Manipur – Home to number of Indian Olympians

Manipur – Home to number of Indian Olympians

A relatively small northeastern state with a population little above twenty five lakhs, Manipur has produced many renowned athletes as well Olympians. The most recent example is Mirabai Chanu, silver medalist in weightlifting at Tokyo 2020 Olympics.

There are several reasons due to which Manipur produces many Olympians. The state has a very strong sporting culture. Amarjit Singh Kiyam, captain of Indian team at FIFA U-17 World Cup 2017 said “Everyone loves sports in Manipur, be it football, hockey, boxing or wrestling”. National footballer Gurmangi Singh said “There are no malls and multiplexes, so sports remains the primary source of entertainment.” and this is the reason why around 20 thousand people came up for a friendly match at Imphal which itself resides a population of 2.5 lakhs.

The sporting culture of Manipur is supported by the community clubs. These community clubs get huge amount of support from the people. And these community clubs are run by volunteers. Dr. R.K. Nimai Singh, former Commissioner of sports and youth affairs for Manipur, says the spirit of volunteering in the people of Manipur is a result of a pre-colonial tradition known as ‘lallup’. As per this tradition of the monarchy of Manipur, every man aged between 17 to 60 had to voluntarily work for the state for a few days each year. Although this tradition was exploited during the colonial period, still the spirit of volunteering remained a part of Manipuri heritage even after independence. Journalist Dipanjan Sinha wrote “Local clubs are started, run and funded by local communities”. Sportspersons and former players also extend their support to such clubs from funding to donating equipment or subsidizing the meals.

Another factor is the body type of people from Manipur which gives them advantage in various sports including boxing, weightlifting and football. Dangmei Grace, Indian Women’s National Football team says “Our body structure is quite different from other players. Our ability and speed are very good”. The key factor of their body structure is low center of gravity. Most popular example of such structure is Lionel Messi. Low center of gravity is useful especially for weightlifting due to which women from Manipur are efficient with heavy weights. Anita Chanu, former weightlifting champion and coach says the average Manipuri has the right built for weightlifting-“short but with good muscle mass”. For example Hidilyn Diaz the recent gold medalist in weightlifting from Philippines has a height of 4 feet 11 inches and Mirabai Chanu too is of the same height. And this low center of gravity can partly explain the Chinese domination in weightlifting.

Having many advantages doesn’t make success at national and international level easy. Sponsorship is still a struggle for the sportspersons of Manipur which leads them to go for other professions for financial stability. Politics also affects the game negatively. The insurgency of Manipur highlighted in the national and international media prevents foreigners etc. from lending their support. But Dr. R.K. Niami Singh said that the sporting culture of Manipur is so strong that even insurgents won’t interfere with a player or a game. And this is the main reason of sportsperson’s successes at events like the Olympics.

Operation Polo: an operation lead by real iron man

Pre- Independence Hyderabad

Operation Polo is called the military campaign after which the princely states of Hyderabad and Brar joined the Indian Union. This was needed because the Nizam of Hyderabad Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII decided to remain independent after the partition of the country. The continuation of an independent princely state in India was not acceptable to the government. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the principal architect of India’s political integration, made it his priority.

Attempts were made to persuade the Nizam but he refused to sign the treaty. The army was sent in defeat and Hyderabad joined the Indian Union on 12 September 1948.

Emergency-like situation was created for the first time in India on September 13, 1948. This was different from the Indira Emergency of 1975. On this day 36,000 soldiers of India camped in Hyderabad. From 13 to 17 September, there took place a genocide which shook whole Hyderabad. It was said that thousands of people were shot standing in line. The army called it ‘Operation Polo’. In some part it was also called ‘Operation Caterpillar’. Sardar Patel told the world that it was ‘police action’. Read the story of Hyderabad meeting in India.

One of the world’s richest people, Nizam wanted a separate country:

Nizam of Hyderabad

After the independence of India, many princely states wanted their separate country. But the Indian government was not ready for this. Because it was not possible. No argument went in favor of his point. As a result, either out of love or reprimand, everyone had to unite with India. But some princely states had made up their mind to challenge India. One of these princely states was the princely state of Hyderabad.

Here the lineage of Asafjah who came from Samarkand used to run. These people were the governors of this princely state on behalf of the Mughals. After Aurangzeb, they were ruled here. They were called Nizams. So in 1948, Nizam Osman Ali Khan Asafjah used to rule the seventh subject, which was mostly Hindus. The Nizam was one of the richest people in the world at that time.

The Nizam’s dream was to have a separate country of its own. For this, apart from his army, he had made a separate army. In which there were people from the Muslim community. They were called Razakars. Before this, the Nizam had also gone to the British government. That they should have their own country under the Commonwealth.

But Mountbatten refused. A. G. Noorani has written that Nehru wanted to settle the matter through dialogue. But Sardar Patel did not have the patience to talk.

Agreements were broken, talk reached from country to America:

Till now there was an agreement with Hyderabad that you should run your state now. Just the Government of India will see your foreign relations. Also you don’t have to have any relation with Pakistan. But the princely state of Hyderabad had also given crores of rupees to Pakistan. Due to this, both the parties kept accusing each other of breaking the agreement.

The princely state alleged that the Indian government was besieging them from all sides. The government said that you are not even using our currency. Weapons are being imported from Pakistan. Razakar’s army is being built. What do you want?


Mountbatten again placed an agreement in June 1948. According to this, everything will continue as it is. Nizam will remain head of state. But gradually the decision of the people will be brought. The Government of India agreed. But the Nizam was not ready. He wanted complete swaraj. For this, he also sought the help of the UN and US President Harry Truman. But not found. Those people didn’t say anything.

The head of the Razakars who wanted an Islamic country was sent to Pakistan:

There was already communal tension in Hyderabad. At the same time there was opposition to Telangana. At the same time a group of Muslims was formed, MIM, headed by Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung. After his death, Qasim Rizvi became the chief. Qasim was the leader of the Razakars. The purpose of these people was to create an Islamic state. They did not believe in democracy. These people spread terror.

Whoever was against him was his enemy. Communists and Muslims who were different from him were also his targets. The main target were Hindus. As a result, thousands of people were killed. Women were raped. They felt that by doing this their great kingdom would become.

The patience of the Indian government was broken. Sardar Patel sent an army contingent to Hyderabad. After the arrival of the army, there was a fierce battle for 5 days. Because of telling police action, no other country in the world has put its hand. As soon as the military action was called, the rest of the countries of the world would have accused India that India has attacked any other country. The Razakars were completely ruined. Qasim was put in jail.

His office Darussalam was made a fire station. MIM leaders were sent to Pakistan or stopped from going out in public. Later, Qasim was given two days’ time on his release from jail to go to Pakistan. When Qasim got two days’ time, the biggest question in front of him was what would happen to MIM now. For this a meeting of MIM was held.

A lawyer named Abdul Wahid Owaisi was also present in this meeting. He took the responsibility on his shoulders. Changed the name of the party to AIMIM i.e. All India Majliye-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen. This is the same party which is now run by Owaisi bhai.

ऑपरेशन पोलो के बाद नेहरू, निज़ाम और जे एन चौधरी
Nehru, Nizam of Hyderabad and J.N.Chaudhary

There were allegations against the Indian Army, the report came after 65 years:

हैदराबाद के मेजर जनरल सैयद अहमद भारत के मेजर जनरल जे एन चौधरी को सरेंडर करते हुए
Major General Syed Ahmed of Hyderabad surrendering to Major General JN Choudhary of India

There were many allegations on this fight. It was alleged that the people of the army and civil had started looting and rape in Hyderabad. But all these things were not allowed to come out. Sunder Lal Committee was also formed for this. But it took 65 years for its report to come out! This report came out in 2013. According to many people, 10-40 thousand people were killed in this fight. Some say that close to two lakh people died!

The report has clearly given the details of robbery and rape in Hyderabad State. Hyderabad was merged with India, but it had to pay a heavy price for it.

APJ Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (October 15, 1931 – July 27, 2015), known as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from July 25, 2002, to July 25, 2007. He was honored with several prestigious awards during the course of his carrier including India’s highest civilian honor “Bharat Ratna” in 1997. 

Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

He was born in Dhanuskhodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied physics and aerospace engineering. 

Before becoming President of India, he worked with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) as an aerospace engineer and was intimately involved in India’s civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missiles and launch vehicle technology.

If you fail, never give up because FAIL means “First Attempt In Learning”

– APJ Abdul Kalam

Some biggest achievements of India’s ‘Missile Man’

  • Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam led India’s two major science research organizations – Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

  • Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period and Kalam played an intensive political and technological role in their success.

  • He directed the project to develop India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SVL). As a project director for the development of the indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle at ISRO led to groundbreaking scientific development. It was in July 1980, that India’s SVL-III successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in the near-Earth orbit leading to the country becoming a member of the exclusive Space Club. 

  • He was responsible for the successful launch of Agni and Prithvi missiles.

  • Dr. Kalam directed projects for the development of India’s ballistic missiles. He headed the projects Devil and Valiant, for the development of ballistic missiles using the technology behind the successful SLV programme. 

  • The Government of India honored him with Padma Bhushan in 1981, Padma Vibhbuhsan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India’s highest civilian honor,the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernization of defense technology in India. In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society “to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of space-related project”.

  • Dr. Kalam had always encouraged the young population of India to develop a habit of reading and penned down many inspirational books. Some of his notable masterpieces are India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium (1998); Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of A P J Abdul Kalam (1999); Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India (2002).

  • APJ Abdul Kalam made huge contributions to the healthcare sector. Woking jointly with the cardiologist Soma Raja, the late President developed a cost-effective coronary stent ‘Kalam-Raju Stent’ which helped in making healthcare accessible to all.

Dr. Kalam died on July 27, 2015, while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management in Shillong.

Reference Link :

Best places to study on campus

Studying is a must in college. It’s how you turn those grades into a degree. Unfortunately, studying can sometimes be a hassle to your busy schedule. Also, finding a quiet place to study and keep you focused can be an issue. Typically, it’s hard to study in your dorm or your apartment with all the distractions around you. You may want to hang out with your friends or watch some Netflix. However, you have to get up and start studying!

Here are some of the best places to study on your campus:


Depending on the weather outside, studying under a tree or at a picnic bench can be the perfect study area. You can enjoy the outdoor weather while studying your notes and getting your homework done.  If you don’t want a lot of noise where you’re at, try finding a place on campus away from the dorms where you can study.


The most obvious option is the campus library. Everyone goes to the library for peace and quiet. It’s a distraction-free zone to get all your work done. Your library will usually have study rooms or quiet floors. Take advantage of the study rooms! You can rent one for a certain amount of time and its a great option to getting a lot of work done without distractions. Watch out during finals week in the library. Hoards of students will come to study and it might be a distraction for you. Try renting out a room a week or more in advance so you’ll be guaranteed to study without the distraction of all the new students in the library.

Empty Classrooms:

Another area to study is in an empty classroom. Generally, by the end of the day, most teachers and students will be out of the classrooms. This is your chance to study in a classroom where no one else can distract you and you can get some excellent studying done.


Going to the park is a natural way to improve your mood as you surround yourself with nature. Furthermore, many people enjoy being outside rather than staying in a room or building. Consequently, studying at a park table, bench, or picnic area can boost your mood and inspire creativity and focus.

Not only do you receive natural light and vitamin D, but you also become more connected to the outdoors. Finally, consider bringing food and a drink so you can enjoy the breeze and eat a good meal. This will help you stay focused and provide optimal energy throughout your study session.

commons ROOM:

Finally, there’s the commons. Everyone knows about it, and only few utilize it for their studying needs.

This is a great place to study, so long as you pick the right times. It can get busy during meal times and other high traffic times throughout the day, but later at night or earlier in the morning, this is going to be one of the most quiet places on campus.

So if you’re an early bird or a night owl, definitely consider this option.



This pandemic has left us all homebound and bored . Online school and college can be tiring and we long for recreation and a much needed break from this monotonous life . Well , there is always a way out, yes , Movies , the perfect form of escapism . So , here are a few movies to watch and have a good time with friends and family and to wind down a bit . Hope you enjoy ,

I KNOW WHAT YOU DID LAST SUMMER – If you are a horror/thriller movie fan , you need to watch this . The story about the 4 protagonists will surely blow your mind and keep you glued to your seats still the very end . The unexpected jumpscares , the casting , directing and the cinematography makes this a classic must watch . And there is a sequel as well , now thats a bliss , isn’t it?

CLUELESS – I highly doubt about the fact that people have not already watched this 90s classic romcom , but if you haven’t , then you must add it to your list. This quintessential teenage movie is evergreen and very entertaining , and the fashion element of the movie makes it even better . Cher’s closet is *chef’s kiss* , will surely make you want to go shopping. You will not regret watching this classic romcom.

SEVEN – If you love watching murder mysteries and movies about serial killers you will surely love this masterpiece . The casting is enough to tempt one to watch this movie , Morgan Freeman and Brad Pitt play the lead detectives here. The slow burn , suspense and unexpected turns will leave you completely shook .With an amazing storyline and amazing performance from all actors , this movie is a must watch .

ALPHA – In times like these where there is hopelessness and so much negativity , we need motivation and things that inspire us to keep moving forward . This movie will surely motivate and make you realise that us humans are more powerful than we realise and we can literally conquer anything if we put our mind to it. By the end of the movie you surely will be filled with positivity and hope.

Astronomers has discovered first bursts of light from a black hole, validating Einstein’s Theory

First of all What are black holes and how do they form?

A black hole is generated when a star dies with such a strong gravitational field that stuff is crushed into the little region underneath it, trapping the dead star’s light. Because matter is crammed into such a smallspace, gravity is extremely powerful. People cannot perceive black holes because no light can escape. They are undetectable.

Astronomers have spotted light behind a black hole for the first time, despite the fact that black holes are notorious for allowing no light to escape.

Black Holes, a massive emptiness capable of engulfing anything in its path, are notable for their vast gloomy blackness, which prevents light from passing through. For the first time, astronomers have spotted light from behind a black hole.

Researchers observed strong X-Ray flares erupting from a supermassive black hole at the centre of another galaxy, which is almost 800 million light-years away, deep in the universe. The new discovery is likely to alter our view of the universe’s largest baddies, which are capable of sucking planets and stars while defying gravitational forces.

The research published in the journal Nature reported the observations of X-ray flares emitted from ar0ound the supermassive black hole and its accretion disk. It is already known that the black hole’s extreme gravitational field redirects and distorts light coming from different parts of the disk.

Detecting light behind a black hole

Researchers were researching the region known as the corona when they noticed the light. It’s a type of X-Ray light produced by materials colliding with a supermassive black hole that can be used to map and characterise them.

However, the telescope picked up unexpected “luminous echoes”, smaller flashes, which were of a different colour than bright flashes. Analysis of the X-ray flares revealed short flashes of photons consistent with the re-emergence of emission from behind the black hole.

“These photons’ energy shifts reveal their origins from various areas of the disc. Photons that ricochet off the disk’s far side are curved around the black hole and intensified by the intense gravitational field “According to the study’s findings.

As photons bend around the black hole, the bright flare confirms Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Although it has long been known that any light that enters a black hole does not exit and cannot be seen again, astrophysicists believe they were able to glimpse the light because black holes warp space and bend light as the magnetic field surrounding them twists.

New Gold Regulations

Gold is not just an asset in India it holds significance in our culture. Being the symbol of the Goddess Lakshmi and considered to be auspicious.

It is part of several cultural and social events of Indian society. Not just bought on special occasions or passed down from several generations, but it also holds the great economical point. Being one of the most trusted investment all over the world even the RBI of India holds 695 tonnes of gold within it as a reserve.The government of India had mandatory hallmarking for gold in 256 districts and plan to implement it all over India in the future.

What is a Hallmark?

It is series of marks made on the metal to clarify the content of the noble metals like gold, silver, etc.In other words,s it lends credibility to the purity of gold. The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), in India, is the accreditation agency that certifies and Hallmark gold jewelry and other precious metals.

Other key terms related to gold-

Carat– It indicates the percentage of purity of the metal. Eg 24 carat means gold contains 100 pct gold. But to lend it some strength metal is mixed. Hence gold is about 18 -22 K only.

Stamp of BIS and year of the mark-It is a triangle mark assure of purity with the year of hallmarking of jewelry.

Jewelry Identification mark-BSI mark also carries jewellery stamps to Indicate that jewelry is certified. Its certification is cheap at Rs 2 per gram of gold.

Currently, this regulation is only imposed on jewelers having a turnover of above 40 Lakh only.

Mary Kom: The Living Legend

Mangte Chungneijang Mary Kom, popularly known as Mary Kom, is a Manipuri boxer and undoubtedly India’s most and one of the world’s most accomplished female boxers in modern times. Her various accomplishments and her boxing prowess have given her the nickname of ‘Magnificent Mary’, a nickname very fitting for her.

Mary was born in Kangathei village, Moirang Lamkhai in the Churachandpur district of Manipur on the 24th of November, 1982. She hails from a family of farmers and is the eldest of three children; with her having a younger brother and a sister. Throughout her school years, Mary extensively took part in athletics and played many sports; with a special interest in javelin and running. All this changed in 1998. Her fellow statesman, Dingko Singh had just returned from the 1998 Bangkok Asian Games with a Gold medal. Mary, like many other Manipuri youth was inspired by him and decided to give boxing a try. She moved to Imphal and started serious boxing training under the then Manipur State Boxing Coach, M. Narjit Singh. She kept her boxing training a secret from her family, as her father previously had voiced his concern that while boxing her face may get spoiled, thereby ruining her chances of marriage. In the year 2000, she won the state boxing championship, as a result of which she was featured in the newspaper. This led to her family finding out about her career as a boxer. This, along with her love for boxing caused her father to give her his whole hearted support.

Mary Kom’s career is filled with numerous accomplishments, medals and records. Mary’s major achievements and records are:

  • The only female to win the World Amateur Boxing Championship six times
  • The only female boxer to have won a medal in all the first seven World Championships
  • The only boxer, either male or female, to win eight medals at the World Championships
  • The world’s No. 1 female light-flyweight by the International Boxing Association (amateur) [AIBA]
  • The only boxer to win the Asian Amateur Boxing Championship 6 times
  • The only female Indian boxer who qualified for the 2012 London Olympics
  • The first Indian female boxer to win a gold medal at the Asian Games (2014 Incheon Games)
  • The first female Indian boxer to win a gold medal at the Commonwealth Games (2018 Gold Coast Games)

Mary Kom received a Padma Shri in 2006, and a Padma Bhushan in 2013. On 25th April 2016, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha. In March 2017, she was appointed by the Indian Ministry of Youth and Sports as a national observer for boxing. On the 11th of December 2018, the Government of Manipur bestowed upon her the title of ‘Meethoi Leima’ (exceptional lady). She was awarded the Padma Shri in 2006 and the Padma Bhushan in 2013. On the 25th of January 2020, Mary Kom was awarded with the Padma Vibhushan. She was declared as a female representative of boxing’s athlete ambassadors’ group for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.  

Mahatma Gandhi Jayanti – International Day of Non-Violence

  • Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated on the 2nd October year on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi). The great freedom fighter of India is regarded as the ‘Father of the Nation’. Mahatma Gandhi is popularly known as ‘GandhiJi’ and ‘BapuJi’ in India and the world.
  • He was born on 2 Oct 1869 to his Hindu parents named Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai in Porbandar, Gujarat. This day is observed as national holiday across all the states and territories of Republic of India. It is also one of 3 official national holidays of India which are 26 January (Republic Day) and 15 August (Independence Day) declared as public holidays.
  • On this national day, all the Govt. offices, banking, and postal services (excluding the emerging services) are normally closed to remember the great the son of Mother India. Private companies mark as holiday with opening of emergency services like medical, health care, and transport service for urgent needs of the public. However, most of the school, college, university and education institutes organise essay completion, quiz, public debate related on life and history of Mahatma Gandhi. There are cultural functions from the Govt. and private organizations, TV Channels and media circles to celebrate the learning and quotes by Gandhiji.

International Day of Non-Violence by the United Nations

Vande Mataram, Jai Hind and Satyamev Jayate’ 

On 15 June 2007, the United Nations General Assembly announced by adopted a resolution which declared that 2 October will be observed as the International Day of Non-Violence in the world. On this day, there are so many public debates arranged by the United Nations offices in various cities of the world.

In India, Gandhi Jayanti official celebration starts with a prayer services at Raj Ghat, Gandhi’s memorial (his cremated place) in New Delhi. National slogans like ‘Vande Mataram, Jai Hind and Satyamev Jayate’ are given with prayer meetings, commemorative ceremonies in different cities by local government institutions and educational institutions and political parties. Favourite painting competitions are conducted among the children with prizes given for projects in schools for peace, non-violence. A Hindu devotional song “Raghupathi Raghava Rajaram” is usually sung in his memory which Gandhi’s favourite Bhajan of spiritual.

People lighting candles and offering flowers on Gandhi’s statue or photo in all parts of India. Remembering his patriotic and philosophy which inspires all the Indian freedom for Independence of India from the British. Awards are given to important personalities for glorifying non-violence and peace of Gandhi’s ideology. There are 3 most important places of Mahatma Gandhi. Please travel the following historical places which explore you more about the life of Mahatma Gandhi.

  • Sabarmati Asharm – The place of the Gandhi’s most of the life living.
    Martyr’s Column at Gandhi Smriti in Delhi – Here Gandhi was shot down.
    Raj Ghat on banks of river Yamuna in Delhi – The place of his cremation.


Find out these incredible hacks that can save your party day!

Wishing to attend a party with a bright face, but no time to get ready. It is a big problem for us as we are not able to put makeup on our dull skin. Don’t worry! Check out these cheapest and easiest hacks that can bring instant brightness to your face without any harm. Also, these hacks are time-saving.

Coffee scrub:

Coffee powder essentially stays in our kitchen is our hero for this hack. Take two spoons of coffee powder and mix it with two spoons of powdered sugar. Now add coconut oil a little to make a paste with it.

That’s it! Now apply it to your face and neck. Scrub it with your hands. Then give a gentle massage to your face and leave it for ten minutes. Now wash your face with gentle soap and pat your face with a soft towel.

Now you can see your face brighter than before. This hack is suitable for dry skin people they can try it without worries.

Coffee Scrub
Coffee Scrub

Curd mask:

This hack is suitable for moist skin people. Take three spoons of curd and add a spoon of turmeric powder. Mix it with a tablespoon of lemon juice. That’s it! Now apply it to your face and neck. Leave it for ten minutes. Now wash your face with gentle soap and pat your face with a soft towel.

Now you can see your face brighter than before.

Curd mask
Curd mask

As you tried these hacks you can see your bright glowing face where your skin is fresh ready for makeup. I’m sure you’ll love these hacks as they give amazing results and are time-saving.


-Aastha Joshi

Gerda Lerner was bornin 30 April 1920 in Austria. She was Austrian born American historian and a women’s history author. Apart from scholarly publication she wrote numerous poems, fiction, screenplays, theater pieces and an autobiography. She also served as the president of organization of American historians from 1980 to 1981. She was also appointed as the history professor of Robinson Edward in Wisconsin until retiring. She was the founder of women’s history and in 1963 while she was still an undergraduate she taught “Great women’s in American history” which is considered as the first regular course for women in the field of women’s history. She played a key role in development of the curricula of the women’s history and formation of degree programs in women’s history at sarah Lawrence college and Wisconsin university were she also launched PH.D programe. Gerda Lerner was the first child of her parents and she had younger sister. She mentioned that as a child she has strained relationships. In 1938 at the time of anti-Nazi resistance Gerda got involved in it, because of which she and her mother were behind the bars and occupied the cell for 6weeks.In 1939 she immigrated to America on scholarship of bobby Jensen, her socialist fiance. Her marriage with Jensen did not work efficiently after she met carl Lerner who was a theater director. In 1951, Gerda Lerner collaborated with poet Eve Merriam on a musical, The Singing of Women. Her novel No Farewell was published in 1955. In the early 1960s, Lerner and her husband co authored the screenplay of the film Black Like Me, based on the book by white journalist John Howard Griffin. In 1966, Lerner became a founding member of National Organisation for Women.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Lerner published scholarly books and articles that helped establish women’s history as a recognized field of study. Her 1969article “The Lady and the Mill Girl: Changes in the Status of Women in the Age of Jackson”, published in the journal American studies, was an early and influential example of class analysis in women’s history. She was among the first to bring a consciously feminist notion to the study of history. In 1979, Lerner chaired The Women’s History Institute,

a fifteen-day conference at sarah college. It was attended by leaders of national organizations for women and girls


1. Black Women in White America,documentary

2. The Female Experience

3. Creation of patriarchy

4. Fireweed: A political autobiography

5. Creation of feminist consciousness

She died on January 2 2013 in Wisconsin at the age of 92.


-Aastha Joshi

The last 50 years have seen rapid growth in population, urbanization and human Consumption resulting in usage of most of the earth’s resources to an extreme level. A recent report by WWF states that the population size of mammals, reptiles, fishes, birds and amphibians have decreased by 68 percent on a average from 1970 to 2016, which makes us astonished about the biodiversity we have lost. The report pinpoint’s this biodiversity loss to a variety of factors, but mainly land-use change,particularly the conversion of habitats, like forests, grasslands and mangroves, into agricultural systems. Animals like sharks and seahorses are significantly affected by the illegal wildlife trade, and pangolins are critically endangered because of it. It has been found that the sixth mass extinction of wildlife on Earth is accelerating. More than 500 species of land animals are on the brink of extinction and are likely to be lost within 20 years. The species that are endangered will go extinct whereas the species that are readily available will fall into endangered category. Without such harsh actions of humans on the environment this loss of biodiversity would have taken thousands of years. The living planet report 2020 shows that population sizes in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced the highest decline, at 94%, while globally, freshwater species have been disproportionately impacted, declining 84% of average. Humans have been openly criticised for using up the earths resources and not giving them time to replenish. Since the industrial revolution, human activities have increasingly destroyed and degraded forests, grasslands, wetlands and other important ecosystems. local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are disappearing. The best example to it is crows and pigeons, early generations have seen the being on their rooftops but now days we can hardly find some around us. Several wildlife conservation techniques have now been adapted by the mankind to tackle this loss of biodiversity and maintain an ecological balance. Many wildlife centuries and biosphere reserves have been made to provide a natural habitat to these endangered species as the loss of natural habitat has been reported one of the major reasons for the loss of these species. The alarming ratios of decrease in the species has made the people around globe a little more concerned. Several projects have been initiated by the counties and also at the global level to converse these species and stop them from getting extinct. Harsh treatment to animals have strongly been prohibited, also hunting has now came in the negative light and strict actions are taken upon people practicing it without the permission of government. All on the world Biosphere reserves have been created to promote the well being of these animals and providing them a secured environment as well as a habitat that is originally meant for them. Humans have created a ruckus all over the earth disturbing the balance around and lifestyle of the species. If optimal measures are not taken at the right time these acts of humans can have a disastrous impact on them itself.

Evil of Corruption

Corruption is the abuse of public or private office for personal or political gain, and it is linked to fraud, tax evasion and money laundering.

Corruption in India is an issue which affects the economy of central, state and local government agencies in many ways. Corruption is blamed for stunting the economy of India. A study conducted by Transparency International in 2005 recorded that more than 62% of Indians had at some point or another paid a bribe to a public official to get a job done. In 2008, another report showed that about 50% of Indians ha first hand experience of paying bribes or using contacts to get services performed by public offices, however, in 2020 their Corruption Perceptions Index ranked the country 86th place out of 180, reflecting steady decline in perception of corruption among people.

The largest contributors to corruption are entitlement programs and social spending schemes enacted by the Indian Government. For Example include the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employments Guarantee Act and the National Rural Health Mission. Other areas of corruption include India’s trucking industry which focused to pay billions of rupees in bribes annually to numerous regulatory and police stops on interstate highways.


The causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations, complicated tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly of government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant variations in the level of corruption and in the government’s efforts to reduce corruption across India.

Black Money

Black money refers to money that is not fully or legitimately the property of the owner. A government white paper on black money in India suggest two possible sources of black money in India, the first includes activities not permitted by the law, such as crime, drug trade, terrorism and corruption, all of which are illegal in India and secondly, wealth that may have been generated through lawful activity but accumulated by failure to declare income and pay taxes. Some of this black money ends up in illicit, such as deposits in tax haven countries.

Domestic black money

India companies are have been reported to misuse public trusts for money laundering. India has no centralized repository like the registrar of companies for corporate’s of information on public trusts.

  • Gold purchases-In Gujarat, Delhi and many other major cities, sales of gold increased on 9 November, with an increased 20% to 30% premium surging the price as much as Rs.45,000 from the ruling price of Rs.31,900 per 10 grams.
  • Donations-Authorities of Sri Jalakanteshwarar temple at Vellore discovered cash worth Rs. 4.4 million from the temple.
  • Multiple bank transactions-There have also been reports of people circumventing the restrictions imposed on exchange transactions and attempting to convert black money into white by making multiple transactions at different bank branches. People were also getting rid of large amounts of banned currency by sending people in groups to exchange their money at banks. In response, the government announced that it would start making customers with indelible link. This was in addition to other measures proposed to ensure that the exchange transactions are carried out only once, by each person. On 17 November, the government reduced the exchange amount Rs.2,000 to discourage attempts to convert black money into legitimate money
  • Municipal and local tax payments-As the use of the demonetized notes had been allowed by the government for the payment of municipal and local body taxes, leading to people using the demonetized rs.500 and Rs.1000 notes to pay large amounts on outstanding and advance taxes. As a result, revenue collections of the local civic bodies jumped. the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation reported collecting about Rs.1.6 billion in cash payments of outstanding and advance taxes within 4 days.

Efforts on corruption

However, just as elsewhere in the word, the negative effects of corruption are the same, it reduces foreign direct and domestic investments, increases in-quality and poverty, raises the number of freeloaders in the economy, distorts and exploits public investments and reduce public revenues.

Survival Guide For Distance Learning Education

Computers have provided students and teachers with a plethora of new opportunities in recent years. Technology has progressed beyond books and chalkboards. Every day, more computers are being introduced into schools. With the world becoming more computerized, it is more important than ever to teach people how to use technology. Learning for kids is not only more fascinating, but also more enjoyable, thanks to the modern technologies that teachers employ. The Internet has made a huge difference in schooling. We can now take lessons online from hundreds of miles away while yet feeling like we are in the classroom thanks to the Internet.

Learning can be a difficult task for anyone who wishes to broaden their horizons. Learning has entered a new era with the help of online schools, which is quickly expanding. Secondary education is now available online for individuals who wish to earn their degree. For some pupils, this may not be the best schooling, but for others, it is ideal. To maximize the benefits of online college, a student in an online school must learn to apply his or her educational abilities and tools.

Goal-Setting and Goal-Achievement

Creating an action plan is the first step in doing anything significant. This action plan will assist any student in achieving his or her objectives. This strategy is just a set of objectives. Short-term and long-term attainable goals should be established in order to demonstrate the student’s progress. The long-term goal would be considered the action plan’s final result. Although a student may have numerous long-term goals, it is critical that each long-term goal has its own plan. Short-term goals should serve as stepping stones toward the achievement of the major long-term goal. Short-term goals should also be attainable in order to help the student gain confidence and demonstrate progress. Setting and achieving goals will be extremely vital throughout one’s online learning journey.

Retrieval technique

Retrieval technique entails bringing knowledge from memory to mind. Students do this when they take practice tests or quizzes, but it can also happen in other ways. Students can, for example, jot down what they remember on a blank sheet of paper or even sketch ideas. The important thing is that they should recall the knowledge from memory. So, while duplicating one’s notes would be ineffective, attempting to summarize one’s notes from memory would be extremely valuable. Students do not need to recall everything and can use their notes or course materials to fill up any gaps following retrieval.

Using Time Efficiently

Time is a valuable commodity. Each kid has an own learning style. It is critical to understand each student’s personality and learning style in order to maximize each student’s abilities. Participating in Discussion Questions and speaking with one another allows each student to evaluate who is the greatest at learning in each type. People with the personality styles of organizer, adventurer, giver, and thinker fall into this category.


Elaboration entails posing “how” and “why” questions regarding a certain issue and then attempting to find answers. Students understand and learn more when they try to describe and explain how and why things work. Students can also apply the themes to their own life, or compare and contrast two topics to see how they are similar and different. This method can be assigned to a single student or a group of pupils. Students can use elaboration in online discussion boards or virtual groups via video chat in a distance environment.


What do millennials want?

The answer seems to be love. But the task of a millennial finding love is fraught with ambiguity

By “What do millennials want?” is a lament that has echoed for the past decade. “Millennials” is a word to indicate the generation that grew up with the Internet, with the luxury of access to information, but a dearth of attention to consume it, the generation that is called too sensitive (you’re telling me I can’tcall them mannequins? Womanaquinns sounds weird!), yet too entitled. It’s the one flouting conventions of pairing off into couples, having babies at the time deemed appropriate by dadima, and (thankfully) acknowledging that sexuality is not binary, but a spectrum. For a group of people that actively defy classification — what do millennials want?

At the risk of sounding cliched (a phrase that is always followed by a resounding cliche), we all want the same thing as the generations before us — love. It’s an easy cliche to indulge in because love is such a catch-all term. It means a myriad of things to different people and, for that same reason, sometimes ends up meaning nothing to everyone.

The task of being a millennial finding ‘love’ in 21st century India is one fraught with ambiguity. If anything, it is the defining quality of this generation. It manifests itself in everything — our films teach us that ‘gusse se nahi, pyaar se darr lagta hai’ (we don’t fear anger, but love) and our news channels teach us that if we hold hands in public we might have to spend the night in jail. Families police our childhoods into reductive gender roles, telling us not to talk to strangers, but have no qualms shoving us into the arms of strangers when they think our age is right. The revelations of the #MeToo movement have shaken the foundations of what gender behaviours will look like in the future. Embodying the millennial paradox, we trawl the Internet looking for love in dating and marriage sites, and yet only a minority of us marry outside our castes and social circles. Millennial Indians have to straddle the line between ghosting and gotras and in it we have to find the definition of love as it might feel right to us.

And here’s a little secret — no generation ever knows what they want till they have it or have just lost it. Everything will be clearer in retrospect, when think tanks classify the generation that detests classification, but till then we have our beloved ambiguity, we have trial-and-error, we have an expanded vocabulary of what love might mean, an evolving world that’s (slowly) accommodating the spectrum of love and sexuality.

When the opportunity to write this column came along I wondered if there was the need for a heterosexual woman’s point of view. My experiences will only be able to reflect the view of an upper caste, upper class, urban, privileged woman. How would I be able to encompass the vastness of the experience of love? Maybe not knowing is why I might make a decent millennial columnist? While I promise that subsequent columns will have humiliating (and possibly hilarious) anecdotes from my personal love life, I hope that you will know that my inbox and heart is always open, to share in your ambiguity about love — for now, that’s what this millennial wants.


Emerging academics

There are so many academic studies introduced in this emerging world. The value for these new studies is great and respectful. Some new academic studies include Artificial intelligence, Machine learning, Deep learning, Cloud computing, and so on. Though the demand for studying these is less among students earlier, it attracts students who are interested in that field. The moment people realize about emerging technologies chooses to study in these fields.

New Technologies
New Technologies

Blooming Fields

Since these studies involve the development in science and the world, software industries are interested to show their talent among their competitors. So, this increases the search for talented students to work with them. Therefore it creates large employment opportunities in these fields. So, we can mark these as a blooming fields.

Awareness among students and parents

Also, due to the pandemic situation right now, the internet discovered many students interested in these fields. Many inventions and discoveries have been made by students to help this world. Thereby it enhances the academic and leadership potential of the students. This shows people’s awareness about the new academic fields.

In India, many new courses and streams have been introduced in colleges and schools to develop the standard in education. Also, awareness about these courses is being made among students by government and industry peoples. 

Online class
Online Class

Due to the pandemic situation, students attend online classes which also made students think about the necessity of new technologies and the demand for these technologies. Since new streams are introduced in colleges, some parents who understood the real demand are interested to join their children to enlighten their knowledge.

 Hereby, we can conclude that the dynamics for emerging academics are changing in developing countries.


Google is an American company that is famous for providing information and many other services through the Internet all over the world.

Currently the owner (CEO) of Google is an Indian named Sundar Pichai who is an Indian-American business executive. He is Alphabet Inc. And its subsidiary is the CEO of Google. He is 49 years old and he was elected CEO of Google in 2015. Pichai Sundararajan was born on 12 July 1972 in Madras. He was originally an Indian citizen but was later granted US citizenship after being hired by Google.Now for many years Pichai lives in America with his family but his parents live in India only. His parents are very proud of his success.

His education

Pichai completed his schooling at Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, a Central Board of Secondary Education school in Ashok Nagar, Chennai and completed class XII from Vana Vani School, IIT Madras. Pichai had obtained a degree in Metallurgical Engineering from IIT Kharangpur CB Tech. After which he went to Stanford University for his further studies.After receiving his MS from Stanford University, he had an MBA from the University of Pennsylvania where he was named a Siebel Scholar and Palmer Scholar, respectively. Pichai was very interested in studies from the beginning.

And the result of that interest is in front of the entire nation today. Due to the interest in his studies, he has achieved this success today and his name is in the whole country.At an early age Pichai displayed an interest in technology and an exceptional memory, particularly for telephone numbers. In December 2017, Pichai was a speaker at the World Internet Conference in China, where he said that “Google” does a lot to help Chinese companies. There are many small and medium-sized businesses in China that take advantage of Google.Getting the products in many other countries outside China. Pichai was reportedly aggressively pursued for employment by microblogging service Twitter in 2021, and in 2014 he was seen as a potential CEO of Microsoft, but in both cases he was older than Google to stay with. Financial packages were given. He has received many awards throughout his life. Then after that Sundar Pichai became the owner of Google

His success

Pichai was named one of Time magazine’s 100 Most Influential People in 2016 and 2020. At the same time ensuring its continued growth is a huge responsibility.When asked what he does to get results in meetings, he said that he tries to involve people in the conversation so that everyone can participate. If the meetings are not virtual, he actually goes around the table one by one, and asks people to clearly state their position, to make sure the introverts in the meeting have opinions, perspectives, and attitudes. The stands are brought to the front.

His life

Pichai joined Google in 2004, where he led product management and innovation efforts for a group of Google’s client software products, including Google Chrome. In addition, he oversaw the development of other applications such as Gmail and Google Maps. In 2010, Pichai also announced the open-sourcing of the new video codec VP8 by Google and introduced a new video format, Web M. Chromebook was released in 2012.In 2013, Pichai added Android to the list of Google products he had visited.

His mother, Lakshmi, was a stenographer, and his father, Regunath Pichai, was an electrical engineer in the British conglomerate GEC. Pichai is married to Anjali Pichai, an Indian chemical engineer currently working as a business operations manager at Intuit, a software company, and they have two children.His daughter also works in Google. His recreational interests include cricket and football. Google’s owner Pichai is an American citizen but he says that he has a lot of love for India and India will always be close to his heart. Pichai is heavily inspired by the culture of India.Because he was born in Madras, he did not know how to speak Hindi, he speaks Tamil and English very well, he had learned some words of Hindi during his college days, due to which he was very interested in Hindi language but while living in America He prefers to speak English only.