Unemployment, according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), is persons above a specified age (usually 15)not being in paid employment or self-employment but currently available for work during the reference period.

Unemployment rate, 2017
Unemployment is measured by the unemployment rate, which is the number of people who are unemployed as a percentage of the labour force (the total number of people employed added to those unemployed).

Unemployment can have many sources, such as the following:

new technologies and inventions
the status of the economy, which can be influenced by a recession
competition caused by globalization and international trade
policies of the government
regulation and market
Unemployment and the status of the economy can be influenced by a country through, for example, fiscal policy. Furthermore, the monetary authority of a country, such as the central bank, can influence the availability and cost for money through its monetary policy.

In addition to theories of unemployment, a few categorisations of unemployment are used for more precisely modelling the effects of unemployment within the economic system. Some of the main types of unemployment include structural unemployment, frictional unemployment, cyclical unemployment, involuntary unemployment and classical unemployment. Structural unemployment focuses on foundational problems in the economy and inefficiencies inherent in labor markets, including a mismatch between the supply and demand of laborers with necessary skill sets. Structural arguments emphasize causes and solutions related to disruptive technologies and globalization. Discussions of frictional unemployment focus on voluntary decisions to work based on individuals’ valuation of their own work and how that compares to current wage rates added to the time and effort required to find a job. Causes and solutions for frictional unemployment often address job entry threshold and wage rates.

According to the UN’s International Labour Organization (ILO), there were 172 million people worldwide (or 5% of the reported global workforce) without work in 2018.

Because of the difficulty in measuring the unemployment rate by, for example, using surveys (as in the United States) or through registered unemployed citizens (as in some European countries), statistical figures such as the employment-to-population ratio might be more suitable for evaluating the status of the workforce and the economy if they were based on people who are registered, for example, as taxpayers.

Voting rights

Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, which is the right to stand for election.

Suffrage universel dédié à Ledru-Rollin, Frédéric Sorrieu, 1850
Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to referendums.

In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may also be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California, Washington, and Wisconsin have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write, propose, and vote on referendums; other states and the federal government have not. Referendums in the United Kingdom are rare.

Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government’s decision. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of closely linked countries (e.g., Commonwealth citizens and European Union citizens) or to certain offices or questions.

Age discrimination

What is age discrimination?
This is when you are treated differently because of your age in one of the situations that are covered by the Equality Act.

The Equality Act has some exceptions. For example, students are not protected from age discrimination at school.

The treatment could be a one-off action or as a result of a rule or policy based on age. It doesn’t have to be intentional to be unlawful.

There are some circumstances when being treated differently due to age is lawful, explained below.

What the Equality Act says about age discrimination
The Equality Act 2010 says that you must not be discriminated against because:

you are (or are not) a certain age or in a certain age group
someone thinks you are (or are not) a specific age or age group, this is known as discrimination by perception
you are connected to someone of a specific age or age group, this is known as discrimination by association
Age groups can be quite wide (for example, ‘people under 50’ or ‘under 18s’). They can also be quite specific (for example, ‘people in their mid-40s’). Terms such as ‘young person’ and ‘youthful’ or ‘elderly’ and ‘pensioner’ can also indicate an age group.

Different types of age discrimination
There are four main types of age discrimination.

Direct discrimination
This happens when someone treats you worse than another person in a similar situation because of your age. For example:

your employer refuses to allow you to do a training course because she thinks you are ‘too old’, but allows younger colleagues to do the training.
Direct age discrimination is permitted provided that the organisation or employer can show that there is a good reason for the discrimination.

This is known as objective justification. For example:

you are 17 and apply for a job on a construction site. The building company refuses to employ under-18s on that site because accident statistics show that it can be dangerous for them. The company’s treatment of you is probably justified
a guest house owner charges twice her normal rates for people under 21. She hopes it will deter young people from booking because a few have caused damage recently. A more appropriate alternative would be to ask for a deposit. It is unlikely that the guest house can justify charging the increased rates
Indirect discrimination
Indirect discrimination happens when an organisation has a particular policy or way of working that applies to everyone but which puts people of your age group at a disadvantage. For example:

you are 22 and you find you are not eligible to be promoted because your employer has a policy that only workers with a post graduate qualification (such as a Masters) can be promoted. Although this applies to everyone it disadvantages people of your age because they are less likely to have that qualification
an optician allows customers to pay for their glasses by instalments, provided they are in employment. This could indirectly discriminate against older people, who are less likely to be working
Like direct age discrimination, indirect age discrimination can be permitted if the organisation or employer is able to show that there is a good reason for the policy. This is known as objective justification.

Harassment occurs when someone makes you feel humiliated, offended or degraded. For example:

during a training session at work, the trainer keeps commenting how slow an older employee is at learning how to use a new software package because of his age. The employee finds this distressing. This could be considered harassment related to age
Harassment can never be justified. However, if an organisation or employer can show it did everything it could to prevent people who work for it from behaving like that, you will not be able to make a claim for harassment against it, although you could make a claim against the harasser.

This is when you are treated badly because you have made a complaint of age discrimination under the Equality Act. It can also occur if you are supporting someone who has made a complaint of age discrimination. For example:

your colleague complains of being called a ‘wrinkly’ at work. You help them complain to your manager. Your manager treats you badly as a result of getting involved

Public health issues

Although the United States offers some of the highest quality health care in the world, there are still many difficult challenges left to solve. From heart disease and chronic illness to alcoholism and prescription drug abuse, there’s no shortage of public health problems that need to be addressed. And while public health professionals are constantly engaged at the local and national levels, making a positive impact isn’t easy.

Tackling key health issues in America requires input from a diverse range of stakeholders, including government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and private medical facilities. The ability to collaborate across industry lines is essential, as breakthrough medical treatments and public health initiatives depend on experts with different specializations. For example, educating citizens about the risks of excessive alcohol consumption relies on the knowledge of medical practitioners, the communication skills of health educators and the policy experience of lawmakers. But what exactly is a public health problem and how do experts keep track of them over time?

What makes something a public health problem?
Public health is the science of improving the well-being of communities through research, health programs, policies, and education. Unlike the health care field, public health is more about protecting entire populations (CDC Foundation, 2018). This could be something as small as a rural neighborhood, or as large as an entire country. Rather than treating existing medical issues, public health professionals try to prevent problems by promoting healthy lifestyles, designing outreach campaigns, and advising policymakers. They also work to eliminate health disparities by advocating for health care equity and accessibility.

Drug use

What are drugs?
Drugs are chemical substances that can change how your body and mind work. They include prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs.

What is drug use?
Drug use, or misuse, includes

Using illegal substances, such as
Anabolic steroids
Club drugs
Misusing prescription medicines, including opioids. This means taking the medicines in a different way than the health care provider prescribed. This includes
Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else
Taking a larger dose than you are supposed to
Using the medicine in a different way than you are supposed to. For example, instead of swallowing your tablets, you might crush and then snort or inject them.
Using the medicine for another purpose, such as getting high
Misusing over-the-counter medicines, including using them for another purpose and using them in a different way than you are supposed to
Drug use is dangerous. It can harm your brain and body, sometimes permanently. It can hurt the people around you, including friends, families, kids, and unborn babies. Drug use can also lead to addiction.

What is drug addiction?
Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease. It causes a person to take drugs repeatedly, despite the harm they cause. Repeated drug use can change the brain and lead to addiction.

The brain changes from addiction can be lasting, so drug addiction is considered a “relapsing” disease. This means that people in recovery are at risk for taking drugs again, even after years of not taking them.

Does everyone who takes drugs become addicted?
Not everyone who uses drugs becomes addicted. Everyone’s bodies and brains are different, so their reactions to drugs can also be different. Some people may become addicted quickly, or it may happen over time. Other people never become addicted. Whether or not someone becomes addicted depends on many factors. They include genetic, environmental, and developmental factors.

Economic issues

What kinds and quantities of goods shall be produced, “how much and which of alternative goods and services shall be produced?
How shall goods be produced? ..by whom and with what resources (using what technology)…?
For whom are the goods or services produced? Who benefits? Samuelson rephrased this question as “how is the total of the national product to be distributed among different individuals and families?
Economic systems solve these problems in several ways:”… by custom and instinct; by command and centralized control (in planned economies) and in mixed economies that “…uses both market signals and government directives to allocate goods and resources.The latter is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of a market economy with elements of a planned economy, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise…

Samuelson wrote in Economics, a “canonical textbook” of mainstream economic thought[5] that “the price mechanism, working through supply and demand in competitive markets, operates to (simultaneously) answer the three fundamental problems in a mixed private enterprise system… At competitive equilibrium, the value society places on a good is equivalent to the value of the resources given up to produce it (marginal benefit equals marginal cost). This ensures allocative efficiency-the additional value society places on another unit of the good is equal to what society must give up in resources to produce it.

The solution to these problems is important because of the “fundamental fact of economic institution life” that ..

“The economic problem, “the struggle for subsistence”, always has been hitherto primary, most pressing problem of the human race- not only of the human race, but of the whole of the biological kingdom from the beginnings of life in its most primitive forms.” -Samuelson, Economics, 11th ed., 1980

Depression and it’s symptoms

Depression is a mood disorder that involves a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It is different from the mood fluctuations that people regularly experience as a part of life.

Major life events, such as bereavement or the loss of a job, can lead toTrusted Source depression. However, doctors only consider feelings of grief to be part of depression if they persist.

Depression is an ongoing problem, not a passing one. It consists of episodes during which the symptoms last for at least 2 weeks. Depression can last for several weeks, months, or years.

Signs and symptoms
The symptoms of depression can include:

– a depressed mood
– reduced interest or pleasure in – – -activities once enjoyeda

-a loss of sexual desire
-changes in appetite
-unintentional weight loss or gain
-sleeping too much or too little
-agitation, restlessness, and pacing up and down
-slowed movement and speech
-fatigue or loss of energy
-feelings of worthlessness or guilt
-difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions
-recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, or an attempt at suicide.

Causes of gender inequality

Over the years, the world has gotten closer to achieving gender equality. There is better representation of women in politics, more economic opportunities, and better healthcare in many places of the world. However, the World Economic Forum estimates it will take another century before true gender equality becomes a reality. What drives the gap between genders? Here are 10 causes of gender inequality:

#1. Uneven access to education
Around the world, women still have less access to education than men. ¼ of young women between 15-24 will not finish primary school. That group makes up 58% of the people not completing that basic education. Of all the illiterate people in the world, ⅔ are women. When girls are not educated on the same level as boys, it has a huge effect on their future and the kinds of opportunities they’ll get.

#2. Lack of employment equality
Only 6 countries in the world give women the same legal work rights as men. In fact, most economies give women only ¾ the rights of men. Studies show that if employment became a more even playing field, it has a positive domino effect on other areas prone to gender inequality.

#3. Job segregation
One of the causes for gender inequality within employment is the division of jobs. In most societies, there’s an inherent belief that men are simply better equipped to handle certain jobs. Most of the time, those are the jobs that pay the best. This discrimination results in lower income for women. Women also take on the primary responsibility for unpaid labor, so even as they participate in the paid workforce, they have extra work that never gets recognized financially.

#4. Lack of legal protections
According to research from the World Bank, over one billion women don’t have legal protection against domestic sexual violence or domestic economic violence. Both have a significant impact on women’s ability to thrive and live in freedom. In many countries, there’s also a lack of legal protections against harassment in the workplace, at school, and in public. These places become unsafe and without protection, women frequently have to make decisions that compromise and limit their goals.

#5. Lack of bodily autonomy
Many women around the world do not have authority over their own bodies or when they become parents. Accessing birth control is frequently very difficult. According to the World Health Organization, over 200 million women who don’t want to get pregnant are not using contraception. There are various reasons for this such as a lack of options, limited access, and cultural/religious opposition. On a global scale, about 40% of pregnancies are not planned and while 50% of them do end in abortion, 38% result in births. These mothers often become financially dependent on another person or the state, losing their freedom.

Poor leadership

Poor leaders are characterized by their lack of ability to provide direction to the team, which may stem from their own lack of vision. Chron says not setting clear expectations keeps workers from understanding what they actually need to deliver. It can cause frustration on both ends when the deliverables are not completely in line with what the department needs.

As a leader, it is your responsibility to provide not just clear instructions to your team, but also to help them see how their tasks contribute towards achieving the company’s overall objectives. Keeping them informed of how their efforts impact the organization can motivate them to perform at their best while considering their own obligations.

Plus, you also get to see how your employees grow as the business moves forward. Constant growth of workers is more vital than simply completing tasks because at the end of the day, they are still the main driving force towards the company’s success. In other words, an employee who does what’s required is good; but one who exceeds expectations and develops into an invaluable company asset is the best.

Poor leaders are characterized by their lack of ability to provide direction to the team, which may stem from their own lack of vision. Chron says not setting clear expectations keeps workers from understanding what they actually need to deliver. It can cause frustration on both ends when the deliverables are not completely in line with what the department needs.

As a leader, it is your responsibility to provide not just clear instructions to your team, but also to help them see how their tasks contribute towards achieving the company’s overall objectives. Keeping them informed of how their efforts impact the organization can motivate them to perform at their best while considering their own obligations.

Plus, you also get to see how your employees grow as the business moves forward. Constant growth of workers is more vital than simply completing tasks because at the end of the day, they are still the main driving force towards the company’s success. In other words, an employee who does what’s required is good; but one who exceeds expectations and develops into an invaluable company asset is the best.


Majorities of publics in top migrant destination countries say immigrants strengthen their countries, according to a 2018 Pew Research Center survey of 18 countries that host half of the world’s migrants.

In 10 of the countries surveyed, majorities view immigrants as a strength rather than a burden. Among them are some of the largest migrant receiving countries in the world: the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Canada and Australia (each hosting more than 7 million immigrants in 2017).

By contrast, majorities in five countries surveyed – Hungary, Greece, South Africa, Russia and Israel – see immigrants as a burden to their countries. With the exception of Russia, these countries each have fewer than 5 million immigrants.

Meanwhile, public opinion on the impact of immigrants is divided in the Netherlands. In Italy and Poland, more say immigrants are a burden, while substantial shares in these countries do not lean one way or the other (31% and 20% respectively).

Helath care availability issues

The robust transformation of India’s Public Healthcare System witnessed in the past few decades has not only been progressive but also an example for the developing economies of the world. The healthcare system in India can be divided into two parts viz urban and rural areas and both have a significant differential gap in terms of treatment, not because of uncommon diseases but due to lack of adequate infrastructure and health experts, besides several other challenges in the system. However, the objective in this article is to bring out the challenges which the public and private healthcare systems are currently confronting with.

Fund Allocation & Inadequate Infra

The gap in fund management by the administrations should be understood and be balanced. Not enough funds are allocated for public healthcare in India and the inequality in urban and rural facilities is well known. Due to the lack of modern quality healthcare in the public sector, generally, people prefer private healthcare which is not affordable for most of the rural population due to lower-income and lack of basic insurance policy. Private healthcare in India is a premium and expensive affair for a large section of society. Notably expensive medical device is procured but basic infra is missing in public healthcare system.

Climate change effects

Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner.

Effects that scientists had predicted in the past would result from global climate change are now occurring: loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, cientists have high confidence that global temperatures will continue to rise for decades to come, largely due to greenhouse gases produced by human activities. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which includes more than 1,300 scientists from the United States and other countries, forecasts a temperature rise of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century.

According to the IPCC, the extent of climate change effects on individual regions will vary over time and with the ability of different societal and environmental systems to mitigate or adapt to change.

The IPCC predicts that increases in global mean temperature of less than 1.8 to 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit (1 to 3 degrees Celsius) above 1990 levels will produce beneficial impacts in some regions and harmful ones in others. Net annual costs will increase over time as global temperatures increase.

“Taken as a whole,” the IPCC states, “the range of published evidence indicates that the net damage costs of climate change are likely to be significant and to increase over time.” 1-2

Future Effects
Some of the long-term effects of global climate change in the United States are as follows, according to the Third and Fourth National Climate Assessment Reports:

Overpopulation Effects

Overpopulation can have several effects on the environment, as well as other species within an ecological system. Indeed, human overpopulation has resulted in technological advances which have increased human lifespan and fertility, and consequently placed pressure on global resources. Such effects are such that the planet is currently in a novel geological epoch called the Anthropocene. In general, overpopulation results in an ecological disruption as resources are depleted. This disruption can lead to the decline of other populations which compete for the same resources. Typically, such effects result in the cycling between periods of population growth and periods of population decline until it can reach homeostasis within a particular ecological niche. Some examples of naturally regulated population growth are rodents, rabbits, and various insect populations (e.g., army worms and locusts).

In situations of overpopulation caused by the introduction of a foreign species for which they have no natural predators, they can become an invasive species. An example is the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels to the North American water systems. Since zebra mussels are natively from the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, they have no natural predators in the foreign ecosystems of North America and parts of Europe. As such, zebra mussels quickly became an invasive species, clogging water treatment pipes, affecting power plants, and impacting the local freshwater fish populations. It is estimated that the overpopulation of zebra mussels has cost approximately $5 billion USD since their introduction. The image below illustrates an infestation of zebra mussels on a North American lock due to the overpopulation of zebra mussels in the North American waterways. Other economic effects of overpopulation include those caused by crop destruction, as seen with the overpopulation of rabbits in Australia. While the overpopulation of rabbits destroyed farmers crops, leading to poor yields, the continent also experienced a loss of native plant species, as well as the removal of precious topsoil due to erosion.

Another effect of the overpopulation of one species, is the increased population growth of the natural predators of such species. This effect is generally considered to be positive, as the predator population serves to control the overpopulated prey species. Such effects also serve to drive evolutionary changes as the prey species evolves to avoid increased predation.

Social issues related topic.. Childhood obesity

Not all children carrying extra pounds are overweight. Some children have larger than average body frames. And children normally carry different amounts of body fat at the various stages of development. So you might not know by how your child looks if weight is a health concern.

The body mass index (BMI), which provides a guideline of weight in relation to height, is the accepted measure of overweight and obesity. Your child’s doctor can use growth charts, the BMI and, if necessary, other tests to help you figure out if your child’s weight could pose health problems.

When to see a doctor
If you’re worried that your child is putting on too much weight, talk to his or her doctor. The doctor will consider your child’s history of growth and development, your family’s weight-for-height history, and where your child lands on the growth charts. This can help determine if your child’s weight is in an unhealthy range.

MPs question Twitter on its organisational structure, accountabilitySwati Mathur and Akhilesh Singh

NEW DELHI: There was a strong cross-party convergence at the meeting of the parliamentary standing committee on information technology on the need for Twitter to adhere to Indian laws even as members closely questioned the social media giant on its organisational structure and accountability in India.
Members of the committee, led by Congress MP Shashi Tharoor, pinned down Twitter India officials on what they felt were diversionary answers to questions about whether the US company respected Indian laws and the decision-making powers of the India office. The discussion in the committee came in the wake of Twitter delaying appointing officials to address grievances under new rules issued by the government and a row over its decision to flag certain BJP handles as “manipulated media” for tweeting about Congress’s alleged “toolkit” to defame the government. BJP’s Nishikant Dubey asked why Twitter failed to tag as “manipulated media” the recent video of a Ghaziabad man alleging assault, despite a clarification from UP police that the victim had made false claims.

International panic day

Begun as sort of a ‘mock’ holiday, this idea was put together with the intention of offering a day to shake off the natural state of panic in the lives of many people today. It is a day to sit back, relax and try to let some of that stress and panic melt away.

Although it might be a ‘fun’ little way to address it, panic is a serious topic. In fact, panic disorder is a mental health issue that may affect up to 2% of the population in certain countries. Women are more likely to succumb to panic than men, and the condition is very treatable, particularly when the person affected is armed with self-care tactics while sticking to a healthful diet.

International Panic Day has been taken on by many countries throughout the world to raise awareness of struggles with mental illness. It is meant to encourage people to slow down, relax and get the help they might need if they are, indeed, struggling with panic. The best measures, however, are preventative!

Celebrate International Panic Day by taking time to intentionally focus on reducing stress and taking some time off!

Third wave could hit as early as in 2-4 weeks, says Maharashtra Covid-19.

Third wave could hit as early as in 2-4 weeks, says Maharashtra Covid-19 task

The task force members also said that vaccination should be conducted aggressively
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MUMBAI: In a grim augury for citizens, the state task force on Covid-19 has warned that the third wave could hit Maharashtra—or Mumbai— within the next two to four weeks if crowding in the last three days is an indication.
However, it said children would not be affected as much as those in lower middle-class clusters that haven’t been exposed to the virus so far.
What is the new Delta+ variant?
These predictions were part of the meeting chaired by CM Uddhav Thackeray on Wednesday to review preparedness for the projected third wave. It included task force members, the state health minister and senior bureaucrats.

Even Aryabhatta, Aristotle…’: Harsh Vardhan’s Covishield jibe at Rahul Gandhi

Dr Harsh Vardhan on Wednesday mocked at Rahul Gandhi for questioning the decision of delaying Covishield 2nd dose by three months.
Union health minister Dr Harsh Vardhan on Wednesday tore into Congress leader Rahul Gandhi for questioning the gap between the two doses of Covishield Covid-19 vaccine and said even Aryabhatta and Aristotle would bow in front of Rahul Gandhi for his knowledge. The health minister also said that the agenda of spreading confusion over vaccine will no longer work.

On Tuesday, Reuters quoted three members of the expert panel who reportedly said that extending the gap between two doses of Covishield to 12 to 16 weeks was not a unanimous decision. What was unanimously agreed upon was a gap of 8-12 weeks, as advised by the World Health Organization. The government on Wednesday issued statements dismissing the claim and it also published the minutes of the meeting in which the decision to widen the gap between the two doses. The Centre reiterated that it was a unanimous decision based on scientific evidence.

The court was informed that the content has already been removed (Representational)

New Delhi: Instagram has informed the Delhi High Court that it removed certain objectionable content relating to Hindu gods and goddesses posted by a user on its platform.
Justice Rekha Palli also issued notice and sought response of Facebook and Instagram on a plea seeking direction to implement Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Ethics Code) Rules 2021 in its true letter and spirit.

The court was informed by senior advocate Mukul Rohatgi, representing Facebook which owns Instagram, that the content has already been removed and assured that keeping in view the grievance raised by the petitioner, the respondents will not disseminate the copies of the petition to any unrelated third party.

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He also submitted that a Grievance Officer has already been appointed by Facebook under the new IT Rules, and the person concerned will also function in the same capacity for Instagram.

The court also issued notice and sought response of the Centre on a prayer that the government and the social media networks be directed to discharge their executive, statutory and all other obligations in relation to the IT Rules without any delay and listed the matter for further hearing on August 16 before the regular bench.

World blood donor day

World Blood Donor Day takes place on 14 June each year. The aim is to raise global awareness of the need for safe blood and blood products for transfusion and of the critical contribution voluntary, unpaid blood donors make to national health systems. The day also provides an opportunity to call to action to governments and national health authorities to provide adequate resources and put into place systems and infrastructures to increase the collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors.

Safe blood and blood products and their transfusion are a critical aspect of care and public health. They save millions of lives and improve the health and quality of life of many patients every day. The need for blood is universal, but access to blood for all those who need it is not. Blood shortages are particularly acute in developing countries.

To ensure that everyone who needs safe blood has access to it, all countries need voluntary, unpaid donors who give blood regularly. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, despite limited mobility and other challenges, blood donors in many countries have continued to donate blood and plasma to patients who need transfusion. This extraordinary effort during a time of unprecedented crisis highlights the crucial role of well-organized, committed voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors in ensuring a safe and sufficient blood supply during normal and emergency times.

How to Turn Off Read Receipts in Facebook Messenger, Apple iMessage, WhatsApp

If you keep your read receipts ‘on’ in WhatsApp, a blue tick appears next to the message when the recipient has read it.

iMessage users can toggle off read receipts for select chats
Read receipt hides text delivery information from the sender
This is useful for users who want to keep things more private
How to Turn Off Read Receipts in Facebook Messenger, Apple iMessage, WhatsApp
WhatsApp users can toggle off read receipts from Settings

WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, and Apple’s iMessage — all three apps have the read receipt function that notifies the sender when the receiver has read their message. Read receipts are an important part of communication through messaging apps. It allows users to understand whether their message has been seen by the recipient or not. WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, and iMessage support the read receipt function by has different ways of notifying the sender that their message has been read. But if you like to keep things more private and not allow the sender the freedom to know when you have read their message, you can turn these read receipts off at any time. For instance, if you keep your read receipts on WhatsApp a blue tick appears next to the message when the recipient has read it.

World day against child labour- Prevalence of child labour

Children around the world are routinely engaged in paid and unpaid forms of work that are not harmful to them. However, they are classified as child labourers when they are either too young to work, or are involved in hazardous activities that may compromise their physical, mental, social or educational development. In the least developed countries, slightly more than one in four children (ages 5 to 17) are engaged in labour that is considered detrimental to their health and development.

Africa ranks highest among regions both in the percentage of children in child labour — one-fifth — and the absolute number of children in child labour — 72 million. Asia and the Pacific ranks second highest in both these measures — 7% of all children and 62 million in absolute terms are in child labour in this region.

The Africa and the Asia and the Pacific regions together account for almost nine out of every ten children in child labour worldwide. The remaining child labour population is divided among the Americas (11 million), Europe and Central Asia (6 million), and the Arab States (1 million). In terms of incidence, 5% of children are in child labour in the Americas, 4% in Europe and Central Asia, and 3% in the Arab States.

While the percentage of children in child labour is highest in low-income countries, their numbers are actually greater in middle-income countries. 9% all children in lower-middle-income countries, and 7% of all children in upper-middle-income countries, are in child labour. Statistics on the absolute number of children in child labour in each national income grouping indicate that 84 million children in child labour, accounting for 56% of all those in child labour, actually live in middle-income countries, and an additional 2 million live in high-income countries.

HomeEducationData On Out-Of-School Children To Be Compiled Through Online Module: Education Minister

Data On Out-Of-School Children To Be Compiled Through Online Module: Education Minister
The online module will compile the data of out-of-school children identified by each state and Union Territory and map it with Special Training Centres (STCs) on the PRABANDH Portal of Samagra Shiksha.

An online module to compile out-of school chldren’s data has been developed

New Delhi: The Department of School Education and Literacy has developed an online module to compile out-of school chldren’s data. The online module will compile the data of out-of-school children identified by each state and Union Territory and map it with Special Training Centres (STCs) on the PRABANDH Portal of Samagra Shiksha.
This compilation will ensure bringing back out of school children to the schools which are also mandated by the Right to Education Act and emphasised by the new National Education Policy (NEP 2020).

Announcing this the Union Education Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ said: “Taking care of the every student of India is our Government’s top priority. Accordingly, the Department of School Education and Literacy developed an online module for compiling out-of-school children’s data identified by each State/UT and map with Special Training Centres on the PRABANDH portal.”

Taking care of the every student of India is our Government’s top priority. Accordingly, The @DselEduMinistry developed an online module for compiling out-of-school children’s data identified by each State/UT and map with Special Training Centres on the PRABANDH portal. pic.twitter.com/3CaqU6H2uO

— Dr. Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank (@DrRPNishank) June 11, 2021
The child wise information of the identified out of school children and STCs will be required to be uploaded at block level under the supervision of Block Resource Coordinator of the concerned Block Resource Centre (BRC), an official statement issued in this regard said. For monitoring of the progress of mainstreaming, the quarterly progress report is also to be uploaded on the portal. A password-protected provision is created at the PRABANDH Portal for the District Magistrate or his signatory for every district to view, validate and monitor the information about out of school children, it added.

Reiterating the components of Samagra Shiksha, and the need to develop the online module, the official statement said: “In order to facilitate age-appropriate admission of out of school children in the age group of 6-14 years, in regular schools, financial provisions are made in the scheme for arranging Special Training to bridge their learning gaps and mainstreaming them in schools.”

“For out of school children in 16-18 years of age group and belonging to Socially and Economically Disadvantaged Groups (SEDG), financial assistance has been made available for the first time from the year 2021-22, to continue their education through Open/Distance Learning mode.

INTERNATIONALEuropean Union threatens U.K. over post-Brexit North Ireland trade

The European Union on Wednesday threatened the UK with retaliatory action if it refuses to implement post-Brexit trading arrangements in Northern Ireland, after talks to solve the simmering row broke up without agreement.

Visiting European Commission vice president Maros Sefcovic said Brussels’ patience with London was “wearing thin” over its failure to enforce checks on goods heading to the province from mainland Britain.

“Today I can say we are at a crossroads in our relationship with the UK. Trust, which should be at the heart of all relationships, needs to be restored,” he told a news conference in London.

There were “numerous and fundamental gaps” in Britain’s compliance with the agreement, he added.

“If the UK were to take further unilateral action in the coming weeks, we will not be shy in reacting swiftly, firmly and resolutely.”

Asked what form that might take, he said it could include legal action, arbitration or other retaliatory measures, including targeted tariffs.

That has prompted talk of a potential “sausage war” on the UK side of the Channel, with a grace period on shipping chilled meat products to Northern Ireland set to end this month — and the UK threatening to extend it.

But Sefcovic insisted: “We don’t want this to happen… It’s not too late. Let’s correct the path.”

A senior UK official close to the talks also stressed that “nobody wants to get into a trade war or anything close to it,” and denied the UK had breached the agreement, saying it had been “designed to give quite wide margins to respond to events”.- ‘Frank and honest’ –

London and Brussels signed a last-gasp trade deal in December, nearly four years after the landmark Brexit referendum and just weeks before Britain left the European single market and customs union.

The two sides negotiated a separate deal for Northern Ireland, which has the UK’s only land border with the EU, to prevent unchecked goods entering the single market.

But the port checks on deliveries heading into Northern Ireland from mainland Great Britain — England, Scotland and Wales — have caused consternation among Northern Irish unionists, who say this changes their place in the wider UK.

Checks had to be suspended earlier this year because of threats to port staff, and the protocol was blamed for the worst violence in years in the British-run province.

An increase in paperwork for goods heading from mainland Britain to Northern Ireland has caused delays, and in some instances shortages in shops.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson told parliament the issue was about protecting the country’s territorial and economic integrity.

“What we are doing is prioritising the right and ability of the people of Northern Ireland to have access, as they should, freely and uninterruptedly, to goods and services from the whole of the UK,” he added.

UK Brexit minister David Frost for his part characterised the three-and-a-half hours of discussions as “frank and honest”, saying the dialogue had not broken down and more meetings were planned.

But he called for the EU to be more flexible to address the issue in Northern Ireland pragmatically, given the province’s fragile peace

Government also books 30 crore doses of vaccine under trial.

The Centre has placed fresh orders for 44 crore vaccine doses of Covishield and Covaxin which will be available from August-December. It has also placed an order for 30 crore doses of a vaccine from Hyderabad-based Biological E for its in-development protein subunit vaccine.

“All together 74 crore doses have been secured for use from August onwards,” Dr. V.K. Paul, Chairman, National Empowered Group on Vaccination, said at a press conference on Tuesday.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi addresses the nation, in New Delhi, Monday, June 7, 2021.
Government will revert to centralised procurement of vaccines, says Modi

Until July, 53 crore vaccine doses — including 23.5 crore already administered — were expected from the two manufacturers Serum Institute of India and Bharat Biotech.

If all the estimates were to come to fruition, it would mean 127 crore doses could be available, enough to ensure India’s estimated population of about 94 crore gets one dose of a vaccine.

However, a lot of it depends on the speed at which vaccines are disbursed. After a lacklustre May that saw vaccine stocks and immunisation plummet, the number of daily doses have started to rise after May 29, touching over 30 lakh on several days. To be able to administer at least a single dose to all adults by December, over 9 crore people need to be inoculated per month.

In this April 8, 2021 photo, Prime Minister Narendra Modi receives the second dose of the Covaxin Covid-19 coronavirus vaccine, at AIIMS hospital in New Delhi.
Fact check | History shows India did not lack access to vaccines as claimed by PM Modi

The government has earmarked ₹35,000 crore towards vaccine procurement. Until May 28, it had ordered 28.5 crore doses for ₹4,488 crore according to data from the Health Ministry.

New vaccine
Biological E said it had got permission from India’s Drug Controller on April 24 to begin phase-3 trials in India.

The Phase III clinical study to be conducted in 15 sites across India would evaluate the extent and nature of immunity and safety of Biological E’s SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 vaccine in about 1,268 healthy subjects in the age range of 18 to 80 years. It is intended to be part of a larger global Phase III study, the company said in a statement.

Biological E has successfully concluded the Phase I/II trials of the vaccine candidate, which began in India in November last year. Data from the Phase I/II trial suggested that the Covid-19 vaccine was “safe, well-tolerated, and immunogenic,” according to a company statement.

The vaccine candidate has an antigen developed by the Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development and in-licensed from BCM Ventures, Baylor College of Medicine’s integrated commercialisation team, and Dynavax Technologies’ advanced adjuvant, CpG 1018TM.

World ocean day

Oceans take up over 70 per cent of Earth’s surface and over 90 per cent of our planet’s habitable surface. Roughly 97 per cent of the water found in this globe is in the oceans. The aquamarine world also harbours countless species of fish and plants. The latter produces most of the oxygen on this planet. Oceans provides us with food and livelihood. Yet we, as a species, have significantly compromised this biodiverse domain for our greed.

World Oceans Day is observed annually on June 8 to make people aware of the negative impact of human activities such as garbage disposal, sewage, oil leaks from ships and drilling station accidents. Below, we take a look at the day’s history, this year’s theme and its significance.


On June 8, 1992, at the Earth Summit of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), the Oceans Institute of Canada proposed the idea of the observance of an international ocean’s day. It took 16 more years for this concept to bear fruit. In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly, led by Canada, passed the resolution 63/111, through which they declared that June 8 would be observed every year as World Ocean’s Day. The inaugural observance happened a year later and had the theme “Our Ocean, Our Responsibility.”

World food safety day

World Food Safety Day (WFSD) celebrated on 7 June 2021 aims to draw attention and inspire action to help prevent, detect and manage foodborne risks, contributing to food security, human health, economic prosperity, agriculture, market access, tourism and sustainable development.

This year’s theme, ‘Safe food today for a healthy tomorrow’, stresses that production and consumption of safe food has immediate and long-term benefits for people, the planet and the economy. Recognizing the systemic connections between the health of people, animals, plants, the environment and the economy will help us meet the needs of the future.

Recognizing the global burden of foodborne diseases, which affect individuals of all ages, in particular children under-5 and persons living in low-income countries, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed in 2018 that every 7 June would be World Food Safety Day. In 2020, the World Health Assembly further passed a resolution to strengthen global efforts for food safety to reduce the burden of foodborne disease. WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) jointly facilitate the observance of World Food Safety Day, in collaboration with Member States and other relevant organizations.

Food safety is a shared responsibility between governments, producers and consumers. Everyone has a role to play from farm to table to ensure the food we consume is safe and healthy. Through the World Food Safety Day, WHO works to mainstream food safety in the public agenda and reduce the burden of foodborne diseases globally. Food safety is everyone’s business.


A drink (or beverage) is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain drinking water, milk, coffee, tea, hot chocolate, juice and soft drinks. In addition, alcoholic drinks such as wine, beer, and liquor, which contain the drug ethanol, have been part of human culture for more than 8,000 years.

Tea is the world’s second-most-consumed drink
Non-alcoholic drinks often signify drinks that would normally contain alcohol, such as beer and wine, but are made with a sufficiently low concentration of alcohol by volume. The category includes drinks that have undergone an alcohol removal process such as non-alcoholic beers and de-alcoholized wines.

World Environmental Day

1)World Environment Day is celebrated on June 5 every year.
2) The theme for this year is ‘Ecosystem Restoration’.
3) It is celebrated to generate awareness of the environment and nature.
World Environment Day is celebrated on June 5 every year to remind people about the importance of nature. It is celebrated across the globe to tell people that nature should not be taken for granted and must be respected for its values.

With the coronavirus outbreak and people being confined indoors, the environment and mother earth seem to have benefitted slightly. In the absence of human activities amid the coronavirus-induced lockdown, nature is getting time to clean itself and reclaim its space.

History of World Environment Day:
World Environment Day is one of the biggest annual events organised by the United Nations (UN) to generate awareness about the significance of nature and greenery. The United Nations Assembly established World Environment Day in 1972, which was the first day of the Stockholm Conference on the human environment.

In 1974, it was celebrated with the theme ‘Only One Earth’. Since then, various host countries have been celebrating it, and the idea for rotating the center of these activities started. World Environment Day was first observed in 1974 in the US.

Fortified Milk :How it’s made

Fortified milk is cow’s milk that contains extra vitamins and minerals that are not naturally found in milk in significant amounts. Typically, vitamins D and A are added to milk sold in the United States (1Trusted Source). However, milk can be fortified with various other nutrients, including zinc, iron, and folic acid (2Trusted Source). How or if milk is fortified depends on where you live and what nutrients may be lacking in the typical diet of your country. While some countries require fortification of milk by law, this is not the case in the United States (3Trusted Source). Still, fortified milk is much more common than unfortified milk in the United States. In terms of uses, fortified milk is utilized in the same way as unfortified varieties, such as for drinking or cooking. To fortify milk, vitamin A palmitate and vitamin D3 are added. These are the most active and absorbable forms of these nutrients (4Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source). As they’re heat resistant, these compounds can be added to milk before pasteurization and homogenization, which are heat processes that kill harmful bacteria and improve shelf life (2Trusted Source, 6, 7). Other nutrients like B vitamins must be added later, as heat can destroy them. However, milk is not typically fortified with B vitamins in the United States (2Trusted Source).

Maggi maker Nestlé’s internal document says majority of its food products ‘unhealthy’: report

ISTNestlé’s internal documents seen by FT say out of the company’s overall food and drinks portfolio, 70% of products failed to meet the ‘recognised definition of health’

Photo Credit:&nbspTwitterMaggi maker Nestlé’s internal document says majority of its food products ‘unhealthy’: reportKey Highlights70% of products out of company’s overall food and drink portfolio failed to meet health standardsAn internal presentation circulated among top executives in early 2021 said that only 37% of Nestle’s products achieved recognised definition of healthAfter FT report, Nestle said it’s working on a “company-wide project” to update its nutrition and health strategy
Nestlé’s, which makes Maggi noodles, KitKats and Nescafe, in an internal document admitted that more than 70% of its food and drinks portfolio do not meet the “recognised definition of health”. The world’s biggest food company also admitted that some of its food products will ‘never be healthy’ no matter “how much we renovate”.

According to UK business daily Financial Times, a presentation circulated among top executives in early 2021 said that only 37% of Nestle’s products, excluding pet food and specialised medical nutrition, achieved a rating of 3.5 or higher under Australia’s health star rating system. The company considered 3.5-star rating as the “recognised definition of health”. The system rates foods on a scale of 5 stars and is used by international groups as the benchmark.

According to the presentation seen by FT, out of the company’s overall food and drinks portfolio, 70% of products failed to make the cut, along with 90% of beverages excluding pure coffee.

Water and dairy products, however, fared better with 82% of waters and 60% of dairy above the threshold

Marico forays into the noodles category
Marico forays into the noodles category
No relation between health expenditure & Central Vista: Puri
World Food Day: Some bizarre fusions of your fav dishes
The data does not take into account baby formula, pet food, coffee, and the health science division which the company makes for people with specific medical conditions. This meant that the data did take into account about half of Nestle’s Eu 84.35 billion total revenues.
After the damaging FT report, the Swiss company in a statement said it was working on a “company-wide project” to update its nutrition and health strategy and was looking at its entire portfolio to make sure its products helped meet people’s nutritional needs.

Meanwhile, in a statement on Tuesday, a Nestlé India spokesperson said: “Nestlé India believes that nutrition is a fundamental need and the food industry has a vital role to play in enabling healthier lives. Driven by our purpose, we are constantly striving to increase the nutrient profile of our products, as well as innovate with new and nutritious offerings.”

CBSE 12 exam has been cancelled for covid-19

The Union government on Tuesday decided to cancel the CBSE class 12 examinations keeping in mind safety of students. The decision was taken after Education Secretary briefed the ministers on possible options available regarding exams during a high-level meeting on Tuesday. The meeting was chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

PM Modi said that the decision on Class 12 CBSE Exams has been taken in the interest of students. He stated that COVID-19 has affected the academic calendar and the issue of Board Exams has been causing immense anxiety among students, parents and teachers, which must be put to an end.

PM also said that COVID-19 has affected the academic calendar and the issue of board examinations has been causing immense anxiety among students, parents and teachers, which must be put to an end.

“CBSE will now take steps to compile the results of Class 12 students according to a well-defined objective criteria in a time-bound manner,” the PMO release said. Like last year, in case some students desire to take the exams, such an option would be provided to them as and when the situation becomes conducive.

In a media release, the CBSE said, officials gave a detailed presentation to Prime Minister Narendra Modi who chaired a review meeting on Tuesday evening in this regard.

A plea to cancel the Class 12 board exams has also been filed in SC in view of the COVID19 pandemic across the country. The matter will also be heard in the Supreme Court on Thursday. The next hearing regarding cancellation of Class 12 exams is on June 3, 2021.


Prime Minister Narendra Modi to chair meeting regarding class 12 board exams
CBSE Class 12 board exam: PM Modi to chair crucial meeting today
The Ministry of Education had recently sought detailed suggestions from the states and union territories till on the proposals discussed in a high-level meeting held on the issue. The government has informed the Supreme Court, which is hearing a p…
By PTILast Updated: Jun 01, 2021, 11:05 PM IST1
Prime Minister Narendra Modi will chair an important meeting regarding class 12 board exams on Tuesday evening. Government sources said he will be briefed on all possible options that have emerged following extensive discussions with all states and other stakeholders.

The CBSE had on April 14 announced cancellation of class 10 exams and postponement of class 12 exams in view of the surge in coronavirus cases.

The Ministry of Education had recently sought detailed suggestions from the states and union territories till on the proposals discussed in a high-level meeting held on the issue.

The government has informed the Supreme Court, which is hearing a plea seeking the exam’s cancellation, it will take a final decision by June 3.
In Video: CBSE Class 12 board exam: PM Modi to chair crucial meeting today
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