# Theory Of Computation

Theory of Computation or Theory of Automata is the core area of computer engineering and computer science, it is the branch that aims to attempt the deep understanding of computational processes by means of effectively solving the problems via mathematical models, techniques  and tools. This understanding is important for its applications that include various models of computation like algorithm, VLSI design and compiler, to the creation of intelligent technology, cognitive psychology, and philosophy.

In a more layman term we redescribe it as a part of theoretical Computer Science which is mainly concerned with the study of how problems can be solved using algorithms. Therefore, we can infer that it is very important to the study of logic and mainly logic within mathematics. These studies are used to understand the proper way an algorithm is meant to work, and to actually prove it works through analyzing the problems that may arise with the technique used and finding solutions to these problems that arise. It is quite a huge field of study but it is split up into three different parts i.e. automata theory, computability theory, and computational complexity theory.

In this specific field of study, computer scientists and engineers work using a model of computation. The most preferred model nowadays is the Turing machine model. This is because it is fairly simple and can be analyzed and used to prove results. The three sectors of theory of computation mentioned before deal with different studies; the Automata theory is the study of abstract mathematical systems or machines and also the computational problems that can be solved using these machines, these machines go by the name of automata. The Computability theory deals with the question of the extent to which a problem is solvable on a computer. Computational complexity theory takes under consideration whether a problem can be solved at all on a computer, as well as how efficiently that problem can be solved.

The two main aspects in this process are: Time complexity and Space complexity as studied by the beginners in the computer programming field. Time complexity is how many steps it takes to perform a computation or to solve a problem, and Space complexity is how much space or memory is needed to carry out that computation.

A model of computation and processing is the definition of the operations used in computation. It is used to calculate the complexity of an algorithm in execution time and memory space. Examples of models of computation other than Turing machines are finite state machines, combinatory logic, lambda calculus,  recursive functions, and abstract rewriting systems. In the field of runtime analysis of algorithms, we usually specify a computational model in terms of primitive operations permitted. The study of models of computation involves numerous other fields and each one has its own specifications and definition. Overall, theory of computation allows us to explore the nature of computations in a more deep state to understand new concepts and apply them to computer science.

# the morality

Morals are the right thing to do in a given situation or principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior, sometimes including or excluding if it’s illegal or not.

But there is always a conflict between the right thing and morally right thing to do. Let’s say someone’s family is extremely poor and the mother is very sick. The pharmacy has the exact medicine that could cure the mother but it is very expensive. What would the son do knowing it was right there but he couldn’t reach it? Would he break into the pharmacy? But that’s illegal but for him it’s also the right thing to do at that moment.

Of course some might say, he could be getting help from friends, going to the doctors, getting a loan and a job etc. the usual righteous heads, but that is the ambiguity of helplessness. One living in a peaceful place will easily  suggest the one living in Syria to improve their situation by talking to the government and rebel groups, talk and find a solution etc. etc. but that is and always had been the fight between practicality and idealism. Conviction is for those on the sidelines, and everyone has plans until getting punched in the face are the famous sayings which depict these situations, while there is always  what most would consider a right way out but only one in million has the ability to find and  go that path. Rest are just the common people.

There are various types of moral practices. One can practice utilitarianism where doing “what’s right” should help everyone in the long run. It has some downsides because sometimes, even if it benefits everyone, it’s not always the most moral thing to do  .

There’s also Kantianism aka deontology, where instead of considering everyone, one considers his duties to society. one does not think about the end goal or consequences, just do the duty as told by laws or what parents taught or universal duties. But even this is not the idealistic model.

Anything is wrong or imperfect to somebody.

And that is why there is conflict between moral sets. With a deeper look in too ourselves we can see that we as human Beings are highly individualistic but also deeply social organisms.We have individualistic as well as societal interests that drive us in our decision making and choices and hence in our moral code.

Individuals aspire to fulfill personal needs and desires while societal interests are directed towards predictability in the group and enhance safety and growth and development of the group. Perceived societal interests are expressed/implied in the form of moral code because conflicts between morals can lead to unpredictability in human behaviour and cause physical or psychological harm and may not always benefit in the long run. Common morality prevents people to a certain extent from violating the societal code thereby ensuring peace and preventing chaos.

Therefore, whenever an individual or a set of individuals break the moral code, society tends to stigmatise them or outcast them as a form of punishment and also to deter further violations.

However, since moral codes are very abstract in nature and are just perceptions in their true nature, individuals with enough power or majority of individuals happen to redefine morals from time to time.

Since morals have been accepted as basic to co-living, they are deeply embedded in mind. When we find ourselves violating the moral code, we tend to feel guilty and unhappy with our actions.

Moral codes are not found only in human societies but in almost all animals which live in groups are found to be practicing moral codes. So in the end we can only say that the more we study morality, the more we encounter ambiguity.

# Data Mining and Big Data

As the saying goes, “your intelligence is only as strong as the information that backs it”, this explains the importance of the data in human life. We develop logic on the amount of information we put inside our brain.  As per Forbes 2019 reports, internet data created per day is approximately equal to 2.9 quintillion byte. A quintillion byte is a billion gigabytes just for reference. Every aspect of human life is transformed to data in many ways by the electronic equipment that we handle daily. The increase in data generation is directly proportional to the development in the wearable and mobile devices, IoT, Tweets, posts, mobile communications, etc. Google alone handles more than 60,000 searches per second, On the other hand Twitter administers 5 lakh tweets per day, and there are more than 160 million emails sent every day, and all things like these accumulate into the vast database ever known to mankind. The concept of big data is getting bigger and bigger with every passing second. It has become more valuable than ever for the big players and big bosses i.e. companies and countries and there is politics and geopolitics is involved and it has become a extremely big topic certainly in the last decade. As per the estimate of the global economic group states at the end of 2020, data flows will constitute 16 to 22 percent of the global GDP. The impact of data in the Indian economy is becoming vital day by day as the Indian GDP relies more on tertiary sector services. At the end of 2030 around 50 percent of the Indian economy will be constituted by the data-driven digital market as per estimates.

A major hurdle in the digital markets is to find insights into data. Data abundance is making it difficult for organizations to get the right and on point insights of data. Data science and data analytics come in handy to deal with unstructured raw data accumulated by various sources. Data science is the study of a combination of mathematics, statistics, programming, and capturing data in ingenious ways, the activity of cleansing, aligning the data and withdrawing proper conclusions and analytics from the data. This is an umbrella of data manipulation techniques to extract information from the raw data. So, Data analytics is the science of examining the accumulated data to arrive at useful information. Basically an algorithmic or manual process to derive insights into the data.

# A Simple laptop buying guide

First thing to do is to list down your requirements. You may now set up a budget accordingly. You can add additional features if a higher budget is available or you may have to put off some less necessary things from your list.
If you haven’t decided on the necessary specifications for your laptop yet then do not worry as you will get some insight about it in this article and you can always visit youtube and get it explained in simple language.

In general, there are two kinds of specification sets. First one Being Personal Interest Based for light weight use and the second one Being Performance based either for high demanding work or gaming.

Interest based Specification Set
These specification sets totally depend upon your personal choice and preference.
laptop Type

There are different types of laptops available in the market characterized on the basis of their usage, screen sizes, and some other features. Below mentioned are some of them.

1. Netbook: These are usually small and lightweight and portable laptops varying in screen size from 10 to 11 inches, therefore, they are the most power efficient laptops available in the market but a bit underpowered.
2. Ultrabook: These are the slim, stylish and lightweight genre of Laptops. They have fairly high end configurations and are priced higher than conventional laptops and some may even have touchscreens. Quite common amongst travelers and advanced users. Although, if ultrabooks are a priority, MacBook offered by Apple can also be taken into consideration.
3. Notebook : These are the most common types of laptops that are in use. They come in mid- and high-end configurations and are mostly scattered at all price ranges. These varieties of laptops have large hdd and RAM capacities and are built to meet entertainment as well as graphics-intensive requirements.

Screen Size : Now that topic of laptop category is clear, there may be a few screen sizes available for you. If you need a battery efficient device then it is recommended that you go with laptops having screen size 14 inches or less with preferable resolution of fhd. (recommended 15.6 inches)

Secondary Storage : This includes a Physical hdd and ssd for storing your personal data. It’s completely your choice which kind of storage you prefer and how much space you want, it all depends on your needs whether to go with more storage or more speed as ssd tends to cost a lot more than hdd for even half the quarter of storage that hdd offers except if you live in some rich country.
1. SSD: Solid State drive is a fast and durable data storage disk but way too expensive.
2. HDD: Hard Disk Drive on the other hand is the more commonly used and offers more storage at less price.

Touch Screen : Touch Screen features in Laptops is evolving just like the touch features in smartphones during the start of the touch revolution .Although there is not much to do with touch screens in laptops for a normal user and they also tend to be more expensive. If you still prefer for some specific reasons then options are quite limited.

Performance based Specification Set

1. Processor
Basics of Processor
The processor is the most important part of your computer which performs all the calculations. More powerful the processor, the faster the execution and load time. Power of the processor is calculated by its clock speed and number of its cores i.e. number of instructions executed per second and how many cores are there executing those instructions. For example a 2GHz processor means it can perform 2 billion instructions executed per second and hexa core means each core is performing those instructions separately which adds up to 12 billion instruction execution per second. When playing a high end game or running some heavy application software this is what matters the most.
Intel or AMD?
There are two major companies that make processors for personal computers which go by the name Intel and AMD. At least 90% of the time users go for Intel processors and it’s not because AMD is not good enough but it’s because Intel processors are more easily available in laptop configs and intel is well known brand even amongst the lymans and most of the consumers have a satisfactory experience with Intel’s current processor series i.e. i3, i5, i7. Although it would be recommended that at least now, you should go with amd latest gen processors as they provide high value for money products for all price segments and are also more power efficient but availability is always a major concern when it comes to amd.

i3 or i5 or 17 in case of intel?
All three processors from Intel are equally good in their own regards but designed to serve different purposes. i3 is for light to semi moderate work loads, i5 for moderate to light-heavy tasks and i7 for power users.

1. Primary Memory (RAM)
Ram is what stores the temporary data while execution. RAM is faster than your secondary memory, therefore your processor needs the data in faster memory i.e for faster execution. If you intend to run heavy software then it is recommended to use larger RAM and faster ram and that too in dual channel i.e populated in two slots, it will speed up your computer. For general purpose, 8 GB RAM is considered as good. If you need more for video editing or some artistic work, you can either go for the laptop with higher RAM or can externally attach additional RAM.
1. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU or Graphics Card)
Graphics processing unit, a specialized processor originally designed to accelerate graphics rendering. A powerful graphics card can render high resolution videos and graphics-intensive games easily, making them suitable for power users such as design or rendering professionals or gamers.
Light user should not look up laptops with discrete graphic unit, integrated graphics should do fine enough, as they can even handle occasional gaming sessions fine enough.
1. Operating System
Operating system is another important factor that one must consider while buying the laptop. There are different kinds of operating systems available for you like 1. Windows available in almost all machines from discrete manufacturers 2. Chromebooks with chrome os 3. Macbook with macOS and other linux based operating systems, but high probability is that either you have been using or are familiar with some operating system, you should stick with it for obvious reasons unless you have some specifics to shift.

# YOGA, a way to attain inner peace

YOGA

Yoga comes with loads of health benefits which include physical, psychological as well as spiritual benefits.

The benefits of various yoga asanas have actually been professed to improve body versatility, stress reduction, performance, attainment of inner peace, and self-realization.

This system of exercise has been advocated as a complementary treatment to aid healing of a number of conditions such as coronary heart disease, anxiety, anxiety conditions, asthma, mental health and comprehensive rehab for conditions consisting of musculoskeletal issues, traumatic brain injury, etc.

The system has  been actually likewise recommended as a behavioral therapy for smoking cigarette cessations and substance abuses (consisting of alcoholic abuse).

Physical Benefits

1. Enhancement of body flexibility and balance
2. Enhancement of cardiovascular endurance (stronger heart).
3. Enhancement of  food digestion.
4. Enhancement of  stomach strength.
5. Improvement in general muscular strength.
6. Relaxing muscular stress.
7. Controlled weight
8. Increase of energy levels.
9. Enhancement of the body immune system.

Psychological Benefits

1. Relief and relaxation from tension resulting from the control of feelings.
2. Prevention and remedy from stress-related disorders and mental health issues.
3. Intellectual enhancement, self realization and awareness causing improved decision-making ability.

Spiritual Spiritual

1. Life with meaning, resolve, and direction.
2. Inner peace and stability of mind.
3. tranquility

Having mentioned all these benefits, something as powerful and formidable as this is like fire. If done in a wrong way can invite more problems than what it can solve. These days a major problem that has risen up front is that many just start learning about these things by reading on instagram, facebook or watching a video or two without real world knowledge and guidance.

Some things to exceptionally note for people outside, especially in the west, is that Even if you join a class near your home, there’s no guarantee that your facilitator has a deep and proper knowledge of what they are teaching. In India,there are major institutes where the teacher training program itself is 5-6 months long and even after that people are not allowed to teach on their own. Traditional schools, called ashrams or gurukuls, are very strict about these things. To any random unaware kid or person, it might appear to be just some random exercise and positions to be performed but had it been that simple, peace, stability of mind and tranquility would have had no value, just perform these actions and of you go on the way of spirituality but that is not how it is. Thousands and thousands of years took to develop this art and improve it to its smallest details and ultimate perfection. Hence, it is best not to learn yoga from any random place and find someone who has years and years of practice and has themselves learnt from a great Master or Guru.

Brilliant yoga heals the soul.

# A headache of our times, E waste

Electronic waste, shortly called e waste, describes discarded electrical or electronic devices and components. Used and old electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling or disposal are also considered as e-waste. Informal processing of the e-waste can lead to adversity of human health effects and environmental pollution.

Electronic scrap components, such as CPUs and other processors, contain potentially harmful components such as lead, beryllium,cadmium and brominated flame retardants. Recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities around the disposal region and great care is required to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaking of materials such as heavy metals from landfills and incineration ashes.

Lets a mobile of cost Rs.10k is bought and after 1 year by accident it’s screen gets shattered.

If it is taken to repair, a new display would cost as much as a brand new smartphone and in such a scenario it is predictable what almost every one would prefer.

And just like, a ton of e waste is created, all those resources used to manufacture that one unit of a simple cheap device, from its camera to its battery  and processor etc etc. that one smartphone with the computational power inaccessible even to the richest of the richest a decade prior to today becomes useless from the hand of simple common person on streets and generated significant e waste.

1. loss of valuable resource like Precious metals, copper, lithium, etc
2. Damage to our environment if not managed properly from elements like lead, mercury, and various types of flame retardants. Of particular concern are the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in computer monitors, which contain high concentrations of lead
3. Also Opportunity costs – recycling creates jobs, reusing electronics generates revenue for businesses, and land-fillings comparatively more expensive than the former two options.
4. Potential reusability is lost like a decade old computer can be thrown away in a developed country whereas computers are completely inaccessible in some poor countries.

Tackling the Problem of e waste

Nearly 250 million computers will become obsolete in the upcoming five to seven years, according to the EPA in us alone. In most places it’s up to individuals to decide the fate of their e wastes as there lack of proper  waste management is extremely common,

The solutions are…

Donate.

Give an operable computer to a local family, friend, school, or nonprofit organization.

Recycle.

There are websites which offer links to recycling centers involving businesses. These Services allow consumers as well as businesses to recycle any computer for a small fee, including shipping.

Most importantly, care

Acknowledge the issue, while many overestimate the problem and make it look like the world is on the brink of end whereas at times these topics are used as political weapons and a means to get popular, it has become a part of celebrity culture to make fancy statements who then are seen doing ad campaign for upcoming useless upgrade of a smartphone.

One must avoid these paranoia. We just have to make sure that it doesn’t bite us in only because of a bit of carelessness. A bit of care and attention from our side can definitely minimize the e waste problems.

# How to learn coding FOR Beginners without any background?

First thing to understand is that it can be done. For the specifics and how to’s, one needs to have an objective in mind.

So,

• Choose a path and decide a goal. If one is just starting out, choose something general like developing websites or mobile applications or desktop software etc. Find out what computer languages and technologies are used in your path of choice. This especially helps you avoid a “What next now?” stage in your learning.
• Start by doing little tutorials from youtube or some websites. Many of the languages have online “Language X in 20/15 minutes”. Once you  are done with two or three (or as many that makes you comfortable) of these, you will have an idea of the syntax and keywords of the language: the rules that govern its writing. This will definitely give a feel of whether that is the language and its workings; some languages may be difficult as a beginner, and some others might feel more intuitive (more on that later in the article).
• Next, find a good book or a website along the lines of “Language X for beginners”. There are many out there, free as well as paid but free is preferable as there is not a difference anyways. The internet is vast resource in itself. Try and look up reviews and opinions from people who have used the book before using it yourself, but try not to get stuck up on choosing a book, since they mostly cover the same content, only differ in style. The book will help on the core concepts of programming logic and provide basic examples, and get you started on your programming path in a specific language, and equip you with knowledge of core programming principles and algorithms that can be applied to other languages in some similar way.
• DO NOT COPY PASTE CODES. A good habit is to write something different from what the presolved example says. So for example if the book tells the output “Hello World!”, make it say “Good Morning, People of Earth!”; if the example is to write a program that takes any name as input and outputs “Hello (Name)”, make it take the age instead, or the hometown. This helps counter the urge to copy code and also helps to ingrain core concepts in memory. Also, try to do supplementary exercises from the internet every time after learning a new topic, to see different ways in which it can be applied, and the various problems that might occur while implementing it.

By the time that book is finished using the techniques suggested above, one can attain reasonable proficiency in programming, and can now write own programs from scratch (basic programs).

But if there is no specific objective behind learning coding, or if the learning is just for programming in general, one of two paths written below is recommended:

1. Learn C, C++ or Java

These above-mentioned languages are more technical and strict, making them a little difficult to master. Some programmers are actually of the opinion that C should not be in the list of languages for beginners and starters, it is a fair thought but it can be argued because C forms core for most other programming languages so mastering C at first can make learning other languages an easy task. The main bummer for many people is the dynamic aspect of c and c++. Competitive programming is also a thing which a beginner can jump into to learn things in a more quick and application oriented way.

2. Learn Ruby or Python

These have easy and more intuitive syntax and can help to get up and walk quickly in programming. They are also very similar. These are not only simple but have wide usability and demand in the market. From machine learning to AI to web development, these languages have a good future, beside the fact that they are heavy to run and compile but that doesnt matter.

All in all, START NOW and BE CONSISTENT. Three months is a lot of time if there is focus and value of time.

# What is crypto and blockchain?

#### What is crypto?

Currently every country has its own currency regulated by its topmost federal bank. They are bought and sold and exchanged in the international currency markets like stocks. Owing to the popularity of the US in the last century and the stability and predictability of its economy, the dollar  has become the most popular and trusted currency all over. Almost all countries keep large reserves of dollars and most international trade are carried out with it. It’s the literal meaning of a ‘global currency’. But any true global currency must be regulated by some institute that represents the world just like UNO. But, on the contrary, the ‘global currency’ dollar \$ is regulated by US top banks and that can definitely lead to certain manipulative advantages for the US. To offset this some countries have started to keep a basket of currency reserves including the likes of Euro. If the popularity of the dollar falls in future for whatever reason, other currencies may try to fill up the vacuum created by it.

Now the emergence of the internet has generated a new breed of global currencies, cryptocurrencies, which are regulated not by any country but by some companies.

Say someone starts a company called ABC Pvt Ltd which develops a digital platform and floats a new digital cryptocurrency called abxCoin (C). He simply links the value of C1 to \$1 and makes them equal and connects it (C1) to many other currencies via the international currency market. Now one can see that this digital platform is accessible across all countries on the internet. Suppose any company in the US can buy C10000 by depositing \$10000 in the bank account linked to his company ABC Ltd.  Also another company in India can buy C10000 by depositing ₹70,0000 (1\$ = ₹70). If these Indian and US companies want to transact some random business  like import or export, they can easily do it with abxCoins as a mutually agreed upon common currency. But here their trust in between those companies is essential. Because ripping off anyone in this is very easy if someone is fly by night. But serious entrepreneurs can grow their business well.

Thus we have Bitcoins, dogecoin, Ethereum, etc. with some variations. Of course cryptocurrencies need not be pegged to 1 dollar as it was done above for simplicity.

#### Blockchain

One more important feature of cryptocurrencies is the security that they provide from hacking. A technology called Blockchain technology is used in it where a new transaction is linked to the series of old transactions and hacking is not easy like some hacker can hack an isolated transaction. In fact federal banks all over the world are now looking at ways they can also adopt this Blockchain technology for extra safety for their own currencies.

Is crypto currency legal?

In India, RBI issued a circular in 2018 directing the banks, NBFCs, and other payment service providers to not provide any services to the Crypto Exchange and to not have any commercial relations with them.

However, in 2020 the Supreme court declared the circular issued by RBI before as unconstitutional and lifted the ban.

In January of 2021, Govt issued a statement that it will introduce a bill and a sovereign digital currency will be created and all the private currencies will be banned.

However, currently there is no law in India that puts a ban on these cryptocurrency or declares them illegal.

# Exercise daily IT IS.

Exploring The Benefits Of Exercise

We keep hearing all the time about the benefits of exercise or yoga, but a lot of people don’t understand the specific benefits that can be enjoyed with a consistent exercise plan. There are more benefits that come along with a good exercise routine performed on a daily basis. Not only will we get all of the health benefits including a toned, fit and well shaped muscular body, but we will also restore our confidence and self esteem in the process.

Self esteem is one of the best pros of exercise that we do not always hear about. When we start to get in shape and lose weight little by little with our daily exercise routine, we will automatically feel better about ourselves and work even harder on ourselves. For many people, this is the beginning of a whole new way of life. Even if we don’t begin with a healthy diet, the restoration of  our self esteem and the boost to our self confidence will inspire  ourselves  to start watching what we eat as well, we become conscious about it ultimately.

Confidence and boldness is one of the most must have and appealing qualities that a person can have. confident People hold themselves taller and are not afraid to try new things. This can make us more attractive because of our relatively  smaller size and weight loss that we will experience from our exercise routine. Anxiety and awkwardness lowers as people around us start admiring our fitness.

Of course, there are many health benefits of daily exercise that should not be ignored. Obesity is responsible for more health problems than almost any other major issue. When one  begins to include exercise in his daily routine and starts burning calories at a much faster rate, he will begin to lose weight. With all that, practice a healthy diet and the weight will reduce even faster.Weight loss results in a decrease of risk of heart diseases, diabetes and cancer. These are no small benefits and they are ones that will help anyone to live a longer and healthier life.

As James Allen writes in his book “as the man thinketh”, “Disease and health, like circumstances are rooted in thought”.

All of these above mentioned benefits can be used by including exercise in one’s daily schedule. Even if there has been lack of  exercise for over a long period of time, one can start off with a brisk walk to get started on the road to fine health. Wake up a little earlier, and start off the day with a quick walk around the block. Over time,  more distance can be added to the walk and before we know it, we will be racking up the miles every day. As they say, small daily steps lead to stunning results. Keep on with your own pace and learn to listen to your mind and body while you are just starting out. It automatically gives us signals.

Starting  with a good warm up and ending exercise with a cool down is good practise. This is the best way to care for your muscles before you start any hard exercises as it will prevent injury and muscle tear. The benefits of exercise can be at fullest if you include exercises and asana of yoga that you enjoy in your daily routine. Dance, if that is what you enjoy. Go for a night walk or take a swim. Just keep the movement daily and watch the food i.e the calories intake.

Take care of your body as it is the only place you live in.

# What is Stoicism?

Stoicism is one of the four Ancient Greek value theories, the other three are: Epicureanism, Skepticism, and Cynicism. Value theories in philosophy teach us what makes a good life, wheras moral theories tell us how we should act.Stoicism asserts that accepting one’s destiny is what makes a good life. when used in daily interactions, being stoic means being prone to accepting one’s circumstances.

According to its teachings, the path to happiness for humans is found in accepting the moment as it is, by not allowing yourself to be controlled by your emotions, and using your mind to understand the world.

So the basic definition of stoicism as they themselves defined is as , “the endurance of pain or hardship without the display of feelings and without complaint.”

While Aurelius, Epictetus and Seneca are the most popular and widely known stoics in today’s age, they all represent a later stage in Stoic philosophy 300+ years after the school was established by Zeno, often called ‘Roman Stoicism’. Though it demonstrates significant continuity to early Stoicism, it also took a more pragmatic turn, made other developments to the tradition, and so forth. Cicero is a good source for earlier forms of Stoicism (at least of Panaetius and other 2nd century Stoics). Didymus Arius/Stobaeus and Diognetes Laertes are often mined for fragmentary citations of early (Zeno, Chryssipus) Stoicism.

True stoicism is the ability to understand what one can control and what one cannot. What one can control should be addressed, acted upon, completed. If one encounters a situation beyond ones control, one may still control ones response. Say your company downsized, and your position is one that is eliminated. Certainly, that is beyond your control. Whether you choose to whine and cry or accept the situation gracefully is under your control – or should be, according to classical stoics. The true stoic will aim for the high road even if the going is rocky.

Some traits of stoicism:-

1. Reason
2. Virtue.
3. Courage
4. Self-mastery
5. Calm.
6. Preparedness.
7. “Amor fati.” This phrase, popularized by Friedrich Nietzsche, means “love of fate.”

Perspective towards stoicism in today’s age

As Caleb beers a very well articulated well known writer writes, Stoicism is uniquely suitable for our time in history.

The received wisdom of our age is that self-acceptance is a cardinal virtue, that being “in touch with your emotions” is of the highest importance, and that if you’re in the gutter, it’s somebody else’s fault, probably a “systemic” social problem. Needless to say, the fact that these are the unspoken tenets of our time reflect the underlying problems, which are laziness, weakness, fear, and a near-total absence of anything resembling personal responsibility. People are aware of these problems, of course, in the back of their minds, but struggle to articulate it, which is why people who shout from the rooftops about the importance of responsibility and taking ownership of your own life receive such a positive response. When a speaker gets up on stage and tells a bunch of young people to get their shit together, that speaker will get a standing ovation because the audience feels invigorated by what they’re hearing. And they feel invigorated because they’re hearing something they needed to hear, but did not consciously know that they needed to hear, although perhaps they knew it instinctively.

This is where Stoicism comes into play. The main observation behind it is that there are some things you can control, and other things you cannot control, so it helps to focus on the things you can control. Like much wisdom, this is blindingly obvious but people avoid it because it’s unpleasant to hear and think about. In contrast to so-called self-acceptance and being “in touch” with your emotions, Stoicism preaches self-improvement; “If you would be good, first believe that you are bad,” says Epictetus. Control of the emotions is of the utmost importance in this philosophy, and in contrast to blaming society for your problems, Stoicism tells you to pull your head directly out of your ass and begin doing something useful.

The main critique of Stoicism comes from academics who assert that it only works for people in positions of privilege. Of course, this isn’t true; one of the great Stoic philosophers, Epictetus, was a slave and thus occupied the lowest rung of the social ladder. And there have been people in dire situations who have used something similar to Stoicism; Victor Frankl, for example, was a Holocaust survivor who took comfort in the fact that only he could control his own choices, even if his captors took everything else from him. This points to the fact that the “social” critique of Stoicism comes from people in academia who, despite being quite well-off in their comfortable bourgeois occupations, have built their world view on a victimhood narrative. These critics of Stoicism have not only based their worldview on victimhood, but derive their very psychological stability from a narrative based around oppression and power, and thus feel personally threatened by a philosophy that tells them to take responsibility for themselves.

# A way to become good at anything

1. Do it every day. — put at least 2–3 hours into practicing your craft. There is a quote by albert Einstein which goes as, “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting a different result” .But it is only partly true as the full truth is doing the same thing over and over and over, making it second nature by practising it intensely is what grants us the ultimate power of mastery in it. Repetition is the key to learning because for humans, preconceived knowledge forms the basis of logic and mastery. One cannot simply hope to attain mastery without repetition and application in reality, you cannot play chess or read a physics book once and hope to become an international chess player or scientist, one must do it every day consistently and then only after some time, the sweet food of perfection can be tasted.
1. Be willing to make mistakes — fail and fail again, it’s part of the process. Every time we are not hitting the bullseye, we are hitting something that is not bullseye meaning that we get additional information about the coordinates of the target because in real life the target is not as clearly visible as in archery, life is like the undiscovered part, so every information is equally important , the information one gets after failure is as important as success. It teaches us what should be avoided and often new discoveries are found in failure too. Regardless of all that, failures are pivotal.
1. Learn from people who have done it or know better — books, courses, coaches, etc. there is no need to reinvent the wheel each time when something new comes up in our way.  History repeats itself and whatever you are trying or doing, possibilities are someone has done it already or doing it the same way you are. Good advice and advisors are those resources which are very less talked about, their importance is not known by those who don’t have them, instead those who have know how valuable they are. Introspection , perspective and good advice are very important when there is a goal to be achieved especially when one has to become best at something, therefore seek and listen to those who know better.
1. Surround yourself with people who are a bit above your level — the challenge will make you better. The adrenaline rush in a healthy fierce competition between rivalry can push anyone to strive for more, to become better than the other. Best is after all, the one better than the rest. If there is no environment and surrounding to support the growth, all becomes useless. People in our surrounding matter a lot, although that is not always the case as we can see many cases which rather prove the contrary but the bigger known truth is surrounding does play a role at least for a normal non extraordinary person. When you are surrounded by smart people, you are learning even when you are talking to those colleagues , simple conversation boosts your morale and knowledge.
1. Celebrate small wins. Made a bit of progress? See it as proof you are getting better — no time for negative self-talk. We also should focus less on relativism/comparing to others at the end of the day and know that we all walk our own unique paths, so we shouldn’t be too harsh on ourselves for not improving as fast as we’d like.
1. Be patient — remember to master anything it takes at least 10,000 hours of practice, and this is the one thing which many people fail at and remain from being the best at what they do. This is the one thing which keeps the majority from achieving the set goal and attaining supremacy in any field of work.
1. Remember that it is not about achieving success or gaining a high paying job or finishing the course, it is about becoming worthy. Become really good at what you do, attain perfection in that art, make it your second nature and rest is just formality. Have a desire to learn , want the want to know nitigrities and ins and outs of that subject matter and ultimately after some time it will just start coming to you naturally.

# The importance of self awareness in one’s life

What is self awareness?

In layman terms, self awareness can be defined as ability to see one’s own self in a third person perspective

To be self-aware means to have knowledge of

• how others perceive you
• how you affect people around you
• how and why you react to certain situations in certain ways

There are three major types of awareness that we as SELVES can have:

1. Exteriorceptive Awareness
1. Vision – the awareness of a visual field of view outside of our own bodies and all that we can recognize as either familiar or unfamiliar gestalten. Sight uses a projection area in the posterior brain where the interpretations of images are made.
2. Hearing – the awareness of vibrations, words, noise, music and random sounds that come through our ears in recognizable or unrecognizable ways. Hearing has a computation apparatus as does sight .
3. Smell – the most primitive awareness type that goes straight to the rhinencephalon without any projection area in between. It is the most precise of the senses in that a single smell of spices can make us feel like we are sitting in the kitchen while mommy puts these spices in the container on burning stove. Smell gives us the true sense of taste of food because taste is quite limited in the variety it can contemplate.
4. Taste – taste only has 5 of all gustatory sensations…..Sweet, Salt, Sour, Bitter, Umami (a flavor which appears in meats)
5. Touch – not only everything we touch with our fingers give us tactile awareness but also skin along with its derivatives is the largest organ of our body. Everything that impacts or grazes or rests against the skin must be sensed to be aware of our immediate surroundings.
2. Interiorceptive Awareness:
1. All thinking and contemplation
2. All paranoid thoughts and anxiety
3. All beliefs, in including Religion, faith, all the way to Atheism, are parts of mental awareness
4. Subconscious drivers about which we have almost none awareness, have to be brought into awareness through psychotherapy or hypnotherapy.
5. Fantasies/imaginations
6. Imagined things regarding others or about a sensory input (like a creak in the floor boards is a ghost). Imagining is the most frequent thing our brain does and the problem with it is that we accept it for truth many times. Right now, I’m imagining that you wanted all this detail but that could just be my tendency to give as much information as possible.
3. Proprioceptive Awareness
1. The primary feelings are:
1. Love
3. Anger
4. Fear
5. Guilt
2. All subdermal and physical pain is found in proprioceptive awareness.
3. All pleasure is also a part of proprioceptive awareness.

Now these basic zones of awareness relates to SELF AWARENESS only and not to the larger awareness of the self in the contextual surroundings or how we perceive (theoretically imagine others) or correctly perceive physiognomic Isomorphism.

What self awareness is not and what is?

Self-awareness should not be confused with permanent enlightenment or a state of bliss (and similar terms suggestive of having an out of body experience on either ones or on constant basis).

Being self-aware is the result of intense observation and contemplation of both the self and the environment.

Sustaining the self-aware state while being aware of one’s environment is a necessity. A certain state of remoteness from both the state of self-awareness and the awareness of one’s environment is part of the training gone through by those wishing to learn self-awareness

Intuition in its truest is a congruent internal awareness in all three zones about a person or action in any environment. When People say, “Think about it!” But what it this really means is, “Fantasize and imagine what is happening.” When People say, “Trust your senses!!” which basically means, “Even if it is an optical illusion you should head toward that oasis.” also, when people say, “Trust your feelings!!!” But this means, “No matter how paranoid or delusional or untrusting or suspicious or jealous or hurt you are feeling that your feelings are 100% trustworthy.” But, trusting our feelings during a fight is something we rarely can do. Sense is awareness. But, INTUITION is the King of Self Awareness.

Is being self aware good

The deeper the understanding and comprehension, the higher the level of self awareness. Everyone can be at different stages at different ages and in different environments. As long as one keeps asking questions and searching for answers he/she will always move up levels. But being aware ,going up levels is not always a good thing.

Sometimes self awareness can bring about great sadness and dissatisfaction. The realization of our petty pleasures, our materialistic desires, our lonely existence, our hypocrisies, our illusory , our beliefs and all those things that one should not realize, contemplate, can be very dangerous and do not always lead to happy endings.

Ignorance is as necessary as self awareness but self awareness is more important than not being ignorant and unaware.

# The importance of history

We from our childhood are given a name, we as we study along and get educated, we collect certificates, participate in competitions, compete for rank, give speeches , excel in sports and exams, and so on, all this time we are creating an unique identity. Every step of our life we are contributing to make our own unique identity, trying to be something different, trying to mark our mark, trying to create a legacy, each and everyone’s different in its own way. From the laziest to the most energetic, form the dorkiest to the smartest, from the strongest to the most disciplined, from a Romeo to any geek, from a child to a teen to a young grown up to a middle aged person to a old man, that is what everyone strives for subconsciously.

What is history ?

History is what we came from and is often why we think and act in a certain way.We will frame our very lives in the paths travelled by our relatives and their actions. As the saying goes, “ to understand what is, one must understand what was”.

What history has is the goal of tracing narratives of past events, and analyzing the patterns that emerge as a way to provide perspective on our past.

History is wonderful and should be studied and therefore understood.

It can be studied at different levels and is just full of great adventures.

– food – countries – trains – religion – art – medicine – architecture – fashion.

Why is history important?

The same reason that personal memory matters. If you didn’t know what you had done in the past, he would have no meaningful identity as a person. History is to civilization what memory is to individuals.

Aa there is a saying which goes as :

History repeats itself. Who knows, what we learn right now about the past may come back to help us in the future!

In all cases, understanding History is integral to a good understanding of the condition of being human. That allows people to build, and, as may well be necessary, also to change, upon a secure foundation. Neither of these options can be undertaken well without understanding the context and starting points. All living people live in the here-and-now but it took a long unfolding history to get everything to NOW. And that history is located in time-space, which holds this cosmos together, and which frames both the past and the present.

Well, the truth of the matter is that history does repeat itself and it’s best to be prepared for it by knowing the outcomes of previous instances and being able to make educated decisions based off of these that will help to a greater degree in the long run.

It helps us solve whatever problems the future holds. So keep knowing about the history or the past before stepping to anything

Perspective towards the history

There are many different perspectives that explain History’s existence.

History is older than any other form of ‘social study’ and existed way before there were academic institutions or an academic discipline associated to it. So, it seems it has been a social and cultural demand of various cultures (but not all of them), to understand their own selves in time. The narratives of origin gave a special meaning to particular groups and cultures. Something akin to mythological narratives, but with a claim to represent ‘what really happened’, based on testimonies and observations and making sense of where we came from. So, we come to a perspective very widespread in ancient times, that of History as a ‘master of life’, a repository of experiences and deeds of great (and lesser) men, which could be used by those who read it (statesmen, generals, etc.) in order to learn from the mistakes and great achievements, morals and virtues of generations past. The past as a guide to future action.

Another perspective came with the need, analogous to the new modern sciences, of understanding the world in an objective scientific perspective. Because of the historical context in which that process happened i.e coinciding with the birth and consolidation of the modern nation-state, it was closely linked with the political, philosophical and ideological need to construct national identities, referred to historical narratives of national origins. The understanding of the past as scientific knowledge, not necessarily for any practical purpose. Later, History came to be seen, through another political and epistemological perspective, as a tool to understand the present, by means of understanding and explaining how political, social, economic and cultural processes evolved, from different past configurations. The study of the past as a method to understand the present.

Should history matter to us

Even if there is no true objectivity to one’s history, even if there is no real common interpretation of history, but the truth is we need to protect it for our relative objectivity and subjectivity both. At Least for this day in age of 21st century, ask not what is reality, ask how to protect our reality because once our reality is distorted either by lie or truth, identity is lost.

History makes future for us at the end of the day, what one did yesterday decides what happens today. What we do today, when today becomes yesterday, our those actions make the future. History is our child. We are creating history as we are living through the present. It is our legacy, it is our tomorrow’s myth and legend, history is us from once.

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# Importance of sustainable development In our world

### What is sustainable development

###### “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

The concept of sustainable development can be interpreted in many different ways, but at its core is an approach to development that looks to balance different, and often competing, needs against an awareness of the environmental, social and economic limitations we face as a society.

Sustainability is a broad discipline, giving students and graduates insights into most aspects of the human world from business to technology to environment and the social sciences. The core skills with which a graduates leaves college or university are highly sought after, especially in a modern world looking to drastically reduce carbon emissions and discover and develop the technologies of the future. Sustainability draws on politics, economics and, philosophy and other social sciences as well as the hard sciences.Regarding water management, sustainable development has generated attention on four principles. First, fresh water should be regarded as a finite and vulnerable resource.

In the debate over water management approaches, some view sustainable development as a vague and ambiguous concept, leading people to define it to suit their own interests either economic development or environmental protection. Some suggest that its emphasis on achieving balance between economic development and environmental protection overlooks the importance of ensuring sensitivity to the social and cultural attributes of societies.

The three core elements of sustainable developments are:

• Environmental Conservation

Its primary focus is the protection of the environment so that we do not destroy the resources provided by it. It further minimizes the adverse effects on the surroundings.

• Social Development

It strives to achieve the well being of individuals and society at large. It necessitates the availability of necessary resources, proper healthcare, and good quality of life for people.

• Economic Progress

It is the most neglected part of sustainability. It drives people to invest in sustainable efforts by enticing them through its long term benefits and supports both the environmental and social elements of the cause.

Basic highlighted advantages of sustainable development :-

1. Development Activities will be long lasting.
2. Long term management between means and resources for future generations.
3. Appropriate Distribution of means and resources.
4. Natural Resources are utilized wisely at optimum level.
5. A wide and High rate of economic growth is achieved.. Etc.

Goal of sustainable development

The most important goal is to align our economic system with the realization that we do indeed have the power to alter the planet in destructive ways, and that we have, in fact, already begun doing so. Our system today was not designed to work this way. Today’s system discourages investing in the future by discounting tomorrow’s dollars as worth less than today’s.

Our balance sheets don’t measure all the things that matter including environmental and social impacts of business decisions. Any efforts to plan or invest in a responsible future must vie for attention against the overwhelming interest of the overlord investment community in quarterly earnings. These systemic forces are too big for even the biggest companies to challenge in any meaningful ways.

We must come together to ask, what do we want our world’s future to look like? If we’re to have a just and peaceful world, that answer cannot simply be left in the hands of the few billionaires that now control most of the money. All voices must be represented. Whatever collection of authorities is to take the helm of Spaceship Earth, it must be steered with the recognition that resources are not unlimited nor are places to dump our waste. There are geophysical boundaries that we dare not exceed without putting ourselves at peril, climate change being only the most immediate one.

So the goal must be for businesses, communities, citizens, political leaders, to all come together, at the widest, most inclusive scale, to consolidate our highest aspirations and to redesign the system in ways that will eliminate barriers and promote the achievement of a future where the health and well-being of our planet and everything living on it is the prime concern.

Critique of sustainable development

As  Mr. Dave Brunfeldt, laid and argument on the pro environmentalist and global warming activist from the west as well as in left democracies  saying  that the fundamental element in sustainability that is flawed is that there is a thing called stasis. Normal. Average. Regular. The same. No there isn’t!

Stasis is the demise of every top down plan, because nothing ever stays the same. There is no normal and you can’t plan for ever and ever, Goldilocks. Everything is temporary and sustainability is a fiction believed by the small people of the world who cower behind their notion of forever like mice behind the wall.

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# A Simple guide to jee

#### a new perspective

Getting into iit is considered to be “the job” to be done. As they say, ‘the best time to start preparing for jee is when you were born”, quite funny and hypothetical but the problem with views and opinion like these which keep floating around in our society and neighborhood is that even though they are obnoxious in certain way but everyone knows that they form a certain basis in reality. Why is it so hard? or is it really that hard?

Not because the portion is vast or questions are hard or competition is vast or anything like that, it is just that there is so much clutter and complexity around the whole preparation journey and methodology that it becomes extremely difficult for one to find a way around it whole and reach the set target. There are too many loops and strings to deal with when going through the standard methodized way at least for a normal person. So, what must be our take on it from the beginning or even from the midst, what must be our attitude and mindset regarding the whole thing. Well this article will help you get clarity about the whole picture as a part of personal experience and as a perspective to view it in a more rationalist and realist point of view so at least there will be a new approach to try out to make a difference.

So here is a comprehensive guide:____

1. Just stop the rush towards fancy books

It is seen that whenever a new book comes out in the market or a popular new book whose name comes out of a popular youtuber, students rush for it. And then everybody has it and then it just sits on the rack and it is never opened again for the rest of the years after the initial day’s energy and excitement vanishes. Really there is no need to pay attention to these kinds of fancy books or materials or notes. Just stick to what you have. Nobody is distributing extra marks for buying new books.

1. Stick to what you have till end

At times there is an overwhelming feeling that what we carry is not as good as what the topper is carrying or it is not the best out there but one must understand that it simply doesn’t have to be. It is good enough and even if it is not, changing it or replacing it constantly or rarely would not help either, beat it. We don’t have to change it, we have to improve it, have trust in them, revise them and keep improving them. Using that same notebook, seeing that same handwriting over and over day in and day out and then adding things to it as our knowledge grows is the right way to go.

1. Implementation is all that matters

It doesn’t matter what you learned in the fanciest coaching of India, neither does it make much of a difference how much literature, theories, formulas or examples you have stored in your mind. What matters is the implementation, practice and application in the real world.

Practising questions over and over and over is what gives you mastery of any topic or chapter. From fluid motion to elasticity to rotation , from linear equation to calculus , form atomic structures to coordinate bonds, everything can become as easy as solving newton’s laws of linear motion question , but they need to be practised in real time on notebook. They need to be written and practised over and over until it becomes second nature and that is when that chapter or topic can be left for end revisions.

1. Revision and keeping up with what is going on in formal syllabus

Keep doing the revision of the topics which are finished in the past. Two months old or a year old, revise them to keep grip on them or else you will lose the grip over them. And it would be even harder to make a grasp on future topics. And also never fall back behind the formal syllabus pace. Keeping up with the syllabus should be the first priority. That said, there are a lot more things to it but these above mentioned are the ones that needs to be taken care of most, rest falls in its place with time as your understanding grows.

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