a period of dryness long enough to cause harmful effects. Its severity depends n the degree of moisture in the air. Droughts are usually of four types – meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic.
• Earthquake – It is characterised by a sudden and rapid shaking of the earth which occurs due to the shifting of tectonic plates beneath the surface of the earth.
• Fire – Fires can be fought easily with the help of a working smoke alarm and an escape route that has been well practised. It can also be avoided using common workplace safety protocols that have been put in place in order to avoid such fires.
• Flood – Floods are the overflow of water to submerge land causing huge economic damages. It usually occurs after hurricanes. Flash floods are a specific type of flood that involves fast rising water levels and occurs only along a stream or low-lying areas.
• Flu – It is a contagious respiratory disease. Flu generally spreads from person to person through coughing or sneezing. The types of flus include seasonal, epidemic, swine and avian flu.
• Nuclear explosion – Nuclear explosions involve an intense amount of light and heat to be dispersed in addition to a damaging pressure wave and spreading of radioactive material, contaminating natural bodies. Nuclear fallout is the falling of minute radioactive debris from the atmosphere just after a nuclear explosion. Radiation is energy coming from a source that causes it to travel at the speed of light.

“ If you knew what I knew, you would pile it up in the middle of the floor, throw a cloth over it and walk around it!”
– Harold B. Lee
Proper measures are pertinent in order to cope with various disasters, be it natural or man-made. Safety precautions and guidelines must be laid out thoroughly beforehand in accordance with these disasters. Disaster prone areas should be notified beforehand. This can be done through education. The Government should take an initiative in this regard. Education can be given to young children in schools. Banners and hoardings can be put up. Advertisements can be played on the national television regarding disaster management. The news channels can be asked to promote proper disaster management and safety precautions that can be taken at home in order to avoid such occurrences. The only way that man can fight disasters is by spreading awareness about it.

Lack of jobs or livelihoods

“Whatever your favorite kind of resistance is, it is likely to go into full bloom as you start making changes to your livelihood because this is an area that is linked with survival (our job is what pays our bills) as well as identity (our job is how we define ourselves). As a matter of fact, the more resistance you encounter, the more likely that you’re hitting paydirt in your transformational process.”
― Maia Duerr, Work That Matters: Create a Livelihood That Reflects Your Core Intention
With the spread of the coronavirus on the rise, jobs are slowly on the decline. Most jobs have been lately reducing work hours for employees. This indirectly means lesser salaries. This is being done in order to save money which is spent in order to pay the several employees in a company periodically. As the decline continues, nearly one in every two people lately suffer from the risk of losing their job. This data has been confirmed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). With passing months, the drop in work hours continue to become steeper than what was previously estimated with more and more people suffering. The extension of the lockdown period is a contributor to the effect of people losing their jobs. America has experienced a 12.4 percent drop in working hours as compared to the 11.8 percent in Europe and Central Asia. Other regional groups follow closely behind with numbers as high as 9.5 percent.
Billions of people have lost their source of livelihood due to the global pandemic. Several billions have suffered permanent damage. Mostly people working in the restaurant, entertainment and tourism industries have been hit the hardest. People who continue to have a source of income have experienced a significiant drop in the amount that they usually earn. Since there are little to no new jobs coming up, millions of people are dying due to lack of means to survive. The Government should work upon providing more jobs for the common people in order to maintain a strong financial backbone. Better allocation of resources and provision of aid to start-ups and small family-run business are in much need. People are also expecting schemes in order to help the poor and needy survive.
“This advice comes as a surprise: job searching is not joblessness; it is a job in itself and should be structured to resemble one, right down to the more regrettable features of employment, like having to follow orders–orders which are in this case self-generated.”
― Barbara Ehrenreich, Bait and Switch: The (Futile) Pursuit of the American Dream
The prolonged lockdowns in India, although very necessary, has greatly harmed the nation’s economy. It has lead to loss of jobs for millions of people, most of whom now possess no means to survive. With no means to stop the spread of the coronavirus, lockdowns were the only logical decision at that time in order to avoid the risk of infecting millions of people. Although the lockdown contributed to saving the lives of people, it had similar negatives effects due to the loss of jobs for many people. Thus saving people’s livelihoods is equally important. The call for action should be to strike a balance between lockdown and the preservation of livelihoods for millions. The lockdown also found millions of migrating workers far away from their home, deprived of work and shelter and no means of survival. The worst blow was dealt to the people who were in informal employment. The quality of healthcare for patients without COVID-19 saw a drastic decrease in the months leading to the lockdown.

Lack of Government support

“ ‘Freedom’ means a lot to conservatives, but they have such a narrow sense of what it means. They think a lot about freedom from – freedom from government, freedom from regulation – and precious little about freedom to. Freedom to is absolutely something that has to be safeguarded by good government, just as it could be impaired by bad government. ”
– Pete Buttigieg
The first confirmed case of COVID-19 in India was at the district of Thrissur in Kerala – a student who had returned home to enjoy a vacation from the Wuhan University in China. Since then, it has been several months. Most small business are expected to fail to endure the pandemic and in the process, shut down completely. Most of the owners of these small businesses have stated that they will require financial aid in case they are to reopen or continue to stay open. These small businesses and companies mostly do not possess the necessary funds and assets required in order to survive the pandemic. It is widely believed among the small business owners that restaurants took the brunt of the effect due to the pandemic. All restaurants regardless of size had been ordered to be closed by the Government. While on the other hand, gyms are allowed to operate at full capacity, restaurants have to continue to face such difficulties.
Every year, several events are held across the globe. Some of the popular events among these are the Olympic Games, World Cup, World Expo, Art and Culture festivals, performances and charity fundraising. These events along with several other local events may be a source of earning of several locals. Due to shortage of funds, these events often fail, leading to severe losses for the locals. The Government’s financial support would make it easy for these events to take place. Other events such as Art and Cultural festivals do not create economic benefits, but they do have cultural as well as environmental benefits. Even such events require Government aid in order to function in a healthy manner. These events can also be a source of income for the Government. Since it is a win-win situation, the Government should assist in the hosting of such effects. However one must not forget that the original aim of some of these events is not to make profit, but to take forward the sports culture across generations.
“ A constant stream of ‘free’ money is a perfect way to keep an inefficient or simply bad government in power. As aid flows in, there is nothing more for the government to do – it doesn’t need to raise taxes, and as long as it pays the army, it doesn’t have to take account of its disgruntled citizens. ”
– Dambisa Moyo
Even today for many children, education remains just a dream. The Government needs to provide sufficient funds in order to make these dreams a reality. Government schools barely have the adequate equipment required in order to equip students with proper practical skills. Books and other such materials are also missing from most schools. Most teachers do not possess sufficient training to teach the students. The Government should strive towards making changes in these schools. They should start by providing financial aid to children in need. Books and other study materials should be provided by the school, free of cost, as such things can be recycled year after year. Throughout the ages, the major social problems such as deteriorating education, lawlessness and crime, homelessness, the collapse of family values, the crisis in medical care – have been produced by well-intended actions by the Government.

Poor public works and infrastructure

There is a huge need and a huge opportunity to get everyone in the world connected, to give everyone a voice and to help transform society for the future. The scale of the technology and infrastructure that must be built is unprecedented, and we believe this is the most important problem we can focus on.
– Mark Zuckerberg
To accomplish sustained poverty reduction, nations like Indonesia should seek financial development that includes and benefits the poor. The development of the poor is a necessary aspect in order to meet the UN (United Nations) Development Goal (MDGs) which has a set focus fo various difficulties in varied sectors (agriculture and income, education, health, water and sanitation). Although infrastructure hasn’t been distinguished as a direct MDG target or indicator, the arrangement of infrastructure is essential in facilitating financial growth and local development. Without sustainable infrastructure development, a large number of MDG targets may not be met. Investing in infrastructure might be a source of livelihood for many people. The development and upkeep of such infrastructure needs labour and this creates opportunities for people to get a job. The utilization of local resources also bring about the betterment of the economy of the neighbourhood. Although India is the world’s fourth largest economy, lack of good infrastructure is a cause of major obstruction to a huge amount of growth and development. Physical infrastructure has a direct impact on economy and may cause people to invest money in India.

While infrastructure in India is still developing, there are a plethora of issues which need to be addressed in order to curb poor infrastructure. A few of such examples are:
• A stark division between production and demand of electricity detrimenting both manufacturing and overall growth
• Roads are a popular means of transport. They are cheap and easy to avail and can take us to most places in our daily lives. Roads act as a backbone for transportation in India. The poor conditions of the roads thus effect the quality, speed and the wide reach of transport here.

It turns out that advancing equal opportunity and economic empowerment is both morally right and good economics, because discrimination, poverty and ignorance restrict growth, while investments in education, infrastructure and scientific and technological research increase it, creating more good jobs and new wealth for all of us.
– William J. Clinton
India’s ambition of keeping in pace with its extremely fast pace of growth depends largely on infrastructure. The infrastructure available in India is till date inadequate and insufficient for such a growing nation. Infrastructure development is the main priority for improving India’s manufacturing competitiveness and as a result cause higher growth. Even for budgeted projects, timely execution is a challenge for many. Although things such as power generation and transmission is on the rise, the declining condition of transportation infrastructure forces a limit onto corporate performance and investments. If developed successfully, good infrastructure may benefit a myriad of sectors and be an overall boost to the country’s economy. However, large sums of money are necessary for such infrastructure to take place. It is important to first fill up the infrastructure deficit before thinking about going for better infrastructure for future growth. The cost for transport in India (around 15% of the country’s GDP) as well as China(around 18-20% of the country’s GDP). The GST (goods and service tax) aims at fixing the negative effects of different layers of taxes across the state and the central governments, causing much help to logistics and infrastructure companies.

Lack of education

There are over 200 million illiterate women in India. This low literacy negatively impacts not just their lives but also their families’ and the country’s economic development. A girl’s lack of education also has a negative impact on the health and well-being of her children.
– Sachin Tendulkar

Education is the future of man. In the 20th century, education is necessary for everyone. Like uneducated people live under the shadow of the educated, illiterate nations live under the shadow of literate nations. Even today, education remains a dream for many. Millions of children enrolled in a primary school are not able to attend regularly, while the millions of uneducated parents lack the knowledge required to earn money to be able to improve living conditions for both themselves and their children.

The reasons why people lack education are numerous. The following are some reasons:
• Gender based inequality contributes to lack of education, even for children in the same household
• Physically disabled children are often judged when they study in the same classroom as other children
• Poor health often doesn’t let children attend school
• Cultural background such as ethnicity, language or religion
• Poverty doesn’t allow them to avail education
• Unemployment of parents doesn’t allow regular payment of fees to educational institutions
• Often they cannot take part in various activities due to illnesses
• Illiterate parents do not understand the necessity of education and hence think that it is better to make their children work rather than go to school
• Lack of adequate number of schools
• Unavailability of proper schooling materials such as books
• Improperly trained teachers
• Girls are given work at home whle boys are allowed to study for a better future

Education had been a great gift for him [Ziauddin]. He believed that lack of education was the root of all the Pakistan’s problems. Ignorance allowed politicians to fool people and bad administrators to be reelected. He believed schooling should be available for all, rich and poor, boys and girls.
– Malala Yousafzai
Lack of education has long since transformed into a global issue. It causes the lack of jobs and does poverty, and in turn, this poverty doesn’t allow their children to study. Most private schools cost a lot of money. Government schools are rarely well-equipped enough to provide quality education. Most developing countries suffer from such lack of education. Parents often impose upon their children a field of study which the child may not like to study. This creates issues in the long run and the child may drop out of school or not gain education at all. Getting a degree without being properly educated causes frustration in the long run. Parents should not impose their will upon their children and instead let them decide for themselves. The most that they can do is to provide proper education and inspire their children to study. Lack of knowledge about different fields of studies due to unavailability of proper career council often leads them into studying for over-saturated careers which may be hard to succeed in.

Education is often poorly measured and their statistics do not show properly in surveys. Children not attending schools goes largely unreported and their parents prefer not to inform the authorities. In many households, family members themselves may discourage the child from studying since they themselves had not attended school. Deprivation from education doesn’t allow children to develop basic mathematical and cognitive skills which are required in order to survive. Strict and immediate actions should be taken by the Government in order to eradicate this problem. The young generation of today is the future of tomorrow.

Little or no access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene

“Fresh, clean water cannot be taken for granted. And it is not – water is political, and litigious. Transporting water is impractical for both political and physical reasons, so buying up water rights did not make a lot of sense to me, unless I was pursuing a greater fool theory of investment – which was not my intention.”
– Michael Burry
The advantage of having a clean water source to drink from, good sanitary procedures and decent hygiene practices can only be identified when all three of these are available together. Beyond the few obvious and immediate effects available, these practices have a wider effect on women and girls. For the implementation of these facilities, well – resourced capable institutions are required.
A person without access to clean drinking water is forced to depend on other sources. These sources include surface water, contaminated water bodies or unverified sources of supposedly clean water. These might contribute to several diseases. Drinking contaminated water may result in several diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid and polio. Without proper treatment, most of these diseases may prove fatal in the long run.
I started off with a company, InfoSpace, with my own funding. The company was listed among the most successful companies and I went on to start Intelius and Moon Express. Now, I focus my time on using the skills of an entrepreneur to solve many of the grand challenges facing us in the areas of education, healthcare, clean water and energy.
– Naveen Jain
Without access to proper sanitary facilities, people are forced to use improper sources. Defecation is performed in either community latrines which are inherently dirty, or have to defecate in the open. Exposed faecal matter in the environment may be recycled back into people’s food, making open defecation extremely dangerous. Cholera is expressly spread through these practices. The lack of water disposal systems and sewerage systems contaminate the environment and cause diseases.
To most people in need, hygiene is quite a foreign concept. They are unaware of good hygienic practises and their contributions in protecting us from diseases. Even people who do possess such knowledge are unable to maintain proper hygiene due to lack of necessary supplies. Such supplies include things such as lack of soap, clean water and washing facilities. These are important to protect themselves and people around them.
UNICEF works towards improving such conditions through several actions like the following:
• Empowering communities
• Supporting schools
• Humanitarian actions
• Responding to COVID-19
• Increasing focus on sustainability
• Partnerships
Hundreds of thousands of children die every year from diseases such as diarrhoea. Around 88% of deaths from diarrhoea are due to these contributing factors. Millions of people worldwide are infected with tropical diseases that arise from these factors. These diseases include the Guinea Worm Disease (GWD) which is an extremely dangerous disease. The infected is attacked by parasitic worms which painfully spread out through the body. GWD is usually caused due to drinking contaminated water. Other diseases include Trachoma, a disease caused due to facial uncleanliness. This disease characteristically causes poor vision or blindness. The Government should identify these problems and work towards improving these. With proper attention, education and provisions for clean water, these diseases can be easily avoided. People in rural areas should be informed about poor hygiene practises and on how to improve the same. Banners and hoardings can be put up. Advertisements on national television may spread this information far and wide. Sanitary supplies such as soaps and tissues can be made free for the public and distributed periodically.

Climatic changes

“It’s not that the world hasn’t had more carbon dioxide, it’s not that the world hasn’t been warmer. The problem is the speed at which things are changing. We are inducing a sixth mass extinction event kind of by accident and we don’t want to be the ‘extinctee.’”
– Bill Nye, ‘The Science Guy’
Changes in environment worldwide has had an effect on climate. The amount of ice whether on streams or lakes have vastly reduced throughout the ages. Researchers have anticipated several effects of changes in worldwide environmental changes. Among them are contraction of icy masses, separation of ice in streams and lakes, moving plant and creature ranges and early growth of trees. Other such effects include loss of ocean ice, sped up ocean level ascent and warm ocean waves. Worldwide temperatures are expected to rise soon and are expected to keep rising to a great extent mainly due to human by-products that effect the ozone layer of the atmosphere.
“One can see from space how the human race has changed the Earth. Nearly all of the available land has been cleared of forest and is now used for agriculture or urban development. The polar icecaps are shrinking and the desert areas are increasing. At night, the Earth is no longer dark, but large areas are lit up. All of this is evidence that human exploitation of the planet is reaching a critical limit. But human demands and expectations are ever-increasing. We cannot continue to pollute the atmosphere, poison the ocean and exhaust the land. There isn’t any more available.”
– Stephen Hawking, Physicist & Author



Some of the future effects of climate changes are:
• Changes will continue in the future – the extent of these changes across the following years relies principally upon the measure of heat-trapping gasses discharged globally amd how sensitive the Earth is to these emanations.
• Since it is human-induced, warming is superimposed on a naturally varying climate. Thus the temperature rises across countries will not be level over time.
• Frost-free season will lengthen – This will effect the ecosystem and agriculture. As globally emissions will increase much slowly if the emission of heat-trapping gases are reduced.
• Changes in precipitation patterns – changes in precipitation patterns contribute to sudden heavy precipitation
• More droughts and heat waves – Summer temperatures are expected to continue rising and hereby reduce moisture in the soil. This reduces heat and projected and contributes largely over long time periods.
• Hurricanes – The frequency and duration of hurricanes are increasing with time. Although the contributions of humans towards increasing intensity of hurricanes has been unknown, it recent hurricanes have been quite intense.
• Rise in sea levels – The global sea level has risen by about 8 inches since starting record keeping since 1880. This is due to the melting of ice and polar ice caps. With combined effects, storm surges and high tides cause massive floods in many regions. Rise in sea level will continue and this rate is estimated to rise in future. With such occurences, the arctic ocean will essentially become ice free in summer before the mid century.
Frequent climatic changes are highly damaging to the country’s economy. Several people cannot work properly in these harsh climatic conditions. Businesses are also effected in such conditions. We must take care of Nature in order to prevent such harsh climatic conditions and such frequent climatic changes. The only way to do so is through education of young people in these topics. Schools and colleges should make these topics compulsory in their curriculum. Seminars and practical sessions should be held on the topic of the conservation of Nature.

Poor healthcare systems-especially for mothers and children

Habits of pessimism lead to depression, wither achievement, and undermine physical health. The good news is that pessimism can be unlearned, and that with its removal depression, underachievement, and poor health can be alleviated.
– Martin Seligman
The future of society depends upon the health of the children of today and their mothers. Every kid has the right to a sound and healthy start to their life, and their mothers ought to receive quality medical services and medicines during pregnancy and labor. Too many children continue to die prematurely day after day in spite of so many advancements. Poorer children are almost six times more likely to pass away before their fifth birthday in comparison to their wealthier counterparts. New-borns in poorer countries are in much higher risk of death than in richer countries. Although for a family with sufficient money, the birth of a child is a thing of great joy, for families without sufficient opportunities, it is often a period of dread. Accodring to the World Health Organization (WHO), pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of nearly 800 such women every day. It is possible to avoid such circumstances with the introduction of proper and timely healthcare. Healthy children are a prime asset of the human world, while hunger and malnutrition often cause reduced cognitive development and intellectual performance in most children.
Occurrences of deaths due to pregnancy and childbirth are mostly prevalent in rural areas, where proper facilities are not available. These pregnant mothers mostly need to travel long distances in order to avail such services. The journey in these situations is long and arduous, and more often than not is not possible to be undergone by most. Even when they arrive at the medical facilities after a difficult journey, they often find these facilities to be understaffed and underprepared, not capable to carry out such procedures. Minority communities often face discrimination at local healthcare facilities which contributes to a higher-than-average fatality rate for such people. More often than not, medical knowledge is not put into good use due to the unavailability of a necessary number of facilities to perform such procedures. Poverty, cultural traditions and legal affairs often forbid mothers from seeking proper healthcare for themselves and their offsprings. Provision of water and decent sanitation must be done. Newborns must be kept away from indoor pollutants like the gas produced when coal is burnt in order to cook food. Mothers often are unaware of proper maternal procedures due to lack of education. Timely introduction of properly complementary foods according to a child’s age must be taken care of.
Joblessness is a weapon of mass destruction. Poverty is a weapon of mass destruction. Hunger is a weapon of mass destruction. Poor health care is a weapon of mass destruction. Poor education is a weapon of mass destruction. Discrimination is a weapon of mass destruction. Let us abolish such weapons of mass destruction here at home.
– Dennis Kucinich
With modern scientific and technological advancements, it is very well possible to treat any complications with regard to pregnancy and childbirth. Spending money on such healthcare services by the Government is a very rational decision and is in the interest of the nation. Adequately staffed hospitals should be available in close proximity of even sparsely populated rural areas. Medical representatives must be well educated about humanity and minority communities in order to reduce discriminatory acts which are quite prevalent in today’s age. Health check-ups and medicine could be made free for such young mothers in need. Working together, the World Health Organization and the World Bank are advancing towards the practise of proper healthcare practises throughout the world.

Hunger, malnutrition and stunting

“Close to a billion people – one-eighth of the world’s population – still live in hunger. Each year 2 million children die through malnutrition. This is happening at a time when doctors in Britain are warning of the spread of obesity. We are eating too much while others starve.”
-Jonathan Sacks
Malnutrition is the lack of nutrients in the body necessary to grow and stay healthy. Doctors check for the following when testing for malnutrition:
• a person’s height and weight or body mass index (BMI) to check if he is healthy
• for other underlying diseases that usually occur as a side effect of malnutrition
• blood tests to check for deficit of vitamins and minerals
• physical and medical history to look and instruct the patient to do some tests on that basis
Some of the effects of malnutrition are:
• lower levels of observed energy
• dizziness
• weak immune system which makes it hard for the body to fight off minor injuries or infections
• swollen and bleeding gums
• other dental problems such as tooth decay
• slower than average reaction time
• difficulty in paying attention for extended time periods
• low body weight
• slow physical and mental growth
• muscle weakness
• bloating of stomach
• brittle bones
• problems in various organs
• difficulty memorizing information
“Our foremost priority is the removal of poverty, hunger and malnutrition, disease and illiteracy. All social welfare programmes must be implemented efficiently. Agencies involved in the delivery of services should have a strong sense of duty and work in a transparent, corruption-free, time-bound and accountable manner.”
-Pratibha Patil
The Government can provide loans free of interest to people in dire need. Educational loans should also be made free of interest as it is one of the primary needs of mankind. The Government could also try and spread information about hunger and malnutrition in order to educate the youth of our nation. New schemes could be developed to aid disaster-stricken citizens. India ranked 94 among 107 countries in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) in 2020. According to reports, 14 percent of India’s population is malnourished. Severe rates of stunting and malnutrition still plague our country to this day.
Very often more than not, extremely poor people rely on agriculture for their livelihoods. They face several challenges like drought that do not let crops grow for extended periods of time. Sometimes all their crop may go to waste due to heavy showers of rain or flooding of rivers. Often their crops suffer due to improper usage of fertilizers and pesticides. This occurs since they have no education on how these things work, since the majority of the population suffering from poverty is uneducated. Farmers do not get any benefits while taking loans and they mostly lack the capital to spend in order to buy seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and other farm equipment necessary to feed their crops. Educating people on proper nutrition, a balanced diet, sanitation and hygiene is an important step towards eradicating poverty. Poverty is the root cause of hunger and malnutrition. For communities depending upon natural resources for their livelihood, it is important to identify that they depend on a perishable source. Thus it is important for them to prepare for calamities and to save up on natural resources and use them wisely. Sometimes, families are suddenly struck with crisis. In these situations it is extremely important for humanitarian assistance to be provided to them, so that they do not fall victim to hunger and malnutrition. Hunger and malnutrition also does not let a person work properly which in turn becomes a cause of poverty and ultimately contributes to the same.

Procrastination

“Time is an equal opportunity employer. Each human being has exactly the same number of hours and minutes every day. Rich people can’t buy more hours. Scientists can’t invent new minutes. And you can’t save time to spend it on another day. Even so, time is amazingly fair and forgiving. No matter how much time you’ve wasted in the past, you still have an entire tomorrow.”
― Denis Waitley
Procrastination is the act of deferring or delaying a task or a set of tasks. Regardless of what it is called, it prevents us from concentrating and completing our work. We now know that the world today is conducive to procrastinating and learning how to overcome it is, therefore, one of the most important skills you can learn.
Research has uncovered a particular phenomenon known as “time inconsistency” which tells us why procrastination wins even when we have sincere goals. Time inconsistency alludes the human brain to value immediate rewards much more than long term future rewards. One must remember that although thinking about our future self might bring about solid objectives, only our present self is capable of taking the action necessary in order to fulfil those objectives. This is why humans often fall asleep while thinking about thinking about future improvements, and then wake up the next day finding themselves back into their old routine, without implementing any changes even after so many thoughts.
Examples of procrastination are:
• Browsing social media instead of doing important tasks or work
• Putting off homework assignments until the last date of submission
• Delaying getting started with gym or diet or similar physical exercises to get fit
• Looking at unimportant information instead of relevant information
• Going to work on a project and then instead looking up inspirational material
• Ignoring household chores
• Ignoring regular studies and postponing them for later on

“I’ll think of it tomorrow, at Tara. I can stand it then. Tomorrow, I’ll think of some way to get him back. After all, tomorrow is another day.”
― Margaret Mitchell, Gone with the Wind
Procrastination is a major cause of people missing out on quite a number of things they want to do. Sometimes all our opportunities seem to be on our fingertips, but we can’t seem to reach them. It is one of the most important topics in today’s modern era. When we procrastinate, we waste time that could be invested in something meaningful. If this fierce enemy can be overcome, we can accomplish more and in doing so better utilize the potential that life has to offer. It causes depression in millions of people each year. Procrastination is the primary cause of severe psychological disorders in teenagers of today’s age. It is a common trait for people having ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and OCD(obsessive compulsive disorder).
The easiest way to stop procrastinating is to make it as easy as possible for our present self to start doing our work. One of the most reasons for procrastinating is the fact that we don’t have a clear path about what we want to do. Hence, the way out is to have a clear idea about our path and then get to work. It is also extremely important to realize that we are procrastinating in order to get relief from it.
Children and young people should more often be educated about procrastination. Teachers should be asked to have a talk with their students about this topic in order to optimize their student’s study routines. We should get inspired to put in actual effort into our work, rather than waste time procrastinating about what we are going to do.

The power of advertisements

“There are a lot of great technicians in advertising. And unfortunately, they talk the best game. They know all the rules … but there’s one little rub. They forget that advertising is persuasion, and persuasion is not a science, but an art. Advertising is the art of persuasion.”
– William Bernbach
Advertisements are known to be the spreading of information about a particular brand, product or service in order to engage customers and increase sales. Advertisements have been characterized as the most remarkable, influential, and manipulative instrument that organizations need to control buyers everywhere on the world. It is a type of correspondence that regularly endeavours to convince expected clients to buy or to devour all the more a specific brand of item or administration. Advertisements have had a profound effect especially in today’s day and age. Impacting individuals’ propensities, making bogus requirements, twisting the qualities and needs of our general public with sexism and women’s liberation, publicizing has become a toxic substance snake prepared to chase his prey. In any case, then again, publicizing has had a constructive outcome as an assistance of the economy and society.
Nowadays, it is very hard for a brand or company to spread news and sell their product without advertising. The amount of sales of a product is highly dependent on how much the product is advertised. Brands are using different techniques nowadays to advertise their products. Popular celebrities are often used to advertise their product. New marketing strategies and ideas are being researched every day. Traditionally, advertisements used to be through means such as banners, posters, hoardings, radio or television. With the growth of social media, especially after the internet boom in India, a large amount of advertisements is online nowadays. Most popular social media stars use their social media handles to promote a particular product. This lets them earn vast amounts of revenue from these brands. Brands also try to conduct more and more advertisements through social media since they gain a lot through such means. The main reason to use famous people for such advertisements is that they have a much higher power to convince in comparison to an unknown brand advertising their product, claiming it to be very good. Celebrities have the power to transform their image into the product that they are advertising. It is almost as though they share their personality with the product and with this personality comes the trust of the buyers. However, the selection of a correct person to endorse a brand is prudent. This selection must be done carefully in order to achieve maximum results.

“There is a great deal of advertising that is much better than the product. When that happens, all that the good advertising will do is put you out of business faster.”
– Jerry Della Femina

Fake advertisement is a malpractice and should be done away with. Some examples of such are thing such has hidden fees, changing standard units of measurement to hide downsizing, incorporation of fillers in food and consistently comparing the product to only the competitors that it can beat. Some other example of such fake advertisement is the use of artificial colours to change appearance of food, advertising a high number of vitamins even though it is way under the Dietary Allowance, bait and switch of a discounted product with a product costing far more and permanent acceptance of a product until the consumer manually opts out of accepting it. Unfortunately, such malpractices are very common in today’s world. Harsh penalties are incurred by companies performing such false advertisements and several millions of dollars are lost in lawsuits. The government should be on the lookout for such malpractices and strict actions should be instantly taken to protect the common man.

Poverty and social life

“Child labor and poverty are inevitably bound together and if you continue to use the labor of children as the treatment for the social disease of poverty, you will have both poverty and child labor to the end of time.”
— Grace Abbott, social worker
Poverty is normally characterized as having less than than 60% of the median household income. Poverty is the parent of revolution and crime. It is defined as the inadequate supply of items that are essential to live a healthy and comfortable life. In western developed countries some people are poor not because they lack food, clothing or shelter but because the person may not have car,tv,computer etc. But in India, poor people means those who do not get two square meals a day, they sleep on others pavements and live bare bodied and bare footed. In India, poverty is primarily caused by unequal distribution of wealth. Furthermore unemployment and an increase in urban population is drastically increasing the rate of the country’s population. To aggravate the condition, the jobs that these individuals work pay woefully low wages. This is because these individuals do not possess the required qualifications and are not employable. Also, corruption is one of the biggest factors contributing to poverty followed by illiteracy. Poverty in India is from the ancient times when people who were poor weren’t allowed to enter religious places. The main causes of poverty are unemployment, lack of education, poor utilization of resources, corruption and poor government policy. Poverty is a man-made issue and can be removed by efforts from fellow human beings. Poverty in India can be reduced by providing amenities such as education, family planning etc.
India is currently known as one of the most fastest developing countries on the planet, with around 18 Indians getting past the poverty line according to the World Poverty Clock. As indicated by Oxfam, India’s top 1% of the populace presently holds 93% of the abundance, while 670 million residents, containing the country’s most unfortunate half, saw their abundance fall by 60%. The National Council of Applied Economic Research assessed that 48% of the Indian families procure more than ₹90,000 yearly. As indicated by NCAER, in 2009, of the 222 million families in India, the totally helpless families represented just 15.6% of them or around 35 million (around 200 million Indians). An additional of 80 million families were said to have pay levels of around ₹45,000 to ₹90,000 each year. These numbers are like World Bank assessments of the “underneath the-neediness line” families that may add up to around 100 million. Another reason is the lack of education. Education is a major reason for joblessness which contributes to poverty. Millions of people are jobless right now in India.
“When a poor person dies of hunger, it has not happened because God did not take care of him or her. It has happened because neither you nor I wanted to give that person what he or she needed.”
— Mother Teresa, Roman Catholic nun
One of the root causes of poverty is marginalization. When a country or a group of people are trying to come out of poverty, all classes should have a say in how things are going to work. Diseases and poor climatic conditions may also contribute to poverty since they may prevent people from earning money. Also,

The government could put up banners and posters. Hoardings could be put up across streets. The national television is an excellent place to advertise such things. This would bring about knowledge and information to the youth of India. The common man would definitely benefit from the circulation of such information. This could be supplemented by free education schemes by the government. The poor and needy could be offered education free of cost so as to support them in their educational endeavours. Overall, poverty is not a problem that can be resolved overnight. However, implanting these solutions over a long tenure may help alleviating this issue.

Materialism

The world says: “You have needs — satisfy them. You have as much right as the rich and the mighty. Don’t hesitate to satisfy your needs; indeed, expand your needs and demand more.” This is the worldly doctrine of today. And they believe that this is freedom. The result for the rich is isolation and suicide, for the poor, envy and murder.”
― Fyodor Dostoyevsky, The Brothers Karamazov
Materialism is the giving of higher value to material things instead of intellectual or spiritual things. Someone who is not materialistic is described to be “not materialistic” or “non-materialistic”. Such people do not think about acquiring materials just to gain social acceptance. Globalization is said to be the main cause of materialism in the modern era.
A major example of materialism is money. In today’s world, it is the prime cause of rifts in relationships. On a recent survey, it was observed that one in every 5 couples are a victim of materialism. These couples were very often observed to have a highly unstable relationship. Such couples mostly pay more attention to materialistic things instead of paying attention to nurturing their relationship. Materialistic people never have happiness since they are always concerned with what they do not have instead of what they have. Material possessions mostly include clothes, furnitures, accessories or cars. Most of today’s younger generation will buy clothes and overpay for them, just for the brand name, instead of the looks or comfort that it offers. Similar factors are present in the corporal world. Living in a richer neighbourhood, travelling to beautiful locations on holidays, enrolling into certain schools, colleges or clubs all come under the banner of material possession. Wealth is considered an important possession in the modern societies. Hence we often associate a person possessing a material thing with the fact that he must be wealthy. The human brain often craves for acceptance and love from their fellow creatures. This leads them to try to gain material possessions, since they believe that having that will grant them acceptance and love.
“If everyone demanded peace instead of another television set, then there’d be peace.”
― John Lennon
Materialism can negatively effect a person, by contributing to depression and anxiety and thus be a cause of sorrow for them. Since there is literally no end to obtaining material things, it is a very dangerous trait for an individual to possess.
Although the root cause of materialism is unknown, it may just be that humans are inherently jealous creatures. Be it material possessions, relationships or other social constructs. They may be thinking that what they do not have is always better than what they do. Another cause may be the fact that it is easier to think about what we do not have instead of thinking about what we already have. Acquiring what we do not have by setting our sights on it may feel like more “progress”. Some studies think that the urge to possess material things may be an evolved form of hoarding. Hoarding used to be a necessary skill to survive in the previous ages. When an unhealthy perception of what is necessary combines with the habit of hoarding, it may give rise to materialism. The media glorifies the usage of name brands and forces us to make a connection between their product and happiness. Even major blockbusters and tv shows promote such behaviour. This leaves a lasting impression on the human mind. Most of the time, it isn’t possible to avoid their tactics, even while being aware of what they are doing.

The government could introduce various programmes to educate young people upon the evils of materialism. Banners and hoardings could be put up across streets. The national television is a great place to advertise such things. Raising awareness is very important in order to eradicate such social evils.

Obesity and social life

“To be beautiful means to be yourself. You don’t need to be accepted by others. You need to accept yourself.” – Thich Nhat Hanh

Body shaming is referred to as the act of humiliating someone by making unsolicited rude remarks on their bodily appearance. Ideal body shapes for genders have existed throughout the ages, with one coming back in vogue only to result in the others slowly becoming unpopular. While this is uplifting to people of some body type, it is demeaning to the people on the other side of the spectrum. It almost appears as though one cannot be lauded without the other being demeaned. One can even body shame themselves by comparing their body to another person. Obese people in general generally have a worse social life than the normal person due to them being much more prone to being bullied, humiliated or ostracised. Due to these factors, in turn, they are also most likely to engage in similar bullying behaviour. Obesity is generally the act of having excess fat in the body. The main causes of obesity are as follows:
• Excessive calorie intake.
• Poor diet containing high quantities of junk of processed food, eating larger quantities, drinking high quantities of alcohol or fizzy drinks, or eating to feel better from low self-esteem or depression.
• Lack of periodic physical exercise doesn’t allow the body to burn any fat.
• Some people are just genetically more prone to gain weight – this is uncommon but not rare. However, obesity is most likely due to environmental factors and poor eating habits picked up as a child.
• Medical reasons such as an underlying disease such as hypothyroidism or cushing’s syndrome.
• Some medicines taken to cure other diseases such as corticosteroids, epilepsy and diabetes may contribute to weight gain. This includes antidepressants and medicines for schizophrenia.

The use of phrases like “you should put more meat on your bones” or “you should start a better eating routine” are both belittling and still used widely throughout the world. People who fall outside social standards of body proportions face criticism regularly. They’re often called “brave” for getting a gym membership, while a person could work out for a multitude of reasons other than losing body fat, similar to how some people may not be able to work out due to a multitude of reasons. Clothes are often used as objects of criticism for such people. The failure to realise that gain or loss in body fat may come from various factors such as physical or mental health conditions is also one of the reasons why people choose to pass remarks on another’s body.

Body shaming has been attributed as the key contributing factor to several disorders like anxiety, depression and anorexia. Children who grow up looking at photo shopped celebrities on newspapers and magazines try to resemble them and believe them to be perfect, when in reality their body is completely fine. These fake pictures create mostly unachievable standards for teenagers and thus are a cause of degradation of mental health over time.

Educational disparity

“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever” – Mahatma Gandhi
Educational disparity refers to the act of unequal distribution of academic resources among people. This can be through things like limitation in funding of government educational bodies, lack of skilled teachers and shortage of books and other technological means that aid education. It is one of the most important problems plaguing developing third world countries such as India. The education quality of a state may vary even when moving from city to city. Good education is a necessary thing in modern times in order to make it get a job or become successful. Schools containing a large number of minority students often have fewer and lower quality books, bigger class sizes, no labs, inexperienced teachers and less access to better learning materials overall. Thus students with a high potential but no money are unable to surpass the well-off. Inequalities among such students include:
• Regional inequality
• Inequality on the basis of gender
• Caste based inequality
• Household income
Many students in our country still lack a proper internet connection even in areas outside villages. This is a major drawback, due to most of education shifting online nowadays, especially due to the worldwide outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Vast amounts of free educative material is available online for free, but cannot be accessed by most children due to the lack of an internet connection. Students coming from a wealthier background often do better in their studies. Although it is not impossible for a child from a poorer economic background to match up with him, it is quite a commendable job and for many, it is often not possible. In many rural areas, little or no schools exist which does not even give children the option to get educated. In metropolitian cities, education comes very costly and it isn’t possible for all parents to send their children to an expensive private school. Government schools still lack the guidance and infrastructure that is most likely present in their private counterparts. Most children in such schools have no access to labs and thus are never exposed to the practical side of education. Even in these modern times, we are unable to see ourselves under the lead of a woman. Girls are often denied education and are thought to be more appropriate to perform household chores. Men are expected to be better educated in comparison to women. Backdated mindsets and thoughts are the root cause of such problems. Reservations of seats in educational institutions have recently increased leading to the drop in the number of seats for meritorious children. There still exists a serious gap in education between the more privileged and the under privileged sections of the society.
“An investment in knowledge pays the best interest” – Benjamin Franklin
The Government could teach young parents about the necessity of education and explain to them why they should educate their child instead of putting them to work. More encouragement can be given to children to study by providing awards to exceptionally brilliant students, even from a small age. Banners and posters could be put up and made attractive to attract people’s attention to the importance of quality education. The anti Ragging helpline is 18001805522 and the helpline for the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is 1800117002.
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act engraves the importance of free education (that the child will not have discontinue his education due to lack of funds) and compulsory education (that the Government are liable to pay the charges for him to complete his education). The Government is now encouraging students towards higher education by offering various grants and scholarships to meritorious students. An increasing number of Government educational bodies has been observed in the last few decades. The Government is also now carefully monitoring the educational qualifications of teachers and emphasizing on quality education.
In recent times, there has been a disproportionate amount of rise in private school enrolment. A 2020 news article from the Hindustan times narrated that the students from the richest 20% of the society are 17 times more likely to be studying law from the poorest 20%. A huge percentage of India still craves English medium education, the lack of which is apparent in most cities and towns. In a 2011 Census, it was discovered that 73% of the Indian population was literate, out of which 81% were males and 65% were females.
The absence of constistent standards of education among educational bodies and the high cost of education are huge contributing factors to educational disparity. Without quality education, it is almost impossible for most people to become successful. This in turn makes them unable to provide their children with education, and this continues in a vicious cycle.

Drug and alcohol abuse

“An over-indulgence of anything, even something as pure as water, can intoxicate.” – Criss Jami, Venus in Arms

Drugs often alter the way our mind perceives reality. Substance abuse is generally attributed to improper or excessive use of alcohol, medicine or other substances (legal or illegal). Drugs particularly affect an individual’s ability to perform usual actions by delaying them. Teens commonly take drugs due to peer pressure and eventually get addicted. If left untreated, it can result in a myriad of complex problems which may affect an individual’s life down the road. Some common examples of drug abuse are tobacco (nicotine), marijuana, painkillers, cocaine, heroin, benzodiazepines, stimulants, inhalants and sedatives. A few indications of ongoing substance abuse are:
• Sudden lack of money
• Disturbance in sleeping patterns
• Lack of common sense or understanding
• Secrecy about personal life
• Not talking to friends
• Sudden mood swings
• Lapses in memory
• Change in body weight and facial appearance
• Poor eating habits
• Negligence of personal hygiene

Although the consequences of drug and alcohol abuse vary, there are a few common ones which happen to most people. Among them are increased diabetes-related issues, sexual problems, birth defects, loss of bone density, loss in vision, weaker immune system and a higher than average risk of cancer. Early exposure to drugs or alcohol is generally attributed to poor outcomes in adulthood. However there exist some people whose bodies are much more susceptible to get addicted to drugs or alcohol than others. Often people may fall into bad company, which may induce them into taking drugs. Pre-existing mental health issues also contribute to addiction. Troubles in personal life can be a major cause of a person taking drugs. Excessive drug or alcohol abuse can stem from a toxic or broken relationship and this can turn into abuse in the long run. It is very important to keep a check on such habits during troubled times. Children who have exposed to any of their parents or loved ones being under the influence are far more likely to get addicted than the normal teenager. Things seen during childhood often leave a lasting mark in their brain.

The most widely used drugs in India include alcohol, cannabis, opium and heroin. Buprenorphine, propoxyphene and heroin rank the highest in the list of injected drugs. 62.5 million people in India use alcohol, 8.75 million use cannabis, 2 million use opiates while 0.6 million use sedatives or hypnotics. Around 26% of these people require urgent help. Most drugs are illegal and likely will leave the person with a criminal record. India’s Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS Act) was passed in 1985 and was underwent amendments in 1989, 2001 and lastly in 2014. The NDPS Act offers strict punishments to people for drug trafficking. In order to aid the NDPS Act, India released the Prevention of Illicit Trafficking act in 1988. This act contains provisions related to preventive detention of anyone who is associated to or performs drug trafficking. Such drugs are only allowed to be used under scientific purposes. Some of India’s drug law enforcement agencies include the Narcotics Control Division, Central Bureau of Narcotics (CBN), The Narcotic Control Bureau (NCB) as well as other agencies like the Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Central Bureau of Investigation, Customs Commission and the Border Security Force.


“Courage isn’t having the strength to go on – it is going on when you don’t have the strength.” – Napoléon Bonaparte

Resources to prevent and diagnose substance abuse exist in order to help people in need. The first priority of such an addicted person should be to talk to a doctor. Other options include going to a rehab facility or participating in local support groups. The Indian Government currently has no national or local system of monitoring drug misuse. The Government could put up banners and posters to spread awareness about drug abuse. Advertisements on television and radio channels could be put up to gain a much higher reach. Schools and colleges may include programmes to educate young minds about the horrors of alcohol and drug usage. The national toll free drug de-addiction helpline is 1800-11-0031.


Reasons as to why addiction occurs are still undergoing research. Among the most commonly proved reasons is the release of a chemical substance in the brain called dopamine. This element is commonly released by the brain during occurrence of pleasure. However, the artificial induction of dopamine release far out shadows the natural release of dopamine in the brain. Thus individuals try to derive pleasure from the drug instead of other natural social activities. People who are addicted may need the drug to feel normal. Their body often feels sick and unwell whenever they cannot take the drug.


Alcohol and drug abuse can be prevented if the Government and today’s youth should work for the betterment of the society. Education should be the primary step which would lead us to such goals. Together we can hope to dream of a better tomorrow.

Cyberbullying

“Cyber bullies can hide behind a mask of anonymity online and do not need direct physical access to their victims to do unimaginable harm.” – Anna Maria Chavez

Cyberbullying is known as the act of using laptops, mobile phones, computers or other digital technology in order to anger, shame or hurt others. It is quite a prevalent topic in today’s day and age. This form of bullying is known to be quite different than the other “traditional” forms of bullying. Traditional bullying includes bullying which is mostly physical or verbal within close proximity of the victim. Cyberbullying has much harsher levels of harassment due to anonymity offered by the internet. Thus the bullies can continue without any fear of reciprocation. While traditional bullying occurs only when the victim is in close proximity with the bully, cyberbullying can happen anytime, anywhere. Online privacy is quite a rare thing these days. This can cause the victim much more grief since he is being bullied in public. There is a popular saying-“what goes online, stays online”. This is quite true in this case and this form of bullying thus causes massive psychological damage. Cyberbullying is also hard to discover, and mostly depends on the victim coming forward, requesting for help. This is especially rare in children who do not have the maturity to do so and thus is quite a potent threat to children online.

Examples of cyberbullying may include the posting of an individual’s private pictures on the internet, verbal abuse such as in online videogames, cyber stalking, impersonating a person online, or spreading hateful messages through multi-accounting. The main places where these occur are social media, through emails or through text.

The effects of cyber bullying are huge, and can contribute in massive humiliation of the victim. It can also be a cause of the victim isolating himself from the outside world, which in turn may make him further susceptible to various mental illnesses. Anger and frustration may also stem from such practices which have a further negative impact on health. This form of bullying may particularly render the victim feeling powerless which can cause mental consequences like depression, anxiety, low self-esteem and cause the victim to want to perform self-harm, have academic issues and suicidal thoughts.

In these modern times, it is very important to know how to react to such problems. The easiest way to get help is to open up to someone by telling them about your problems. Another simple way is to just walk away from the bully and this requires much less mental stress. An individual getting bullied online should ideally take a break instead of working on immediate retaliation, as decisions are best taken with a clear mind. Protection of oneself online is very important and this can be done by staying aware of such people at all times. An antivirus is a necessary application to have and can often save individuals from attacks like phishing and malware, or even simply block them from accessing a malicious site, which in turn prevents their data from being leaked and used as a source of ridicule or blackmail. Awareness should be spread regarding resources to fight cyberbullying. The anti-bullying helpline of http://www.childline.org for children in India is 1098. These are quite frequent occurences and more resources should be developed to fight these actively.

Very few laws exist in India pertaining to cyberbullying. Among them, the most eminent ones are the section 354A, 354D, 507 under the Indian Penal Code (IPC). The Indian Internet Report from 2019 suggests that 2 in 3 internet users (66%) are between the ages of 12 and 29. 1 in every 10 adolescents (10%) in India are victims of cyberbullying. A large percentage of teens have already been victims of cyberbullying. A large number of cases like these are estimated to be unreported which causes the number seem to be lower than the original. Reports should be instantly sent to online service providers, law enforcement and to educational institutions in case of students. Friends and family should be well-informed to intervene in such cases instead of allowing it to occur. Seminars and meetings should be conducted on this topic to further spread awareness. The Government could put up banners and posters in order to encourage citizens to actively fight cyberbullying.

The reason people perform cyberbullying is much debated among researches. There is quite the possibility that it is accidental and occurs during friendly banter or ridicule. However, the most recognised reasons are the ability to stay anonymous on the internet, the ignorance of the consequences of such deeds and also social pressure. Many teenagers may simply think it to be “cool” to bully an individual, just because their peers are doing the same.

As technology progresses, more and more people continued to become victims of cyberbullying every day. It should be our job to offer them a helping hand in order to eradicate this problem for once and for all.