The Yellow Wallpaper

‘The Yellow Wallpaper,’ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, begins with the narrator describing the yellow wallpaper as the worst paper she had ever seen. The narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” begins to write when she looks to be suffering from postpartum depression. The narrator appears to have discovered some advantages to writing about her despair. She frequently refers to writing as a form of expression “a sigh of release’ for her She’s referring to some sort of mental relaxation. She is attempting to dispute her husband’s insistence on a “rest cure:” “This necessitates her staying at home and resting all day. She fights her own feelings to some extent, but she recognizes their existence, at least at the start of the novel. She acknowledges the need of valuing her own views and feelings, as well as the need to express herself, up to a degree. In the beginning of the story, she maintains her imagination and, at least in her writing, provides some resistance to her husband’s beliefs. She begins to suppress her imaginative thoughts and beliefs in order to outwardly accept her husband’s scientific ideals. Her husband/doctor, on the other hand, bans her from expressing herself, indicating a lack of communication between them.

The mental health of the narrator is deteriorating. Her husband and doctor discourage her from writing because they believe it will exacerbate her mental instability, but she continues to secretly record her thoughts. Meanwhile, her thoughts and ideas continue to flood in unchecked, but she no longer has a healthy means of dealing with them. The narrator has reached a point where only a complete change in treatment will save her from mental collapse. Even in John’s absence, the narrator becomes progressively dejected and thus less willing to write as a result of John’s continual discouragement of writing and other forms of self-expression. Nonetheless, she feels driven to continue authoring this account when she can, and finds it liberating to express herself. Unfortunately, journaling serves as her only source of solace, as she is unable to express her thoughts—even about her own treatment—otherwise, and this case demonstrates that it is insufficient to maintain mental health.

“Nationalism, Colonialism and Indian English Literature” – P. P. Raveendran

P. P. Raveendran’s article “Nationalism, Colonialism and Indian English Literature” attempts to study how a nation is constructed by the writer through their works. The essayist describes nationalism as an ‘awakening of a nation to self-consciousness’. It differs from the colonial forms of domination and he states that English literature appeared as a subject in the curriculum of the colonies before it was institutionalized in its home country. The emergence of Indian English Literature was an Indian response to both nationalism and national movement. Some writers used English for writing because of the universal acceptance of this language; so that their works would reach more hands. Others wanted to prove their proficiency in English through their works. They indirectly state that they can stand before everyone even though once they are considered uncivilized.


P. P. Raveendran talks about the evolution of Indian English Literature by tracing its history. The first book written by an Indian in English was “Travels of Dean Mahomet”, a travel narrative by Sake Dean Mahomet published in English in 1793. He tries to compare the writings of early Indian writers with modern writings. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote “Rajmohan’s Wife” and published it within the year 1864. It is the primary Indian novel written in English. Rajaram, an Indian philosopher, and writer authored “Kanthapura” and “The Serpent and The Rope”, which are Indian in terms of their storytelling qualities. Kisari Mohan Ganguli translated “The Mahabharata” into English. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and translated his own works into English. He gives the examples and writing styles of some of the Indian English writers like R.K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, Kiran Desai, V.S. Naipaul, etc. He also compares Sarojini Naidu’s poem with Kamala Das’s poem and says that Naidu’s is highly ‘orientalized’.

Child marriage ; A case study

Child marriage is a major sociological problem that has persisted for centuries in India. The early marriage of children, particularly of the girl child, is not an uncommon practice in over many countries. In India the latest assessment is that 44% are married before the age of 18 years because of religious traditions, social practices, economic factors and blind beliefs. It is considered as a violation of child and human rights and it affects the child physically, psychologically and emotionally. Marriage is considered ‘safe’ to protect the girl from unwanted sexual advances. Child marriages also limited girls’ access to education and increased their health risks. Early pregnancy and childbirth would impact on the overall health and development of girls.

A case study was carried out in 10 villages of Rajasthan about the practice of child marriage. Villages near urban centers showed more progress in terms of economic status of the villagers, literacy levels and in particular the level of awareness regarding illegality of child marriage. Child marriage was also lower in these villages. But the rural villagers are different. Joint family system is a common feature of rural society. The traditional value system upholds traditional norms.

Twelve couples were identified and interviewed for the study. The study found low literacy levels among the respondents. One- third of the respondents at the state level were illiterate and only 8% were graduates, while one-fourth had educational skills up to the primary level. The low level of literacy and high prevalence of child marriage could be seen as a vicious circle. An early marriage limits the opportunities for education and self-development, whereas lack of education results in a stubborn mindset and ignorance of the ill effects of child marriage.

A typical feature of the child marriage practice in Rajasthan is that after the marriage ceremony the bride is not usually sent to her in-law’s house immediately. She will be sent usually when the girl is considered mature enough to handle the household chores, which is generally considered to be after she attains puberty. Also over 50% of the respondents admitted that the practice of child marriage was followed in their families. Moreover, the parent-child relationship is such that a child rarely questions the authority of the parents in taking decisions about his or her life. More than 50% of the respondents in Rajasthan who have undergone child marriage stated that they were forced to marry. A large proportion of respondents who had themselves undergone marriage as children were against the idea of child marriage. But there are some among them who supported the idea.

In Rajasthan, most of the male respondents agreed with the legal age as the right age for a male to marry, but some felt that early marriage was advisable. About one-fourth of the male population who themselves were married early held this view. Interestingly, all female respondents believed that males should marry only after they were 21 years. About three-fourths of the male respondents believed that girls should marry after reaching the legal age. The study also shows that poverty and safety of the girl child are also the causes for the continuation of the practice of child marriage.

The practice of child marriage in the study areas is characterized by the fact that both the bride and the groom are underage, sometimes as young as five or six years old. This aspect of early marriages is unlike that in some other parts of India and the world where a huge age difference exists between the two, with the girl usually being the child. Existing laws and awareness campaigns taken up periodically against the practice of child marriage have failed to diminish the fervor of the communities even in the 21st century.

English education in India


English education in India has largely depended on the teaching of literature. In recent years, there has been a shift of emphasis from teaching literature to language. The relationship between literature and English language teaching has been rather a difficult marriage throughout all these years. While English language teaching adopted a structural approach in many situations, literature was taught as a separate subject. Nevertheless, current approaches have endeavored to re-examine the value of literature and have begun to uphold its worth again. These approaches assert the value of literature teaching from several aspects, primarily, literature as an agent for language development and improvement. Literature is a verbal art that leads readers to appreciate the beauty of language.

Literature is used in English Language teaching to broaden students’ horizons by giving them a knowledge of the classics of literature, to improve student’s general cultural awareness, to stimulate students’ creative and literary imagination, and to develop their appreciation of literature. Literary texts offer a rich source of linguistic input and can help learners practice the four language skills – listening, speaking, reading, and writing – and exemplifying grammatical structures and presenting new vocabulary. The Literary texts provide opportunities for multi-social classroom experiences and can appeal to learners with different learning styles. Literature is beginning to be viewed as an appropriate vehicle for language learning and development since the focus is now on authentic language and authentic situations.

COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

• Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.
• It emphasizes the ability to communicate the meaning of the message, instead of concentrating on grammatical perfection.
• Language learners learn practice the target language through the interaction with one another and the instructor, the study of “authentic texts” and through the use of the language both in class and outside of class.
• Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment, and to focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language.
• The goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language. This is in contrast to previous views in which grammatical competence was commonly given top priority
• It also focuses on the teacher being a facilitator, rather than an instructor.
• The approach is a non-methodical system that does not use a textbook series to teach the target language, but rather works on developing sound oral/verbal skills prior to reading and writing.
• The class activities under this method includes grammar drills, reading and writing activities, role-play, opinion sharing, group work and information gap.
• Errors are tolerated and treated as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills.
• Proper situations should be created by the teacher so as to promote communication in the classroom.
• The social contexts of the communicative situations are essential for giving meaning to the utterances.
• The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study. Hence, attention is given to teaching language for communication.
• Accuracy and Fluency activities play very important role in Communicative Competence.
• In CLT, languages are learned not only as skills but also as social behavior, by using tasks that learners would also do in the real world.
• Learning a language is interactive, co-operative, learner-centered and content-based, but the approach does not mean that learning a second language involves just ‘conversation‘.
• The ‘3 Ps’ teaching model are Presentation, Practice and Production.

How is feminine writing different from women’s writing?

History shows that many writings of women were centered around man. She wrote what society expected from her, not her experiences or true emotions. Writers like Jane Austen and Emily Bronte gave prior importance to the standards of society and reflected their own style of elitist patriarchal feminism in their works. Especially Austen reflected the idea that women is complete only when she is married. Many so called feminist writers exposed women’s lacks and they secured a place in women’s writing.

L’Ecriture Féminine is a French feminist theorist movement that literally translated means Feminist or feminine writing. This term was originally coined by Hélène Cixous, who wished to create a sort of language or new type of writing that allowed women to express themselves. Cixous and other practitioners of écriture féminine states that the very structures of Western language exclude women and can function only through the silencing of women and the repression of feminine sexual drives. Feminist writing is women writing about women by creating a female based language versus a male based language, which is what most people write in. Writing has been such a patriarchal field for so long and because of this, it is hard to write as a woman about woman issues in a world of men. Cixous predominantly links female oppression, specifically the denial of female sexual pleasure, with the lack of female writing. Her wish is to freely express female sexuality and to “overturn masculine discourse”, which are the features of Ecriture Féminine theory.

There are three main writers in the Ecriture Feminine world and they are Hélène Cixous, Monique Wittig and Luce Irigaray. They all have differing opinions about what Ecriture Feminine should be defined as, but they all mostly agree that, feminist or feminine writing is a writing done from a female point of view. Cixous and Irigaray both argue that if women can express their sexuality for themselves then they can create a new viewpoint. This new type of writing would focus entirely on women and have a completely new viewpoint of a woman or a woman only.

Cixous and Feminine writing


The history clearly shows that men are capable of writing the feminine and they can create woman’s writing by erasing or rejecting the boundaries of phallocentric ideas and the practiced confining which is assigned for women within the patriarchal structures. Many works produced by men are disjointed and disturbing in terms of narration and figurative language and has mirrored one man’s ideologies and experiences. They are all connected to the coded restrictions and limitations prescribed by centuries of patriarchy. By linking writing with having a penis, these authors insist that writing, or creativity in general, is a biological act, one that is rooted in the body, and specifically in the male body.
Cixous stated that women should surrender to their own bodies and to write with their bodies in order to produce real, strange, cyclical, non-linear texts of fiction and literature by introducing a concept called ecriture feminine. Ecriture feminine can never be codified. Critics opined that it is in a constant state of flux, ever-changing, ever-moving, bringing forth delights, disorganization and strangeness in ever changing ways. Cixous writes that “Nearly the entire history of writing is confounded with the history of reason […] it has been one with the phallocentric tradition” Woman has been ashamed due to repression by patriarchal ideology. Woman must “Write! Writing is for you, you are for you; your body is yours, take it”
Cixous believes women can most accurately tell their story by writing through their bodies. All through history women have been defined by and contained within their own bodies as a result of repressive male activity. Cixous suggests that women who have been defined by the male gaze has two options. The first option is that they can remain trapped inside themselves thereby perpetuating the passive role determined for them by the male. The second alternative women have, and the option Cixous supports, is that they can use their bodies as a tool. By using their bodies as a medium of communication, women are able to speak with the very thing that they have been confined within.
Cixous speaks positively and optimistically about women’s ability to reclaim their right to speak and write in a feminine style. She explains that the style must take on an unconventional form.
In her writing Cixous deviates from the accepted masculine style but she deliberately calls attention to the fact that she can not express her true thoughts as she feel them, by exposing the inadequacy of the current language. Since the immediate creation of a new language is not a feasible option, women are left with the option of only revealing the flaws that exist. Exposing these flaws is the only way women will be able to overcome the obstacles that are constructed by a patriarchal society. Sahe says “Language is the repressor of woman as it is governed by the governing masculine order”.
In The Laugh of the Medusa Cixous cries for a dismantlement of this structured alien discourse by saying woman must be together as woman and not allow the phallogocentric, male dominated world to prevent us, as woman, from being heard and recognized. Therefore she inscribes a form of writing for woman, with her own language, syntax and structure.

M.G. Vassanji as a Diasporic Writer

M.G. Vassanji is a diasporic Canadian writer who depicts the double migration of his South Asian Characters. Vassanji comes in the second category of diaspora who inhabit a liminal position that defines their experience of migrancy. The larger themes he deals with are community values, individual identity, history, effect of colonialism and multiculturalism. Vassanji’s novels are the most authentic and detailed elaboration on African life which was not dealt with in earlier novels. His novels are a vehicle of self-discovery which define African identity and make the Indians re-discover their cultural roots. Vassanji seems to suggest that when one exists in between several cultures, it is necessary for him to have a distinguishing identity, in this case an in-between sense of being.Vassanji highlights in his novels a new type of culture which forms when different communities interact. Vassanji’s works represent the convergence of cultures that characterizes both East Africa and Asia. The particular history of immigrant communities once or twice removed from Asia inspires his portrayal of conflicting relationships between individuals and the communities to which they belong. Vassanji’s works represent the convergence of cultures that characterizes both East Africa and Asia. The particular history of immigrant communities once or twice removed from Asia inspires his portrayal of conflicting relationships between individuals and the communities to which they belong.

V. T. Bhattathiripad

V. T. Bhattathiripad was an Indian social reformer, dramatist and an Indian independence activist. He was best known for his contributions in the reformation of the casteism and conservatism that existed in the Namboothiri community. He wrote a number of books which include a play, Adukkalayail Ninnu Arangathekku. Indian independence movement was gaining popularity and Bhattathiripad participated in the Allahabad session of the Indian National Congress due to which he was expelled from his community. This prompted him to fight against casteism and he started campaigning for Brahmin widow remarriage, which was a taboo during those times.Bhattathiripad utilised his writing skills as a tool for social reforms and his writings contrasted the social changes that followed the Indian independence movement against the dormant state of Namboothiri community. The staging of his play, Adukkalayilninnu Arangathekku (From the Kitchen to the Stage), in 1929 was an important event in the social reform calendar of Kerala; the play highlighted the discriminatory rituals and practices prevalent in the Namboothiri community, especially the plight of Namboothiti women. The drama also marked a deviation in Malayalam theatre from historical plays to social dramas.We do not find any literary work having introduced such a basic change in the minds of people capable of bringing about a revolutionary impact.

Despite marriage reform being the central theme of the work, with swajathivivaham ( marriage within cast) and love marriage as the focal points, the drama subjected other important concerns of the time such as the re-alignment of inter-caste relationships, the approach towards the nationalist movement, the need of English education, the emancipation of Antarjanams etc. It clearly aimed at a refashioning of the community along with
modern ideals and a realignment of community relationships in the light of changing social equilibrium and ongoing criticism against the Nambiitiris on account of their orthodoxy. It is no wonder that VT, who considered social reform as his mission, upheld these issues in a situation when the Namboothiris, who ought to have led the society and the country, suppressed other communities by arresting their progress. The drama says that young men of namboodiri community, who dared to question the futility of Vedic education is presenting a live picture of the beast-like life to the women in their house. The drama in fact tore the hearts of the orthodox.

Contemporary reviews applauded the drama for the revolutionary changes. It brought about within the community and compared it with a bombshell. The reviews treat it as an ‘absolute farce’ dealing with worldly matters alone. The drama got appreciated for its character formation, stage arrangement, sarcasm and the skill in portraying the harem of an illam. This farce is capable of transforming the very foundations of the Nambootiri community.

It is generally treated as the first ‘social farce’ and as the pioneering venture in the progressive theatre movement in Kerala. It also came to be accepted as the first propagandist drama. In relation to both the theme and presentation, it utilized the methods of realism and was in fact an attempt at an in-depth analysis of the community through self-criticism. VT himself wrote that it aimed at burning down what was created by, and what had been imposed on,
the Nambootiris in the process of the formation of a communitarian divide in the society.

It also suffered many drawbacks if looked at from a literary point of view. It failed to stand the test of time because it was highly propaganda-oriented and hence came to have a low level of artistic value. As it focused on the contemporary and strictly communitarian issues, it could not last as a literary piece in the post-reform age. But all these defects do not detract the value of this play. The strength of the play lies in its revolutionary side and the changes that it was able to introduce in the community. Today, however, it has only historical value than as a piece of literature.

VT dedicated the work to the Antarjanams with a note “In the tender hands of the virgins”. It has been observed that the drama was created with the purpose of conversing with women. The main narrative revolves around the love affair of Madhavan and Thethi. Madhavan departs to Madras for studies and in the meanwhile Thethi’s marriage is fixed with an aged Nambootiri. Though Thethi’s father had great regard for Madhavan, the fear of committing the sin of Parivedanam discouraged him from giving his daughter in marriage to him. Madhavan completed his course of study and with the help of his friends decided to foil the marriage through a court injunction. Finally Thethi was married to Madhavan and in a meeting of the Nambzitiri Yuvajana Sangham, which is arranged to congratulate the couples, Madhavan tore out her ghosa to liberate her from seclusion.

The Color Purple

Alice Walker’s ‘The Color Purple’ is a feminist as well as a post colonial text. The oppression faced by the women characters- based on their gender and race clearly states the toxicity and victimization of that period. Walker highlights the theme of inequality between the sexes by detailing about the physical abuse, psychological trauma and the colonial objectification of the oppressed.
Novelist gives voice to many voiceless by picturing Celie’s life. She is forced to an unhappy marriage life by her father, who treated her as a sex toy. She faces more trouble from her husband and his ‘the other’ approach towards her indicates, the white norm under the system of patriarchy. The position of coloured women in this novel also has significance. They are dominant by race and inferior by gender, but tortures darker skins.
‘The Color Purple’ also portrays how the idea of societal gender construction affects the women characters and how the traps set by colonial and traditional ideologies provokes her to fit into the layer of double oppression. A post colonial feminist reading of the text questions the aspects of gender relation, gender oppression, identity crisis and colonial subordination from the perspective of a woman or the ‘doubly’ colonized. The letters can be considered as a form of response from the side of a marginalized group. Walker tries to transform a submissive homemaker- who lacks identity, to a person who can speak for herself. She creates a character named Shug Avery for helping Celie to find and to love her own self. This creates a feminine voice in her to see what is right and what is wrong.
Colonialism treated women as half human beings and as a result, the ages of suppression has been increased. This text is also a study of the representation of the victimized using post colonial feministic ideas.

Natural survival instincts in Yann Martel’s Life of Pi and Ernest Hemingway’s Old man and the Sea.

This essay is an attempt to shed light upon the natural survival instincts in Yann Martel’s Life of Pi and Ernest Hemingway’s Old man and the Sea. Sea is the major setting in both the novels and most of the actions take place from the sea. One of the aspects of the sea is that readers could connect it’s characteristics with human emotions and the realms of unconscious. Martel and Hemingway have used this method in their novels throughout, to show physical and psychological features of the characters.


In Old Man and The Sea, Santiago’s mental suffering is more emotional and private. Related to his age, his physical struggles are more. In the case of Marlin, he suffers physically until his death. In Life of Pi, Pi suffers mentally because of two reasons. One is, he was not sure about the existence of his parents who loved and nurtured him and the other one is, he couldn’t say a proper goodbye to Richard Parker, the tiger. He was physically tormented- like he suffered from dehydration, his taste in the mouth was unbearable, and he feels like his blood is thickening of lack of water. The tiger also suffers from lack of food and water along with Pi.


Santiago’s words ” everything kills everything else in some way ” is applicable in Life of Pi. Pi was a vegetarian and for the sake of living, he kills and eats fish. Similarly Hyena kills Zebra and Monkey, and the Tiger kills Hyena.
The Isolated stage in Old man’s life defines who he really is and also shows the uniqueness of his character. He constantly wishes Manolin’s presence there, so that he will be able to show his capabilities infront of the other folks by the greatest catch of his life. Readers can understand how he is viewing himself with reference to nature. In the case of Pi, his journey on the boat and isolation from the world taught him that having faith is not that easy. In chapter 37, he says “Something in me did not want to give up on life, was unwilling to let go, wanted to fight to the very end”.
Both the protagonist’s aim is to have a better life. They are stuck in the sea, that is, they are trapped in between normal and better lives. Nature is always treated with feminine traits.

One of the oldest binaries that we can find in literature is nature versus culture, nature is feminine and culture is masculine. So the image of two men who couldn’t reach their aim because of the sea, which has female notion is unveiling the layers of eco feminization’s. Also, Hemingway holds a very traditional perspective of manhood and masculinity in The Old Man and the Sea. A man is expected to be strong, fearless and tough, and to continue working in the presence of defeat, which Santiago does despite his age and the pain he struggles with. He also avoided female characters. The thoughts and dialogues of the characters indirectly states that nature and women are always the victims of exploitation or the domination of men.

Violation of nature’s law is evident in these two novels. According to the rule of nature, humans are considered as terrestrial beings. Both Santiago and Pi indirectly violates this rule, which results an instability in their life environment. The mega – risky events of the life of the protagonists, happened from the ocean and they could overcome the death crisis- implies that they are the fittest ones as survivors, even from an unfamiliar surrounding.
The presence of the ocean makes the men’s life unstable. In both the novels, struggle with animals is occurring in this uncertain condition. Santiago was a failure in this struggle ; but later he was able to built a brotherly affection with the fish. With the help of nature philosophies, he tried to console himself for his act of killing Marlin. In Pi’s case, during the first part, he struggled with Richard Parker for his existence. He was afraid that whether the tiger would kill him for it’s own survival. But, within days, he befriended the tiger, which gives readers, a picture of a domesticated wild animal. The idea of domesticating is not relevant in nature.
When Pi reached back on the land, the tiger abandoned him and entered into a forest- which is wild in nature. Here, Pi again struggles of their emotional bonding. He tried to overcome this crisis in order to survive completely. ‘ The Others’ were not ready to grasp Santiago’s and Pi’s experiences. They consider it as mere stories or some elements of fantacy and they treated their struggles as dreams rather than reality- like a process of dream revising.

We can consider Richard Parker and Marlin as the alter egos of Pi and Santiago respectively. Ocean is treated as the unconscious realm, which is known as id. My partner has mentioned, how ocean is connected with human mind. We can trace their pre-conscious through their activities from the ocean.
Both of the characters were alone in the sea or they were stranded. The struggles they faced over the course of the novels, develop their characters and they also teach them important life lessons. The similarities in the names of the fish and the boy, Marlin and Manolin, itself shows the connection between nature and humans. Manolin was the old man’s shadow-like friend from the land, and the man feels a brotherly affection towards the fish when he was suffering from the sea. There exists a fundamental interconnection between human and natural life forms. Moreover their thoughts and actions are indulged in eco critic dimensions. Anthropocentrism comes when they are removed from the sea to the land. That is, they got alienated from the natural resources

Audio-visual aids in language teaching

Audio-visual aids in language teaching help the teachers to bring a positive change in the class environment . Verbal and visual communication will help the learners to pay more attention in the class. The main purpose of the use of audio-visual aids is to enable the teacher to make lessons effective and interesting. There are some abstract things in language which cannot be explained verbally. So the teacher can use audios and visual images as a way to support their verbal teaching. Use of such aids enhance discussions and interactions, which is important in language classes and forms an active group of learners. These devices give a clear image of the ideas by increasing understanding and retention of the learners. LSRW skills of the students can also be developed by this Instructional method.


Even teachers can improve their language skills by providing a variety of experiences to the students. This method is useful for a group of people who doesn’t know a particular language; Audio-Visual Aids make learning easier. They are also time saving because they explain the idea easily and precisely. As a result, the use of audio-visual aids seems to be benefited for both the teachers and the learners.


Audio visual aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage teaching – learning process and make it easier and interesting. Students are always benefited by this method. They can learn the concepts clearly through a better environment. It provides a direct experience for the students and it removes monotonous aspects. It improves the vocabulary and knowledge of the students by providing a concrete base for conceptual thinking. Audio and visual aids like radio, television, ppt etc will give more information about a specific topic and they can connect with their teachers easily. Also students can store the study materials for so long. It helps students to improve their reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. Different audio visual materials are available for providing the learners with native language exposure also. By gaining an interest in learning, students can enhance energetic interactions also. This method is a provider of positive transfer of learning.

Butterfingers!!

The popular Butterfingers series, published by Puffin, began with the novel, Howzzat Butterfingers! , In 2010.This humorous cricket-based book was followed in 2012 by Goal, Butterfingers!, a football-based adventure novel which also includes a socially relevant environmental theme. A prize-winning author of children’s fiction, Khairunnisa A, created the popular comic character Butterfingers for the children’s magazine, Tinkle. Her Butterfingers stories are a regular feature of that magazine. Her stories appear regularly in Tinkle, Dimdima and other children’s magazines and she freelances for other publications too. A book of short stories, Lost in Ooty and Other Adventure Stories, was published by Unisun Publications in 2010. Some of her other stories have been published in various anthologies by Puffin, Children’s Book Trust and Unisun Publications.

Goal, Butterfingers! is the second book in the butterfingers series. It is basically football based. The main character Amar Kishen is a thirteen year old boy, who is clumsy and accident prone but very well intentioned. He is studying in Green Park Higher Secondary School and the name of the town or the city where it is located is not mentioned by the author. He is the one who got the name butterfingers. Amar’s short and stocky friend Kiran always says that ‘ he is designed to catch whatever Amar drops’. Kishore, his other friend loves English and likes to correct everybody’s English. Arjun, another boy got only music in his head. He has long hair and one earing but absent minded and often in his own world. These boys are studying in 8-A. The most important thing in butterfingers is the boys are not growing. The author is not ready to change their age.

Amar wants to have a football tournament in school. These boys are involved in other activities also. When there is an issue, they really wanted to help. There is a news that a pesticide factory is going to come up in their place. Their peon Shekhar stands to lose his house, because of that there are going to be lot of problems. So the boys’ mission becomes how to erase the pesticide factory from their place. The story moves through their actions.

The author says that her book is meant for ten plus but grown ups are also interested in her stories. It is funny through out and some series are in comic strip form also. Sense of fun, mischief, adventure and love for sports are the main elements in Khyrunnisa’s Butterfingers.

The relevance of Wordsworth in the contemporary world.

Poet William Wordsworth was born on April 7, 1770, in Cockermouth, Cumberland, England. In 1795, Wordsworth received an inheritance that allowed him to live with his younger sister, Dorothy. That same year, Wordsworth met Samuel Taylor Coleridge. They became friends, and together worked on Lyrical Ballads (1798). The volume contained poems such as Coleridge’s “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey”. Their writing helped Romanticism take hold in English poetry. Wordsworth began writing ‘The Prelude’ 1798 itself. He produced other poetry, “Lucy” and wrote a preface for the second edition of “Lyrical Ballads”. Indirectly the work describes the principles of Romanticism.

Before Wordsworth started writing, poetry had a different strata of theme and language. The genre was believed to belong to the aristocratic class, the themes were didactic and the language used was ornate and elevating. French Revolution gave voice to commoners and the work Lyrical Ballads brought a radical change in English Poetry, by making the world of common man ,the subject or theme of the poem and using common English as its medium.

This work, Lyrical Ballads was the beginning of Romantic Age in England. This age was marked by spontaneity of emotions, free verse, freedom of expression, beauty in the minutest things, significance of Nature as the creator of the world, imagination etc. It won’t be wrong to say that Wordsworth was the pioneer who was influenced by French Revolution and brought Romance into English Literature and his contributions has relevance in today’s context also.

DAVID BENAVIDEZ – THE MAN OF STRENGTH

Anthony David Benavidez is one among the famous American professional boxers. He has won the WBC super middleweight title twice (2017 to 2018 and 2019 to 2020). He is ranked second in the world’s active super middleweight division by The Ring and the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board and third by BoxRec, as of May 2020.

Birth and Early life

David Benavidez was born to Jose (Father) and Michelle Benavidez in Phoenix, Arizona on 17 December 1996. He is the younger brother of Jose Benavidez Jr., a welterweight contender, and the older brother of Isabella and Daisy Benavidez. Their father instructs both brothers. Benavidez battled with dieting and discipline when he was 15, when his weight skyrocketed to 250 pounds.

Career

Benavidez had a 15-0 record in his amateur career. He made his pro debut at the age of 16 against Erasmo Moreno, winning by KO in the first round. Sampson Boxing’s Sampson Boxing signed David to a promotional deal in 2015. In the same year, he defeated Rollin Williams for the vacant NABF junior light heavyweight title. In the following matches, David defended his championship. In the following matches, David defended his championship. In 2017, he defeated Ronald Gavril for the WBC super-middleweight title. In the next game, he defended his title against Gavril. Benavidez defeated Anthony Dirrell for the WBC super-middleweight belt in 2019. In August 2020, the boxer faced Roamer Alexis Angulo in his final match.

Benavidez vs. Gavril

The WBC has scheduled a fight between Callum Smith and Anthony Dirrell, with the winner receiving the vacant world title. Smith was replaced by Benavidez since he was competing in WBSS. The fight was set to take place in September of 2017.  However, the WBC stated on August 5 that Dirrell was out due to injury. Instead, Benavidez will compete for the world title on September 8 at the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino in Nevada against Romanian rival Ronald Gavril.  Benavidez won a split decision over Gavril after 12 rounds.

Benavidez vs. Gavril II

Benavidez controlled every round in front of 6,240 fans, winning by unanimous decision with scores of 120-108, 120-108, and 119-109.

Marriage

David is a happily married man who enjoys spending time with his wife Kate Griffith and children. The American boxer has managed to keep his personal life out of the public eye. Along with their daughter, they welcomed a new family member, a newborn son named Anthony, in September 2020. He keeps his private life private.

Net Worth

David is considered as a Richest Boxer. His net worth is estimated to be at $1.5 million.

Controversy

Benavidez tested positive for cocaine in a urine sample collected on August 27 by the Voluntary Anti-Doping Agency, according to a report released on September 18, 2018. (VADA). The WBC eventually stripped him of his title and placed him on a four-month suspension that will last until February 2019. On December 19, 2018, he stated that he would return to the ring on March 16, 2019.

Quotes

  • “I feel like this is just the beginning for me. I want to be a unified champion and be known as the best super middleweight of my generation. I have time on my side and I’m hungry and competitive. The sky’s the limit for me.”
  • “All the super middleweight champions have to take risks and fight each other. I want those other belts. I want to take the chances now and show everybody, including myself, that I’m the best.”

Trivia & Facts

  • David is one of the most well-known boxers. Also included in the elite list of well-known Americans born in the United States. He began boxing when he was three years old and has a 15-0 amateur record.
  • David Benavidez, a tough super-middleweight, has a long list of opponents he wants to fight against. Among them, Canelo Alvarez is at the top of his priority list. Benavidez has stated multiple times that he wants to face him for boxing.
  • David Benavidez presently has a record of 24 wins, 0 losses, and 0 draws. In a total of 24 matches, he is now undefeated. He has stopped 21 of his opponents in those 24 victories, giving him an 88 percent knockout ratio. He’s fought a total of 108 rounds in his professional career, averaging 4.5 rounds per bout.

Tagore’s Red Oleanders

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941) was a poet, artist, educator, philosopher and humanitarian.

•Even though he often introduced himself as “Āmi Kobi,” or “I’m a poet,” he contributed extensively to various genres of writing, such as novels, short stories, plays, dance-dramas and essays.

•Composed roughly 2,230 songs and his writings address a variety of topics.

• In 1913 he became the first non-European to receive the Nobel Prize for literature.

•In 1915, he was knighted by the George V, King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India, but he later renounced the knighthood as a protest against the 1919 Jaliānwala Bāgh massacre.

•His songs, Jana Gana Mana and Amar Śonar Bangla, later became the national anthems for India and Bangladesh respectively.

RED OLEANDERS

•Rakta Karabi first appeared in Prabasi– a Bengali magazine- in 1924 and in the same year the poet himself translated the play titled Red Oleanders and was published in the Visvabharati Quarterly.

•Red Oleanders was regarded a disaster by the Western critics.

•Indian life, philosophy, religion etc created a communication gap between the writer and Western readers.

MAIN IDEAS

•The play is the most mobilizing instrument for counter attack on post colonial society, and the by-product of the modern materialistic system.

•Nandini, the protagonist marks her presence at a time of the oppression of humanity by greed and power. The antagonist is the King, who stands for absolute authority but hides himself behind an iron curtain.

Red Oleanders is one of the sixty plays by Rabindranath Tagore.

•A play about evil and good, about greed and human sympathy, which separates and keeps fellow begins together.

•Story of Nandini who frees the oppressed souls of soulless mining Yaksha town where people forget the beauty of nature, the green meadows, the dazzling sunshine, the tenderness and love between humans.

•Nandini represents human virtue.

•The King transforms the town into a fort and humans are reduced to digging machines who search for gold in the dark – larger public including Nikhil ( the person Nandini loves ) were forced to fulfill the selfish motives of the King and the prople associated with him.

•Digging gold in darkness – Greedy persons will end up in darkness.

•Mining town of Yaksh is a dull place- people have forgotten the beauty of nature and the importance of love for one another – significant issues about where the society is heading.

•The play not only foresees ecological imbalance but also points out some aspects of urban industrial environment.

•The play not only foresees ecological imbalance but also points out some aspects of urban industrial environment.

•The transformation of the King which is the central theme of the drama symbolizes by action-reaction relationship between Nandini and the King.

• The King ultimately emerges as a symbol of human creativity turned perverse.

• He has all the power that human civilization has generated but this power has turned dead and perverse.

•The first three scenes could be taken as exposition scenes, which establish the situation, the level of action and the dramatic mode of the play. •Red Oleanders is described as a ‘a drama in one act’- , a form of play with certain distinctive features like one situation, one theme, a few characters.

IMAGERIES

•Imagery is the use of pictures or words to create images, especially to create an impression on mood.

•The wall symbolizes the distances that are built between the rich and the poor of the society.

•Yaksha Town is the first imagery used in the play- before the play was written existed a God Kuber who had tremendous amount of gold – Yaksha town digs Gold mine- Kuber’s servants were known an Yakshas.

SYMBOLS

•Symbols are objects, characters, figures, and colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.

•Nandini, Ranjan, Kishore, Bishu and the rest symbolizes the human characteristics like delight, sovereignty, independence, self determination love etc.

•The king is the symbol for absolute greed and dominant. The network of walls between the king and Nandini are the social distances between common folk and nobility,which does not hold any importance other than material possession.

•Yaksha town symbolizes an exploited ecosystem and illusory choice.

CONCLUSION

•Portrays a reality of the modern world.

• The king is an example of the revolution of industries and modern day advancement.

•The king keeps building and expanding his rein with modern advancement and buildings without any thought for nature and the people affected.

•This can be referred to the modern world Clearly as to how industries and government destroy nature without any notice.

•Nandini’s fight portrays women power and how affective it can be.

•Nandini stands and fights one target at a time, this also give us a message that you should always start with a goal in order to achieve a dream.

•This story about “Red Oleanders” portrays the way the world is going and how it works.

•Red Oleanders also carry similarity and bring together to a very well known work of literature in the Indian culture Mahabharata.

•The most evident similarities start with the resemblance that Nandini bears with Draupadi, the lead female character of the Mahabharata.

Malayalam Literature and it’s Origin

Malayalam is one of the Dravidian languages. It originated as a split from Tamil and by 9th century AD it became an independent language. It is the major language of Kerala and Lakshadweep. Literary texts written in Malayalam language comes under Malayalam literature.

Malayalam poetry starts from the 12th century and it has a history of nearly eight hundred years. Rama Charitham was the earliest poetic work in Malayalam (12th century AD). It was written in a near Tamil language or in Malayalam which was under the influence of Tamil and in a lyrical meter named ‘Pattu’. The ‘Manipravalam’ poetry (combination of native tongue and Sanskrit) also flourished in this period. Manipravalam style gained more currency and Malayalam showed a tendency to stay more closer with Sanskrit. A wave of folk songs appeared with Manipravalam movement. These songs reflected the life of peasants, laborer’s etc. These songs gained power and started adopting mythological stories. Cherusseri’s Krishnagadha is an example. It is the story of Lord Krishna taken from Bhagavatha and composed in a song meter called Manjari. After Krishnagadha Sanskrit domination regained it’s power over Malayalam through ‘Champus'(works of deep Sanskrit scholars). The Manipravalam poets got encouragement from royal courts and they write to praise their benefactors. So we can’t find contemporary issues in those works and they believed in “Poetry for poetry’s sake”.

The modern period was heralded by Tunchath Ramanujan Ezhuthachan. He is credited with ushering in the modern Malayalam period by fusing Pattu and Manipravalam in to a single language pattern of the Modern Malayalam. He acted as a poet and a philosopher and initiated Bhakthy movement and Modern Malayalam Movement. He introduced a new lyrical meter Kilipattu -the bird’s song- and it helps fascinating common people. He was best known for his Ramayana and Mahabharata. After Ezhuthachan the period focused on Kathakali- a combination of dance, music and literature. But it shows a world far from contemporary issues and it flourished under the shade of royal families. Kunchan Nambiar- the famous critic of that period adapted ‘thullal’ form in his poems. He indirectly criticised the evil things of society through his writing by using mythological contexts and characters. Kerala Varma, A R Rajaraja Varma were also the notable poets of that period.

Kumaran Assan, Ullur S Parameshwara Iyyer and Vallathol Narayana Menon formed a trio in the Romantic Age. Some of the main characteristics of Romantic literature include a focus on the writer or narrator’s emotions and inner world; celebration of nature, beauty, and imagination; rejection of industrialization, organized religion, rationalism, and social convention; idealization of women, children, and rural life; inclusion of supernatural or mythological elements; interest in the past; frequent use of personification. There may be variations on these characteristics. They supported personal freedom much. The waves of French Revolution influenced Malayalam literature too.

Bronte’s Wuthering Heights

Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte’s only novel, was published in 1847 under the pseudonym “Ellis Bell”. It is now a classic of English literature but was controversial because of its writing style. The novel has emerged as one of those rare texts like Frankenstein and Dracula and has inspired many adaptations, including film, radio, and television dramatizations, etc. It is a novel full of contradictions and it offers many things to critics and general readers. The special relationship between Cathy and Heathcliff leads the story. Celebration of incomplete love and death can be seen throughout the novel. At first, Cathy rejected her love and married Edgar. Then she has been guilty of hiding her desire towards Heathcliff. When Cathy says ‘he’s more myself than I am, she is actually expressing that they are one or nondifferentiation between them. In fact, they are the two aspects of one person. The violent nature of Heathcliff can be put into the unconscious stage or id and the calculated behavior of Catherine is the conscious stage or ego of human behavior. Bronte doesn’t give an end to Cathy’s and Heathcliff’s love and their reunion at Catherine’s deathbed suggests that death can unite them. After Cathy’s death, Heathcliff can’t resist himself because of frustration. He was haunted by his beloved’s memory.


Bronte portrayed Heathcliff as a black man. The novel possesses a happy atmosphere in the absence of Heathcliff. The characters lived happily before his arrival and piece were maintained after his death. He is often regarded as an archetype of the tortured anti-hero whose all-consuming rage, jealousy, and anger destroy both him and those around him. Readers need to decide if his revenge is focused on his lost position at Wuthering Heights, his loss of Catherine to Edgar, or if it is his assertion of dignity as a human being. The difficulty most readers have relating to and understanding Heathcliff is the fact that he hates as deeply as he loves; therefore, he is despised as much as he is pitied. By marrying Isabella, Heathcliff also gains power over her and control of her money. Heathcliff elopes with Isabella to hurt Edgar and to revenge himself against Edgar Linton, whom he hates. The struggle between haves and have noted is also an element in this novel. Wuthering Heights examines stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Emily Bronte constantly contrasts masculinity and femininity, but not all of the comparisons are simple; sometimes boys act like girls and girls act like boys.


The novel was criticized for its approach to love and Bronte’s writing style got appreciation. Settings play a major role here. The entire set of the novel is a place that is far away from society. Most of the critics pointed that the settings and the unusual behavior of the characters make the novel more unreal. The moors, the hills, the weather …all reflect the deserted and gloomy state of life inside Wuthering Heights. It seems happy from the outside but the real condition inside Wuthering Heights was just the opposite. The Earnshaw and Clinton families show different styles of living. Linton lead a calculated and mannered life while Earnshaw’s lead an uncivilized life. The use of supernatural elements provides more pain and sorrow to the atmosphere. The central appeal of the novel is strengthened by the pain and tragedy in it. Each and every character are suffering from pain. Evil has landed in the Heights when Catherine’s father had brought a storm with him from Liverpool, (Heathcliff’s entry). The central characters Heathcliff and Catherine are similar in various aspects. Both are stubborn and possessive. Anything which is more dramatic than their love is Heathcliff’s obsession for revenge. One by one most characters fail in front of him. The sharp contrast between the members of the Earnshaw family and the Linton family suggests that if you try to match opposite ends, the result can be something tragic. No soul finds satisfaction in the novel until at last Heathcliff is dead. After Catherine’s death, she lies in between Edgar and Heathcliff. She was like this in her life too. Catherine blamed herself for not marrying Heathcliff. Her husband was a failure according to her. He couldn’t give that much affection to Heathcliff. Comparing with him Edgar looks like a poor and comic character. Between the two, the fate of Catherine is even tragic who dies giving birth to Cathy. Several critics found Heathcliff a deformed monster and an insane psychopath.


The two people that remain are Cathy and Hareton. Cathy treats Hareton with love because she is aware of the quality faced by Hareton from the hands of Heathcliff. Catherine and Heathcliff could not unite in their lives but the marriage of Cathy and Hareton is an indication that the two will be united after death. Bronte pictures the end as a new beginning in the novel. From Mr. Earnshaw to Heathcliff, Catherine, and even the Linton kids, nobody gets the things they had expected in their life. The only problem is that the author has explored a deeply sadistic side of love that critics of her time found very difficult to digest but then a story is born in the corners where you least expect it. Also, the novel possesses a collective consciousness of Emily Bronte’s white, aristocratic background.


The strength that Wuthering Heights possess is it cannot be easily classified as any particular type of novel. It can be read and interpreted from multiple perspectives. It is also a social novel about class structure in society as well as a treatise on the role of women. Also, it is an important contemporary novel for two reasons: Its honest and accurate portrayal of life during an early era provides a glimpse of history, and the literary merit it possesses in and of itself enables the text to rise above entertainment and rank as quality literature. Anyway, Emily Bronte’s novel has overcome its initial criticism to warm the hearts of romantics and realists worldwide.

Consequences of Colonialism: How It is Still Having an Effect Today

The contemporary Middle Eastern dilemma began when Europeans established the lines at the end of World War I. Middle Easterners are perpetually at war over ethnic and religious differences as a result of the thoughtless distinctions — a characteristic emphasized by colonial overlords.

Before the First World War, the British Empire was the apex of dominance, ruling roughly a quarter of the globe as the world’s largest colonial empire. For nearly two centuries, Britain has continued to feed its drive for domination while ignoring its responsibility to its colonies.

The British took considerable attempts to enrich their motherland by exploiting the resources and manpower of their colonies. They collected taxes to meet Britain’s financial needs and compelled raw material production for Britain’s industries and exports, destroying the colonies’ integrated and self-sufficient economies. They insured that any united resistance to them would be repressed by measures like the “divide and rule” strategy. The British used religious differences to sow division in order to maintain control over the colonies. Religious differences in people’s minds are a cause of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

While the British professed to be on a civilizing mission, their actions fell well short of this goal and failed to exhibit a liberal attitude. To begin with, the idea of civilizing such old societies was faulty. Also during the First World War, the British made promises that were short-sighted. For example, they offered Jews a distinct homeland in the modern-day Palestinian region, while also promising the same to Arabs.

Middle Eastern countries such as the United Arab Emirates have succeeded in constructing their new societies based on the essence of what looked viable for their society and culture, rather than on European principles. Burqas are still worn by many women throughout the Middle East as a cultural duty, and the official languages of these countries are local.

While Middle Eastern countries absorbed Western emphasis on scientific and political progress, they only instilled the best for their own countries rather than emulating the Western world in its entirety. People gained greater abilities as a result of their interactions with Westerners, making the country theoretically capable of competing with the West. The abundance of oil and other natural resources has elevated the commercial prestige and prosperity of countries like Egypt today.

People from these countries have relocated to Western countries that are supposedly safe and have adequate law enforcement. Unfortunately, they are not welcomed openly, are unable to get legal status, and are denied their rights. It’s difficult to deny that immigrants in some nations are treated unfairly, and that not all of them find a home. Intervening for personal gain while ignoring human responsibility does not make a country more strong. Despite the fact that the human species is an unified society, divisions such as provinces, countries, and continents have been drawn. As a result, it’s critical to freely offer altruistic help of an unworldly type that looks beyond boundaries.

Also The consequences of colonialism should not be overlooked or regarded as insignificant because they continue to influence how many countries conduct domestic and foreign politics today. Furthermore, it is a part of our nations’ narratives — both conquerors and colonized — and should be explored in order to avoid similar results in the future.

#MeToo

There are times when you feel the rage and anguish in the air, at least from a certain section of the society. Many are now raising their voices to improve their individual personality as well as the society as a whole. A society develops only when individuals themselves create ripples by hosting their arguments. Several movements are there which is woman centric and the MeToo movement being one among them. The #MeToo movement first began as an offline protest and later it changed to an online movement. The movement was started around 2006 and it reached the online platforms in October 2017. It’s the voice of the educated women against the deep trenched male dominant culture at the workspace. The #MeToo movement was founded by Tarana Burke, a social activist and community organizer. Burke, who is creating a documentary titled Me Too, has said she was inspired to use the phrase after being unable to respond to a 13-year-old girl who confided to her that she had been sexually assaulted. Burke said she later wished she had simply told the girl, ‘Me too’. It’s a platform for the oppressed and a means to express the abuse they had faced. When news of the allegations against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein broke last October, it unleashed a torrent of emotion, especially on social media, offering permission to disclose current and past experiences of sexual harassment and assault. In an unprecedented quantum of use, it offered many angry and upset women accessible ways of venting often long-repressed feelings. It also gave rise to the #MeToo movement. A barrage of allegations has since emerged against high-profile men in entertainment, the media, politics, and tech. Many deny any wrongdoing. The repercussions are still in flux, but world’s power dynamics have undoubtedly shifted.

It’s a common practice in the world to abuse women irrespective of the age. It doesn’t mean that only women are being abused, men also belong to this but when compared the rate of abuse is very less. Abusing women has now become a part of culture mainly because of the stereotypes. #MeToo is one way to overcome these stereotypes. The reason for the #MeToo public explosion is that the judiciary or armed forces never bothered about their problems and their suffocations. It is seen that the law favors the oppressor more than the oppressed. The whole process shamed the victim. Many of the sexual assault happened when workplaces were not sensitive to the safety of women and social media platforms were nonexistent. Besides this, our power structure is dominated by men and the victims are young and vulnerable women.

Social media is both a boon and bane. It is depends on how we treat a certain issue.  #MeToo movement has been very active in social media since the latter half of 2017. It is in fact the social media that urged the advancement of #MeToo. The hashtag #MeToo is doing the rounds in every nook and cranny of social media. As more and more women come out on social media with accounts of sexual harassment and abuse a great political cultural change in being shaped. The change brought by #MeToo movement is immense and it has been able to give the possible credentials to women. It has achieved great success in challenging the social norms. Many men, who are charged of sexual assault through the #MeToo movement, some admitted and apologized to the misconduct they have committed. This, in this instance, has become an eye opener for many men. In this wave of storm, prominent personalities are named for their harsh behavior. The #MeToo is critical of the power and the way it enables sexual predators. #MeToo is trying to fill the gender gap that has been produced by the patriarchy. There are so many laws to protect sexual harassment of women in workplace.

In a feminist perspective, #MeToo is a translation of western culture. The #MeToo movement can be analyzed from the notion of female experience. The subjects involved in the process are all women of all age. It determines the point of view without any hesitance or shyness and in a courageous manner. The experiences differ from other females and males. It can be related to the ‘second wave of feminism’ which portrays equal rights and representation as its key motive. In #MeToo movement, there is no celebration of so called ‘feminity’. It’s a transformation from ‘inter – dependence’ to independence. In relation to Cixous’, ‘Ecriture Feminine’ which exemplifies women to writing about her body, #MeToo is a continuation of this concept and not only writing about body but also writing about the sexual violence that is faced by women. It was a renewal of an old tradition of thoughts and action. #MeToo movement revisits the history of Indian Feminism. The American Feminist critic Eliane Showalter classified the history of women’s writing into feminine phase, feminist phase and female phase. In feminine phase women writers imitated the dominant male artistic norms; in feminist phase a radical position was maintained and in female phase women started writing their own experiences. The #MeToo movement can he considered as a part of female phase as it involves expressing the sexual violence that is imbibed upon them.

Ways to improve Online Marketing Strategies.

Online marketing strategies aim to find more customers for business by increasing brand awareness just as traditional marketing. Online marketing, widely known as digital marketing works by coordinating different channels from the creation of content to sales.
Search engine marketing (SEM) is a prominent marketing strategy. Search engine marketing and optimization are two factors that can help your company rank higher in a search engine results page. Your company website will become connected with the terms used to find your services if you have a solid SEO plan in place. As a result, you have a better chance of being the firm that someone decides to work with after conducting an online search. While Search Engine Optimization (SEO), one of its components help to get free visits from search engines, Paid Search Advertising (PSA) helps to get paid visits. The main goal of Search engine marketing is to get visit either way.
Mobile marketing is applicable only when the website has a mobile friendly version. If done correctly this strategy can produce the best experience.
Creating quality content is the very next step. A content must convince the readers and it has to satisfy the strategies of the website.

Ask someone who is knowledgeable about digital and internet marketing if you aren’t. There are hundreds of internet marketing coaches and consultants accessible to you, many of whom can provide you with advice on how to improve your results. A coach or consultant can be incredibly beneficial to small business owners who need to focus on other business systems.

Maintaining a blog is also a best option. Your blog should be used for a variety of purposes, including allowing you to add fresh keywords on a regular basis and optimizing your SEO approach. More importantly, your blog becomes a place where you can give advise, share information, and truly interact with your customers. Trust is the foundation of any long-term relationship, and your blog is an excellent place to start.

Social media marketing comes next. Social media campaigns should focus on targeted audience or followers to spread more attention to the website. Eventually the number of visits would increase the followers. So, small business can easily grow online and thinking outside the box would bring new ideas to flourish business

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

There are some set of skills, apart from the technical skills people need to learn and impart, in order to fit or adjust themselves in the corporate environment. Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as Emotional Quotient (EQ) is one of the basic skills to work and grow in the corporate world. Emotions can be defined as the spirit or breath of life.
Emotional intelligence is the ability to identify, use, understand and manage emotions in a positive way. If you have a high EQ, you are able to recognize your own emotional state and the emotional states of others and engage with people in a way, that draws them to you. You can use this understanding of emotions to relate better to other people, form healthier relationships, achieve greater success at work and lead a more fulfilling life.

Five attributes of EQ.

Self Awareness – It helps people to understand their emotions and they don’t let their feelings to rule them.
Motivation – People with a high EQ are usually motivated.
Empathy – Empathetic people are usually excellent at managing relationships.
Social Awareness – Through social awareness, a person feels comfortable socially. It helps to recognize the power dynamics in an organization.
Self Regulation – It is the ability to control emotions and impulses.

EQ can help you navigate the social complexities of the work place, lead and motivate others and excel in your carrier. If you are unable to manage your stress levels, it can lead to serious health problems. Uncontrolled stress can also Impact your mental health, making you vulnerable to anxiety and depression. Understanding and controlling emotions allow you to communicate more effectively and to build stronger relationship both at work and in your personal life.

How to improve organizational EQ ?

Employees develop their own EQ. They have to seek support when needed and have to be more open and cooperative. Leaders should encourage the expression of feelings and foster a positive emotional climate. They should follow an open door policy by developing their own EQ. The organization should integrate EQ in training programs and should try to include EQ evaluation in recruitment process.

IQ, or intelligence quotient, is a measure of your ability to reason and solve problems. It is not enough to be successful in life. In general, thinking fast and coming up with unique solutions to tough problems seems to be aided by having a high IQ. But really, consider most business problems such as needing to develop an effective marketing campaign or figuring out how to distribute a product. Solving problems such as these does not typically require a PhD, Instead, it requires motivating people, getting the right information out of the right people, building alignment, and effective communication. So people need both these factors to be successful.

A STUDY OF ‘INEQUALITY’

Gender equality and women empowerment can be considered as the two sides of the same coin. Progress toward gender equality requires women‘s empowerment and women‘s empowerment requires increases in gender equality. Inequalities are imposed on females, particularly in patriarchal countries such as in India. These gender-based violence results lowered access to resources such as education, employment, and income, and limits their power over decision making and freedom of movement.

I conducted a survey, which aimed to elicit attitudes and opinions of youngsters towards some areas like women’s rights, role of women in society etc. The twenty responses – including males and females believe in gender equality and they do agree that the treatment towards women are not fair. They are facing troubles in employment, health and education related fields.

All of the respondents disagree to the statement that higher education is more important to the boys than girls. Educating girls saves lives and builds stronger families, communities and economies and an educated female population increases a country’s productivity too. Schools can provide girls with life skills, reproductive health knowledge and a social space to discuss issues. Education is also a key source to an independent life.
Interestingly two of the women who didn’t support the first question are not interested to work outside home. Women is not a commodity to be bought by her husband and made a chef and babysitter. No one can mean that she should be inside four walls as an indoor girl. Women, who choose to work, to the workforce is a benefit to society as a whole. Women think differently and so will contribute to a versatile environment in which new techniques and styles will be implemented. Men and women complement each other, hence working together will produce results which only men, or only women, may not have been able to produce on their own. This does not imply that men and women who work outside the home are allowed to opt out of their responsibilities at home. If both parties were to give their careers as much importance as maintaining stability within the home, we would have a system which isn’t oppressive plus enforces values.

Twenty responses support the concept of gender equality. It is intrinsically linked to sustainable development and is vital to the realization of human rights for all. The overall objective of gender equality is a society in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, rights and obligations in all spheres of life. Women have made significant progress entering male-dominated jobs like finance, law and medicine–over the past several decades. But still many female-dominated jobs tend to pay less than male-dominated ones, even when skill levels and education requirements are equivalent. All the respondents agree that gender equality is not practicing in the world- but we have progressed. They view that life is generally better for men than it is for women and more changes are needed to achieve equal rights for women.

Girls and women suffer most of the negative impact of rigid gender norms and roles – they are more likely to experience restrictions of their freedom and mobility, they experience epidemic levels of violence and harassment across the globe and have fewer opportunities to choose how to live their lives. Unequal societies are less cohesive. They have higher rates of anti-social behavior and violence. Countries with greater gender equality are more connected. Their people are healthier and have better wellbeing. Parents, government, teachers etc are responsible for ensuring gender equality and the building up of this concept should begin from one’s childhood itself. Gender-based inequalities translate into greater value being placed on the health and survival of males than of females. In general, the report finds that gender inequality is persistent in every domain examined, and women are disempowered both absolutely and relative to men.

NOVELS OF MARQUEZ

The Colombian Nobel Prize winner Gabriel Garca Marquez tells the story of a plague of insomnia that afflicted the Buendia family in the town of Macondo in his novel One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967). As time passed, all family members lost their memories and lost track of their identities, but they were able to recollect their stories as told by a Gypsy who came to town once. Garcia Marquez shows how storytelling in our collective memories serves the foundations of our human nature in this novel. The vast literature about plagues, pestilences, and pandemics shows that we are inextricably linked to one another, to life in general, and to the natural world’s wild powers. “All that was needed was shrewd questioning… to conclude once again that the symptoms of love were the same as those of cholera.

The reader will feel both at home and far away in Garcia Marquez’s world. It is influenced by the Cuban Revolution on the one hand, but it is also focused on the turn of the century. On the one hand, Garcia Marquez’s tale adheres to the stylistic standards of “high art,” but it is influenced by a variety of elements from popular culture. It restores literature’s time-honored mission of entertaining through the simple act of narrating, implying that the texture in which the real and the imaginary, the autobiographical and the collective, are intermingled and has no justification other than the revival of the forgotten art of story-telling. No other book exemplifies this more vividly than Love in the Time of Cholera, because it is immediately apparent in this novel how the author reworks romantic clichés in an extraordinarily unique approach. In reality, the novel might be viewed as a kind of frieze depicting all stages of love, from adolescence to old age, Platonic and erotic, lawful and illicit, transitory and everlasting, childish yet profound.

Gabriel Garca Márquez’s novel Love in the Time of Cholera was set during the sixth cholera pandemic, which lasted from 1899 to 1923 and was published in 1985 as El amor en los tiempos del cólera. The novel, which deals with themes of love, ageing, and death, takes place in a South American community ravaged by wars and cholera outbreaks between the late 1870s and the early 1930s. The tale is set in the Colombian walled city of Cartagena, and it revolves around Florentino Ariza, who falls in love at first sight with Fermina Daza, who marries her father’s preference, Dr. Juvenal Urbino. When the doctor passes away, Florentino resumes his courtship of Fermina. Ironically, their spirit of unwavering devotion contrasts with the surrounding corporeal decay.

Florentino Ariza, a young telegraph operator in a Caribbean port city in the late 1800s, falls madly in love with Fermina Daza, a beautiful student. They keep their romance hidden through letters and telegrams because she is so sheltered. When Fermina Daza’s father learns of her suitor, he takes her on a trip to help her forget about it. Lorenza Daza has far higher aspirations for his daughter than Florentino does. Her anguish at being separated from her lover is palpable, but when she returns, she ends the relationship, claiming all that has happened between them to be a figment of her imagination. Instead, she marries Dr. Juvenal, an elegant, educated, and wealthy man. She would deem herself the happiest woman on the planet for being his wife. Florentino Ariza, despite being devastated by her rejection, is unmoved. He has proclaimed his everlasting love for Fermina and is eager to obtain the fame and wealth he deserves in order to regain her. Florentino Ariza addresses Fermina again at her husband’s funeral, 51 years, 9 months, and 4 days after her husband’s death. There have been hundreds of other partnerships, but none of them have had the same effect on him as Fermina. One of his lovers says, “He is ugly and sad, but he is all love.” Garca Márquez beautifully and unflinchingly examines the essence of love in all its forms, small and big, passionate and serene, in this magnificent romance novel. Love can strike these characters like a plague, but it can also survive harsh decades of war and cholera, as well as the effects of time itself.

Hashtags and Mobilization

Movements are part of changing society and changing holocaust. Social movements have a structure which makes them functional relative to their goals. Activism is action on behalf of a cause, action that goes beyond what is conventional or routine activity. The central theme is to resist authority. The kind of reformation that is taking place through movements is shaking the base root of patriarchy. The patriarchal belief system is constantly negotiating the need of revolution. The action might be door-to-door canvassing, alternative radio, public meetings, rallies, or fasting. The cause of the activism will vary according the type of protests. The cause might be women’s rights, gender equality, opposition to a factory, world peace and so forth. Activism has played a major role in ending slavery, challenging dictatorships, protecting workers from exploitation, protecting the environment, promoting equality for women, opposing racism, and many other important issues. Activism can also be used for aims such as attacking minorities or promoting war.The main purpose of movements is to raise a sought of awareness and to engage the people in deliberation. It makes the people politically aware of the situation and hitherto experiences. The perpetrators of activism are called
‘activists’.

A major protest that happened in India was the ‘Nirbhaya’ movement. In December 2012, New Delhi witnessed a horrific crime– a student was violently gang-raped on a moving bus and then dumped onto the highway, injured and unconscious. While she didn‟t survive the attack, Nirbhaya, as she was named by the media, sparked a revolution in India and its neighboring countries. Social movements always stand by the side of marginalized. The Naxalite movements in India exemplify this. The Naxalite movement helps the downtrodden indigenous people to acquire their needs. It is a small group devoted to the left liberal activism.

The Internet helps in coordinating and creating platforms of discussion inside movements. The internet has given rise to social media and the social media in turn gave rise to hashtags and mobilization is an essential part of the movement. Social mobilization is directed towards social change. The Kerala floods were not greatly acknowledged by the national media. But with the influence of Facebook and twitter it crossed the regional differences and help was provided by various people residing outside the state. It is the ordinary people who harnessed social media and their own resources to play a role in relief and rescue efforts. Hashtags such as #KeralaFloods #Verified became trending within hours and helped to grab the attention of the whole world.

Movements are context based and it is up to the people to decide whether it should sustain or not. In today’s world there are both online and offline movements and both of them have their own merits and demerits. A protest that begins in the internet transforms into an offline movement and vice versa.

TRAVAILS OF LOVE

To a significant extent, the difficulties of same-sex love have been a matter of discussion. The horrors perpetrated against these people are numerous and terrible, ranging from bullying to harassment. Promiscuity (indiscriminate sexual partner selection) has been a fundamentally ethical education in and of itself. In so-called “ethical education,” being who you have no place. Even if there are numerous unsolved concerns, the law is unconcerned about them. In the eyes of the law, people’s particular identities are irrelevant. In the case of homosexuals, one partner is nothing more than a friend of the other in the eyes of the law. Following a flurry of rages and discussions, the Indian Supreme Court approved same-sex marriage. It is the culmination of two decades of unrelenting battles. Thousands of people gather every year in February to celebrate LGBTQ pride by rallying on the streets and hope for society to accept them in every state of India. The LGBTQ community is plagued by a slew of issues. The primary issue is getting people outside the community to accept you.

Lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender individuals, queers, intersex, and asexuals are all part of the LGBTQIA community. A lesbian is a woman who is attracted to another woman; a gay is a man who is attracted to another man; a bisexual is a person who is attracted to more than one gender; a transgender is a person whose gender identity differs from the sexual identity assigned to them at birth; Queers are gender minorities who are not heterosexual or cisgender. Intersex refers to a group of circumstances in which a person is born with reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not appear to fit the traditional classifications of female and male. Asexual refers to a person who has no sexual desires or sensations. Because the word “queer” denotes “weird,” “odd,” or “funny,” it relates to the degrading of that particular community. It reflects society’s obnoxious and patriarchal attitude toward the LGBT community. The LGBTQ community has been constantly scrutinized by the outside world. We live in a world where LGBTQ persons are reluctant to tell their parents about their sexual orientation. Every year, a large number of LGBT persons confront significant challenges such as assault, unemployment, prejudice, poverty, and a lack of access to health care. This is due to the discriminatory behavior of society, which instills the people’s mentality. Many people still have no idea what LGBTQ is or what it stands for. Even if a large number of people are educated, others remain illiterates in this subject, despite their acceptance. ‘Gay abandon’ is a relatively common occurrence.

Homosexuality was once considered a felony in India, thanks to Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. Section 377 refers to ‘unnatural offenses,’ and states that anybody who voluntarily engages in sexual intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman, or animal shall be punished with life imprisonment or imprisonment of either sort for a term up to ten years, as well as a fine. This exemplifies the morality enshrined in India’s constitution.

EMERGENCE OF QUEER THEORY

The acceptance of queer identity is not so easy in society. A hetero normative society wishes to build the society in a ‘normal’ manner. A strong consciousness of morality is manufactured and working in our society. As per heterosexual norms, sexual minorities are not human beings. They are portrayed to be unnatural and aberrant. The major reason behind the negative approach against them is that their life leads the ‘normal’ society into a feeling of insecurity. If a situation arrives where we have to admit their sexual identity, it would be the end of all established social laws on sexuality. It would be terrible for us to suffer if a homosexual makes any change to the existence of our ‘natural’ society. The social construction of Indian males and females doesn’t accept the individuality of homosexuals; in other words the elimination of power structure. In a hetero normative society, homo and heterosexuals are influenced by the power structure; the difference is this power structure is not that much visible to the ‘normalized categories’. Issues regarding the purpose of reproduction also make homosexuals ‘abnormal’. A hetero normative society provides two options to the homosexual community. This focuses specifically on sexuality as a primary component of human identity, social organization, and textual representation. There are certain theories related to homosexuality.

Gay/Lesbian theory:
It emerged prominently as a distinct field only by the 1990s. It emerged as a part of feminist studies. Both are similar in many ways, though the lesbian/gay movement has not yet gained the momentum of feminist movements. The lesbian/gay criticism field is strongly multi-disciplinary, with perhaps a predominance of cultural studies over literary material. But lesbian/gay criticism is not of exclusive interest to gays and lesbians. It may help define the nature of this field and make an initial comparison with feminist criticism. Books by gay/lesbian writers or critics are not necessarily part of gay/lesbian studies and the purpose of this criticism is that lesbian/gay studies do for sex and sexuality approximately what women’s studies do for gender.

Queer Theory:
The lesbian theory was not fully distinct from feminist studies. It was just a subfield called lesbian feminism. The second kind of lesbian thinking, designated libertarian lesbianism by Paulina Palmer, breaks away from feminism and makes new allegiances with gay men rather than with another woman. And this kind of lesbian theory sees itself as part of the field of ‘Queer theory’ or ‘Queer studies’, terms increasingly used by gays, despite the homophobic origins of the word ‘Queer’ as an abusive one in this context. The queer theory includes both queer readings of texts and theorizes the ‘queerness’ itself. The queer theory builds both upon feminist challenges to the idea that gender is part of the essential self and upon gay/lesbian studies to close examination of the socially constructed nature of sexual acts and identities.

Key Figures

Judith Pamela Butler is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics, and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer, and literary theory. She stated that no one can’t lay a specific claim to sexuality, but one can perform an identity: repeat clothing, gestures, attitudes, etc can be imitated as we as parodied. In one of the essays, she says “Since I was sixteen, being a lesbian is what I’ve been”. It indicates one has to constantly or repeatedly perform identity to maintain that.

Michel Foucault is a key poststructuralist influence on the development of queer theory. By his sociological research, he was able to identify four specific types of humans- that society has tried to control throughout history.
• Hysterical woman- commonly referred to as nymphomaniac.
• The masturbating child.
• The Malthus ( political economist Thomas Malthusian) couple: control reproduction, the rise of birth control, ethics of population control, etc.
• The perverse adult: Foucault termed this category as homosexuals. He says that homos and heteros are binaries but they are mutually dependent upon each other.

Key Principles

• Sexuality has always a connection with our social existence.
( Our attitudes towards sex, emotion, and erotic activity reveal much about the social classification and society’s economic and political priorities.
• Negative social attitudes about expressions of social desire have had a profound impact on many individual’s public and private lives.
• Social attitudes about sexuality have changed over time.
• Men’s same-sex desires have been treated differently from women’s over time.
• Social attitudes about sexuality have changed significantly across cultures, religions, classes, and ethnic groups.
• Social attitudes about sexuality resonate through literary texts that may challenge or maintain the status quo.

A COLONIAL READING OF Things Fall Apart

This writeup focuses on the boundaries set by the European colonists on the culture and  tradition of ‘pure’ Africans- resulting in confusion among people to choose what is ‘their own’. I will be dealing with Chinua Achebe’s first novel, Things Fall Apart – how things fall apart before  and after the arrival of missionaries, and how their ‘civilising’ mission works on the natives. They  imposed restrictions, which put forth the implications of a closed system and lack of liberty to  choose the linguistic features one wishes to inculcate in their literary work. Achebe also highlights  the oral tradition by using narrative proverbs in the structuring of the action of the novel. Achebe refuses to completely step into the refined space as imposed by the Westerners. He  chose to stick to ‘his’ culture which gave him comfort and stability. The Europeans inflicted a sense  of inferiority by setting margins, which implied that the native’s actions were wrong, and it would  only get better if they followed what had been told to do. It is nothing but the psychological impact  of colonial education. Though we believe that Achebe gave more importance to his culture, we  also cannot deny that he did get influenced by the Westerners. Elements of double consciousness  in Things Fall Apart often lead to the Identity crisis of his characters which is stemmed from the  hybrid nature of the Author himself. 

The Igbo patriarchal community always placed men on a pedestal seat. They considered women as ‘second sex’ and used them as objects for male satisfaction. ‘She’ wasn’t ‘aware’ of ‘the being oppressed process’ because of the influence of patriarchy. Inequality, lack of inheritance for  female children, women beating and feminine abuse were appreciated to a certain extent and  treated as ‘normal’. Igbo women lived their lives to deliver kids and to do domestic chores. Females  are in an inferior position throughout the novel and the idea of masculinity erased them from the  political, economical and judicial strata of the society. Women weren’t allowed to identify their  true character and the dominance above her gender and race indirectly forced her to obey the ‘male  rules’ without any objection. This suppression of the female by the male, in the Igbo tribe is similar to the oppression faced by the colonised under the coloniser. Igbo men inflicted ‘subaltern’  treatment on his family. 

The protagonist Okonkwo wishes his eldest son Nwoye to behave like a ‘real’ man – he  wanted to completely erase Nwoye’s ‘motherly’ side. Okonkwo was a man of strength and was  afraid to be called weak or a woman. He was ashamed of his father Unoka, who was a ‘coward’  and a ‘spendthrift’, by the standards of the clan. Okonkwo tried to hate everything his father had  loved but still the memories of Unoka haunted him in a very uncomfortable way. In other words,  Unoka is a representation of the past; a past that belonged to the traditional Igbo community. He  must have inherited most of the cultural traits and beliefs of their culture. Differing from the ‘real  man’ concept doesn’t mean that Unoka is an outcast of Igbo tribe. So hating Unoka signifies  that Okonkwo is not fully immersed in traditions. One of his sides always rejected Igbo traditions  while the other side always accepted them. The violence, intolerance and the passion for becoming  a respectable leader- which are the characteristic features of missionaries – clearly shows that  Okankwo is different from his peace- loving tribe. When the oldest man of the clan, Ogbuefi  Ezeudu asked Okonkwo not to kill his son-like Ikemefuna, he never listened. He did kill him with  full remorse and regret. In a sense, Okonkwo was respecting the order of Oracle, but also  disrespecting the words of a ‘living tradition’. 

Okonkwo accidentally kills Ezeudu’s son with a gun at his funeral. The old man’s death  creates a vacuum in their heritage. His son’s death is a complete wipe out of his essence with a  ‘modernised European concept’, gun. It gives a picture of a confused individual trying to erase his  ‘own’ people using the ‘european brain’. This confusion clearly states Okonkwo’s mixed nature,  which leads to his death. 

Nwoye is the binary opposite of Okonkwo. He seems more like Unoka and has an  attachment towards his mother. He tries not to be like ‘himself’ for making his father happy. He  was unable to express his true self since childhood. This traumatic experience leads to his  conversion. He is neither Igbo nor Christian; he has double identities but not even sure about who  he really is. His jumping consciousness creates nothing but confusion. 

Enoch is a character who is similar to Okonkwo in many ways. Their personalities are  comparable, they both have issues with their fathers, and they consider themselves to be above  their peers, but their belief systems are quite different from each other. He passionately accepted  Christianity without any hesitation and cut his Igbo roots by killing one of the ancestral spirits by  unmasking an egwugwu. When Mr. Brown becomes ill and is replaced by a zealot named  Reverend Smith, he uses Enoch’s ‘grown up’ fanaticism to turn against a race which once belonged  to him. The fact that Enoch is not killed for his action highlights an acceptance of colonial rule  from the local rulers and traditional elite. Mimicry appears here, when Enoch imitates the  colonised culture and makes the environment unstable. Literally speaking, he is a combination of  Okonkwo and Nwoye. 

Ikemefuna’s death signifies the eradication of a minor culture from a major culture. He  reached Umuofia as a part of sacrifice. Willingly he adjusted with the clan’s customs; but the  memories of his family is a reminder that he hasn’t fully adapted in the new world. He tried to  believe that the new clan is his family, but his beliefs end with his death. Also Okonkwo is  questioning the identity of his eldest daughter Ezinma. He wishes that she had been born a son.

Throughout the novel, we come to know how important farming is to the Igbo tribe. We  see an instance where Okonkwo plants yam seeds in his farm, given to him by Okoye. Okoye does  not belong to his family, implying that he is the ‘other’. However it does not work out due to the  drought and heavy rains. This incident can be seen as symbolic of the seeds of western ideologies  that have been planted in the natives’ mind. Thus, causing an instability in his mind, resulting in a  state of confusion. The relationship between farmer and farming is that of the coloniser planting  seeds of ideologies into the mind of the colonised.  The impact on natives due to this colonisation gives rise to the double consciousness in the  characters. They are torn between the constant dilemma to know where they belong, which culture  to follow. This dilemma is rooted from the childhood days of the author. The author, being under colonial rule himself, was influenced by the westerners. The very notion of authorisation is a  western concept, in contrast to the oral tradition, where the importance is given to the reader. The  reader is free to interpret and retell it in his/her own way. While the same cannot be implicated in  the case of an authorized text. Therefore, we can conclude that he does not fully follow the  traditions. This feature is also seen in the protagonist of his novel. Okonkwo does not fully follow  his own tribal instinct, nor does he welcome the whites. In the end, Okonkwo commits suicide,  even though he knows that it is against his own tribe. The reason for his action is his intolerance  towards the arrival of the whites. Hence, his suicide can be seen as a protest. 

Effective tips for buying Twitch views and followers

Streaming things could be a hobby and an open door for opportunities. It began as a fun pastime for most and has quickly grown into a main entertainment channel for millions of people. Different platforms stream  different contents. Game streaming on Twitch is considered as the most popular one. It is a  website where PPL from all over the world can broadcast themselves or a video game that they are playing on the platform.

Setting your stream goal has primary importance. People are protective of their followers and they are not going to follow unless you have a channel that they actually want to come back to. To grow followers you need to make the channel interesting enough that people want to come back to it over and over. It is important to be respectful of your viewers’ time and attention. Instead of calling up the lurker’s name , a polite address might be enough. Telling your viewers about your goals would make them feel inspired to achieve them. Talk about the things you are going to do after you get partnered. It is necessary to motivate the viewers to take action while focusing on increasing followers. Say the exact things without the essence of artificiality. Asking for followers while you go live has a huge impact. Tell them how you want to be supported by playing on their belief system and identity. Write down a plan before you go live- like the stories  you are going to tell and the games you are going to play. It is important to make sure that you have lots of things to talk about even if your chat isn’t interactive. Get partnered and try to go full-time sometimes by streaming more and consistently on discoverable platforms. Watch other streamers and try to compare it with your style. It would be better if you are aware of different methods used by others. After your stream, spend some time to highlight the best bits. Asking other streamers for some constructive criticism on your stream helps  to get feedback from the same industry. Requesting some of your regular viewers if they want to be moderators is a great idea to make your platform active.

Social media acts as a great help for the self promotion of your stream without financial barriers. Go ahead with platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter etc. and share your stream and be active. There would be more people to check out your activities. As a growing community, discord servers help in self promotion by giving a high reach to the stream. YouTube is also useful in showing off your skills by helping people to learn. Focus on learning and becoming a better streamer rather than criticizing or blaming yourself. Don’t go spending more money on your streaming setup when you are brand new. Those investments can come later on if things go well. Instead start a stable live stream and have a stream schedule. Make use of the tags when you settle your title and game for your livestream on Twitch. Be patient, confident and productive.

PEN AND PANDEMIC

Literature acts as a powerful tool for capturing moments. Its influence is visible from the very beginning of the human civilisation. Experiences of a particular time period can be restored mentally by the reading/rereading of a text. It also has the ability to create a new world filled with fantasy. Literary works produced in different genres are uncountable and the various methods used by the authors in different contexts help readers to connect with the social- political- economical- cultural scenarios of the time. In history how do we understand that one led to the other? How can we be certain that one was the cause and the other was an effect?  The historian links these two facts and provides a narrative where we can see the cause – effect sequence. Therefore we can know history only in the form of narrative or texts.

Texts are necessary to understand social contexts. These texts are literature. Literary texts not only reflect an age’s themes and contexts, it shapes those contexts by persuading people to accept particular believes and opinions. We can’t separate literature as an effect of historical or social contexts but have to see literature as contributing to informing, influencing and participating actively in the construction of those contexts.

Behind every illness there is a mystery; literature discuss about mysteries. Literary perspective of Pandemic become more important because it shows how disease, death, sex are affecting humans and society, socially mentally and culturally. It is also important that by recording pandemics, literature tries to show pandemic in a literary discourse rather than in a medical discourse. Pandemics in literary discourses help the common people to understand the context. Many authors used pandemic as a narrative device to showcase the effect of diseases and deaths in the lives of creatures, mainly humans. Pandemics have been fictionalised by some writers, but the advancement of science has increased the knowledge of illness by creating an understanding that truth or reality is stranger than fiction.

Pandemics are nothing new in the path of human history and pandemic literature helps to contextualise real incidents. It mirrors people’s fears about disease and societal collapse, but it simultaneously shows that survival is possible and that rebuilding ourselves into something new is not only necessary but inevitable. A story about a pandemic is rarely about the disease itself and as a genre pandemic literature focuses more on sociology, psychology and human behavior. There is a long history of authors writing about and writing in times of pandemics. Human beings have indeed for a very long time experienced pandemics (experiencing) and they have written about it.  Concept of universal fear questions the notion that humans are not in control.

At the beginning of Susan Sontag’s classic text, Illness as Metaphor, she writes, “Illness is the night-side of life, a more onerous citizenship. Everyone who is born holds dual citizenship, in the kingdom of the well and in the kingdom of the sick.” According to commonly accepted psychological theories of illness, the sick bear ultimate responsibility for both being sick and getting well. A reading of Susan Sontag’s text says that isolation is a mode of oppression. They are being constantly watched and controlled by the ‘kingdom of well’. People who are trapped in the ‘kingdom of sick’ are treated as mere biological bodies which contain infection instead of ‘normal’ human beings. Medical gazes would follow them until they reach in the ‘kingdom of well’.  Till the mid 19th century modern epidemiology was hardly in action. For most of the time people were confused about the origin and center of diseases and it’s spread. So early examples of pandemic literature focuses more on what people do during the pandemic, with a touch of moralising trend of that period.

The pandemic reached us in an unforeseen way and we’re going through a huge, collective transition. Historically distant texts felt urgent and real, with quarantines, stay-at-home orders, critical staff, and rule breakers. We started to understand the ability of literature to convey something new about the shared experience, something that was not possible to communicate through clear reporting. Perhaps it’s a stretch to say that our answer to COVID-19 gave us knowledge and experience, but we discovered dimensions of our existence that were unmistakably familiar as we entered the foreign worlds of epidemics through history.