Independent India🇮🇳

Introduction

Sports and India are like the two sides of a coin that can change the angle but can never depart. The nation has always tried to encourage young buds for athletics and games. Cricketers like Sachin Tendulkar, Boxers like Mary Kom, and athletes like Milkha Singh are known for their fury and fervor. However, there is only one winner and after several years of dedication and wait, India finally found its champion.

It was all unplanned

The date of 7th August 2021 will always be memorized for the first win of the Olympic Gold Medal in Athletics. It was no other than Neeraj Chopra who mesmerized the entire stadium with his outstanding throw in Javelin held in Tokyo. Born on 24th December in the house of a farmer at Panipat is now known for his 87.58m throw. He was not a passionate kid who was practicing hard to enter sports. Rather, his heavyweight forced his father to send him stadium for running. This lead to the advent of his inquisitiveness in the field of athletics. After attempting several games, he finally discovered his strength. The more he practiced, the more he loved. Since then, his journey of medals began in Javelin and he made several records at various events.

I made it!!

Record is broken

Neeraj underwent elbow surgery before the game and it was told that he will not be playing. It was that time when his hand was bandaged and it is now when he is holding the gold medal in that same hand. This was a very proud moment for every Indian and the curiousness turned into wishes from renowned personalities and interviews which revealed multiple secrets of his life. The lazy kid has grown into a responsible citizen who wants to work hard for the dignity of the country. His words, “For now I want to focus on my career, marriage will happen at the right time” truly proves that. Like others, he also overcame numerous challenges and gained success. Joining camp was the turning point of his life which gave him the facilities to become the man he is today!

Inspiration of Today

Everything is changing except thinking. Parents have always been skeptical about sending their children into this field where success does not come to everyone. Regardless, experiencing the achievement of a player whose journey was an incident and not a plan will motivate all fresh minds to take a step forward. On this Independence Day let’s celebrate the victory of not only those who gave their beats to save our hearts but also the ones who made their lives black and white to demonstrate India’s flag colorful.

Every passion has a destiny.

What are different types of aggressions

Researchers identify two types of aggression related to sports: instrumental aggression and hostile aggression.What is instrumental aggression?By nature, certain sports (such as football, ice hockey, etc.) have higher levels of contact between players. Thus, they inevitably include more aggression. But such violence is often within the bounds of the game. You often need to play with a certain measure of physical aggressiveness in order to win. That’s instrumental aggression.Hostile aggression, on the other hand, is violence that goes beyond the scope of the sport. Being hostile refers to “impulsive, angry aggression intended to hurt someone who has in some way provoked an individual” (Russell, 2008). One famous example of hostile aggression in sport is a 2006 World Cup football (soccer here in the U.S.) match. After being insulted by Italian athlete Marco Materazzi in the middle of the game, French player Zinedine Zidane delivered a serious headbutt to his chest, which sent him flying to the ground. Such action was in no way necessary to the game itself; it was simply a way to retaliate against the athlete. Zidane wanted to hurt his provoker as badly as possible.Hostile Aggression Among Teen AthletesIn discussing the problem of aggression, most experts are talking about the concept of hostile – not instrumental – aggression.In surveying 800 adolescent athletes playing 10 different sports all across the U.S., Shields (2005) found that 13% of students have tried to deliberately hurt an opponent at least once during a game. Seventeen percent have said something mean to an opponent. And almost 40% have tried to “get back” at another player.

Heroes Modeling Bad Behavior

Increased media attention on pro-athletes has revealed shocking displays of violence both on and off the sports field. This has an influence on young fans, who often admire and glamorize such athletes. One researcher (Smith, 1983) asked adolescent hockey players who their favorite National Hockey League (NHL) player was. He found that there was a positive correlation between skaters whose NHL hero was aggressive and the young athlete’s own play.

Aggressive Parents

But aggressive behavior isn’t only seen on TV. Often, it’s closer to home. Certain parents could be violent and aggressive with their children at home, as well as on the sports field. (One Minnesota survey found that 17% of adolescent athletes said that an adult had hit, kicked, and slapped them while participating in sports.) Experiencing such violent behavior has a mimicking effect, says researchers. See the case of Thomas Junta and Michael Costin in 2000, and what happened to their kids thereafter.

Showing Loyalty or Seeking Revenge

Moral reasoning theory suggests that some teens think aggressive behavior is not just okay, but even the right thing to do in certain circumstances. “Aggressive behavior is often…justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates, and especially injured teammates, by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues,” says Cusimano (2016). Hurtful insults, mean taunts, and even stares can provoke certain players, who will then retaliate by become more aggressive (Gordon Russell, 2008). Sports psychologists note that not all athletes respond to the same provocation in the same way. Personality differences, temperament, and even regional hometown (!) change the way athletes will respond to a hurtful remark. For example, Type-A teens will be more likely to get angry when they’re insulted.

Getting Too Hot

Sounds crazy, but it really is true: environmental factors like heat leads to aggression. Science even proves it. Research on weather and crime shows that acts of violence happen most during the summer. In the same vein, getting hot during a sports game can make an athlete more physically aggressive. In analyzing more than 2,300 National Football League games and matching them up with the temperatures on each day, researchers found that the hotter it was, the more aggressively teams played. They determined this conclusion based on comparing temperatures to the number of aggressive penalties teams accrued. Even when the temperature is fairly mild, though (or even cold, as in ice hockey) your teen athlete could be getting warm by all the physical activity they’re doing—running, throwing a ball, tackling, etc.—not to mention all the layers they’re wearing and the gear they’re carrying.

Biological factors

Certain teens may simply be more aggressive, naturally. Studies have shown, for example, that the level of testosterone in male athletes impacts their aggressive level. (Simpson, 2001). In one experiment, male participants with both high and low testosterone levels were given escalating shocks. The males with high hormone levels responded with more aggression than the others.  Changes in hormone levels can likewise increase or reduce aggression. During puberty, for example, which is when testosterone levels generally increase, competitive aggression increases as well.

Crowd Incitement

Many times, parents, coaches and fans encourage aggression from the sidelines. After analyzing parents’ remarks at more than 40 adolescent sports games, Meân and Kassing (2008) found that many parents and sports officials encourage a “war-like” aggression on the sports field. This winning-at-all-costs mentality (as evidenced by statements like ‘kill him!’, ‘trip him,’ “Do what you gotta do,’ let ‘em have it,”) could be trickling down to their children. These adolescents are getting the message that because it’s so important to win, playing aggressively is okay. To them, the sport transforms from “play” to “war” – because that’s what they’re hearing from the crowd.

Living Up to Expectations

They’re nervous about performing well. About 13% of parents admit they’ve angrily criticized their child’s sport performance after a game. (Shields, 2005). Oftentimes, sports have become so important to the parent, and the parent has such high expectations for performance and the winning of the game, that many children are probably “playing much more aggressively than they would if their main objective was to hang out with their friends and have fun.” Research shows that parents underestimate the pressure they place on their young athletes to succeed.

Changing the Culture: Sportsmanship First

According to a Monitoring the Future survey, 71% of adolescent boys and 68% of adolescent girls participate in school sports. With so many teen athletes playing sports, it’s important to understand the factors that can lead to hostile aggression and take any steps one can to reduce it.

For parents, this could mean being mindful of their interactions with their children. Parents who are calm and try their best to reduce angry outbursts (not just at sports games, but also at home) are more likely to produce children who will act similarly. Likewise, parents can do their best in maintaining a low-stress approach to sports so as not to pressure their young athletes. In regards to media exposure, parents can also try to limit how much violence their teens are exposed to by monitoring their TV and media consumption.

Though some factors linking to aggression (such as personality or hormone levels) are out of one’s control, youth sports officials can try to create an atmosphere where hurtful taunts, songs and chants are discouraged, and positive sportsmanship is encouraged. This might limit the number of provocations in the game and thus the number of fights between athletes. In the same vein, angry spectator violence – which is shown to have a mimicking effect on adolescents – should have appropriate consequences.

India to begin COVID-19 vaccination drive from January 16 and frontline, healthcare workers to get priority.

India to begin COVID-19 vaccination drive from January 16, frontline, healthcare workers to get priority

     The COVID-19 vaccination drive in India will commence on January 16, 2021. The decision of starting the largest vaccination drive was taken in a meeting on January 9 during which PM Modi also reviewed the status of COVID-19 in India.

On 16th January, India takes a landmark step forward in fighting COVID-19. Starting that day, India’s nation-wide vaccination drive begins. Priority will be given to our brave doctors, healthcare workers, frontline workers including Safai Karamcharis. 

Prime Minister also reviewed the preparedness of UTs and states for vaccination against the deadly disease. After the detailed review during the meeting, the decision was taken that in the view of upcoming festivals including Makar Sankranti, Lohri, Magh Bihu, Pongal, etc., the vaccination drive will start from January 16.

As per the release by PMO, priority will be given to the frontline, healthcare workers who are estimated to be around three crores. They will be followed by those who are above 50 years and under 50 population groups with any form of co-morbidities. Their number is around 27 crores.

During the meeting, PM Modi was briefed about the centre’s preparedness status of the drive-in collaboration with UTs and states for the rollout of the vaccine. He was also apprised of the government’s CO-WIN Vaccine delivery management system.

While reviewing the vaccination drive status, PM Modi was informed of the three phases of dry run by the government having been conducted all over the country.

• As per the release, the vaccination drive has been underpinned by the principles of participation by people (jan bhagidari), the Universal Immunization Program, and utilizing the experience of elections.

• The drive will not compromise the existing healthcare services, especially primary healthcare and national programmes. It will be underpinned by no compromise on regulatory and scientific norms and smooth and orderly implementation driven by technology.

• A crucial pillar of the vaccination drive will be comprised of the vaccine administrators and vaccinations. During the meeting, their training process was also detailed out.

• Around 2,360 participants were trained during the national-level training of trainers. It included cold chain officers, immunization officers, development partners, and IEC officials.

• For the drive, more than 2 lakh vaccinators, 61,000 programme managers, and 3.7 lakh team members have been trained. They are trained as part of training at district, state, and block levels.

• The unique digital platform will be providing real-time information on vaccine stocks, the vaccine’s storage temperature, and the tracking of beneficiaries of the vaccine.

• The platform will also be assisting the program managers at all levels for pre-registered beneficiaries. There will also be assistance for their verification and for the generation of the digital certificates on the successful completion of the vaccine schedule.

• On the platform, more than 79 lakh beneficiaries have already registered.

The National regulator granted the emergency use authorization for two vaccines in India- COVAXIN, and Covishield. Both the vaccines have established immunogenicity and safety during the clinical trials.

Have you ever heard of G20?

     The G20 (or the group of Twenty) is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union. A combination of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies. The G20 members are Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, The U.K, the U.S, and the European Union. The G20 economies together account for nearly 80% of the world’s economic output, two-thirds of the global population, and about half of the world’s land area.

     G20 forum regularly meets to coordinate global policy on economic growth, international trade, health, climate, and other issues. The G20 summit is focused on several key issues such as achieving global economic stability, sustainable growth, prevention of future financial crises, putting in place regulatory mechanisms and action against climate change. The two-day summit concludes with a joint statement issued by the members committing themselves to action. It is significant to note that the resolutions of the G20 are not legally binding, but they do influence the policies of the member countries.

     The G20 was established in December 1999 in response to financial crises faced by a number of countries in the 1990s with the aim of uniting the world around promoting global financial stability. There was also the need to create a more inclusive body with greater representation. What began as a regular forum for finance ministers and central bank governors turned into a key summit in 2008 when the heads of state and government came together for the first time in Washington to discuss the global economy as well as other challenges facing the world. Ever since the leaders have been meeting annually. A series of G20 ministerial events take place during a year.

     Saudi Arabia hosted last year’s G20 summit in Riyadh on November 22 and 23. With the global economy experiencing a sharp contraction in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the G20 leaders have vowed to ensure affordable and equitable access to COVID-19 diagnostics and vaccines around the world. They said they are taking immediate measures to address the health, social and economic impacts arising from the pandemic. A G20 Leader’s Declaration issued at the end of the summit called for coordinated global action, solidarity, and multilateral cooperation to overcome the current challenges and realise opportunities of the 21st Century for all by empowering people, safeguarding the planet, and shaping new frontiers. Italy will host the summit of the high-profile grouping in 2021, Indonesia in 2022, India in 2023, and Brazil in 2024.

  The G20, 2021:  

     The G20, bringing together much of the world’s population and the global economy, must live up to its role. This is why the 2021 G20, under the Italian Presidency, will focus on three broad, interconnected pillars of action: People, Planet, Prosperity.

Within these pillars, they are taking the lead in ensuring a swift international response to the pandemic – able to provide equitable, worldwide access to diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines – while building up resilience to future health-related shocks.

They are also looking beyond the crisis, towards ensuring a rapid recovery that addresses people’s needs. This implies a focus on reducing inequalities, on women’s empowerment, on the younger generations, and on protecting the most vulnerable. It means promoting the creation of new jobs, social protection, and food security.

The G20 is also intent on paving the way to rebuilding differently in the aftermath of the crisis. More efficiently, through better use of renewable energies and with a firm commitment to protecting our climate and our common environment.

This is a prerequisite for our sustained prosperity. A prosperous future, however, also requires that we properly harness the main drivers of growth and innovation. They are working to bridge the digital divide and make digitalization an opportunity for all, improve productivity and – in short –leave no one behind.

WHAT IS FARM BILL 2020?

     We have been hearing the term ‘Farm Bill’ but seriously, What is Farm Bill 2020?  And how it affects the farmers?

     The Farm Bill 2020 refers to the agricultural bills passed by the Lok Sabha on 17 September 2020 and by the Rajya Sabha on 20 September 2020. The bills collectively seek to provide farmers with multiple marketing channels and provide a legal framework for farmers to enter into pre-arranged contracts among other things. The President of India, Ram Nath Kovind gave his assent for the three bills on 27 September 2020. The Farm Bill 2020 includes the three acts

  1. The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Farm Services Act, 2020.
  2. The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020.
  3. The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020.

First of all, What is “The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Farm Services Act, 2020? And how it affects the farmers?”

     It provides a legal framework for farmers to enter into pre-arranged contracts with buyers including mention of pricing and defines a dispute settlement mechanism.

     The agreement will outline conditions for the production of farm products and delivery requirements, the farmer then agrees to the supply products based on the quality standards, and in return, the buyer agrees to buy products. The primary purpose of this act is for contract farming whereas the secondary purpose of this act is to provide a nationwide legal framework wherein the farmer produces crops as per contracts and the central government says that it transforms Indian Agriculture and attracts private investment. As we see it does attracts private investment. This act may lead to the exploitation of farmers legally by buyers.

     Now coming to the second bill “The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020”. It allows the trading of farm goods outside the Physical premises of Mandi and APMC Yard.

     As we know all the subjects in India are divided into three lists

  1. Union List
  2. State List
  3. Concurrent List

Agriculture comes under State List, states like Punjab and Harayana could lose a big source of state revenue. We may have seen our parents going to Mandis’ to buy vegetables and other agricultural products. These Mandis’ are spread across the country. Farmers usually sell their products in Mandis’ and these Mandis’ are managed by the state government through APMC ( Agricultural Produce Market Committee).

There are some conditions for the farmers to sell their products outside Mandis’ because the products which have all the minimum support price need to compulsorily go through Agricultural Produce Market Committee (AMPC).

     Otherwise, farmers can directly sell their products to consumers, the small-scale farmers are still doing it now. If a farmer like a larger-scale farmer wants his products to be sold through the government then he has to notify APMC or trade with only AMPC licensed traders. This bill will allow barrier-free trading of Agricultural produce outside the notified APMC Mandis’. With the help of this bill, the state government will not impose any tax on the purchase and selling of agricultural products outside the Mandis.

     This Bill is more beneficial to Large-scale farmers because it gives more options to them to sell their products and this bill makes hardly a difference to the small-scale farmers because anyhow, they are selling outside the Mandis.

      But the other perspective of this bill is it gives a way to the government to get out of the Agricultural business, once the farmers enter the market, their income will depend upon the ups and downs of the market.

The third bill is ‘The Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020’.

     This is not a new bill, the government had an amendment to the existing bill. Basically, it is a law that controls the production, supply, and distribution of certain commodities.

What is the essential commodities bill?

With the help of this law, the government can include new commodities to the essential commodities list to make sure that they are available to everyone when the need arises and take them off this list when the situation improves. For example, if someone illegally stores onions to create artificial demand (Hoarding) the government adds onions to the essential commodities list under this act to make sure that onions are available to the people at the right price.

     Recently in March 2020, the Central government added Masks and sanitizers under this act to make sure that all are available to the people in the pandemic situation at the right price and right quality, and again on 1 July 2020, the government removed them from this act.

     The amendment added in this bill is government removed certain commodities like cereals, pulses, potatoes, onions, edible oilseeds, and oils from this act even though they are daily used by everyone. The government will regulate and supply them only in case of Famine, High Price Rise, or Natural Calamities. There are more conditions to add this into essential commodities

  • If there is a 50% increase in the retail price of Non-Perishable items like cereals, edible oilseeds, and oils then only the government will add them back into the essential commodities list.

For example, If the retail price of the rice is 100 Rupees/Kg and it suddenly increased to 151 Rupees/Kg then, the government adds them back into the essential commodities list until the situation improves.

  • If there is a 100% increase in the retail price of Perishable items like onions, potatoes then only the government will add them back into the essential commodities list.

For example, If the retail price of the potatoes is 50 Rupees/Kg and it suddenly increased to 101 Rupees/Kg then, the government adds them back into the essential commodities list until the situation improves.

In one way this act is a good step because it boosts farmer’s income but on another hand, it leads to hoarding and black marketing.