Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose – A Born Leader

It is the story of a young dreamer that tells the saga of consciousness, struggle and success in every eye; one who has the power to rip the ground with his arms; one who talks about making a hole in the sky; one who is anxious to achieve his goals; one who does not accept anything for free; and if he wants freedom, he is ready to spill his blood.

 

Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as “Netaji”, a great militant, freedom fighter and patriot was born at Cuttack, Orissa on January 23, 1897 to Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. Janakinath was a well- known lawyer. Prabhavati Devi was a religious and God-fearing woman.He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda’s teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. Subhash Chandra was a brilliant student from the very beginning and was first in the merit list of successful students in the matriculation examination.Bose did his graduation from Presidency College, Kolkata. He went to England in September 1919 for higher studies. He was selected for the Indian Civil Service but returned to India without completing his training to take part in the freedom struggle.

Bose’s selfless contribution to India’s Independence Movement and organizing and leading the Indian National Army is indispensable. His struggle of Independence was highlighted during the Civil Disobedience Movement for which he had even been arrested. In fact, he was imprisoned 11 times for his ideologies and the use of force against the British. Bose was elected the president of the Indian National Congress twice but he resigned from the post as he was against the congress internal and foreign policy.  Subhash Chandra favored complete freedom of India at the earliest while the Congress was in favor of freedom in phases in the beginning. He was also against India’s joining the Second World War as an ally of the British. This led to differences with Gandhiji, and so he resigned from the President-ship of the Congress and set up the Forward Block.Soon, he left the party and went out of the country seeking an alliance with other countries to fight against British forces. He earned the support of the Japanese and they agreed to help him in forming the Indian national army in Southeast Asia. Later on, he became the commander of the INA. The Indian National Army attacked the North-eastern parts of India. This attack took place under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose and he was even successful in acquiring a few portions of the north-eastern parts of India. Unfortunately, the surrender of the Japanese forced him to withdraw and call off the war.

Subhash Chandra launched an all-India anti-British Campaign in September, 1939. He was arrested in July, 1940. Later he was put under house-arrest, but then he disappeared in the guise of a Pa than and reached Berlin, Germany in November, 1941.He reached Malaya and established Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauz by recruiting Indian prisoners of war. In June, 1943, he visited Japan to have support of the Japanese government in the freedom struggle of India. On October 21, 1943, he became the commander of the Indian National Army in Singapore and began his military struggle against the British. He also established the Provisional Government of Free India there. In December, 1943 he occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In December 1944 the Indian National Army crossed the Burma-India Border and reached Kohima and then Imphal. But the surrender of the Japanese forced him to withdraw and call off the war. It is believed that he lost his life in a plane-crash on August 18, 1945 at the Taihoku airport, Formosa. Subhash Chandra was one of the greatest freedom-fighters and patriots and the Pride of Bengal. He became a legend in his life-time as a great leader, fiery orator and organizer. He was sent to prison eleven times during 1920-1941.

After his mysterious disappearance from his house, where he was under arrest, he appeared in Kabul and again disappeared until he surfaced in Germany. From there he started publishing and broadcasting on air to help the struggle for freedom.He was promised help in his armed struggle by Germany. Then he traveled to Japan facing all the dangers posed by the Second World War. He became the commander of the Indian National Army and freed the islands of Andaman and Nicobar and renamed them as Swaraj and Saheed Islands.”Delhi Chalo” (March Delhi) becomes the battle cry of the Indian National Army and they were soon across the Indian border in Manipur but then the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the surrender of the Japanese army changed the whole course of events. Therefore, he decided to return to Tokyo to decide his further course of action, but unfortunately, his plane crashed near Taipei and he achieved martyrdom at the young age of 48 years. But the country took the news of his death with disbelief and still there are thousands and thousands of Indians who believe that he is alive.

In popular Media,

  • In 2004, Shyam Benegal directed the biographical film, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero depicting his life in Nazi Germany (1941–1943), in Japanese-occupied Asia (1943–1945) and the events leading to the formation of Azad Hind Fauj. The film received critical acclaim at the BFI London Film Festival, and has garnered the National Film Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration, and the National Film Award for Best Production Design for that year .
  • In 2017, ALTBalaji and BIG Synergy Media, released a 9-episode web series, Bose: Dead/Alive, created by Ekta Kapoor, a dramatized version of the book India’s Biggest Cover-up written by Anuj Dhar, which starred Bollywood actor Rajkummar Rao as Subhas Chandra Bose and Anna Ador as Emilie Schenkl. The series was praised by both audience and critics, for its plot, performance and production design.
  • Gumnaami is an 2019 Indian Bengali mystery film directed by Srijit Mukherji, which deals with Netaji’s death mystery, based on the Mukherjee Commission.

The Ministry of railways of India renamed one of the oldest running trains of India, Kalka Mail as Netaji Express from 23 January 2021.

Netaji was a great adventurer as well. His military exploits, unmatched patriotism and exemplary bravery have made him a role model for the young men and women of India. He still lives within our hearts and minds and works as a leading light and source of inspiration.

“By freedom I mean all-round freedom, i.e. freedom for the individual as well as for the society; freedom for the rich as well as for the poor; freedom for men as well as for women; freedom for all individuals and for all classes.” -Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

“We should have but one desire today – the desire to die so that India may live – the desire to face a martyr’s death, so that the path to freedom may be paved with the martyr’s blood”. -Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Netaji was a true Inspiration and has enlighten our world with his Ideologies & Beliefs. He is a Forever Legend and we all are eternally in debt to him for his sacrifice towards our motherland. He will remain in our hearts and thus will lead as an immortal life forever.

Swami Vivekananda – An Eternal Youth

A western admirer once described Swami Vivekananda as being ‘young in years but eternal in wisdom’. if you accept this ecstatic statement at this face value, it establishes the relevance of Swami Vivekananda’s philosophy today.

Vivekananda, original name Narendranath Datta, Datta also spelled Dutt, (born January 12, 1863, Calcutta (now Kolkata) died July 4, 1902, near Calcutta), is a Hindu spiritual leader and reformer in India who attempted to combine Indian spirituality with Western material progress, maintaining that the two supplemented and complemented one another. At the age of eight in 1871, Vivekananda was enrolled at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s Institution and later at the Presidency College in Calcutta. He was exposed to Western philosophy, Christianity, and science. He had an interest in music both instrumental as well as vocal. He was active in sports, gymnastics, wrestling, and bodybuilding. He was also fond of reading and till the time he had completed his graduation from the college he had acquired a vast knowledge of various subjects

Swami Vivekananda’s inspiring personality was well known both in India and in America during the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth. The unknown monk of India suddenly leapt into fame at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago in 1893, at which he represented Hinduism. His vast knowledge of Eastern and Western culture as well as his deep spiritual insight, fervid eloquence, brilliant conversation, broad human sympathy, colorful personality, and handsome figure made an irresistible appeal to the many types of Americans who came in contact with him. People who saw or heard Vivekananda even once still cherish his memory after a lapse of more than half a century.

Man-making — His mission

Swami Vivekananda’s relevance depends not on the nature of the problems we face but on the spirit with those problems have to be tackled. his stress on man himself, for, given the right kind of man, no problem need be daunting. ‘Man-making is my mission’, he used to say. Indeed, a country’s future depends upon its people-how good, intelligent and capable they are.

Character-building through Education

Character building is one of the main and fundamental objectives of education. In ancient times, education was for the formation of character.He considered character building to be the most important objective of education. He believed that religious, character and moral qualities should be inculcated in the students through education. It was his academic opinion and plan to develop the characteristic qualities in the students from the Upanayan Adi Sanskars at the beginning of the education and to reach the full
level through the entire code of conduct of Brahmacharyashram. To him, Man Acharya means a Guru whose conduct remains to be followed by all the disciples. Acharya means a living embodiment of the code of ethics. The Acharya teaches the children the rituals of Sandhya, Upasana, Snan, Achaman, Pranayama etc. The life and thoughts of the Acharya in the Gurukul remain a great source of character building of the disciples. The working people, who had long been neglected and had no access to education, should now receive special attention so that they could quickly overcome their initial drawbacks. He wanted education to reach out to them rather than they come to education. Swamiji believes that the contribution of parents in shaping the character of a child is
especially important. The work of the Acharya proceeds on its foundation. Parents as well as principals have a major role to play in the character building of the disciple – in the training of body, mind and soul.

The natural tendency of Vivekananda’s mind, like that of his Master, Ramakrishna, was to soar above the world and forget itself in contemplation of the Absolute. But another part of his personality bled at the sight of human suffering in East and West alike. It might appear that his mind seldom found a point of rest in its oscillation between contemplation of God and service to man. Be that as it may, he chose, in obedience to a higher call, service to man as his mission on earth; and this choice has endeared him to people in the West, Americans in particular.

In the course of a short life of thirty-nine years (1863-1902), of which only ten were devoted to public activities-and those, too, in the midst of acute physical suffering-he left for posterity his four classics: Jnana-Yoga, Bhaji-Yoga, Karma-Yoga, and Raja-Yoga, all of which are outstanding treatises on Hindu philosophy. Swami Vivekananda founded Ramakrishna Mission on 1 May 1897 for one’s own salvation and for the welfare of the world. In addition, he delivered innumerable lectures, wrote inspired letters in his own hand to his many friends and disciples, composed numerous poems, and acted as spiritual guide to the many seekers, who came to him for instruction. He also organized the Ramakrishna Order of monks, which is the most outstanding religious organization of modern India. It is devoted to the propagation of the Hindu spiritual culture not only in the Swami’s native land, but also in America and in other parts of the world.

Swami Vivekananda thus gave a spiritual basis to Indian nationalism. Vivekananda was an avatara , a divinely inspired and God-appointed leader, not only for Man in India, but also for the whole of humanity in the present age. In conclusion, Vivekananda was the most eminent figure among the democratic patriots of India.

A Comparative study of the IOS Vs Android OS of the Mobile Platform – Of the Latest Versions

Picture Source : https://medium.com/mobile-app-development-publication/android-vs-ios-the-battle-of-security-speed-and-storage-8681f25144f2

ANDROID AS AN OPERATING SYSTEM


The android operating system is a mobile operating system that was
developed by Google(GOOGLE)to be primarily used for touch screen
devices, cellphones, and tablets. Its design lets users manipulate the
mobile devices intuitively, with finger movements that mirror common
motions, such as pinching, swiping, and tapping. Google also employs
Android software in televisions, cars, and wristwatches–each of which
is fitted with a unique user interface.

IOS AS AN OPERATING SYSTEM

OS responds to the user’s touch–allowing you touch the screen to
open a program, pinch your fingers together to minimize or enlarge
image, or swipe your finger across the screen to change pages.
It comes with the Safari web browser for internet use and iPod
application for playing music and Apple’s Mail for managing your emails.
Apple products have a very strong brand following, they tend to be the
most expensive but are also well-engineered. They do have drawbacks
however, they do not support a type of software called Flash which lots
of internet sites use to show video and you are locked into the Apple
Brand because the operating system only works on Apple products.

Comparison

In this world, where technology is growing at a very rapid speed. Almost every person right now is having a smartphone in their hands. Talking more about smartphones, we know that there are two biggest competitors in the OS (Operating System) market, mainly Android and IOS. Androids are widely used on phones and tablets, and even on televisions allowing users to be free in their choice. The iOS system, on the contrary, is limited to Apple devices, having no customization. The range of iOS devices is more premium-class iPhones, which is not affordable for everybody. Androids are compatible with any gadget of the price spectrum which makes them more liked among common people. Firstly, both operating systems have a lot in common: the zoom movements, tapping, swiping, a lock screen, similar to the PC’s desktop. That is why switching from one to another makes no problems, except that the iOS system has the most used icons on the home screen, while Androids allow users to set widgets, email, weather, etc. Secondly, software gets outdated every second, so it needs to be renewed regularly. The best results in updating security patches, for instance, belong to the iOS system. Around 90% of Apple devices are powered by the latest software versions whereas only high-end Android devices have the latest software. Both mobile operating systems have decent records and safeguards when it comes to security, but Android, being more open, has more vectors for malware to enter your phone. In particular, apps are more prone to bring trouble in Android, especially if you install from an alternative app store. Whereas in IOS it is not possible to install any apps outside of the Appstore. In the end, we can conclude that IOS is Better than Android in security, software, and privacy aspects. And android is better than IOS in customization and price aspects.

Rabi & Kharif Crops

Definition of Rabi Crop

Rabi crops are also referred to as Winter crops. They grow during the winter season which is between October and March. The term ‘Rabi’ means spring. Thus, as you know, the harvesting time for Rabi crops happens during the spring season. Unlike Kharif crops, Rabi crops do not need a lot of water. Thus, they make do with routine water irrigation in order to flourish.

 For instance, they include Wheat, Barley, Pulses, Gram, and more. In addition, farmers also sow seeds of Mustard, Cumin, Sunflower, Rapeseed, and more during this season.

Rabi Crops

Definition of Kharif Crop

Kharif Crops grow during the rainy season which is between June and October. Thus, we also refer to them as Monsoon crops. Unlike Rabi crops, these crops require water in abundance in order to grow. That is why the farmers sow them during the onset of monsoon. Consequently, they harvest them at the end of September or in October. However, these crops are totally dependent on the rainfall’s pattern and timing. Thus, some states sow them a bit early than other states depending on the arrival of monsoon.

For instance, Rice, Sugarcane, Cotton, Pulses, Bajra, and more are examples of these crops.

Kharif Crop

Water Requirements of Rabi & Kharif crops in Different Seasons of India

Water is one of the most important inputs essential for the production of crops. Hence crop planning should be done considering as per (Water requirement and Availability of water).

Water Requirements – The water requirement of crops is that quantity of water required by the crops within a given period of time for their maturity and it includes losses due to evapotranspiration plus the unavoidable losses during the application of water and water required for special operations such as land preparation, and leaching. The quantity of water needed for irrigation on different soil types per meter depth of soil profile at 50% of soil moisture availability is as follows – Sandy soils (25-50 mm), Sandy-loam (45-80 mm), Loam (70-110 mm), Clay-loam (80-120 mm) and Heavy clay (100-140 mm).

The water requirement of different crops is given below-

Rice – The amount of water required for growing rice is varies widely under different conditions:-

[1000 – 1500 mm – Heavy soils high water table, Short duration variety, Kharif season].

[1500 – 2000 mm – Medium soils, Kharif or early spring season].

[2000 – 2500 mm – Light soils, Long duration varieties during Kharif, Medium duration varieties during summer].

Rice

Wheat – It requires about 4-5 times irrigation. The dwarf wheat needs more wetness and the optimum moisture range is from 100-60% of availability. For tall wheat the optimum-moisture range is from the field capacity to 50% of availability.

Wheat

Barley – About 2-3 times irrigation are adequate and the optimum soil moisture ranges from the field capacity to 40% of availability.

Barley

Maize – The optimum soil moisture range is from 100-60% of availability in the maximum root-zone, which extends from 40-60 cm on different soil types. In the northern parts 2-3 times irrigation are required before the onset of the monsoon. In Karnataka 2-5 times irrigation are necessary during Kharif and Rabi respectively. At Rajasthan 4 times irrigation (500 mm of water) are required during Kharif.

Maize

Sorghum and Other Millets – The optimum moisture range is from the field capacity to 40% of the availability. At boot stage and grain development, the water requirement is very important.

Sorghum
Types Of Millets

Pulses or Grain Legumes – When grown alone, 1 or 2 times irrigation would be beneficial. The grain legumes (gram, lentil, pea and Indian bean) are irrigated for 2 or 3 times during their growth.

Pulses

Oilseeds – The crops are generally grown under rain fed conditions. Groundnut – 8 to 10 times irrigation of about 50mm each are applied at 10-15 days interval during its growth period. Sunflower, Mustard and Linseeds are grown alone are mixed with cereals should receive 3 or 4 times irrigation during their growth.

Cotton – The optimum moisture range of soil moisture for the crop is from the field capacity to 20% of availability in 0-75 cm of the root-zone. Water requirements varied from 400-800 mm under different conditions and about 4-7 irrigation are required for cotton.

Cotton Plant

Jute – The optimum moisture regime is from the field capacity to 70% of availability in the maximum root-zone of the crop which can extend to about 45 cm of soil depth.

Carpets made of Jute

Sugarcane – The optimum soil moisture for sugarcane has been found to be 100-50% range of availability in the maximum root-zone, extending upto 50-75 cm in depth. In the north, the crop is planted during February-March and irrigated till the commencement of the monsoon.

Fresh sugarcane in garden.

Tobacco – For cigar, hookah and bidi, tobacco the optimum moisture regimes are from the field capacity to 70, 60 and 50% of the availability respectively. Cigar tobacco needs light and frequent irrigation during 4 months. For hookah tobacco, 12-13 times irrigation of 50 mm of water is required.

Tobacco Plants

Forage Crops – The optimum moisture range is from field capacity to about 75% of availability. Berseem requires about 20 times irrigation during its growth at intervals of about 20 days (December-January), 15 days (November-February-March) & 10 days (September-October-April). For Lucerne 1800 to 2000 mm of water require during the first year of growth.

Vegetables – The soil moisture should range between 70-80% of availability in the maximum root-zone. Potato needs water at intervals of 10-12 days. Onion and Garlic need very frequent irrigation about 3 weeks before maturity the irrigation is delayed to enhance the keeping quality of the bulb. Tomato needs irrigation at intervals of 10-12 days during summer and 15-20 days during winter. The optimum moisture regime is from 100-50% of the availability in case of cabbage and cauliflower. Water-melon and musk-melon need water at intervals of 8-10 days. Other crop of cucurbitaceae family needs irrigation at intervals of 10-12 days during summer.

Different types of Vegetables

Spices and Condiments – Important crops are turmeric, ginger, chillies, ajwan, cumin and coriander. Turmeric and ginger should be irrigated to maintain 100-60% of the available moisture in the maximum root-zone, the top 50 cm of the soil. Chillies should be irrigated to maintain 100-50% of the available moisture to about 60 cm in the soil. Coriander, cumin and ajwan need irrigation at intervals of 10-12 days on light soil and 15-20 days on heavy soils

Different types of Spices

Fruit-trees – For fruit trees soil moisture should be maintain in the range of 100-75% of availability. On the full development of the root-zone down to 75-90 cm, the crops may be irrigated when 2/3 times of the available moisture is depleted during blossoming, fruit settings are fruit enlargement. Papaya and banana needs irrigation at intervals of 8-10 days in a tropical climate. The date palm needs regular irrigation during flowering and fruiting to produce good yields.

Different Types of Fruits

Coffee – To irrigate coffee after the cessation of the monsoon rains during flowering to avoid flower shedding is of profitable.

Coffee & Coffee Beans

When the land does not receive any irrigation, the cultivator takes single crop in Kharif season on the available moisture in the soil. If the soil is heavy, a second crop in Rabi season after a short duration crop in Kharif season, but two seasonal or perennial crops is not beneficial. When irrigation becomes available the cropping plan can include heavy perennials like sugarcane and banana, light perennials like guava or orange, two seasonal crops like long staple cotton, chillies, turmeric etc. besides Kharif and Rabi seasonal crops and also follow double cropping such as groundnut green gram, black gram etc. Followed by wheat or rabbi Jowar, Kharif Jowar or cotton followed by wheat, gram or some vegetable to seasonal crop followed by summer groundnut or some vegetable crop.

The Railways

Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles (rolling stock) are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on sleepers (ties) set in ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as “slab track”, in which the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.

Rolling stock in a rail transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than rubber-tired road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars (carriages and wagons) can be coupled into longer trains. The operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives that either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their power, usually by diesel engines or, historically, steam engines. Most tracks are accompanied by a signaling system. Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency but is often less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport when lower traffic levels are considered.

Picture source: https://scroll.in/article/669579/the-long-history-of-indian-railways-told-through-images

Indian Railways

Indian Railways (IR) is a statutory body under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Railways, Government of India that operates India’s national railway system. It manages the fourth-largest railway network in the world by size, with a route length of 67,956 km (42,226 mi) as of 31 March 2020. 45,881 km (28,509 mi) or 71% of all the broad-gauge routes are electrified with 25 kV 50 Hz AC electric traction as of 1 April 2021.

In the fiscal year ending March 2020, Indian Railways carried 808.6 crores (8.086 billion) passengers and transported 121.23 crores (1.2123 billion) tonnes of freight. It runs 1 lakh (100,000) passenger trains daily, on both long-distance and suburban routes, covering 7,325 stations across India. Mail or Express trains, the most common types of trains, run at an average speed of 50.6 km/h (31.4 mph). Suburban EMUs run at an average speed of 37.5 km/h (23.3 mph). Ordinary passenger trains (incl. mixed) run at an average speed of 33.5 km/h (20.8 mph). The maximum speed of passenger trains varies, with the Gatimaan Express running at a peak speed of 160 km/h (99 mph).

In the freight segment, IR runs 8,479 trains daily. The average speed of freight trains is around 24 km/h (15 mph). The maximum speed of freight trains varies from 60–75 km/h (37–47 mph) depending on their axle load with ‘container special’ trains running at a peak speed of 100 km/h (62 mph).

The first railway proposals for India were made in Madras in 1832.

  • The country’s first transport train, Red Hill Railway (built by Arthur Cotton to transport granite for road-building), ran from Red Hills to the Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837. In 1845, the Godavari Dam Construction Railway was built by Cotton at Dowleswaram in Rajahmundry, to supply stone for the construction of a dam over the Godavari River. In 1851, the Solani Aqueduct Railway was built by Proby Cautley in Roorkee to transport construction materials for an aqueduct over the Solani River.
  • India’s first passenger train, operated by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and hauled by three steam locomotives (SahibSindh, and Sultan), ran for 34 kilometers (21 mi) with 400 people in 14 carriages on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge track between Bori Bunder (Mumbai) and Thane on 16 April 1853. The Thane viaducts, India’s first railway bridges, were built over the Thane creek when the Mumbai-Thane line was extended to Kalyan in May 1854. Eastern India’s first passenger train ran 39 km (24 mi) from Howrah, near Kolkata, to Hoogly on 15 August 1854. The first passenger train in South India ran 97 km (60 mi) from Royapuram-Veyasarapady (Madras) to Wallajabad (Arcot) on 1 July 1856.

Rivers of India

The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, as well as provide livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country.

Seven major rivers (Indus, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, Krishna and Mahanadi) along with their numerous tributaries make up the river system of India.

All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds;

  • The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges
  • Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India
  • Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India

Based on the topography, the river systems of India can be classified into four groups.

  • Himalayan Rivers
  • Deccan Rivers
  • Coastal Rivers
  • Rivers of the Inland Drainage Basin

The Himalayan Rivers – The Himalayan Rivers receive input from rain as well as snowmelt and glacier melt and, therefore, have continuous flow throughout the year. The main river systems in Himalayas are those of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna. The Indus rises near Mansarovar in Tibet. Flowing through Kashmir, it enters Pakistan and finally falls in the Arabian Sea near Karachi. Bhagirathi and Alakhnanda are two important rivers that originate in Garhwal Himalayas. . These join at Devprayag to form Ganga which is the most sacred river of India. This river traverses through Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal and thereafter enters Bangladesh. Yamuna River is an important tributary of Ganga and its own important tributaries are Chambal and Betwa. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet where it is known by the name Tsangpo. It enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and after traversing through Assam, enters Bangladesh. The combined Ganga-Brahmaputra River meets Meghna in Bangladesh and their huge volume of water flows into the Bay of Bengal.

The Deccan Rivers – The Rivers of Deccan can be further classified in two groups: west flowing rivers and east flowing rivers. The Narmada and the Tapi rivers flow westwards into Arabian Sea. The important east flowing rivers are the Brahmani, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Pennar, and the Cauvery. These rivers fall into the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi, rising in the state of Madhya Pradesh, is an important river in the state of Orissa. The Krishna rises in the Western Ghats and flows east into the Bay of Bengal. The Krishna is the third longest river in India. The source of the Cauvery is in the state of Karnataka and the river flows south eastward. The Narmada and the Tapi are the only major rivers that flow eastward into the Arabian Sea.

The Narmada rises in Madhya Pradesh and crosses the state, passing swiftly through a narrow valley between the Vindhya Range and spurs of the Satpura Range. It flows into the Gulf of Khambhat (or Cambay).

The Coastal RiversThere are numerous coastal rivers which are comparatively small. While only handful of such rivers drains into the sea near the deltas of east coast, there are as many as 600 such rivers on the west coast. The West Coast Rivers are important as they contain as much as 14% of the country’s water resources while draining only 3% of the land.

Rivers of the Inland Drainage Basin – The Rivers of the inland system, centred in western Rajasthan state, are few and frequently disappear in years of scant rainfall. A few rivers in Rajasthan do not drain into the sea. They drain into salt lakes or get lost in sands with no outlet to sea.

The rivers of India can be classified on the basis of origin and on the type of basin that they form.

On the basis of Origin: Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular Rivers.

Himalayan Rivers -The main Himalayan river systems are the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river systems. The Himalayan Rivers form large basins. Many rivers pass through the Himalayas. These deep valleys with steep rock sides were formed by the down – cutting of the river during the period of the Himalayan uplift. They perform intense erosional activity up the streams and carry huge load of sand and silt. In the plains, they form large meanders and a variety of depositional features like flood plains, river cliffs and levees. These rivers are perennial as they get water from the rainfall as well as the melting of ice. Nearly all of them create huge plains and are navigable over long distances of their course. These rivers are also harnessed in their upstream catchment area to generate hydroelectricity.

Peninsular Rivers – The main peninsular river systems include the Narmada, the Tapi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri and the Mahanadi river systems. The Peninsular Rivers flow through shallow valleys. A large number of them are seasonal as their flow is dependent on rainfall. The intensity of erosional activities is also comparatively low because of the gentler slope. The hard rock bed and lack of silt and sand does not allow any significant meandering. Many rivers therefore have straight and linear courses. These rivers provide huge opportunities for hydro-electric power.

The Indus River System – The Indus originates in the northern slopes of the Kailas range in Tibet near Lake Mansarovar. It follows a north-westerly course through Tibet. It enters Indian Territory in Jammu and Kashmir.

The main tributaries of the Indus in India are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej

  • Jhelum – The Jhelum originates in the south-eastern part of Kashmir, in a spring at Verinag.. It follows the Indo-Pakistan border flowing into the plains of Punjab, finally joining the Chenab at Trimmu.
  • Chenab – The Chenab originates from the confluence of two rivers, the Chandra and the Bhaga, which themselves originate from either side of the Bara Lacha Pass in Lahul. It is also known as the Chandrabhaga in Himachal Pradesh. It is further joined by the Ravi and the Sutlej in Pakistan.
  • Ravi – The Ravi originates near the Rohtang pass in the Kangra Himalayas and follows a north-westerly course. It flows as a part of the Indo-Pakistan border for some distance before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab River. The total length of the river is about 720 km.
  • Beas – The Beas originates in Beas Kund, lying near the Rohtang pass. It runs past Manali and Kulu, where its beautiful valley is known as the Kulu valley. It joins the Sutlej river near Harika, after being joined by a few tributaries. The total length of the river is 615 km.
  • Sutlej – The Sutlej originates from the Rakas Lake, which is connected to the Mansarovar Lake by a stream, in Tibet. Its flows in a north-westerly direction and enters Himachal Pradesh at the Shipki Pass, where it is joined by the Spiti river.  It turns west below Rupar and is later joined by the Beas. It enters Pakistan near Sulemanki, and is later joined by the Chenab. It has a total length of almost 1500 km.

The Narmada River SystemThe Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. It forms the traditional boundary between North India and South India, and is a total of 1,289 km long. Its total length through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat amounts to 1312 kilometres (815 miles), and it empties into the Arabian Sea in the Bharuch district of Gujarat.

The Tapi River System – The Tapi is a river of central India. It is one of the major rivers of peninsular India with the length of around 724 km, and only the Tapi River along with the Narmada River, and the Mahi River run from east to west. It rises in the eastern Satpura Range of southern Madhya Pradesh state emptying into the Gulf of Cambay of the Arabian Sea, in the State of Gujarat.

The Godavari River System – The river with second longest course within India, Godavari is often referred to as the Vriddh (Old) Ganga or the Dakshin (South) Ganga. The river is about 1,450 km (900 miles) long. It rises at Trimbakeshwar, near Nasik and Mumbai (formerly Bombay) in Maharashtra around 380 km distance from the Arabian Sea and empties into the Bay of Bengal. It is a seasonal river, widened during the monsoons and dried during the summers

The Krishna River System – The Krishna is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). It originates at Mahabaleswar in Maharashtra, passes through Sangli and meets the sea in the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh. The Krishna River flows through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Its most important tributary is the Tungabhadra River, which itself is formed by the Tunga and Bhadra rivers that originate in the Western Ghats.

The Kaveri River System – The Kaveri (also spelled Cauvery or Kaveri) is one of the great rivers of India and is considered sacred by the Hindus. This river is also called Dakshin Ganga. It flows generally south and east for around 765 km, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths. Its basin is estimated to be 27,700 square miles (71,700 km²), and it has many tributaries including Shimsha, Hemavati, Arkavathy, Kapila, Honnuhole, Lakshmana Tirtha, Kabini, Lokapavani, Bhavani, Noyyal and famous Amaravati.

The Mahanadi River System – The Mahanadi is a river of eastern India. The Mahanadi rises in the Satpura Range of central India, and flows east to the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi drains most of the state of Chhattisgarh and much of Orissa and also Jharkhand and Maharashtra. It has a length of about 860 km. Near the city of Sambalpur; a large dam – the Hirakud Dam – is built on the river.

RIVERS OF INDIA

Shillong

Wards Lake

Shillong is a hill station in the northeastern part of India and the capital of Meghalaya, which means “The Abode of Clouds”. It is the headquarters of the East Khasi Hills district. Shillong is the 330th most populous city in India with a population of 143,229 according to the 2011 census. It is said that the rolling hills around the town reminded the British of Scotland. Hence, they would also refer to it as the “Scotland of the East”.

Shillong has steadily grown in size since it was made the civil station of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills in 1864 by the British. In 1874, on the formation of Assam as the Chief Commissioner’s Province, it was chosen as the headquarters of the new administration because of its convenient location between the Brahmaputra and Surma valleys and more so because the climate of Shillong was much cooler than tropical India. Shillong remained the capital of undivided Assam until the creation of the new state of Meghalaya on 21 January 1972, when Shillong became the capital of Meghalaya, and Assam moved its capital to Dispur in Guwahati.

Shillong was capital for composite Assam during the British regime and later till a separate State of Meghalaya was formed. David Scott, the British civil servant of the East India Company, was the Agent of the Governor-General North East Frontier. During the First Anglo-Burmese War the British authorities felt the need for a road to connect Sylhet and Assam. The route was to traverse across the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. David Scott overcame the difficulties his administration faced from the opposition of the Khasi Syiems – their chiefs and people. Impressed by the favourable cool climate of Khasi Hills, they negotiated with the Syiem of Sohra in 1829 for a sanatorium for the British. 

Places to visit

SHILLONG PEAK

At a distance of 10 km from the city and at a height of 6449 ft (1965 m) above sea level, this is the highest point of Shillong. It offers a breathtaking panoramic view of the entire city, the Himalayas, its waterfalls as well as of the Bangladesh plains. A beautiful place to spend a day.

LADY HYDARI PARK

A very popular tourist spot in Shillong, the park is dedicated to the first lady of the province – Lady Hydari. This sprawling park, located in the heart of the city encompasses a wide variety of flora along with a mini zoo housing 73 species of birds and over 100 reptiles. The beautiful bed of flowers is the highlight of the park.

DAINTHLEN FALLS

Just before reaching Sohra, a road to the right leads one to the falls which are 5 km away. The waterfall derives its name from a Then or a snake of gigantic size which dwelt in a cave. Legend has it that the people destroyed the snake to rid themselves of its reign of terror. Adjacent to the very spot where the Thlen was slaughtered lies the Dainthlen Waterfalls. Natural rock carvings of the episode draw visitors to see the image of the Thlen, the symbol of greed, corruption, and evil.

Elephant Falls

Named after an Elephant like stone at its base, the Elephant Falls are amongst the most popular falls in the North-East, situated close to Shillong. It is a tourist attraction with three layers of the falls accessible from different vantage points.

Indian Culture

India is a country that gloats of a rich culture. The way of life of India alludes to an assortment of minor one of a kind societies. The way of life of India contains clothing, celebrations, dialects, religions, music, dance, food, and workmanship in India. Generally significant, Indian culture has been affected by a few unfamiliar societies since its commencement. Additionally, the historical backdrop of India’s way of life is a few centuries old.

As a matter of first importance, Indian beginning religions are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. These religions depend on karma and dharma. Besides, these four are called as Indian religions. Indian religions are a significant class of world religions alongside Abrahamic religions. Additionally, numerous unfamiliar religions are available in India also. These unfamiliar religions incorporate Abrahamic religions. The Abrahamic religions in India unquestionably are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Other than Abrahamic religions, Zoroastrianism and Bahá’í Faith are the other unfamiliar religions which exist in India. Subsequently, the presence of such countless assorted religions has brought about resilience and secularism in Indian culture.

Indian culture has been a motivation to numerous essayists. India is unquestionably an image of solidarity all throughout the planet. Indian culture is unquestionably exceptionally complicated. Moreover, the origination of Indian personality represents specific challenges. In any case, regardless of this, a normal Indian culture exists. The production of this average Indian culture results from some inside powers. Most importantly, these powers are a strong Constitution, general grown-up establishment, mainstream strategy, adaptable government structure, and so on Indian culture is portrayed by a severe social progression. Besides, Indian kids are shown their jobs and spot in the public eye since the beginning. Presumably, numerous Indians accept that divine beings and spirits play a part in deciding their life. Prior, customary Hindus were separated into dirtying and non-contaminating occupations. Presently, this distinction is declining. Indian culture is surely exceptionally different. Likewise, Indian kids learn and acclimatize in the distinctions. In ongoing many years, enormous changes have occurred in Indian culture. Most importantly, these progressions are female strengthening, westernization, a decay of odd notion, higher proficiency, further developed instruction, and so on

To summarize it, the way of life of India is probably the most established culture in the World. Most importantly, numerous Indians till adhere to the conventional Indian culture regardless of quick westernization. Indians have exhibited solid solidarity regardless of the variety among them. Solidarity in Diversity is a definitive mantra of Indian culture.

Happiness:)

Happiness is something which we can’t portray in words it must be felt from somebody’s demeanor of a grin. Moreover, bliss is a sign or distinguishing proof of good and prosperous life. Satisfaction is exceptionally easy to feel and hard to portray. In addition, joy comes from the inside and nobody can take your satisfaction.

Consistently we see and meet individuals who look glad from the outside yet where it counts they are broken and are dismal from within. For some individuals, cash is the fundamental driver of satisfaction or sadness. In any case, this isn’t right. Cash can purchase you food, sumptuous house, sound way of life workers, and a lot more offices however cash can’t purchase you bliss. What’s more, in the event that cash can purchase satisfaction, the rich would be the most joyful individual on the earth. However, we see an opposite picture of the rich as they are pitiful, unfortunate, restless, pushed, and experiencing different issues. Also, they have cash still they need public activity with their family particularly their spouses and this is the fundamental driver of separation among them. Additionally, because of cash, they feel uncertainty that everybody is after their cash so to protect their cash and them they employ security. While the state of the poor is the exact inverse. They don’t have cash however they are content with and tranquil from these issues.

As we presently realize that we can’t accepting bliss with cash and there could be no other easy route to satisfaction. It is something that you feel from the inside. Likewise, genuine satisfaction comes from inside yourself. Satisfaction is fundamentally a perspective. Besides, it must be accomplished by being positive and staying away from any bad idea as a main priority. Also, assuming we check out the splendid side of ourselves no one but, we can be glad.

To finish up, we can say that bliss must be accomplished by having positive reasoning and appreciating life. Additionally, for being cheerful and keeping individuals around us glad we need to foster a sound connection with them. Moreover, we additionally need to give them the appropriate time.

The Incredible Growth of eSports

The eSports industry has seen tremendous growth over the years, both in terms of viewership and revenue. The increasing viewership is what mainly contributed to the revenue growth – and it’s not just because those viewers are generating revenue. Seeing the potential of reaching a large and engaged audience, brands are, investing in esports marketing both directly and indirectly. This has contributed to rapid revenue growth in the industry, only slowed down by COVID limiting large public eSports events.
eSports has also experienced growth in several other aspects, with many of them interrelated in one way or another. In this post, you will learn more about just how much the eSports industry is growing so you can understand how to leverage it.
We define eSports as being “professional or semi-professional competitive gaming in an organized format (tournament or league) with a specific goal/prize, such as winning a championship title or prize money).” The eSports stats we include here relate to professional competitive gaming content only and don’t include amateur competitions or live streaming around non-organized competitive gaming. Newzoo separates the eSports market from the live-streaming market (aka gaming market). For these stats, Newzoo separates eSports enthusiasts from occasional viewers. They define eSports enthusiasts as people who watch professional eSports content more than once a month and occasional viewers as those who watch professional content less regularly than that. Note that some of the statistics we report here differ from what we wrote in an earlier version of this article due to a change in Newzoo’s definitions and recognition of what they consider professional eSports.

Picture source : https://www.kioskmarketplace.com/blogs/esports-popping-up-worldwide-will-you-be-ready/

Earnings in eSports Tournaments

There’s little doubt that with so much growth in many of these statistics, there would also be growth in eSports tournament prize money and player earnings – at least until COVID arrived. 

In 2019, the total prize money for 5591 tournaments was $236,221,114. So, the mean tournament prize pool was $42,250. With 28,336 active players at these tournaments, each player’s mean earnings were $8,336, and their median earnings were $666.67 per player.

With the arrival of COVID-19 in 2020, the overall total prize money fell to $119,457,468 from just 4478 tournaments. The mean tournament prize pool was $26,677. With 24,231 active players at these tournaments, each player’s mean earnings were $4,930, and their median earnings were $582.08 per player.

Esports Teams and Advertising

Just like traditional professional sports, esports teams have owners, franchises, endorsement deals, cash prizes from tournament winnings, and more—all contributing to their annual revenue and total valuation. When the pandemic subsides, esports leagues will likely resume their efforts to expand their audiences by hosting live gameplay with regional esports teams in a way that will more closely mimic traditional sports leagues. 

As of 2020, the top five most valuable esports teams according to Forbes are:

TSM – Value: $410 million

Estimated Revenue: $45 million

Revenue from Esports: 50%

Owner: Andy Dinh

Cloud9 – Value: $350 million

Estimated Revenue: $30

Revenue from Esports: 70%

Owners: Jack and Paullie Etienne

Team Liquid – Value: $310 million

Estimated Revenue: $28 million

Revenue from Esports: 89%

Owners: aXiomatic Gaming, Victor Goossens, Steve Arhancet

FaZe Clan – Value: $305 million

Estimated Revenue: $40 million

Revenue from Esports: 20%

Owners: Lee Trink, Richard Bengston (FaZe Banks), Thomas Oliveira (FaZe Temperrr), Yousef Abdelfattah (FaZe Apex), Nordan Shat (FaZe Rain)

100 Thieves – Value: $190 million

Estimated Revenue: $16 million

Revenue from Esports: 35%

Owners: Matthew Haag, Drake, Scooter Braun, Dan Gilbert

Human Rights

Human rights are a hard and fast of rights which every human is entitled to. Every human being is inherited with those rights regardless of what caste, creed, gender, the financial repute they belong to. Human rights are very crucial for ensuring that all human beings get handled similarly. They are in fact critical for a great wellknown of living in the international. Moreover, human rights shield the interests of the citizens of a country. You are liable to have human rights if you’re a individual. They will assist in providing you with a very good lifestyles full of happiness and prosperity.

Human rights are extremely critical for the general improvement of a country and people on a non-public level. If we take a look at the fundamental human rights, we see how there are right to existence, the proper to practice any religion, freedom of movement, freedom from motion and greater. Each proper performs a first-rate position in the well-being of any human. Right to life protects the lives of human beings. It guarantees no person can kill you and as a result safeguards your peace of thoughts. Subsequently, the liberty of notion and faith allows citizens to observe any religion they want to. Moreover, it also way absolutely everyone can assume freely. Further, freedom of motion is helpful in people’s mobilization. It ensures no person is restrained from traveling and dwelling in any kingdom of their preference. It permits you to seize opportunities wherever you desire to.

Next up, human rights also come up with the proper to a honest trial. Every human being has the proper to move to the court in which there may be unbiased decision making. They can accept as true with the courtroom to present them justice while the whole thing else fails. Most importantly, humans at the moment are unfastened from any shape of slavery. No other individual can take pleasure in slavery and make them their slaves. Further, human beings are also loose to speak and specific their opinion.

In brief, human rights are very important for a glad dwelling of humans. However, nowadays they may be violated endlessly and we want to return collectively to address this problem. The governments and residents need to take efforts to guard each different and development for the higher. In other words, this may make certain happiness and prosperity all around the international.

Healthy Secrets About Cabbage You Never Knew

CABBAGE – Welcome to Thenatchi Home Needs

Cabbage, the unassuming vegetable that assumes a supporting part in many dishes, is in reality loaded with rich history and spellbinding realities. First of all, it is one of the most established known vegetables. Millennia prior it was venerated by individuals of Antiquated Rome and Greece, who utilized it for its restorative properties. In the wellbeing domain, cabbage likewise has a standing similar to a delectable entire food that is loaded with a stunning measure of nutrients and supplements.

On the off chance that you thought cabbage was only a coleslaw fixing, reconsider. The following are seven intriguing realities about cabbage that you may not know. Additionally, make certain to look into The 100 Best Food sources on Earth.

1.Cabbage has been around for more than 4,000 years.

cabbage

Despite the fact that cabbage shows up in numerous tasty present day plans (cabbage “steaks”, anybody?) it really has roots going back millennia. As indicated by an article from The College of Arizona’s School of Farming and Life Sciences, green cabbage is one of the most established known vegetables and is accepted to have begun in Southern Europe, Britain, and Denmark 4,000 years prior. Supposedly, in 600 B.C. wild cabbage was brought to Europe by Celtic wanderers. Here it was adored by old Greeks and Romans who praised the cruciferous vegetable for its recuperating therapeutic properties.

2.All assortments of cabbage are high in Nutrient C.

cabbage salad

Uplifting news—it doesn’t make any difference which sort of cabbage you like to go after as they are totally loaded with nutrient C. As indicated by research, simply a half cup of cabbage has roughly 45% of the every day suggested nutrient C. Nutrient C is particularly known for its recuperating characteristics, which incorporate forestalling specific malignancies and decreasing the danger of cardiovascular infection.

3.One cup of cabbage has roughly 20 calories.

sliced cabbage

Cabbage is huge in taste and flavor, however exceptionally low in calories. For instance, a cup of cleaved cabbage has only 22 calories, making this simple to-eat vegetable an ideal counterpart for calorie-cognizant people. Due to cabbage’s low-carbohydrate content, it is an extraordinary fixing to use instead of carb-weighty items, like pastas, breads, and rice. For example, cheeseburger buns can be traded out for salted cabbage leaves and destroyed cabbage can substitute noodles in dishes, for example, spaghetti bolognese and Cushion Thai.

4.Red cabbage is more grounded than the green assortment.

coleslaw

Despite the fact that a wide range of cabbage are loaded with nutrients and supplements, the red assortment might bring home the gold in the wellbeing division. For instance, red cabbage is brimming with anthocyanins, which is a flavonoid that helps give red cabbage its pigmented shading. Anthocyanins have mitigating, hostile to viral, and against malignant growth properties that assist with forestalling illness.

5.Red cabbage might be a pH marker.

fresh cabbage

Red cabbage, the crunchy vegetable that is frequently found in plates of mixed greens and stored onto fish tacos, might have the option to add one more occupation to its resume—pH pointer. As per logical examination, red cabbage’s anthocyanins change shading dependent on how acidic something it comes into contact with is. For example, when red cabbage juice is blended in with something acidic (has a pH level lower than 7) it will become red, and when it is blended in with something soluble (has a pH level more noteworthy than 7) it will change into a somewhat blue green tone. Celebrated wellbeing specialist, Dr. Greger, additionally speaks more with regards to this in his book, “How Not to Pass on” and on his site, Nourishment Realities.

6.A renowned baseball player used to wear a cabbage leaf under his baseball hat.

cabbage

Famous baseball player, Darling Ruth, was known for his amazing games details, yet in addition for his extraordinary propensity—the Angel used to wear a chilled cabbage leaf under his baseball hat during ball games. Prior to each game, he would rip off a couple of cabbage leaves, spread them over ice, and afterward, whenever they were cooled, stick them onto his head. He tracked down that these leaves kept him cool during those warm mid year months spent taking care of business in a fleece uniform. Hello on the off chance that it worked for the Angel, perhaps it will deal with the metro in summer!

Seed Oil Is the Latest Thing We’re Being Told to Eliminate from Our Diets—Here’s Why 

Black Seed Oil Benefits: For Health

Exceptionally prepared vegetable oils produced using corn, soy, sunflower, canola, and different plants are not difficult to track down in home kitchens and supermarkets nowadays, however they’ve been around in human eating regimens for just a brief time frame, generally talking. It wasn’t until the mid 1900s that the innovation needed to deal with these oils was imagined, bringing about an item actually found on staple racks: Crisco. Presented in 1911, it was a cooking fat got from cottonseed oil that took after grease, yet was produced by Procter and Bet through a synthetic interaction. In the wake of offering Crisco for sale to the public, the Ohio-put together organization went with respect to a promoting barrage selling the thought that its oil was more sound than the soaked creature fats ordinarily utilized for cooking at that point. It worked: In merely five years, the organization was selling a huge number of pounds of Crisco. Other refined vegetable oils followed throughout the span of the twentieth century—nowadays they’re regularly alluded to as “seed oils” as a catchall term.

As of late, notwithstanding, seed oils have become something of a healthful bogeyman. While most standard nourishment specialists don’t think of them as especially undesirable, many specialists and nutritionists guarantee that the particular unsaturated fats found in handled vegetable oils lead to irritation and ongoing ailments. Last year, Joe Rogan conversed with specialist and flesh eater diet evangelist Paul Saladino about this for over three hours. On another webcast in 2020, board-guaranteed family doctor Cate Shanahan alluded to the most widely recognized seed oils available today as the “contemptuous eight,” to be stayed away from no matter what. So what gives? Would it be advisable for us to renounce all seed oil?

Basic analysis

All cooking oils are blends of unsaturated fats, however it’s the by and large more significant levels of polyunsaturated fats found in seed oils that make them bothersome according to certain dietitians and wellbeing experts.

All things considered, in any case, individuals contain however much 30% of polyunsaturated fat in their muscle versus fat. The reason, Shanahan notes, is because of seed oils. Higher-than-ordinary degrees of polyunsaturated fats can prompt decreased energy and real irritation, which thusly can add to heftiness, diabetes, and coronary illness.

Moreover, the profoundly prepared nature of seed oils—there are various advances and synthetic substances engaged with their creation—makes them super wealthy in omega-6 unsaturated fats, a vital supporter of aggravation. As indicated by Chris Kresser, co-overseer of the California Place for Useful Medication, the human body works best when its proportion of omega-6 unsaturated fats and omega-3 unsaturated fats (the ones you see on any jug of supermarket fish-oil supplement) is adjusted.

Many Americans’ weight control plans, nonetheless, have tossed this equilibrium way messed up: We by and large get immeasurably an excessive amount of omega-6 than we do omega-3 on account of our food decisions and how we’re preparing our dinners. “[S]eed oils are maybe the main supporter of the imbalanced omega-6-to-omega-3 proportion,” Kresser states, “and accordingly assume a huge part in constant fiery illnesses.”

To put it plainly, one fundamental contention against devouring seed oils is that the unsaturated fats they contain advance irritation, the follow-on impacts of which are ongoing infections that we’d all prefer to keep away from. There are concentrates out there that substantiate this end, a few of which get down on omega-6 unsaturated fats explicitly for the jobs they play in expanded danger for weight and long haul sickness. The Sydney Diet Heart Study from the 1960s additionally shows that members who supplanted soaked fats with polyunsaturated fats high in linoleic corrosive—one more unsaturated fat likewise found in many seed oils—”had a higher danger of death from coronary illness,” as Detail revealed quite a long while back.

In any case, there’s no compelling reason to get impeded in the logical weeds. The main focal point from the discussion around seed oils is to remember that they’re regularly found in many prepared food varieties, including some clearly undesirable things like treats, pieces of candy, and Twinkies—yet additionally some more subtle offenders like pre-made hummus and salad dressing. So when dealing with what you eat, make removing prepared food varieties your establishment, assemble an eating routine wealthy in an assortment of entire food varieties and different sorts of fats, and, in case you’re concerned, go after less-refined choices like olive or nut oil.

18-Year Study: Americans Are Eating More Ultra-Processed Foods

Fat Man Eating Fast Food

18-year concentrate on measures expansion in mechanically produced food sources that might be adding to stoutness and different sicknesses.

Utilization of super prepared food sources has expanded in the course of recent a very long time across practically all sections of the U.S. populace, as indicated by another review by analysts at NYU School of Worldwide General Wellbeing.

“The general creation of the normal U.S. diet has moved towards a more handled eating routine. This is disturbing, as eating more super prepared food sources is related with terrible eating routine quality and higher danger of a few persistent sicknesses,” said Filippa Juul, an associate teacher and postdoctoral individual at NYU School of General Wellbeing and the review’s lead creator. “The high and expanding utilization of super handled food varieties in the 21st century might be a critical driver of the heftiness plague.”

Super handled food sources are economically made, prepared to-eat or warm, incorporate added substances, and are generally without entire food varieties. Past investigations by analysts at NYU School of Worldwide General Wellbeing have tracked down that higher utilization of super handled food varieties is related with heftiness and coronary illness.

In the new review, distributed in the American Diary of Clinical Nourishment, Juul and her associates dissected dietary information from almost 41,000 grown-ups who participated in the CDC’s Public Wellbeing and Sustenance Assessment Study from 2001 through 2018. Members were asked what they ate in the beyond 24 hours, and the analysts arranged the food varieties detailed into four classes:

Negligibly handled food varieties (entire food sources), like vegetables, natural products, grains, meat, and dairy

Handled culinary fixings, like olive oil, spread, sugar, and salt

Handled food sources, like cheddar, canned fish, and canned beans

Super handled food varieties, like frozen pizza, pop, inexpensive food, desserts, pungent bites, canned soup, and most breakfast oats

The specialists then, at that point, determined the level of calories burned-through from every nutritional category.

Super handled food utilization developed from 53.5 percent of calories in the start of the period considered (2001-2002) to 57 percent toward the end (2017-2018). The admission of prepared to-eat or warm suppers, as frozen meals, expanded the most, while the admission of some sweet food varieties and beverages declined. Interestingly, the utilization of entire food sources diminished from 32.7 percent to 27.4 percent of calories, for the most part because of individuals eating less meat and dairy.

Individuals across essentially all segment gatherings, paying little mind to pay, expanded their utilization of super prepared food sources, except for Hispanic grown-ups, who ate altogether less super handled food varieties and all the more entire food varieties contrasted and non-Hispanic white and Dark grown-ups. School graduates likewise ate fundamentally less super handled food sources. Outstandingly, more established grown-ups (matured 60+) encountered the most keen expansion in devouring super handled food sources: this age bunch ate the most un-super prepared food sources and most entire food varieties toward the start of the period contemplated, yet ate the most super handled food sources and least entire food varieties toward the end.

Given the developing admission of super handled food varieties in the U.S. what’s more, mounting proof connecting these food sources to ongoing illnesses, the specialists prescribe executing strategies to diminish their utilization, like reconsidered dietary rules, advertising limitations, bundle marking changes, and duties on pop and other super prepared food varieties. They additionally support projects and arrangements to expand the accessibility, openness, and reasonableness of entire food varieties, particularly among impeded populaces.

“In the current modern food climate, the majority of the food sources that are advertised to us are indeed modern plans that are far taken out from entire food varieties. All things considered, nourishing science will in general zero in on the supplement content of food sources and has generally disregarded the wellbeing ramifications of modern food handling,” said Juul.

Besides, while the review zeroed in on information from before Coronavirus, there are signs that the pandemic prompted an expansion in eating less nutritious, rack stable food sources.

“In the beginning of the pandemic, individuals changed their buying practices to shop less as often as possible, and deals of super handled food varieties like boxed macaroni and cheddar, canned soups, and nibble food sources expanded generously. Individuals might have additionally eaten more bundled ‘solace food varieties’ as a method of adapting to the vulnerability of the pandemic,” added Juul. “We anticipate inspecting dietary changes during this period as information become accessible.”

Argentina Vs Peru Live Streaming: How To Watch World Cup Qualifier In India, US And UK?

Argentina vs Peru Live Streaming Online 2022 FIFA World Cup Qualifiers  CONMEBOL: Get Free Live Telecast of Football Match With Time in IST | ⚽  LatestLY

Argentina on Thursday will take on Peru in the 2022 FIFA World Cup capability apparatus on Match 12 of the South American 2022 World Cup Qualifiers. Argentina have been amazing as of late and will need to keep up with their unbeaten streak this week too. Peru who are as of now in seventh spot in the CONMEBOL capability table and have been conflicting this season. Peru experienced a shock 1-0 loss against Bolivia last week and should be at their best to overcome strong Argentina.

Second-put Argentina, driven by Lionel Messi and Rodrigo de Paul, will look to merge its ascent when it takes on Peru in the wake of overcoming Uruguay 3-0. Coming to Argentina versus Peru’s no holds barred record, the Lionel Messi-drove crew have a magnificent record against Peru and have won 34 out of 55 matches played between the two groups. Peru have overseen just seven triumphs against Argentina and should move forward this week.

Messi’s CONMEBOL record

Last month, Lionel Messi outperformed the three-time FIFA World Cup champ Pele to turn into the record-breaking driving goalscorer for a South American country. Messi accomplished this accomplishment during Argentina’s FIFA World Cup 2022 qualifier installation against Bolivia. Truth be told, when Leo got an objective in that challenge, it additionally ended up being his 78th worldwide objective for La Albiceleste. Preceding that match, the 2021 Copa America champ required only two objectives to outperform Pele for turning into the main CONMEBOL goalscorer. He equalled the previous title holder’s accomplishment when he assisted Argentina with breaking the gridlock in the fourteenth moment and afterward outperformed him after effectively tracking down the rear of the net in the 64th moment. Regardless, Lionel Messi appeared to be relentless even in the wake of having scored a support and enlisted a full go-around when he got one in the 88th moment.

Indian scientists explore galaxy cluster Abell 725

Indian Scientists Discovered Galaxy Supercluster, Saraswati - Tech Explorist

Utilizing the Monster Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT), Indian stargazers have directed radio perceptions of a cosmic system bunch known as Abell 725. Aftereffects of this observational mission convey significant data with respect to the design and morphology of Abell 725, uncovering the presence of diffuse fibers in this group. The review was introduced in a paper distributed October 7 on arXiv.org.

Universe bunches contain up to large number of systems bound together by gravity. They are the biggest known gravitationally bound designs known to mankind, and could fill in as superb research facilities for concentrating on system advancement and cosmology.

At a redshift of 0.09, Abell 725 (A725) is a bunch of systems with a X-beam glow of 80 tredecillion erg/s and a speed scattering of around 534 km/s. These boundaries propose that it is a helpless system group—with extravagance class 0. The all out mass of this group inside a sweep of 2.56 million light years is assessed to be 114 trillion sun oriented masses.

Past perceptions of Abell 725 have distinguished a splendid radio source related with the most brilliant group cosmic system (BCG). Additionally, a diffuse radio emanation has been recognized at the center of the bunch that was delegated a radio relic.

To reveal more insight into the radio properties of Abell 725 a group of stargazers drove by Mahadev Pandge of the Dayanand Science School in Latur, India, utilized GMRT to perform multi-recurrence radio perceptions of this bunch. The review was supplemented by optical information from the Sloan Advanced Sky Study (SDSS), X-beam information from the ROSAT satellite, just as multi-frequency recorded information.

The scientists recognized two steep-range diffuse fibers in Abell 725, alongside a formerly announced bend like construction, and a wide-point tail (WAT) radio source related with the BCG at the outskirts of the group. It was noticed that a portion of these components could be from the past movement of the core of the BCG.

The review recommends that the WAT radio source and the bend are associated structures, while the fibers are segregated from them, however are observed to be along the path of the WAT. Accordingly, the stargazers accept that the WAT source is a radio system with following classical fibers.

The perceptions tracked down that the BCG is a good ways off of around 277,000 light a long time from the bend like design, while the filamentary structures are uprooted from this construction by approximately 300,000 and 665,000 light years. The creators of the paper recommend that these constructions result from various phases of radio action along the way of the WAT, and these distances are run of the mill esteems for such a situation.

Besides, the examination tracked down that the otherworldly times of the WAT and fibers are 37.1 and 93.1 million years, separately. The mass of the dark opening at the center of the WAT was assessed to be 1.4 billion sun based masses, what is fairly a high worth when contrasted with that of comparable known WATs.

Summarizing the outcomes, the space experts finished up radio properties of the WAT radio world look like that of ordinary Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FRI) radio systems. They added that the WAT source might be a low-excitation radio cosmic system (LERG).

Love to know about space, solar system, Earth? Check out the NASA app

NASA App for Smartphones, Tablets and Digital Media Players | NASA

The NASA application gives complete data, photographs, recordings and substantially more to fulfill your interest in space, nearby planet group, Earth and different themes.

Space has been captivating stargazers for quite a long time. And keeping in mind that the space organizations, like NASA, have made it simpler for intrigued individuals to get every one of the most recent updates and investigate space, the nearby planet group, Earth and universes past effortlessly, getting the furthest down the line data isn’t pretty much as basic as clicking a button. To work on this interaction, NASA has an application for cell phones, tablets and advanced media players.

What data does the NASA Application give?

The NASA Application comes stacked with provisions and it offers admittance to huge loads of fascinating substance. Intrigued individuals can watch the most recent NASA situation transpire continuously on NASA television, checkout the instructive substance in the highlighted area and investigate a reproduced perspective on our Nearby planet group, watch a live perspective on the earth from the Global Space Station, see the most recent NASA photographs, recordings and element stories, rate photographs and investigate the most elevated appraised ones as a whole, and pick their own #1 NASA pictures and make them simple to discover utilizing the top choices include.

They can likewise share all that they find with companions via web-based media, save pictures to their cell phone, pay attention to the most recent NASA digital recordings, get data pretty much NASA’s present missions as a whole, most recent dispatch and landing data and rundown of forthcoming ISS locating openings for their area, track the area of the Worldwide Space Station and other NASA Earth circling satellites continuously, see every one of the NASA Tweets from around the office in one spot, see the Earth as Craftsmanship picture assortment and intelligent guide, cast content to their Apple television, Chromecast and Fire television gadgets.

Individuals who are utilizing the application on their iPhones or iPads additionally get Expanded Reality (AR) 3D models of 31 NASA orbiters and missions, which unites 3D models from across the organization, and gives the most ridiculously complete all in one resource for NASA AR models; and Increased reality SkyView include that shows a perspective on the night sky so clients can recognize articles and discover/track Worldwide Space Station apparent passes.

Accessibility of the NASA Application

The NASA Application is accessible on a wide assortment of stages. Intrigued individuals can download it from the Google Play Store, the Apple Application Store, the Amazon Appstore for Fire television gadgets and on Roku

10 STRATEGIES AI START-UPS SHOULD FOLLOW TO BECOME BIG TECH COMPANIES

AI Start-ups

These systems can help in driving development at the simulated intelligence new businesses

We as a whole have found out about numerous huge tech organizations and furthermore take motivation from them commonly, correct? Be it Amazon, Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, or Google these tech organizations are consistently incredible inspirations for all the new companies. Yet, when coming to simulated intelligence new businesses, they are certainly the promoters as they are mechanically determined and their encounters and innovations can be taken to assist them with becoming greater. For all the man-made intelligence new companies searching for procedures to work on your business, here you go!

1 Put Right Destinations and Key Outcomes

All the huge tech organizations use destinations and key outcomes to lay out their objectives, gain arrangement and measure progress to key objectives. The first idea of OKRs originally came from Intel and spread across the Silicon Valley advanced locals. This is the manner by which Google likewise has encountered the development of the representatives from 40 to 60,000 almost today. Not just Google, numerous other notable organizations, for example, Spotify, Twitter, Airbnb, and LinkedIn are additionally utilizing the OKRs technique. So all the computer based intelligence new businesses can get this for progress.

2 Be Available to Change

The greater part of the top tech organizations can make changes to their conviction frameworks dependent on their disappointments, for example, Microsoft, Connected In, and Amazon does. These progressions are fit for speeding up the development taking the organization’s DNA advancing at a lot quicker speed. This is one of the astonishing techniques for computer based intelligence new companies to become quicker.

3 Customized Arrangements

Personalization is large tech organizations is seen regularly nowadays. The groups assemble encounters took into account the objectives and problem areas of every guest. All the man-made intelligence new businesses ought to notice the tech organizations and how they are executing personalization and comprehend basic changes to shaping procedures for simulated intelligence new companies becomes crucial.

4 Search for Variety

To imagine or develop variety fills in as a key. At the point when we take a gander at the huge tech organizations, they are different in nature basically in light of the fact that they know every one of the advantages that show up with an assorted group. Regardless of whether it be groundbreaking thoughts, innovativeness or experiences every one of these are added for improving the items and administrations. Along these lines, this is one of the systems for man-made intelligence new companies that can assist you with enhancing better items.

5 Plan Your Own Innovation

The main illustration is to put resources into the ability to assemble your own innovation, this is consistently valuable in numerous ways. In right now, every computer based intelligence fire up necessities to have its own product for guaranteeing believability, information concerns, and some more.

6 Put resources into Innovation

To all the computer based intelligence new companies, consistently treat innovation as an incredible venture yet not as a cost as it will offer back twice however much it takes. At the point when development gets held up by financial plan endorsements and CapEx versus OpEx discusses, it at times dials back the force and restricts the group’s fervor and the commitment that accompanies novel thoughts.

7 Making Express Cycles

A large portion of the advancements are conceived out of mayhem, however many top tech organizations have unequivocal cycles and practices that energize reliable countrywide development. This is the best top system for artificial intelligence new companies to embrace without avoiding making business measures for advancement.

8 Upsetting the Market

All the man-made intelligence new businesses ought to find out with regards to advanced interruption distinguishing where the current arrangements have developed and are going behind the clients’ requirements. At the point when we take the case of Netflix, look how it disturbed the market blockbuster was in, the sellers recognizing the chance to upset the market through another imaginative way.

9 Weight on Advertising and Correspondences

The huge tech organizations are up for spryness and development as they have solid promoting and PR groups. So this is one of the methodologies for computer based intelligence new businesses to grasp and to make more grounded PR and showcasing groups to acquire openness for their organizations.

10 Testing

Man-made intelligence new businesses should investigation and evaluate new things as large tech organizations explore different avenues regarding innovation to save the customary models. With a great deal of experimentation comes development driving achievement as well.

Misrepresentation under the Indian Contract Act, 1872:

A misrepresentation is an untrue statement of a material fact made by one party which affects the other party’s decision in corresponding to a contract. If the misrepresentation is identified, the contract can be declared void, and depending on the situation, the unfavorably impacted party may seek damages. In such a contract dispute, the party who made the misrepresentation becomes the defendant and the aggrieved party is the plaintiff. Misrepresentation in contract law is especially important in business dealings where huge transactions occur with high frequency. Misrepresentations of the value and/or risk correlated with an agreement can cause enormous financial losses to businesses and individuals while increasing the risk of collaborative business ventures. Accordingly, misrepresentation contract law is vital to ensuring fairness and diminishing the risk of entering into agreements between individuals and businesses.

Concept of Misrepresentation

For understanding the concept of misrepresentation first, we need to know the meaning of representation in terms of the contract. A representation is said to be such a statement that generates the entry into a contract but is not a part of a term of the contract.

Misrepresentation is about the giving of inaccurate information by one party (or their agent) to the other before the contract is made which induces them to make the contract. If a person makes a contract in reliance on misrepresentation and has to face loss as a result, they can revoke the contract or claim damages.

Unwarranted Statements

A statement made without any reasonable basis is an unwarranted statement. When a person makes a positive statement of a fact without any trustworthy source of information and believes that statement to be true, the act amounts to misrepresentation. When something is unwarranted it is not called for under the provided circumstances. For instance, arguing the merits of someone’s talent is one thing, but addressing them stupid is unwarranted.

Breach of duty

Once a duty has been established about the defendant we must find that the defendant has breached the duty. A breach of the duty of care occurs when one fails to achieve his or her duty of care to act wisely in some aspect. Commonly, if a party does not act reasonably to prevent foreseeable injuries to others, the duty of care is breached. Breach of duty is defined in a very interesting case named Vaughn V Menlove which states that the defendant is found to have overdue of the claimant and if he acts below the reasonable standard then a breach of duty would have been committed 

  • they may find out the cause of the breach and try to remedy it;
  • they may dispute that a breach has occurred;
  • they may argue that there is an exclusion clause or other terms in the contract limiting their liability for the breach; or
  • they might argue that there is a cause for their breach, or that the contract is invalid.

Inducing mistakes about subject matters

Inducing mistake about subject matter involves mistakes of fact. This happens when both the parties misunderstood each other leaving them at a crossroads. Such a wrongful act or a mistake can be because of an error in understanding, or ignorance or omission, etc. But a mistake is never intentional, it is an innocent commanding. 

References

Motivation

Presumably, an individual goes through many sorts of challenges throughout everyday life. Certain individuals lose trust and consider stopping. Yet, is this the right advance? By no means. Bombing once doesn’t mean there isn’t anything left throughout everyday life. There is consistently a way of retaliating the tough situations to accomplish what you want. Regardless of whether you’re a school-going child or an entrepreneur, you lose the track and feel demotivated some place throughout everyday life. Yet, never lose trust, you can run after your advancement by recapturing your inspiration.

Motivation is a fundamental factor that changes positive idea into moment activity. It switches a good thought right into it and can without a doubt influence your general surroundings. Nonetheless, not all are brought into the world with inspiration. Individuals now and again have skepticism in themselves; they frequently say, “I can’t do that” or “the circumstance isn’t right.” Being demotivated implies carrying on with a daily existence as an exhausted machine. Your life will become dull with practically no flash. In this way, to acquire internal harmony and fulfillment throughout everyday life, you should consistently remain roused.

You need to find the right inspiration for you to get your sparkle back. You can discover inspiration from a wide scope of powerful sources, for instance, from quotes, books, recordings, guardians, instructors, and even nature. Eventually, you’ll learn judicious speculation to beat negative feelings when you are persuaded throughout everyday life. Motivation additionally helps in making you dynamic throughout everyday life. You will battle more to satisfy your objectives. A self-persuaded individual consistently finds a way of understanding the issues preventing the way to do a responsibility. Also, they don’t need others’ help to achieve a difficult assignment near them.

To finish up, motivation is one of the key components that assist an individual with being fruitful. A propelled individual attempts to stretch his boundaries and consistently attempts to further develop his presentation step by step. Additionally, the individual consistently gives her/his best regardless the assignment is. In addition, the individual consistently attempts to stay reformist and devoted to her/his objectives.

India backs WHO move for new expert group to probe origins of Covid-19 pandemic

WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus announced the launch of the Scientific Advisory Group for the Origins of Novel Pathogens (SAGO) at a news briefing on Wednesday. (REUTERS PHOTO.)

Reacting to WHO’s declaration, China cautioned against any “political control” of the reestablished test into the beginnings of Coronavirus however said it would uphold the examination. The Covid originally arose in the focal Chinese city of Wuhan in late 2019, setting off the most noticeably terrible pandemic in a century.

WHO boss Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus declared the dispatch of the Logical Warning Gathering for the Beginnings of Novel Microorganisms (SAGO) at a news instructions on Wednesday, and Michael Ryan, leader overseer of WHO’s wellbeing crises program, said this addressed the “last possibility” to decide the starting points of SARS-CoV-2.

India has reliably sponsored all moves by WHO to build up the starting points of the Coronavirus pandemic, and approached all partners, including China, to help out such endeavors. Outside issues service representative Arindam Bagchi repeated this position when he was gotten some information about the new master bunch at a normal news preparation on Thursday.

“Allow me just to repeat what we have expressed till now – we have our advantage in additional examinations and information on this issue of the beginning [of the Coronavirus] and the requirement for comprehension and participation by totally concerned,” he said, without naming China.

The Indian side, he said, was gathering subtleties of what the new move by WHO might involve.

Raman Gangakhedkar, the Dr CG Pandit Public Seat at the Indian Board of Clinical Exploration in India, and Yungui Yang of the Beijing Foundation of Genomics at the Chinese Institute of Sciences, are among the 26 individuals from SAGO.

Reacting to WHO’s declaration, China cautioned against any “political control” of the reestablished test into the starting points of Coronavirus however said it would uphold the examination.

The Covid originally arose in the focal Chinese city of Wuhan in late 2019, setting off the most exceedingly awful pandemic in a century.

Gotten some information about the new test, Chinese unfamiliar service representative Zhao Lijian said it ought to be led in the “soul of science” and not utilized as a political apparatus. The aftereffect of the past study on the matter ought to be regarded, he added.

“China will proceed to help and partake in worldwide Covid starting points – following, yet goes against any type of political control on the issue,” Zhao told a news preparation in Beijing.

He added, “China has consistently kept up with that following of infection beginnings is a genuine and complex logical issue and that exploration ought to be led by researchers in collaboration.”

Tedros said SAGO will encourage WHO on fostering a worldwide system to direct investigations into “beginnings of arising and reappearing microbes with pestilence and pandemic potential, including SARS-CoV-2”. He said that while SARS-CoV-2 is the furthest down the line infection to start a pandemic, “it won’t be the last”.

Ryan noticed the current pandemic “has halted our entire world” and said the master bunch “might be our last opportunity to comprehend the beginnings of this infection in a…collective and commonly capable manner”. He encouraged everybody, including nations, to make space for conversations on the issue.

Maria van Kerkhove, WHO’s specialized lead on Coronavirus, said the master bunch is relied upon to call for additional examinations in China by worldwide missions.

“I expect that the SAGO in its conversations about the pressing following stages for understanding the beginnings of the current pandemic will suggest further investigations in China and conceivably elsewhere…We especially trust that there will be further missions to China and different nations,” she said.

The 26 individuals from SAGO were chosen from in excess of 700 applications following a worldwide call. Tedros said they were picked for their a-list ability and involvement with a scope of disciplines, and geographic and sexual orientation variety. There will be a fourteen day public conference period for WHO to get input on the proposed individuals.

WHO, in a publication in Science, said nitty gritty examinations of the most punctual known and suspected cases in China preceding December 2019 are as yet required, including investigations of put away blood tests from 2019 in Wuhan and review searches of emergency clinic and mortality information for prior cases. Labs in the space where the main reports of human diseases arose in Wuhan should be a concentration, as precluding a mishap requires adequate proof, it said.

Why does the internet keep breaking?

Global communication network concept.

I question Imprint Zuckerberg peruses the remarks individuals leave on his Facebook posts.

In any case, on the off chance that he did, it would take him around 145 days, without rest, to swim through the downpour of remarks left for him after he was sorry for the emergency of administrations last week.

“Sorry for the interruption today” the Facebook originator and CEO posted, following just about six hours of Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram being disconnected.

Facebook faulted a standard support work for the interruption – its designers had given an order that unexpectedly disengaged Facebook server farms from the more extensive web.

Around 827,000 individuals reacted to Mr Zuckerberg’s conciliatory sentiment.

The messages went from the delighted: “It was horrible, I needed to converse with my family,” remarked one Italian client, to the befuddled: “I brought my telephone into the auto shop thinking it was broken,” composed somebody from Namibia.

What is likewise clear is that this is a long way from being an oddball circumstance: specialists recommend inescapable blackouts are turning out to be more incessant and more problematic.

“Something that we’ve found over the most recent quite a long while is an expanded dependence on few organizations and organizations to convey huge bits of Web content,” says Luke Deryckx, Boss Specialized Official at Down Indicator.

“At the point when one of those, or mutiple, has an issue, it influences them, however countless different administrations,” he says. Facebook, for example, is currently used to sign-in to a scope of various administrations and gadgets, like brilliant TVs.

“Thus, you know, we have these kind of web ‘snow days’ that happen now,” Mr Deryckx says. “Something goes down [and] we as a whole kind of check out one another like ‘well, what are we going to do?'”

Mr Deryckx and his group at Down Locator screen web administrations and sites for interruption. He says that far reaching blackouts influencing significant administrations are turning out to be more regular and more genuine.

“At the point when Facebook has an issue, it makes a major effect for the web yet additionally the economy, and, you know… society. Millions, or conceivably many millions, of individuals are simply kind of lounging around hanging tight for a little group in California to fix something. It’s an intriguing wonders that has filled over the most recent few years.”

Web researcher Teacher Bill Buchanan concurs with this characterisation: “The web isn’t the huge scope appropriated network that DARPA (the Guard Progressed Exploration Tasks Organization), the first draftsmen of the web, attempted to make, which could withstand an atomic strike on any piece of it.

“The conventions it utilizes are essentially the ones that were drafted when we associated with centralized server PCs from idiotic terminals. A solitary error in its center foundation can bring the entire thing colliding with the floor.”

Educator Buchanan says upgrades can be made to make the web stronger, yet that a large number of the basics of the net are staying put regardless.

“As a rule, the frameworks work and you can’t simply turn specific conventions of the web ‘off’ for a day, to attempt to redo them,” he says.

Rather than attempting to revamp the frameworks and construction of the web, Teacher Buchanan thinks we need to further develop the manner in which we use it to store and share information, or hazard more mass blackouts later on.

He contends that the web has become excessively concentrated, for example where an excess of information comes from a solitary source. That pattern should be turned around with frameworks that have various hubs, he clarifies, so nobody disappointment can prevent an assistance from working.

There is a silver lining here. Albeit critical web blackouts influence clients lives and organizations they can likewise, eventually, help to work on the strength of the web and the web administrations connected to it.

For instance, Forbes gauges that Facebook lost $66m (£48.5m), during the six-hour blackout, from the suspension, or departure, of sponsors on the site. That kind of misfortune is probably going to concentrate the personalities of senior leaders on forestalling it happening once more.

“They lost a colossal measure of cash in that day, in their stock cost as well as in their functional incomes,” as per Mr Deryckx.

“Furthermore, in the event that you see blackouts brought about by content conveyance networks like Fastly and Cloudflare, they additionally lost countless clients to the opposition. Thus, I think these administrators are doing all that they can to keep things on the web.”

Dussehra

Dussehra is a festival celebrated in the Hindu religion. It is one of the most important festivals in India. In addition, it is also one of the longest ones. People celebrated Dussehra with great enthusiasm and love, throughout the country. It is time for rejoicing for everyone. The students get ten-day-long holidays from their schools and colleges to thoroughly enjoy this festival. In this Dussehra Essay, we will see how and why people celebrate Dussehra. Dussehra falls two or three weeks prior to Diwali. Thus, it falls usually around September to October. Everyone waits for this festival eagerly. It brings great reasons to rejoice by all. The ladies prep for their pujas while the men buy crackers and more to celebrate it heartily.

Dussehra is also known as Vijayadashami in some regions of India. If we set aside the regional differences, the main events of this festival have one motto i.e. the victory of good over evil. In other words, this festival signifies the victory of the power of good over that of the power of evil. If we look at the Hindu mythology, it says that on this day Goddess Durga removed the demon called Mahishasura from the earth. Similarly, other traditions believe that Lord Rama fought and eliminated the Demon King Ravana on this very day. Thus, we see how both events have the same outcome. The outcome that is of light over dark, truth over lies and good over evil. Therefore, we see that while people’s belief may differ, they celebrate the very same essence throughout the country.
People all over India celebrate Dussehra with immense enthusiasm, pomp, and show. The different cultures do not affect the celebrations of the festival. The spirit and zeal remain the same throughout the festival.

In conclusion, Dussehra carries a lot of importance in the Hindu religion. However, people from all religions witness the marvelous act of burning Ravana. It unites people as the audience is filled with people from all walks of life, and not just the Hindu religion. Most importantly, Dussehra teaches us that good always trumps evil and that light will always conquer darkness.

Science & Technology

Developments and their Applications and effects in everyday life

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of explanations and predictions about nature and the universe. It is the study of nature and behavior of the physical and natural world through the scientific method. It is also defined as the observation, identification, description, experimental, investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena. Whereas, Technology is the collection of techniques and processes used in the production of goods or services or the accomplishment of objectives such as scientific investigation. It includes methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes. The world around us behaves according to scientific laws. Scientists have discovered many of these laws, and are making new discoveries all the time. We develop technology using our understanding of science and the forces, such as magnetism, gravity and electricity, which shape our lives. Whenever we turn on a light, log on to internet or speak with our friends or relatives on a mobile phone, it has all been made possible by science.
Technology for Mankind

The World Around us

Everything, from water or air to a whale or a mobile phone, is made of tiny particles called atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms. There are over 100 different kinds of atoms, which are in turn made of smaller parts called subatomic particles. Two or more atoms join together to make a molecule. The things around us are solids, liquids or gases depending on the arrangement of the atoms and molecules inside them.

Structure of an atom

Forces and movement

Things move only when a force is applied to them. Forces are pushes or pulls in a particular direction. A flag blows when the wind pushes it. A door opens when you pull it. Animals move when their feet push against the ground, their wings push against the air or their fins push against the water around them. Forces always work in pairs. They push and pull in opposite directions. When pairs of forces are equal they are said to be balanced. Tug of war teams remains still when each pulls with the same strength. A team falls when one side is stronger and the forces are unbalanced. Forces are also balanced when things move at one speed in the same direction. Things slow down and stop because of an opposing force. One of these forces is friction. Friction happens when tiny bumps on two surfaces rub against each other. Rough surfaces, such as concrete, create more friction than smooth surfaces, such as glass. People use high-friction materials like rubber on shoe soles to stop people slipping when they walk.
A rocket takes off when the force from the engine pushing it up is greater than the force of gravity pulling it down.
Boy kicking a football
A bicycles’ brakes use high-friction rubber to slow the wheels down

Light and Dark

The earth’s biggest source of light is the sun. Heat and light energy created by the sun travels through space in straight lines called rays at almost 300,000 kilometres per second. The Earth spins right around once a day, changing which parts of globe get sunlight. This creates day & night. Other things that radiate, or give off, light include electric light bulbs, candles and television series. Shadows happen in places where an object stops light from getting through. Materials that light shines through fully are said to be transparent. Translucent materials let only a little light through. Opaque materials do not let any light through at all.  The shape of a shadow depends on the shape of the object blocking the light. If an object is moved closer to light source, its shadow gets bigger because it blocks more light rays. All surfaces reflect light but, if they are bumpy, the light rays are reflected in all directions.Mirrors are made from very smooth surfaces that reflect the rays back in the same pattern as they hit it, creating a clear image of object. Words reflected in a mirror appear back to front, as if they were facing away from us and we were looking through the page.
Mirrors reflecting images
We make our own light in cities when the Sun goes down at night.
Shadow

Colours

There are seven colours in a rainbow and they always come in the same order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Light from the sun may look white, but it is actually a combination of many colours. When tiny drops of water in the air split white sunlight into its different colours, we see a rainbow. Gases and dust in the atmosphere make the different colours in sunlight scatter so the sky changes colour. By day, the atmosphere scatters blue light towards earth so the sky looks blue. At sunset, when sunlight has more atmospheres to travel through before it reaches the surface of the earth, red light is scattered so the sky looks orangey red. People print colour images and words on paper using just four coloured inks: yellow, cyan (blue), magenta (red) and black. Paper is printed with tiny dots of different amounts of each ink. Our brain cannot distinguish that dots we see separately, but instead, blends them together to make different blocks of different colours

A glass prism splits bright sunlight into all the colours of a rainbow
Orange Skies

Sound

Sound is a disturbance of the air made when something, such as a string, vibrates, or moves back and forwards quickly. The vibration makes the air moves in waves. Our ears detect the moving air and our brains distinguish it as a sound. High sounds, such as notes from a flute, are made by short sound waves. Low sounds, such as a tuba’s notes, are made by long ones. Sound vibrations travel way from the thing that makes them. The vibrations spread out in all directions like the ripples in a pond after you throw in pebble. The wider the vibrations spread, the smaller they become and the quieter the sound. Big vibrations, on the other hand, makes lots of energy that pushes lots of air, creating loud sounds. Sounds are measured in units called decibels. The quietest sounds, such as a leaf falling, are around 0-10 decibels. The loudest sounds, such as a rocket launch, are just less than 200 decibels. Noises above 90 decibels are dangerous to listen to because the strong waves of air can damage the sensitive insides of your ears. Echoes are the repeated noise we hear when sound waves bounce off solid objects, such as a cliff or the inside of a tunnel. If the object is close by, the waves reflect so quickly we cannot hear the echo as a separate sound. Bats use echoes to get around in the dark. They make squeaks and listen to the echoes to work out how far away things are and how big they are.

Bats use echoes to find their prey in the dark
The skin on a drum vibrates when it is banged, producing a sound
We can only just hear leaves falling, but an aeroplane taking off makes a sound that is so loud it can damage our ears.

Electricity

Electricity is a type of energy formed from tiny particles inside atoms called electrons. These electrons can move from one atom to another and this movement is electrical energy. Electricity powers many machines, from torches and mobile phones to television and computers. It moves, or flows, into machines through materials called conductors, which include metal wires. Mains electricity is produced in power stations by machines called generators. Fuel, such as coal, is burned in the power station to turn water into steam. The steam turns a turbine (a set of large circular blades), which rotates magnets inside the generator, producing electricity. The electricity flows through wires to sockets in our homes. Batteries are useful for supplying small amounts of power to portable or mobile machines without the need to plug into wall sockets. Batteries are stores of chemicals that create a flow of electrical energy. Some batteries run out when the chemicals are used up, but rechargeable batteries regain their stored electrical when plugged into a socket. Switches work by controlling the flow, or current, of electricity through machines.Electricity can only flow through a circuit, which is a continues loop of wire. A switch is rather a gate that can open or close to break or complete the circuit.

Digital Technology

It includes computer, digital cameras, MP3 players and mobiles. These records, store, send and process electronic signals as digital information. Digital means that the electrical signals are either ‘on’, ‘1’, or ‘off’, ‘0’. The 1s and 0s form a code that can represent any type of information. Microchips work using tiny electrical circuits. The circuits are built on paper-thin chips of silicon, a material that is very good at conducting electricity (allowing electricity to pass through it). A single microchip a contain thousands of circuits, allowing it to process lots of digital information. Microchips mean that computers and other digital devices can be small and light. 

Fashion

Fashion alludes to whatever turns into a fury among the majority. Fashion is a well known tasteful articulation. Generally Noteworthy, it is something stylish. Fashion shows up in apparel, footwear, adornments, cosmetics, hairdos, way of life, and body extents. Besides, Fashion is an industry-upheld articulation. In the contemporary world, individuals approach style exceptionally in a serious way. Fashion is something that has penetrated each part of human culture.

The beginning of Fashion is from the year 1826. Most likely everybody trusts Charles Frederick to be the primary style architect of the world. He likewise settled the primary Fashion house in Paris. Therefore, he started the custom of Fashion houses. Besides, he offered guidance to clients on what attire would suit them. He was conspicuous structure 1826 to 1895. During this period, many plan houses employed craftsmen. Moreover, the work of these craftsmen was to foster creative plans for pieces of clothing. The customers would look at a wide range of examples. Then, at that point, they would pick the one they like. Thus, a practice started of introducing examples to clients and afterward sewing them.

During the twentieth century, a change occurred. Presently Fashion pieces of clothing went through large scale manufacturing. There was a huge expansion in the pace of creation of Fashion pieces of clothing. Therefore, an ever increasing number of individuals became engaged with Fashion articles of clothing. Before the finish of the twentieth century, a feeling of Fashion mindfulness was exceptionally solid. Presently individuals started to pick garments dependent on their own style inclination. Thus, individuals started to make their own patterns as opposed to depending on existing patterns.

Social impacts are most likely the most grounded effects on the Fashion pattern. Numerous music stars unequivocally impact Fashion decision. For instance, wearing hoodies became popular because of rap performers. Moreover, film and TV entertainers make a major effect on Fashion. Numerous youths love to imitate the Fashion feeling of their number one superstar.

To summarize it, Fashion absolutely has turned into a vital part of human existence. It absolutely is a power that is setting down deep roots. Generally critical, Fashion has submerged each put on Earth.

Discipline

Discipline is something that keeps every individual in charge. It propels an individual to advance throughout everyday life and make progress. Everybody follow discipline in his/her life in an alternate structure. In addition, everybody has his own possibility of discipline. Certain individuals think of it as a piece of their life and some don’t. It is the aide that accessibility coordinates an individual on the correct way.

Without discipline, the existence of an individual will become dull and latent. Likewise, a restrained individual can handle and deal with the circumstance of living in a complex manner than the people who don’t. In addition, in the event that you have an arrangement and you need to carry out it in your life then you need discipline. It makes things simple for you to deal with and at last carry accomplishment to your life. In the event that discussion about the kinds of discipline, they are for the most part of two sorts. Initial one is initiated discipline and the subsequent one is self-restraint. Incited discipline is something that others showed us or we learn by seeing others. While self-control comes from the inside and we learn it on our own self. Self-control requires a ton of inspiration and backing from others. Most importantly, following your day by day plan with no misstep is likewise essential for being focused.

We need discipline in wherever throughout everyday life. Along these lines, it is ideal to rehearse discipline from the beginning phases of our life. Self-restraint implies various things to various individuals. For understudies, its importance is distinctive for a representative its significance is unique, and for youngsters its significance is unique. In addition, the significance of discipline changes with the phases of life and need. Not every person can be focused in light of the fact that it requires a great deal of difficult work and devotion. Additionally, it needs a positive psyche and a sound body. One must be severe to teach with the goal that she/he can effectively finish the street of accomplishment.

The supporter is a flight of stairs by which the individual make progress. It assists an individual with zeroing in on his/her objectives throughout everyday life. Likewise, it doesn’t let him/her derivate from the objective. Plus, it gets flawlessness an individual life via preparing and teaching the brain and body of the individual to react to the guidelines and guideline, which will assist him with being an optimal resident of the general public.

An important step towards enhancing space technology

Space technology is a significant aspect of a society’s development. It has greatly benefitted us in various fields such as education, research, communication, management of natural disasters and overall, in improving the quality of human life. With economical progress, India has been striving towards executing such space missions which not only aid the national development but establish our position in the international space exploration movement that has been rapidly expanding.

Another such progress was made recently when the Indian Space Association or ISpa was launched. It aims to privatize the space sector by allowing private firms to collaborate with the government for achieving the objective of self-reliant space technology as well as providing India with a lead role as the global space hub. Policies to achieve the same would be framed in consultation with the stakeholders.

Who are the members?

Larson & Toubro, OneWeb, Mapmyindia, Bharti Airtel, Ananth Technology Ltd and the like constitute the founding members. Other key members are Centum Electronics, Maxar India, Godrej and many more. These members will work in line with the shared vision of the government and coordinate with the shareholders.

The association’s Director-General is Lt Gen Anil Bhatt (Retd) who also served as the Director-General of Military Operations previously. Mr. Rahul Vatts who is the Director and Chief Regulatory Officer of Bharti Airtel will serve as the association’s Vice Chairman. The association’s first appointed chairman is Mr. Jayant Patil, Director of Defence and Space technologies, L&T-NxT.

What is it based on?

According to the government, four pillars comprise the shared idea of promoting this space reform.

  • Innovation freedom in the private sector– The government wishes to encourage private sector participation in the development of strategies that would shape the future of India in the space sector. Drafting legislation, engaging in research to develop efficient and high-quality devices that cater to the needs of clients across the globe so that India can become a major manufacturer of space-related equipment are some of the aspects which would be handled in a much better manner if many firms work mutually.
  • Government’s enabling role– The government would play an important role in the creation of an environment that is optimal for coordination and cooperation between the members and shareholders. Experts from the government would not only share their ideas but also promote much-needed innovation while keeping national interests at the forefront.
  • Preparing youth for the future- With extensive research and innovation emerges a brilliant opportunity to develop academia which would make the youth enthusiastic to learn more about the industry and contribute towards its expansion. Young minds would get a chance to explore more career options in this field which would enhance India’s global performance.
  • Using the space sector as a developmental source- This reform would aid India’s progress in multiple aspects such as better resource management, interplanetary explosion, more successful space missions, better weather forecasting, country’s imaging and mapping.

Overall, the launch of the Indian Space Association is a very positive step to benefit various sections of society, ranging from entrepreneurs to youth. It has the potential to transform India into a global leader of the space sector backed by expert interventions from the government and various agencies. Pushing for policies and legislations to enhance India’s growth in terms of critical technology would bring in employment and better wages.

The participation of national and international agencies would bring in more innovation and cooperation. It has the strength to make India a preferred destination for future international investments and which can transform it into a commercial hub. It would also assist in easing the workload of ISRO which has been at the center of India’s space hub developments.

The role social media plays 

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Human beings are social creatures. We need the companionship of others to thrive in life, and the strength of our connections has a huge impact on our mental health and happiness. Being socially connected to others can ease stress, anxiety, and depression, boost self-worth, provide comfort and joy, prevent loneliness, and even add years to your life. On the flip side, lacking strong social connections can pose a serious risk to your mental and emotional health.

In today’s world, many of us rely on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube, and Instagram to find and connect with each other. While each has its benefits, it’s important to remember that social media can never be a replacement for real-world human connection. It requires in-person contact with others to trigger the hormones that alleviate stress and make you feel happier, healthier, and more positive. Ironically for a technology that’s designed to bring people closer together, spending too much time engaging with social media can actually make you feel more lonely and isolated—and exacerbate mental health problems such as anxiety and depression

The positive aspects of social media

While virtual interaction on social media doesn’t have the same psychological benefits as face-to-face contact, there are still many positive ways in which it can help you stay connected and support your wellbeing.

Social media enables you to:

  • Communicate and stay up to date with family and friends around the world.
  • Find new friends and communities; network with other people who share similar interests or ambitions.
  • Join or promote worthwhile causes; raise awareness on important issues.
  • Seek or offer emotional support during tough times.
  • Find a vital social connection if you live in a remote area, for example, or have limited independence, social anxiety, or are part of a marginalized group.
  • Find an outlet for your creativity and self-expression.
  • Discover (with care) sources of valuable information and learning.

The negative aspects of social media

Since it’s a relatively new technology, there’s little research to establish the long-term consequences, good or bad, of social media use. However, multiple studies have found a strong link between heavy social media and an increased risk for depression, anxiety, loneliness, self harm, and even sucidal thoughts

Social media may promote negative experiences such as:

  • Inadequacy about your life or appearance. Even if you know that images you’re viewing on social media are manipulated, they can still make you feel insecure about how you look or what’s going on in your own life. 
  • Fear of missing out (FOMO). While FOMO has been around far longer than social media, sites such as Facebook and Instagram seem to exacerbate feelings that others are having more fun or living better lives than you are.
  • Isolation. A study at the University of Pennsylvania found that high usage of Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram increases rather decreases feelings of loneliness. Conversely, the study found that reducing social media usage can actually make you feel less lonely and isolated and improve your overall wellbeing.
  • Depression and anxiety The more you prioritize social media interaction over in-person relationships, the more you’re at risk for developing or exacerbating mood disorders such as anxiety and depression.
  • Cyberbullying. About 10 percent of teens report being bullied on social media and many other users are subjected to offensive comments. Social media platforms such as Twitter can be hotspots for spreading hurtful rumors, lies, and abuse that can leave lasting emotional scars.
  • Self-absorption. Sharing endless selfies and all your innermost thoughts on social media can create unhealthy self-centeredness and distance you from real-life connections.

Leadership Skills

Leadership refers back to the nice of main humans. Probably, it is one of the most essential components of lifestyles. Above all, Leadership has brought about the development of human civilization. Without exact Leadership, no corporation or institution can succeed. Furthermore, no longer everybody has this best. This is because powerful Leadership calls for sure important traits.

First of all, self assurance is the maximum fine. A leader must have sturdy self-self assurance. A person missing in self belief can never be a very good leader. A person must be assured sufficient to make sure others observe him. The chief should trust in his choices and actions. If he’s uncertain, then how can humans have the choice to comply with him.

A desirable chief ought to clearly encourage others. A leader ought to be a function model for his fans. Furthermore, he must encourage them every time feasible. Also, in hard conditions, a frontrunner ought to not lose wish. How can a leader encourage human beings if he himself is hopeless?

Honesty is some other extremely good excellent of a frontrunner. Honesty and Integrity are essential to earn the love of followers. Above all, honesty is essential to win the trust of the human beings. Probably, every Leadership which loses trust is sure to fail. People will no longer paintings with complete effort due to an immoral leader.

Good verbal exchange is a ought to for a terrific chief. This is due to the fact poor verbal exchange manner the wrong message to followers. Furthermore, appropriate communique will growth the price of labor. Also, the probabilities of errors via followers will lessen.
Another important fine is choice making. Above all, if a leader makes bad decisions then other features will no longer be counted. Furthermore, excellent choice making ensures the achievement of the whole group. If the chief makes negative choices, then the efforts of fans received’t matter.

A exact chief should be an extraordinary innovator. He should show a innovative mindset in his paintings. Most noteworthy, innovation is a assure of survival of a group or innovation. Without innovative wondering, development isn’t always possible.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Shivaji Bhonsle was brought into the world in the imperial group of Shahaji Bhonsle. He was a conceived pioneer and proceeded to set up the Maratha Empire that even unnerved the strong Mughals. Brought into the world on sixteenth February 1627 in Shivneri, Shivaji was the pleased child of Shahji. This Shivaji Maharaj exposition in English will inform you concerning the magnificence and bravery of individuals’ above all else.

Shivaji’s mom Jijabai was likewise extremely impressive in character. She was temperate and gave the appropriate instruction to her child to make him dauntless. He grew up paying attention to the boldness and greatness of the Ramayana and Mahabharata. He additionally followed the lessons of these two sagas yet additionally soaked up the solid strong provisions of an ideal Hindu’s person. He never figured out how to show homage any power. In this Shivaji Maharaj article, his life and accomplishments will be spread out.

He was urged by Dada Konadev to acquire diverse fighting abilities applicable in the contemporary time. His master needed him to endure any assorted condition by utilizing such abilities. Aside from his endurance and fighting abilities, he turned into a patriot and the man of his words. Being an undeniable hero, he followed the lessons of Saint Ramdev and comprehended the significance of religion. This schooling incorporated the significance, all things considered, governmental issues, and culture. From the proof of Shivaji Maharaj’s article in English of students of history, you will see that his abilities and life examples assisted him with becoming perhaps the best head of India.

He immediately became capable at various life and fighting abilities and went into the truth of the world. He began to assault the foes encompassing his realm and catching them consistently to make a greater and more grounded domain. The second his banner was lifted in the fortifications of Toran and Purandar, the accounts of his boldness and strength arrived at Delhi and Agra. The rulers, regardless of whether they are dictators or subject-cherishing, began to fear his name.

Adil Shah, the ruler of Bijapur, feared his developing force. He then, at that point, caught his dad Shahji and detained him. Finding out with regards to his dad’s detainment, he was enraged however didn’t fly off the handle. He arranged well and liberated his dad. This made Adil Shah much more angry. He requested his administrator Afzal Khan to design a murder and kill Shivaji. Afzal went about as a companion to acquire his certainty and kill him. Shivaji was one stride ahead. He killed Afzal Khan by concealing a lethal knife inside his shroud and escaped.

Under his strength and bravery, the Maratha Empire developed further each day. He was referred to as a political dissident as he calmed average people from the despots. He was viewed as hostile to Muslim by numerous yet it isn’t in reality obvious. His two commanders were Siddi and Daulat Khan. History specialists recommend that his military comprised of troopers from various races and religions. He never figured out how to separate between individuals as far as position, religion, or shading.

He zeroed in his energy on killing the dictators of the contemporary time. A large portion of them were Muslim rulers. He never incited any strict conflict or thought process to remove a realm. Everything he did was to comprehend ordinary citizens’ aggravation under the holiday Aurangzeb and different rulers. He liberated many individuals and in this way was given the name Chhatrapati Shivaji by his admirers.

He managed the Maratha Empire for a long time and made a guide to follow. He then, at that point, fell debilitated and experienced an obscure fever for a long time. He then, at that point, surrendered to his sickness and kicked the bucket on third April 1680 in Raigad Fort.

Social media outage: A glitch turned fatal

The dependency of societies on technology is undebatable. Social media has emerged as a saviour amidst the pandemic which made it very challenging to stay connected in terms of our personal and professional life. However, the recent social media outages have revealed a scary fact: we cannot afford them. They cause damages to as many sectors of society as technology benefits.

Effects on economy

Facebook, home to one of the largest social media networks across the globe, upon recently facing a major outage and disruption in its services like WhatsApp and Instagram, took entrepreneurs by shock as their sales dipped dramatically and they scrambled to cater to the increasingly impatient customers. From beauty and clothing to food delivery, many industries were simultaneously affected. The services were completely stalled for hours which created a lot of stress and panic.

Facebook itself suffered revenue losses of billions and the world economy had to pay the price. The small-scale advertisers, influencers, and content creators were forced into helplessness as their only methods of interacting with the audience and making ends meet suffered a blow. Such financial dependence on social media continues to prove itself a major cause of concern.

Effects on education

Social media has been a boon for the education sector, providing students and educators around the world with ample opportunities to enhance knowledge sharing, despite the uncertainties of a global pandemic. But the outages on educational platforms have proved to be costly. Zoom, for example, suffered major glitches which were very inconvenient and caused communication problems between students and educators, which, in turn, is detrimental for their academic growth.

Moreover, educators also feel the pressure to rush through the materials since these technical issues take much time to be fixed. Many other platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook and YouTube, which are also used by educators to keep the students updated, upon facing such issues, create a lot of panic and confusion.

Effects on mental health

Social media is constantly used by many as a way of entertainment and recreation. It allows us to relieve stress and cope with day-to-day life. But many people also use it as a form of escapism and eventually become addicted. Outages expose them to periods where they experience extreme withdrawal symptoms. When their mental health and happiness are dependent upon an external source such as social media in the form of validation received through likes and comments, feelings of anxiety, stress and emptiness creep in when those services are stalled for hours.

Not only are they unable to connect with others to reduce loneliness but they also get stuck with their negative thoughts which have a very poor effect on their overall well-being. Research shows that social media is one of the leading causes of depression as it is designed in such a way that people automatically fall into the trap of comparison and information overload.

Is there a way out?

While social media outages are abrupt and often uncontrollable, as individuals, we can educate others and take steps towards reducing our dependence on it in some ways-

  • Limiting screen time – Instead of scrolling endlessly for hours, social media can be used mindfully by delegating certain hours of the day to it while engaging in other activities and hobbies during the day. This would ensure that our well-being is not compromised and we can successfully achieve our goals.
  • Spending time with others – Be it a family member, friend or even a pet, we must make sure that we have some company so that we do not slip into loneliness or other destructive habits which can worsen social media addiction. Participating in volunteering work or joining local communities that align with our interests is also a great way to be more active physically and mentally.
  • Social media detox – Refraining from using technology and social media for a fixed amount of time is also a good method to overcome social media dependency. Taking help from family members and friends, identifying triggers which guide the over-consumption and making a planner to track its effects on daily mood are some helpful ways that can make this process easier.
  • Choosing alternatives – In the case of finance, we must make sure that social media is never the only source of making ends meet. We must always be prepared and have enough skills to tackle the challenges of a physical workspace in case our social media business comes to a halt. Multiple courses can be easily found, online or offline, which can aid us in the process.

Social media outages serve as a reminder that although it is a great source of education, entertainment and much more, it has an unpredictable aspect to it which can prove to be damaging if we do not gain control over our online consumption. Hence, we must learn to strike a balance between our online and offline worlds.

“Like all technology, social media is neutral but is best put to work in the service of building a better world.”

Simon Mainwaring

Why there is need for mental health awareness among young adults?

To begin with , mental health is an important yet underrated aspect . It’s a very crucial aspect considering the age we live in where success is defined by how many cars you own , how lavish your lifestyle is and how good you look. Generation to generation , people have constantly neglected the importance of healthy mind.

Young adults are full of life and energy . They are ready to explore the world and are in hurry to get independent and live a life they dream . In a era where there is competition in whichever field you choose, these adults are already facing some serious heat from their peers. To cope up with competition , they use whichever getaway suitable for them. For some it may be surfing through social media , for others it might be use of alcohol and toxic substance. According to the reports of National institute of mental health ,Young adults aged 18-25 years had the highest prevalence of mental illness (29.4%) compared to adults aged 26-49 years (25.0%) and aged 50 and older (14.1%). Social media can be boon or bane . People nowadays live a fake lifestyle on social media which makes youth think they are inferior. Youth are attracted to alcohol thinking it helps to reduce problems but studies suggest latter. Each year approximately 5000 young adults under the age of 21 die , due to excessive drinking habits. Drinking excessive increase the chances of higher depression.

Ways to improve your mental health

Medications

There are medical drugs which helps to treat mental illness. Youth should feel free to approach or to ask for help . Youth should consult doctors and tell them situation they are going through.

Psychotherapy

Pyschotherapy helps a lot to cure mental illness. This therapy has shown a lot of improvement in many individuals. Talk therapy helps in reducing a lot of stress, improves their lifestyle and helps them to approach life with positive attitude.

Regular exercise and diet

Physical activities help a lot to make mind healthy. Regular exercise acts as a natural boost of energy . It provides mind with sense of achievement. It helps to focus more and gives more motivation to individual.

There are many mental health illness and this article covers few of the mental illness and how to deal with them. For more information, feel free to consult to doctor .

Never hesitate to ask help and be helpful for those in need by encouraging them to consult and support them. Together we can overcome this.

Piracy

Piracy refers to the unauthorized duplication of copyrighted content that is then sold at substantially lower prices in the ‘grey’ market. The ease of access to technology has meant that over the years, piracy has become more rampant. For example, CD writers are available off the shelf at very low prices, making music piracy a simple affair.
Many laws have been made to prevent privacy. Internationally, the laws for punishing piracy in developed countries are stringent and punitive in nature. In Asian countries and more in India too, it does not get the attention at the national level due to more engaging issues at hand. However, the industry, especially the IT and music industry, has been taking an active interest in stemming the rot. These organizations identify sources of music piracy and then conduct raids with the help of the police. However, convictions are few and the penalties are not harsh enough to act as a deterrent. Piracy is done in many ways like video piracy, cable piracy, and DVD/CD piracy. Video piracy takes place when a film is produced in the form of a video cassette without proper authorization from the right holder i.e. the producer. Often, film producers sell video rights to another party (generally after six weeks or more of release in theatres), which makes video cassettes for selling, or lending.

Types of Piracy

Counterfeiting

This type of piracy is the illegal duplication, distribution, or sale of copyrighted material with the intent of imitating the copyrighted product. In the case of packaged software, it is common to find counterfeit copies of the compact discs incorporating the software programs, as well as related packaging, manuals, license agreements, labels, registration cards, and security features.

Internet Piracy

This occurs when unauthorized software is downloaded from the Internet. The same purchasing rules apply to online software purchases as for those bought in compact disc format. Common Internet piracy techniques are:

  • Websites that make software available for free download or in exchange for others
  • Internet auction sites that offer counterfeit or out-of-channel software
  • Peer-to-peer networks that enable unauthorized transfer of copyrighted programs

End-User Piracy

This occurs when an individual reproduces copies of software without authorization. These include:

  • Using one licensed copy to install a program on multiple computers
  • Copying discs for installation or distribution
  • Taking advantage of upgrade offers without having a legal copy of the version to be upgraded
  • Acquiring academic or other restricted or non-retail software without a proper license
  • Swapping discs in or outside the workplace

Client-Server Overuse

This type of piracy occurs when too many users on a network are using a central copy of a program at the same time. If you have a local-area network and install programs on the server for several people to use, you have to be sure your license entitles you to do so. If you have more users than allowed by the license, that’s “overuse”.

Hard-Disk Loading

This occurs when a business sells new computers with illegal copies of software loaded onto the hard disks to make the purchase of the machines more attractive.

Asima Chatterjee- First Indian Woman to Earn a Doctorate in Science

India has always put a feather on the cap when it comes to its contribution to the field of science and development. Throughout history, it is evident that along with men, Indian women too have been prominent contributors to science. One such great personality in the field of science was Ms. Asima Chatterjee

Prof. Asima Chatterjee was born in 1917 in Calcutta, British India. In spite of the regressive ideologies people possessed for women back then, Chatterjee’s family was extremely supportive of her education and encouraged her to be an academic. Her father was very interested in botany and Chatterjee shared in his interest. She graduated with honors in chemistry from the Scottish Church College of the University of Calcutta in 1936.

Asima Chatterjee received a master’s degree (1938) and a doctorate (1944) in organic chemistry from the University of Calcutta’s Raja bazar Science College campus, making her the first Indian woman to earn a doctoral degree in the field of science. She was acknowledged as the Doyenne of Chemistry. She specialized in synthetic organic chemistry and plant products as part of her doctoral research. Her research was directed by Professor Prafulla Kumar Bose, one of the pioneers in natural product chemistry in India. she was also inspired by the doyens of Indian science, like Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray, Professor Prafulla Chandra Mitra, and Professor Janendra Nath Mukherjee, who influenced her career as a natural product scientist. In addition, she had research experience from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and Caltech with László Zechmeister. Chatterjee’s research focused on natural products chemistry and led to the development of anti-convulsive, anti-malarial, and chemotherapy drugs. She made significant contributions in the field of medicinal chemistry with special reference to alkaloids, coumarins and terpenoids, analytical chemistry, and mechanistic organic chemistry over a period of 40 years. Her work led to the development of an epilepsy drug called Ayush-56 and several anti-malarial drugs.

She published around 400 papers in national and international journals and more than a score of review articles in reputed serial volumes. In addition to many citations in her work, much of it has been included in several textbooks.

She has won several prestigious awards such as the S S Bhatnagar award, the C V Raman award, and the P C Ray award; and is the recipient of the Padma Bhushan, the third-highest civilian award, in recognition of her contributions to the field of science. In addition to these accolades, she was also the first woman to be elected as the General President of the Indian Science Congress, a premier institution that oversees research in science. She was also nominated by the President of India as a Member of the Rajya Sabha from February 1982 to May 1990.

On the request of the late Professor Satyendra Nath Bose, FRS, she wrote Sarai Madhyamic Rasayan, a book in Bengali on chemistry for secondary school students, published by Bangiya Bijnan Parishad, an Institute for the Popularisation of Science founded by SN Bose himself.

In an era where people saw women as mere “property” that belonged to her husband, she rose to earn a name for herself. Due to her impeccable contribution to the field of science, she is truly an inspiration to many young girls. Being one of a kind, her achievements will be lauded for many more years to come.

Vivad se Vishwas scheme 2020

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The tax system is the government’s largest source of income. Tax revenue is used for various projects for the development of the nation by the government. Taxation in India is well structured and consists of different levels.

The Indian tax system is well structured and has a three-tier federal structure. The tax structure consists of the central government, state governments, and local municipal bodies.

India’s central government imposes several taxes such as customs duties, central excise duties, income taxes, and service taxes. The state government collects several types of taxes, including farm income taxes, state excise taxes, professional tax, land revenue tax, and stamp duty. On services such as water and drainage supply, local governments are allowed to collect octroi and property tax.

An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities on the basis of their income or profits. Generally, income tax is computed by multiplying the tax rate by the taxable income. There may be variations in tax rates according to the taxpayer’s characteristics and the income being received. 

Income tax in India is governed by Entry 82 of the Union List of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution of India, empowering the central government to tax non-agricultural income; agricultural income is defined in Section 10(1) of the Income-tax Act, 1961. The Income Tax Department is the central government’s largest revenue generator; total tax revenue increased from ₹1,392.26 billion (US$20 billion) in 1997–98 to ₹5,889.09 billion (US$83 billion) in 2007–08. In 2018–19, direct tax collections reported by the CBDT were about 11.17 lakh crore (₹1.117 trillion).

Income tax dispute resolution in India is multi-layered and time-consuming, which negatively affects doing business in India. Tax appeals in India are handled by the Supreme Court of India, which has an extensive jurisdiction. The system, however, can be abused. In the present dispute resolution procedure, tax appeals filed by the income tax department are the most common.

The Indian Government, to clear the backlog of appeals, has launched a direct tax litigation settlement scheme named the ‘Direct Tax Vivad Se Viswas Scheme’ (VSV scheme) on March 17, 2020. The ‘VSV scheme’ provides taxpayers with an option to put a full stop to the entire litigation process and achieve finality merely by paying the tax component of the dispute. The Indian Government shall waive penalty and interest, and is offering a 50 percent discount to settle revenue appeals and appeals where the taxpayer has a favourable precedent by a higher court. An important aspect is that the ‘VSV scheme’ is not an amnesty scheme and explicitly clarifies that availing this option shall have no precedence value qua the principal issues. Thus, taxpayers can decide to settle their appeals based on an objective comparison of future litigation costs with the cost of availing the settlement option.“The last date of payment under ‘Vivad se Vishwas Direct Tax 2020 (without additional amount) was extended to 30th September 2021 and with the additional amount the due date is 31st October 2021.”

With respect to the matters covered in the declaration, the taxpayer is immune from interest, penalties, and prosecution for any offence under the Income-tax Act.

Swiggy – An Inspirational Start-Up

When Swiggy launched in 2014, it was seen as a late entrant in an overcrowded market. Back then, the online ordering and delivery of food was not considered attractive, and Zomato, the leader in food-tech, didn’t expand its delivery service, which was deemed messy and unviable. In less than four years, Swiggy has become one of the much-talked-about unicorn startups. The company has also forced Zomato to rethink its decision to invest hundreds of crores of rupees to compete with Swiggy, which dominates online food ordering.

To put it in perspective, India’s most successful startup, Flipkart, entered the billion-dollar club a little more than six years ago. Swiggy, which was launched in Koramangala in Bengaluru by Sriharsha Majety, Nandan Reddy, and Rahul Jaimini, surpassed that mark in less than four years, becoming the fastest startup to become a unicorn.

Despite being part of the 2014-2015 wave of hyper-funding, Swiggy continues to thrive. There were supposed to be dozens of successful companies and a few unicorns as a result of that wave. When all was said and done, only Swiggy emerged victorious. The company has beaten hundreds of companies along the way, including Zomato and Foodpanda, as well as peers, such as Tinyowl, which eventually collapsed. Here’s how

  1. Logistics are a key focus

In the startup ecosystem, Swiggy’s success fits in with a trend: companies that have control over the entire customer experience have triumphed over purely marketplaces. Swiggy did a lot of things right, but the driving force behind its success is its excellent logistics operation.

Startups preferred to not build their own supply chains when they started Swiggy rather than focus on building a cool app. Marketplaces such as Zomato, TinyOwl, and Foodpanda connect customers with restaurants, but “outsource” delivery to third parties. Even Flipkart cut its logistics operations in 2015, a mistake it would later correct. The company was convinced that the only way to break into the food delivery market was to build an extensive logistics network. Many food-technology companies are now operating their own fleets for delivery.

  • Don’t let the trend pass you by

Majety and Reddy, two of Swiggy’s founders, weren’t embarking on their first project together. Mid-2013, the two BITS-Pilani graduates came together to develop an idea that would take full advantage of the Indian e-commerce boom. In India, shipping goods across the country is a massive pain point for e-commerce, which is why the duo developed Bundl, a technology product.

  • Create a complementary team

The company decided to incorporate Swiggy as Bundl Technologies Pvt. as a tribute to their earlier efforts. Ltd in August 2014. Furthermore, Swiggy was successful because each of the three co-founders had a unique skill set. Majety first found his calling as a trader at Nomura in London in 2011. A few months later, however, he became disillusioned by corporate life. The man had been working well for a year, but after a year he decided to travel and take time off work. The trip took him through Europe and Asia, and during that time he grew to realize that he wanted to pursue his own interests.

Tobacco Smoking in India

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Smoking is already a major health problem in India, one that will worsen if we do not take action. Nearly ten lakh deaths are attributed to smoking alone in India each year. About one-third of Indian men now smoke; as many women as men do. The risks for both are the same. The majority of tobacco-related deaths occur in middle age and not just in old age.

In India, it is common to chew tobacco products such as gutka. Over half of all oral cancer deaths result from chewing, and women are particularly hard hit. Younger people are chewing more, and precancerous conditions such as mouth lesions are on the rise.

Chewing is common among both men and women all over the world. The percentage of people chewing tobacco products in India is 31% for men and 19% for women, but the number is much higher in Bihar at 69% and 22% for men and women, respectively. Pregnant women who smoke lead to low-birth-weight babies, stillbirths, and birth defects.

According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2010, chewing is more prevalent among the poorest. The poorest 30 percent of people chew tobacco products. The middle income is 25 percent, and the highest income is 15 percent. Oral cancer is more likely to kill women who chew tobacco. In the 30-69 age group, three percent of women and one percent of men are at the relative risk of dying from chewing. Oral cancer has a higher relative risk of death among women, but men have a higher background death rate, so the absolute risks are more equal.

Kishanganj has 1,00,000 men ages 15-69, of whom 50,000 will die from smoking. Seventy percent of people will die between the ages of 15 and 69, while thirty percent will die in old age. In 2015, there were 59% more men who smoked in Bihar than in previous years. 612 lakh men who smoke cigarettes lose 10 years of life whereas 687 lakh men who smoke bidis lose 6 years of life. The use of tobacco is not only a public health threat, but also an economic burden on our country’s health care systems, forcing them to spend a lot of money treating diseases that are largely preventable. In addition to the cost of treating serious diseases like cancer or stroke, tobacco use also affects individual families.

28,000 Kishanganj residents are forced into poverty by tobacco use each year. Almost Rs. 11 crores are spent each year on tobacco in the district. Tobacco control laws are implemented in part by the police. A staggering 350 police officers will be killed by tobacco at ages 15-69 out of 1000 who smoke. Stopping smoking is one of the most important things smokers can do to extend their lives and improve their health. Nonetheless, India has very low quit rates of 5%. Nearly all the risks can be avoided by quitting by 40 and preferably earlier. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air decreases and oxygen levels increase after quitting within 12 hours. The risk of heart attacks drops and lung functions improve within three months. With 1 year, the risk of sudden heart attack is cut in half, and with 5 years, the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and bladder is halved. According to Section 4 of the Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), smoking in public places is prohibited wherever the general public has access, whether by right or otherwise, but does not include open spaces. Additionally, smoking is prohibited in open areas that are visited by the public such as auditoriums, stadiums, stations, and bus stops. The fine for smoking in public places can range from Rs 200 to Rs 500.

Origin Of Yoga In India

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As Yoga’s sacred texts are passed down orally and its teachings are regarded as secretive, the history of Yoga is obscure and uncertain in many places. Yoga was originally written on fragile palm leaves that were easily damaged, destroyed, or lost. Over 5,000 years ago, yoga was developed, but some researchers believe that yoga may be as old as 10,000 years. There are four main periods of innovation, practice, and development in the history of yoga.

  • A Preclassical Yoga practices

Yoga originated in Northern India over 5,000 years ago with the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. Yoga was first mentioned in the oldest sacred text, the Rig Veda. Vedas were a collection of texts containing songs, mantras, and rituals that were used by Brahmans, the Vedic priests. The Brahmans and Rishis (mystic seers) refined and developed yoga gradually, recording their practices and beliefs in upanishads, a huge work containing over 200 scriptures. In the Upanishads, the concept of ritual sacrifice was internalized, teaching the sacrifice of the ego through self-knowledge, action (karma yoga), and wisdom (jnana yoga).

  • The Classical Stage of Yoga

During the pre-classical stage, yoga was a mishmash of ideas, beliefs, and practices that often contradicted one another. Yoga-Sûtras, Patanjali’s first systematic presentation of yoga, mark the end of the Classical period. RAJA YOGA, sometimes called classical yoga, was described in this text around the second century. Many stages and steps lead to enlightenment in Patanjali’s “eight-limbed path” of yoga. He is often considered the father of yoga and his Yoga-Sûtras still influence most styles of modern yoga.

  • Post-Classical Yoga

Yogic practices were created following Patanjali’s teachings a few centuries after Patanjali’s. The ancient Vedas were rejected in favor of embracing the physical body as the means of attaining enlightenment. To break the knots that bind us to our physical existence, Tantric Yoga, with its radical techniques, was developed. Exploring these physical-spiritual connections and body-centered practices led to the creation of what we primarily think of as yoga in the West: Hatha Yoga.

  • Modern Period

The western world began to receive yoga masters’ attention and followers during the late 1800s and early 1900s. A turning point for this occurred when Swami Vivekananda lectured on yoga and the universality of the world’s religions during the 1893 Parliament of Religions in Chicago. Hatha Yoga was strongly promoted in India during the 1920s and 1930s by T. Kumaramacharya and Swami Sivananda, among others. On the banks of the holy Ganges on the banks of Mysore, Krishnamacharya opened his first Hatha Yoga school in 1924, and Sivananda founded the Divine Life Society in 1936. Sri Krishnamacharya produced three students who would continue his legacy and increase the popularity of Hatha Yoga: B.K.S. Iyengar, T.K.V. Desikachar, and Pattabhi Jois. Among Sivananda’s accomplishments, he wrote more than 200 books and built numerous ashrams and yoga centers worldwide. Until Indra Devi opened her yoga studio in Hollywood in 1947, yoga importation to the West continued at a trickle. Since then, many more western and Indian teachers have popularized hatha yoga and gained millions of followers. Now, there are many different styles of Hatha Yoga, all emphasizing different aspects of the practice.

Top Medical Colleges in India

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India is known for its contribution to medicine. Since the ancient times, traditional medicines like Ayurveda, Unani, and homeopathy have been prevalent. Apart from this, the status of allopathy has been equivalented as well. Every year, India graduates millions of well-qualified doctors. As an ode to the exceptional quality of medical education in India, here are a few top medical colleges in India –

  1. All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi is a public hospital and medical research university based in New Delhi, India. The institute is governed by the AIIMS Act, 1956 and operates autonomously under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. AIIMS is considered the best institution of India in the field of medicine. A few undergraduate programs offered by AIIMS are Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), Bachelor of Science, Nursing, Allied Sciences. Post graduate programs are – Doctor of Medicine (MD), Master of Surgery (MS), Master of Dental surgery (MDS), Doctorate of Medicine (DM). All undergraduate admissions would be taken up only through a single national level examination NEET-UG conducted by NTA (National Testing Agency).

  • Armed forces medical college, Pune

The Armed Forces Medical College is a leading medical training institute in Pune, India, in the state of Maharashtra. The college is managed by the Indian Armed Forces, ranked among the best medical colleges in India throughout and 34th best globally by CEO World Magazine: 2021. The Armed Force Medical College doesn’t conduct any separate entrance exam for the admission; Candidates must qualify the NEET examination to get admission. The courses offered are MBBS, post graduate courses, super-speciality, and para-medical courses. It is also a premier institute for research.

  • King George’s Medical University, Lucknow.

King George’s Medical University is a medical school, hospital, and medical university located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The medical school was raised to a medical university by an act passed by the government of Uttar Pradesh on 16 September 2002. Apart from the top-notch quality of education that they provide, they have one of the most beautiful campus in India. Situated in a majestic white building, the college looks nothing less than a palace. With a green lush lawn in the centre, it offers a relaxing place for the already exhausted medical students. King George V, then the Prince of Wales, laid the foundation stone of King George’s Medical College in 1906. It has four main faculties – Faculty of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Paramedical Sciences, and Institute of Nursing. The University has about 1250 undergraduate students (including 280 dental students) and 450 postgraduate students.

  • Madras Medical College, Chennai

It was established on 2 February 1835 during British Raj. It is the third oldest medical college in India, established after Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research and Calcutta Medical College. Madras Medical College was ninth among medical colleges in India by The Week in 2019. The College of Pharmacy was ranked 57 in India by the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) pharmacy ranking in 2020. Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital (RGGGH)Park Town, Chennai, Tamil Nadu Government Dental CollegePark Town, Chennai, Barnard Institute of Radiology, Park Town, Chennai, are a few notable institutes attached to this college.

Udaan- A Phenomenal Start-Up Inspiration

In the field of tech startups, Udaan has added another feather to India’s cap. Providing small entrepreneurs with the benefits of online commerce, it is one of the fastest-growing unicorns in India. Udaan offers a platform and an opportunity for all retailers, wholesalers, distributors, and manufacturing companies in smaller towns and villages to grow as entrepreneurs.

Udaan, founded in June 2016, is a startup company based in Bangalore. The founding members of the company were Amol Malviya, Vaibhav Gupta, and Sujeet Kumar, who previously worked for Flipkart. During their time working at Flipkart, they observed how despite having a strong distribution network, the company was still unable to reach these locations. Their main aim of starting this business was to make the goods reach the remotest areas of the country like Bhabua in Bihar. Udaan targets the back-end of a market. This is the part or process that takes place behind the scenes in an exchange or an e-commerce website.

Udaan portrays the axiomatic example of a B2B (business to business) model. Business-to-business is a situation where one business makes a commercial transaction with another, such as wholesalers and online retailers. It is a type of electronic commerce (e-commerce) which involves exchange of products, services or information between businesses, rather than between businesses and consumers (B2C). There are two B2B models to be considered- a vertical model and a horizontal model. The vertical model can further be divided into two categories- upstream and downstream. Upstream suppliers, including manufacturers, can supply producers and commercial retailers and form a sales relationship. Horizontal B2B is the transaction pattern for the intermediate trading market. It concentrates similar transactions of various industries into one place, as it provides a trading opportunity for the purchaser and supplier, typically involving companies that do not own the products and do not sell the products.

Udaan is an example of vertical model. The company operates primarily in 3 verticals- food (staples, fruits, and vegetables), non-food (electronics and fashion), and pharmaceuticals. The manufacturers can present their product on this platform, and interested traders have the freedom to select and buy it. Retailers and wholesalers also have the same freedom to advertise and buy a product.  Even the Kirana(groceries) stores and chemists have started registering for the platform. The platform facilitates secure payments and gives logistics support as well.

The company also offers accounting, order management and payment management solutions to merchants on their platform. Apart from that, it also provides the business owners with the option of borrowing at much more reasonable rates, which helps them avoid being exploited.

An interesting element about this unique start-up is that the company doesn’t have a CEO. The three founders decided to keep it this way, which truly sets this company apart.

In 2020, Udaan claimed itself to be valued at $7.5 billion, as per its valuation report, becoming the fourth-highest valued start up in India. Depending on the category, Udaan charges a commission based on a percentage of sales. As part of its logistics package, Udaan also charges the buyer for delivery fees. Likewise, this fee varies with the product and its quality. Udaan offers a credit limit to verified buyers.
At first, they will provide Rs. 10000/- credit with no interest charges then the credit limit will be increased to a maximum of Rs. 250000/-.

Udaan became the fastest unicorn in 2018. Since its inception in 2016, the company is now operating in a total of 900 cities. Having grown exponentially in just 5 years, the company plans to expand even further.

Social Status of Teachers in India

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Globally, teaching is considered one of the most respected professions. Since ancient times, teachers have held the highest social status in India. Recently, however, the situation and social status of Teachers in India this problem has worsened. There are only two professions in rural India that attract the most people: teaching and police/army. The reason for the first one is because of massive vacancy, and another one is because of receiving respect in society. Teachers are highly respected by the general public. However, the social standing of teachers in India is declining day by day. A new challenge awaits them every day.

  1. A lack of exposure to the Internet and technology

Is it possible to imagine a life without the Internet today? Indian government schools, however, lack adequate internet facilities and teachers aren’t adequately prepared to utilize them. Sitting in our AC rooms, we can blame the teachers for their inefficiency, but we need to see things from their perspective. Their current teaching method, consisting of a blackboard, pen, and paper, is the conventional method. In the absence of proper training in the latest tech, these teachers can’t become qualified to use the Internet for teaching.

  • Lack of access to basic resources

There are very few resources available to Indian teachers so that they can do their jobs. Despite the fact that books, copies, and other stationery are not provided, they are expected to teach effectively. Regardless of that scarcity, they must still prove their worth by delivering exceptional results. There is no justification for this at all.

  • Infrastructure in a bad state

Perhaps you are wondering how infrastructure has anything to do with teaching, but it does. Software engineers cannot work without computers, and doctors cannot work without stethoscopes; similarly, teachers cannot teach without classrooms. In India, you’ll be surprised to learn that there are many schools where classes of different types are held simultaneously. Imagine a 4th grader studying alongside an 8th grader, one after the other, not to mention together? That scenario alone is chaotic and difficult to comprehend. In that environment, teachers are under pressure both to manage the classes and to achieve good results from their students. The situation facing female teachers is so horrendous that it can’t even be addressed. The act seems inhuman. The toilets don’t exist, and even if they are (for name’s sake), they are in very poor condition.

  • Growing disbelief in government-run education

There is widespread disbelief in the nation’s public schools and in their teachers. They are treated as substandard (which they are). However, students and teachers suffer the most. It is their right to get a quality education, but they do not get it. Teachers no longer get the appreciation and respect they used to get in previous decades.

  • Appointments and selections that are not uniform

In India, the process of selecting teachers is not uniform. There are Ad Hoc teachers, temporary teachers, teachers under contract, regular teachers, and many more. With such disparity in the selection of teachers, how can anyone imagine a uniform and robust education system? Just knowing the selection process and the teaching process according to that can be so confusing.

  • Inequitable Payment Structure

Linked to the first issue mentioned above, this one is also somewhat related. It is not surprising that there are huge differences in salaries at the time of appointing a teacher. The government fixes an amount for contract teachers, which is less than what regular teachers make. A different rule applies to Ad-hoc teachers.

PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

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A personality is a collection of traits, behaviours and attitudes that define a person. The word personality comes from the Latin word persona which refers to a theatrical mask worn by performers for different roles. Every individual has a unique skill set. Everyone’s potential is multi-faceted, and investing in personality development enables one to harness one’s inner strengths. Focusing on individual personality development adds to your capabilities and helps your dreams and aspirations turn into a reality. To be a more charismatic person, you have to develop your inner self as well as your outer self. The importance of personality development is undisputed in personal and professional life. Personality also influences what we think, our beliefs, values and expectations. 

Following are the factors which help in shaping one’s personality:

  1. Heredity – Heredity refers to factors that are determined once an individual is born. An individual’s physique, attractiveness, body type, complexion, body weight depends on his/her parents’ biological makeup.
  2. Environment – The environment to which an individual is subjected to during his growing years plays an important role in determining his/her personality. The varied cultures in which we are brought up and our family backgrounds have a crucial role in shaping our personalities.
  3. Situation – An individual’s personality also changes with current circumstances and situations. An individual would behave in a different way when he has enough savings with him and his behaviour would automatically change when he is bankrupt.
  4. Positive outlook

“When life hands you lemons, make lemonade” Is a saying that has been around for centuries. It means that we should focus on the good part in any given situation and come up with something positive. This is called the act of being sanguine. Having an optimistic outlook goes a long way in developing your personality.  In terms of career, decisions, relationships, and much more, positivity stands out as a notable characteristic of a good personality from the fact that it makes it easier to cope with changes like ups and downs in life. Some attributes of being a positive thinker are-

  • Optimism– By maintaining an optimistic outlook, you can handle difficult situations more effectively. Optimism manifests itself as a willingness to make an effort and take a chance, rather than assuming that your efforts will be unsuccessful or that your circumstances will never improve.
  • Acceptance- It is not always possible to control the outcomes of circumstances. For those situations, acceptance can help you learn from your mistakes. Acceptance can also help you maintain perspective, rather than exaggerating the situation. It helps you move on for better rather than keep sulking over a failure.
  • Resilience– Having resilience means you have the ability to bounce back when faced with adversity without relying on unhealthy coping mechanisms. It is the ability to handle major setbacks while maintaining daily routines.
  • Gratitude– it is the quality of being thankful and readiness to show appreciation for and to return kindness. To be grateful implies a state of self-contentment and acceptance of life as it flows. This helps to feel satisfied with whatever you already have.
  • Be a conversationalist-

A conversationalist is a person who is good at or fond of engaging in conversation. As ironic as it is, being a good conversationalist does not only mean being a good speaker but also a good listener. Be it in one’s personal life or professional life, the ability to engage in a good conversation is always impressive. When you participate in a sincere conversation it feels like you are genuinely interested in the person or the topic and leaves a great impression. It makes the other party feel you are not only imposing your own opinions on them but are also willing to listen to their part. Discussing your ideas and thoughts openly is a great way to hold the conversation. Having a humorous side always helps.

  • Dress well-

It is rightly said that “a man is known by his dress and address”.  An individual’s dressing sense speaks volumes of his character and personality. A person’s dressing sense reflects their character, body language, character, and style. Dressing well can help you to build self–confidence and it perceives to others that how confident you feel about yourself. Your attires should change according to the occasion. For an interview, it is better to wear classy formals. For an outing one can wear casuals. It can make one look more outgoing and approachable. Thus, dressing well plays an important role in personality development.

  • Be yourself-

You need to know all about your own personality before trying to develop it. One of the simplest ways to improve your personality is to maintain honesty. Each one of us is different, we have our own sets of skills and flaws and trying to be somebody else gets you nowhere and just simply backfires. Honesty is the best policy at all times. Therefore, being honest to our self and to our surroundings is imperative to live a blissful lifestyle. 

4 Must Read Historical Fiction Novels

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Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the story is set in the past. Authentic historical novels portray the details of the time period as accurately as possible, including social norms, manners, customs, and traditions.  Common characteristics of this writing genre are the inclusion of historical events or historical people, invented scenes and dialogue, as well as true and plausible details. There are seven crucial elements in this genre: character, dialogue, setting, theme, plot, conflict, and world building. The characters could be based off of real or imaginary individuals.

If you want a break from the present and are looking for a book to transform you to a different era, here are a few great historical fiction novels that you shouldn’t miss!

  1. The Stationary Shop of Tehran-

If you’re a fan of historical romantic novels, this book is perfect for you. It follows the lives of two youngsters, Roya and Bahman, and their nascent love blossoming in a Persian stationary shop. This book by  Marjan Kamali is an eclectic mix of initial infatuation, first eye lock, the first touch, first love, betrayal, reunion and closure.

  • Hindu Refugee Camp Lahore-

This book by Sachin Garg is set in the difficult times just after India Pakistan partition in 1947. This is a story of Havildar Ghulam Ali Limb-Fitter, who was stuck in a Hindu refugee camp in Lahore. His wife waits for him in Lucknow, India. India wouldn’t accept him because he had served in the Pakistani army. This book is a heart-aching story of him trying to find a place in his motherland, India. This book comprises of several letters written by him to his wife Zahira, ministers, bureaucrats and other officials, begging them to help him return to his life in India. If you want to read about the real-life hardships faced by innocent people, as an aftermath of the partition, this book is truly a must read.

  • The Kite Runner-

The Kite Runner is the first novel by Afghan-American author Khaled Hosseini. Published in 2003, it tells the story of Amir, a young boy from the Wazir Akbar Khan district of Kabul.  It is a beautifully crafted novel set in Afghanistan, a country that is on the verge of being ruined. It is an unforgettable, heart-breaking story of the unlikely friendship between a wealthy boy and the son of his father’s servant. It is a one-of-a-kind classic.

  • Train To Pakistan

This novel by Khushwant Singh is another historical fiction novel based on the repercussions of India Pakistan partition in 1947. This book is narrated from the perspective of Mano Majra, an idyllic fictional border resorted to love and harmony even at the face of all odds till external forces come and disrupted all the harmony. This village has Muslim and Sikh population that suddenly becomes a part of the border between Indian and Pakistan. Published in 1956, this book captures the essential human trauma and suffering in the face of such a terror and crisis. Train to Pakistan is an ideal novel for those who wishes to learn more about India’s past and is looking for more than the socio-political scenario behind the partition.

IMPORTANCE OF SELF-HELP AND WAYS TO DO SO

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Self-help is the art of focusing on betterment of oneself. Sticking to a daily routine can be overwhelming and take a toll on your mental well-being. It is absolutely normal to feel worn out, exhausted, and at times incompetent even while carrying out your daily duties. Eventually, everyone reaches a point in their lives where they need to step back and just be with themselves, analyze, reflect and try to find peace. Each of us should leave ourselves some space for self-improvement and self-help without being too hard on oneself. Self-help, self-improvement and self-love go hand in hand. Once you recognize a difficulty, examine it and find the will to improve that aspect of your life, it is called at self-help. Taking an action that would aid in fixing the problem is known as self-improvement. A few ways which may help in your journey of self-improvement are:

  1. Surround yourself with right people-

Positivity and happiness are contagious. A person’s company matters a lot as it statistically influences the person’s success or failure. Having people who inspire you, motivate you, and guide you is a blessing. Thus, one should always make a conscious effort surround themselves with positive people. A supportive and uplifting environment will instill empowering beliefs in you. This will, in turn, induce a positive mindset and a positive mindset manifests success faster.  

  • Turn off social media-

Your environment has an incredible ability to shape your behaviour. Today, social media is full of “influencers” and other personalities who showcase their life a certain way. There are some who set extremely unrealistic and aberrant expectations that are difficult to live up to for a common man. Subjecting oneself to such a culture can be harmful. Hence, one should make a mindful effort to stay away from such posts if it is proving to affect them in a negative way. One may instead follow people or accounts that inspire them or simply make them feel better. Having a healthy and uplifting social media environment is as important as surrounding yourself with positive people.

  • Have a healthy lifestyle-

The famous saying “You are what you eat” has been around for centuries. What it implies is that everything you eat becomes a part of your inner being. Today junk food and fast foods have been carving their ways into our lives.it is far more convenient for a working person to grab a burger and rush to work than take out time to cook a healthy breakfast. These fast foods have little to no nutritional value and only make us obese and lethargic. This sequentially affects our mindset and we feel less productive. The health of the gut affects the overall health of the body. A healthy gut contains healthy bacteria and immune cells that ward off infectious agents like bacteria, viruses and fungi. A healthy gut also communicates with the brain through nerves and hormones, which helps maintain general health and well-being. Thus, it is important to have a nutritious meal to keep your brain and soul healthy and young.

Apart from eating healthy, it is equally important for your body to keep moving. Exercising stimulates brain chemicals called endorphins that leave you feeling happier and more relaxed, providing an emotional lift and reducing stress. Physical activity also stimulates the release of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin that trigger a positive feeling in the body, and can be especially helpful in alleviating symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  • Meditation-

Along with eating healthy and exercising, another advocate for mental and physical well being is meditation. Meditation helps you introspect and find inner peace.  It is in meditation that you can do the most self-discovery and get direction from your own inner self or soul. Biochemical studies also show that meditation can significantly affect hormones and neurotransmitters such as cortisol, dehydroepi- androstrone, serotonin, melatonin, and epinephrine which help elevate one’s mood. A simple habit of meditating for 10 minutes every day can change your life drastically. You can sit or lie comfortably and close your eyes. You can put on an audio for guided meditation to help you go through with it or just focus your attention on your breath and on how the body moves with each inhalation and exhalation; making no effort to control the breath; simply breathe naturally. Just 10 minutes are enough to overcome stress, anxiety, and give you other mental and physical benefits.

Strengthening The Education System in India 

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We are entering a new decade as India celebrates the 10th anniversary of its Right to Education Act (RTE), which was passed in April 2010. While the RTE has been criticized for its limited focus on governance and learning outcomes, it has been successful in improving access to schooling. The report has also served as a rallying point for a wide range of stakeholders to intervene in the sector.

The country’s learning outcomes remain low, however, as has been well-established by now. In politics, quality concerns around education are rarely a priority. It isn’t possible to ignore these concerns forever, especially when the country is experiencing a human capital crisis, as can be seen from its unemployment statistics. Furthermore, more educated individuals have lower employment rates than those with less valuable degrees. Global Business Coalition for Education’s 2030 Skills Scorecard confirms these concerns – in 2030, India will be the most educated nation in South Asia, but nearly half of them will not have the skills to get a job.

So far, the band-aid response to such crises has been to establish a Ministry of Skilling instead of making more fundamental reforms in school education. To move forward, India must break out of this unstable equilibrium and view education within a broader human capital framework. India’s education sector must take both scale and substance into account in the upcoming decade, addressing the learning problem system-wide while also recalibrating the system’s raison d’être.

  1. Enhancing administration

Even the most sophisticated education policies and curriculum frameworks have failed to live up to their promise in the past due to weak administration. It is imperative to strengthen the pillars of governance in the education sector. According to Julia Gillard, former Australian prime minister and chair of the Global Partnership on Education, “governments must be able to gather a diverse collection of instruments, each playing its own notes, to produce a sound of coherent splendour.” Many states have taken ownership of bringing about large-scale changes in the way education is administered in recent years, including Haryana, Rajasthan, and Himachal Pradesh. A common starting point has been the integration of schools in many of these states. Government schools often emerged organically without a coherent strategy, serving just a handful of students, resulting in a large, unwieldy system of schools. With inadequate frontline administration, information gaps, and many faculty vacancies, the state’s ability to manage such a system is limited.

  • Evaluation system

It is still the marks that determine children’s future and students are often burdened as a result. Students often underperform due to the pressure of marks. Students should be evaluated on more than just a three-hour exam; they should be evaluated on their classroom participation, their projects, their communication and leadership abilities, and their extracurricular activities. Then and only then will the students give their best and will be evaluated accordingly.

  • Introduction of technology

We are living in the era of the fourth industrial revolution. Technology is undergoing a renaissance today, and in an era like this, education and technology cannot be separated. In order for students to not feel alienated by technology in the future, it must be introduced in the early stages of their education. The Indian schools must embrace technology and education with an open heart and pass on the same to the students since it is there, where their future lies.

Work From Home – An Effective Method

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When you have always conducted business in an office or other type of environment, working from home may take some getting used to. Being close to home comforts can be great, but it can also be easy to become distracted. The following tips will help you stay productive and focused while working from home.

  1. Create a routine

You may only commute for seconds rather than hours now, but keep your routine the same as before. Make sure you do all your washing and breakfast tasks and that you are at your workplace on time. Identify your desired break times and make sure you follow them. It is important to take regular breaks to maintain productivity and wellbeing. It is often easier to solve problems when you step away from them for a while.

  • Find a place to call your own

Do not work from a sofa, kitchen table, or similar space that may be shared by others. Establishing a work area promotes discipline. Be sure that everyone in your household understands that these are now your workspaces and set guidelines on how and when these will be used between you. 

  • Communicate with your colleagues

Use video conferencing apps or the telephone to communicate regularly with your colleagues and clients. Take advantage of the wide array of communications tools available to us – don’t just hibernate at home. Share ideas with others and get their feedback by calling them. Collaboration and staying in touch are key.  

  • Set deadlines for yourself

Create a list of things you need to do and when you will do them. When you plan your day hour by hour, you can check off your completed tasks as you finish them. You may have deadlines set by your company or clients, so it is then a matter of planning your day to achieve these deadlines.

  • Working from home should be comfortable

You will be working here all day, so make sure you have a decent chair and that your desk and PC are set up so that you can work with a straight back posture. Put effort into making your surroundings attractive. It can be relaxing to have some house plants around to help you feel connected to nature.  

  • Exercise, stretch, and eat well

Keep your eating habits disciplined and follow a healthy diet. By eating a healthy breakfast, you will be less tempted to snack later on. While working at your desk, you can perform many exercises and stretches. When you exercise, you release endorphins that increase happiness and boost productivity.

  • Take care of yourself

You should find what works for you in a workspace and a routine. Since each of us responds to environmental pressures differently, be honest with yourself and stick to what works for you if you work from home.

  • The benefits of flexible work 

Flexibility can mean a better work-life balance as well as a healthier and fulfilling lifestyle. However, these arrangements also impact positively on productivity. The benefits of flexible working are well established, from increased employee engagement to better performance. 

4 Motivational Books Everyone Should Read! 

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A book can provide inspiration in many different ways. The characters in fiction can inspire us to grow in the same way. A steady stream of non-fiction guides readers on everything from how to write poetry to how not to manage a career. However, inspirational books go a little further, especially for those of us in need of some extra hygge – the Danish word that refers to a feeling of contentment and cosiness. In essence, Hygge is just another way of saying: let’s read a book by the fire that will calm and relax our spirits. Various genres, tastes, and viewpoints are represented in these inspirational books. All of them strive to improve your life despite their differences. Check out the books that will help you become a better person.

  1. Awaken the Giant Within: How to Take Immediate Control of Your Mental, Emotional, Physical and Financial

Written by Anthony Robbins in 1991, this novel teaches people how to master their emotions, their bodies, their relationships, their finances, and their lives. Known as a leader in peak performance science, he has a deep understanding of the psychology of change. With help from this book, you will discover your true purpose, learn how to take control of your life, and become master self-mastery in a step-by-step program.

  • Rich Dad Poor Dad

This 1997 book called Rich Dad Poor Dad was written by Robert Kiyosaki and Sharon Lechter. It emphasizes the importance of financial literacy, financial independence, and building wealth through real estate investing, starting and owning a business, as well as increasing financial intelligence.

  • The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business

The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business is a book by Charles Duhigg. He was a reporter for the New York Times. Originally published in February 2012 by Random House, the book is now available on Amazon. An in-depth look at habits, their creation, and reformation is explored in this book. Charles Duhigg takes us to the cutting edge of scientific discoveries that explain why habits exist and how they can be changed. Duhigg brings to life a whole new understanding of human nature and its capacity for transformation through his insightful intelligence and ability to distill vast amounts of information into engaging narratives.

  • How to win friends and influence people. How to stop worrying and start living

Published in 1936, this is a self-help book by Dale Carnegie. Using this book, you can improve how you appear to the world. Changing your own behavior can alter how you are seen and treated by the world. You can change the energy you emit so that what comes back to you, changes as well. This book is an important guide to communication and business skills. It teaches you about marketing yourself and attracting more clients which is why many world-renowned figures have praised this book. By reading this book, you will be able to overcome mental woes and achieve goals. Having a positive attitude allows you to appear to others as a friendlier, more personable person, and in terms of your business, enables you to generate new clients. It helps you accomplish your goals by using your potential fully and by becoming an effective speaker in front of a large audience. If you deal with issues like self-confidence, this book is a must-read!

Migrant Crisis In Covid 19 Pandemic

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In the context of immigration, the COVID-19 economic crisis could be long, deep, and pervasive. Across the globe, economic activities have been slowed by travel bans, lockdowns, and social strife. There are additional challenges for the host countries in many sectors such as health and agriculture that depend on the availability of migrant workers. In addition to the risk of contagion, migrants may lose their employment, wages, and health insurance coverage.

Despite all forms of transportation being suspended and interstate borders being sealed, migrant workers across India made their way back home during the Covid-19 lockdown announced in March. During the lockdown, migrant workers’ greatest suffering resulted from their inability to manage their finances. The critical role of wages is evident in the lives of migrants and their families during this period – without wages, they could not meet basic needs such as food, water, shelter, or healthcare, or send remittances to their rural households who depend on immigration income. It is important to note that wages played an important socioeconomic role during the crisis, determining the ability of workers and their households to survive. Over 139 million Indians are migrant workers, which constitutes nearly half of the nation’s 470 million workforce. Despite the extreme desperation facing the vast mobile workforce during the shutdown, the issue of migrant workers’ access to protected wages has remained unaddressed. A strict nationwide lockdown was rather viewed as an outcome of poor planning by governments, which failed to account for the large numbers of undocumented, rural-urban migrants.

Migrant workers’ plight was attributed solely to their mobility between states, without taking into account the nature of their employment in urban labor markets, including low wages and insecure jobs. India’s wage-dependent workforce is vexed by an ongoing debate about the state’s protection of living wages. Despite substantial evidence to the contrary, some have argued that raising wages will lead to the closure of businesses and the loss of jobs. Even government reports, such as the Economic Survey (2019), by the State Bank of India (2019), and by the Reserve Bank of India (2018), highlight the fact that stagnation in real wages has hurt the consumption capacity of the poor, causing the economy to slow down. However, the neo-liberal economic policy that encouraged economic growth by slashing the labor protection framework, especially that protecting workers’ wages, weakened labor regulations and grievance redress mechanisms, leaving them unable to handle the widespread wage violations experienced by workers.

Due to the economic crisis due to the Covid-19 pandemic, experts suggest that measures to create disposable income, including raising wages, are a top priority in order to create economic revival. The post-lockdown period in India, however, has been marked by the dilution of the labor protection regime through the labor reform process, in order to facilitate economic revival rather than ensuring wage security for its migrant workers. Due to their alienation from the state machinery where they work, migrant workers cannot demand wages from their employers, and due to their lack of integration into trade unions at their destinations, in addition to their fragmentation by caste and region, they lack any collective bargaining platforms. It is critical that economic revival is imagined alternatively, and executed through a strong institutional framework, in order to prevent that economic expansion post-pandemic deepens the exploitation of and inequality faced by the country’s poorest wage, dependent populations.

Under such a framework, the state plays a crucial role in keeping wages protected by setting minimum wages at the level of living wages, allowing workers and their households to eat adequately to live a dignified life.

Media in the 21st century: The Global Village

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Marshall McLuhan coined the term “The Global Village” to describe the mass production and consumption of media images and content around the globe. The term refers to the coming together of the countries of the world into one gigantic world of media landscapes. As an example, CNN, the popular U.S. news channel, and BBC, the venerable British channel, are available everywhere. A similar phenomenon in entertainment is the Star Group, televised worldwide.

There are two online information and knowledge channels, National Geographic and Discovery, that are available globally. There is a sense of oneness and shared media consumption throughout the world due to the ready availability of the same content everywhere. The term Global Village refers to this phenomenon. With the liberalization of many countries in the world in the 1990s, global broadcasters entered countries like India in a big way. The opening up of the Indian media landscape to foreign channels was a revolution in how media is consumed and produced in the country, despite the fact that China had, and still has, restrictions on what kind of content can be viewed in that country. Media consumption in India has led to a liberalization of the Indian mindset, according to expertise. The West was introduced to many Indians for the first time, and the consumption of western lifestyle imagery and consumer choices led to an increase in Indian aspirational values. The result was an emergence of a burgeoning consumer culture that marked the Indian consumer arena since the late 1990s. This means that Indians are no longer monochromatic television viewers who had to watch only one channel, but are instead consuming media images from around the world.

Around the same time, many African countries were exposed to satellite television for the first time. Consequently, the Africans learned about the western situation and the relatively comfortable lifestyles that Westerners enjoy. There is a widening of political, economic, and social discourse in many countries due to the explosion of media choices. There was a demand for greater freedom and a better standard of living, which manifested itself in the way the people in these countries began using the media to voice their concerns. It can be said that TV, in particular, and satellite television in particular, were game-changers for many countries that were throwing off their old habits and attitudes and embracing the Western way of life. There is no need to elaborate on the role that Satellite TV played in emancipating women, providing entertainment, and exposing the young to a western way of life that eventually led to the MTV Generation that started voting with their feet about the kind of products they wanted to buy and consume.

Ultimately, the Global Village has made the vision of “One Market Under God” a reality, which has benefited both marketers who were able to market their products globally, as well as consumers who had a variety of options to choose from. Last but not least, the youth also gained a greater understanding of politics and a liberated attitude.

Innovative Schools in India

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Kids are like clay; they take up any shape you mould them into. Schools play an important role in the lives of all students. For every kid, school is their first introduction to social interaction. We learn most of our morals and values in school and we cherish for them for the rest of our life.

Many of us reminisce about our school days with nostalgia, but we can all agree that school wasn’t the happiest place to be. There were heavy bags filled with books, hundreds of students wearing uniforms, every hour accounted for, punishments, us. As children, many of us definitely thought that there was no choice but to attend school no matter how much I disliked it. I pondered, then, whether I would feel any different about going to school if mine was in a train carriage or in an open garden?

Perhaps that would have been too much to wish for, but my feeling is that it would have been much more exciting. Let’s take a look at a few unique schools in India that will inspire you to return to school!

  1. Bihar’s Platform School

Many of us probably read the classic story of Toto Chan. Toto Chan studied in a very unique school where the classrooms were designed like old railway carriages. This school probably comes closest to the school model from that story. Inderjit Khurana started the platform school near Patna to educate poor orphaned kids who sold tea on railway platforms. About 100 kids joined shortly after he opened the school. Soon, however, he realized that merely teaching them lessons wouldn’t help much. Having basic life skills, such as medical aid, was of the utmost importance to these kids because they came from an underprivileged background. Counselling would also need to be provided, and the entire process would have to be fun and engaging for the students. The syllabus gradually began to incorporate these concepts. Trying to give the children a life of dignity is what I am trying to do as a teacher at the school, Ajith Kumar said. Unless they are educated, most of them will turn to criminal activity.”

  • SECMOL, Ladakh

Ladakh’s Students’ Educational and Cultural Movement (SECMOL), has gained appreciation from millions across the country. Among its main features are focus on practical instruction, eco-friendly living, and a complete departure from the traditional educational system. Following its success, Sonam Wangchuk, its founder, embarked on a variety of other programs.

  • School without books or tests- Ananya

Children who grow up in underprivileged homes and in abusive households face a variety of obstacles to attending school, including a lack of support from their parents. Dr. Shashi Rao found this deeply troubling. After seeing the need, Dr. Rao joined forces with other people who also thought it was important to impart education in a creative and unique way to these children. First, they interacted with the children at Dr. Rao’s home and in public parks, discussing everything from cricket to the weather. After covering everyday topics, they moved on to mathematics and geography. Over the years, Ananya Trust, the trust started by Dr. Rao, developed into a school of a unique kind. It offers education to children from underprivileged backgrounds. 

  • Karnataka’s Aurinko Academy

As a youngster, Vivek was less intrigued by formal education than by an offbeat trade – carpentry! In search of a school that would not only encourage skills but also polishes them, his parents came across the Aurinko Academy in Bengaluru, which defines itself as a progressive learning environment, and they decided that this was the school for their son. The change in him was evident to his mother almost immediately. Following just a few months at the institute, Vivek found himself intrigued by the subject of carpentry, which was one of the many genres offered in their unique curriculum.

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India’s Job Trend Today

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India’s job market has undergone a radical transformation. In the past, the only stable professions considered ‘highest paying’ were doctors, engineers, and public service. Despite these choices still being relevant and respected today, there are a lot more options available and have revolutionized the job market in India. Many students are uncertain about their career choices, and to be honest, money is a great motivator and can help them make a decision. One can decide their career path with more confidence if they are aware of the top most profitable jobs in India.

  1. Lawyers

Many people see lawyers as high-flying professionals fighting for justice while at the same time living a high-flying lifestyle. While most of these depictions may be overdramatic, there is no denying the fact that lawyers today are some of the highest-paid professionals in not just India but also the world. Lawyers advise and represent clients – both private and public – and fall into categories such as tax lawyers, criminal lawyers, securities attorneys, etc.

Independent lawyers may charge per case or appearance in court whereas those working in corporate companies may receive a monthly salary with additional bonuses as applicable. Depending on experience and success rate, the salary can go up to Rs. 12 lakhs to even Rs. 25 lakhs per annum, making this one of the highest paying jobs in India.

  • Investment Banker

The primary role of investment bankers is to require care of their client’s financial assets. they’re also brokers and advisors and help their clients invest their money during a potentially lucrative market at the proper time to maximise returns. additionally, to the present, investment bankers also help with mergers and acquisitions, conduct research, and act as financial advisors to corporate organizations also.

With one among the very best average salaries within the market, investment banking is one among the foremost lucrative professions within the country today. Entrants can expect a salary starting from Rs. 4 lakhs to Rs. 12 lakhs once a year and with experience, this number can go up to Rs. 40 lakhs once a year.

  • Data Science

In the past few months, data science has gained significant popularity. A data scientist is a person who uses social science and technology to glean trends from data as well as manage it. this is often basically done to research data and find solutions to varied business problems. Data scientists also help in creating customized statistical models also as algorithms supported end-user behaviors. As a base salary, certified data scientists earn between Rs. 4 lakhs and Rs. 12 lakhs per annum, regardless of their experience level. this is one of India’s highest-paying IT jobs because salary can range from Rs. 60 lakhs to Rs. 70 lakhs per annum depending on experience.

  • Digital Marketing

Due to the rise of social media and other forms of marketing, digital marketing is here to stay and is changing how people communicate today. It simply refers to any type of marketing effort that uses the internet and other means of digital communication such as email, social media, text, and web-based advertising.

Many people from different backgrounds are becoming marketing professionals due to the diversity and creative freedom offered by this field. Many roles are available in the digital marketing field, such as content writers, SEO analysts, social media managers, brand marketing managers, etc.

How To Set Up Your Own Business

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The start-up of a business seems to be a challenging undertaking. Even so, it can reap great rewards for both the company and the economy at large. The process of setting up a business in India can be a bit confusing if you elect to do so. There are a few considerations you should keep in mind. Keeping this in mind, here are some basic steps necessary for registering a business in India:

  1. Spend no more than you need to on your start-up

It is possible to work from home on a laptop computer. When working from home, keep in mind that your household insurance may no longer be valid. You’ll need to check with your current broker as you may need to upgrade your insurance. Make sure that your business has its own bank account. You shouldn’t combine your personal and business accounts. It’s confusing, extra work, and of no use when you’re trying to take care of your business or have a fulfilling life in general. A business account doesn’t need to be expensive; it can just be a regular current account with your current bank or with another provider.

  • Availability of Company Names

A proposed name must be available before company registration can occur. The MCA 21 website allows applicants to check the availability of their desired company names online. The selected company name appears on the website once it has been approved.

  • Set Up a Plan

If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.

To stay afloat even if you are just starting out as a freelancer, you need to know your monthly costs and how much profit (or other income) you need to generate. Calculate what your monthly income needs to be. Identify the growth in revenue you can realistically expect over the next 12 months, and be clear on how you will acquire new clients. Although it’s hard to guess, thinking about it will provide you with earnings goals and points to consider as you run your business. You can easily download a free business plan template from either the Prince’s Trust website or the Start Up Loan websites.

  • Networking

In the age of digitization and the fact that people are always online searching for goods and services they need, businesses without a strong digital presence are missing a great opportunity. Therefore, you will need to be committed to building an online presence for your business because it is imperative in this digital age. Digital marketing strategies will help you get noticed by a lot of people, and a good SEO company can guide you down the right path since SEO is a way to make a strong online presence. Your chances of getting a job increase if you are ‘out there’ touting for work. Meeting people online is possible without having to leave the office.

  • A Lot Of Sales, A Lot Of Sales

Make sure you don’t ignore the marketing and sales sides of your business. Become an expert at it. Study it and practice it. Initially, it is likely to be nerve-racking, but persevere! Question everything you do in your business, asking yourself, ‘How is this going to make me money?’ If it won’t make you any money, then don’t waste your time doing it.

Must-Visit Historical Places In India

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More than 5000 years of civilization have left India with some fantastic historical sites, monuments, legends, and experiences. Monuments such as these honour the glorious history and heritage of the country. Over the centuries, many dynasties, kingdoms, and kings have built monuments for a variety of reasons, from ancient to medieval. The fact remains, however, that historical places in India draw a large number of visitors. All forts, palaces, and temples of India are exceptional examples of aesthetics and elegance, from the Taj Mahal to Hampi.

  1. Gwalior Fort, Madhya Pradesh

The Gwalior Fort is a hill fort near GwaliorMadhya PradeshIndia. The fort has existed at least since the 10th century, and the inscriptions and monuments found within what is now the fort campus indicate that it may have existed as early as the beginning of the 6th century. Raja Suraj Sen Pal and his dynasty ruled over more than 900 years. The fort has been controlled by a number of different rulers in its history.

  • Ajanta Ellora Caves

The Buddhist Caves in Ajanta are approximately 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments dating from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state in India. They are universally regarded as masterpieces of Buddhist religious art. Ellora is a UNESCO World Heritage Site too. It is one of the largest rock-cut Hindu temple cave complexes in the world, featuring Hinduism in particular and few Buddhist and Jain monuments with Artwork dating from the 600–1000 CE period. With the Ellora Caves, Ajanta is one of the major tourist attractions of Maharashtra.

  • Amber Palace

Amber Fort or Amer Fort is a fort located in Amber, Rajasthan, India. The town of Amber and the Amber Fort was built by Raja Alan Singh Meena 967 AD, later ruled by kachawaha rajputs. It consists of the Diwan-e-Aam, or “Hall of Public Audience”, the Diwan-e-Khas, or “Hall of Private Audience”, the Sheesh Mahal (mirror palace), or Jai Mandir, and the Sukh Niwas where a cool climate is artificially created by winds that blow over a water cascade within the palace. Hence, the Amber Fort is also popularly known as the Amber Palace. The palace was the residence of the Rajput Maharajas and their families

  • Khajuraho Temples, Madhya Pradesh

Khajuraho has always been thought of as the place that exemplifies sensuality and eroticism at its best. However, this is a misrepresentation as only about 10 percent of the sculptures are sensual and the rest are common depictions. Countless sculptures depicting love, eternal grace, beauty, delicacy and the creative arts can be seen in one of the most historical places in India. A perfect amalgamation of Hinduism and Jainism, Khajuraho temples have carvings of cult icons, demi gods and Apsaras.

5.      Jallianwala Bagh, Punjab

The infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place near this monument near the Golden Temple in Amritsar. Covering around 6.5 acres, it is the place where General Dyer ordered a mass shooting on Baisakhi. Thousands of innocents succumbed to death in this incident. It was one of the incidents that ignited the fire of Independence revolution. A memorial was erected here on 13th April 1961 by the then president, Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Government Schemes for Students

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In the past 7 years, the Central government led by PM Narendra Modi has implemented various schemes to support students’ education. In order to achieve a better quality of life for the billion-strong population of India, we need to nurture and care for its students as our greatest asset. Check out the list of Pradhan Mantri Yojana for Students launched in 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 & 2021. In 2021, these government school education schemes will continue to be relevant.

In this section, we provide you with a list of PM Modi’s government schemes for students’ education in India. There are several central government schemes for school education in India, including those run by the AICTE and the Ministry of Human Resource Development. It includes 10 schemes run by AICTE and 28 schemes run by MHRD that are classified into education schemes for elementary, secondary, and higher education.

Students can apply online and fill out the appropriate Yojana forms to access the scheme’s benefits. Having a quality education is the primary objective of ensuring adequate employment for all students and, therefore, building a strong nation.

An overview of the central government school education schemes in India run by AICTE can be found below:

  1. Samriddhi Scheme for SC/ST Students to Start up Businesses

In view of the poor employment opportunities on the market, SC/ST students need opportunities to set up their own businesses. As per AICTE’s start up policy, Samriddhi Scheme aims at supporting SC/ST students in designing, launching, and running their own business or start up following formal education. Applicants for Samriddhi Scheme can apply online to take advantage of its benefits.

  • Pragati Scholarship Program

Pragati Scholarships or Contingencies are given to meritorious girls pursuing a technical education accredited by AICTE. Every year, an aggregate of 4000 scholarship recipients receive 30000 Rupees in tuition fee reimbursements and another 20000 Rupees in incidental awards. To avail the benefits of Pragati Scheme, students can now apply online.

  • Prerana Scheme for Preparing SC and ST Students for Higher Education

Engineering & polytechnic colleges are suffering from a severe shortage of faculty. It may be possible to resolve the problem by encouraging pre-final- and final-year degree students to attend postgraduate courses. PRERANA scheme is designed to assist institutions that offer extra resources to encourage and train SC/ST students to take GATE/GPAT/CAT/CMAT and GRE. The aim of the scheme is to help SC/ST students wishing to pursue higher education through tests such as GATE/GPAT/CAT/CMAT/TOEFL/ IELTS and GRE. Those interested in availing of the benefits of the PRERANA Scheme should apply online.

  • The Postgraduate Scholarship Scheme

Scholarships awarded under this program are to full-time GATE or GPAT qualified students. Qualified students admitted to AICTE-approved institutions and colleges for M.E./M. Tech/M. Arch and M. Pharm programs are eligible to apply. PG Scholarship Scheme beneficiaries receive Rs. 12,400 per month per student.

  • Support for Students Participating in Competition Abroad (SSPCA)

SSPCA’s goal is to provide travel assistance to teams of approximately 2 to 10 students attending competitions at the international level for competitive purposes. Through this program, students are encouraged to improve their skills in their specific technical field. Online applications for SSPCA Scheme are available to students.

Gandhi Jayanti – History and significance

“An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind” – Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi or Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat. This year will mark Gandhi’s 152nd birth anniversary.

He was an anti-colonial nationalist and political ethicist, he used nonviolent resistance to lead India’s successful independence campaign from British rule and helped inspire movements that have fought for freedom and civil rights all over the world. He was also a successful Indian lawyer, trained at Inner Temple, London. He passed the law exam at the age of 22, in June 1891.

He then moved to South Africa, where he lived for 21 years. The first nonviolent campaign for civil rights took place in South Africa where Gandhi engaged in nonviolent resistance and raised his family. He returned to India in 1915, at the age of 45 and took over the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921. In addition to his national campaigning for eradicating poverty, expanding women’s rights, promoting religious and ethnic harmony, and ending untouchability, Gandhi also pushed for Swaraj or self-rule. During the 1920s, Gandhi also began wearing a loincloth and a shawl (in the winter) made of yarn hand spun on a traditional spinning wheel known as a “Charkha” to symbolize the poor of rural India. Furthermore, as a mean of self-purification and political protest, he also began to live modestly in a self-sufficient community, eat simple vegetarian fare, and fast for long periods.

Gandhi often ignited a spirit of anti-colonial nationalism to the common Indians, making them challenge the severe British-imposed norms. One such incident marked in history was the Dandi Salt March in 1930. The Dandi Salt March also known as the Salt Satyagraha was an act of nonviolent civil disobedience in colonial India led by Mahatma Gandhi. It was a twenty-four day march lasting from 12 March 1930 to 5 April 1930, covering a distance of 400 km (250 mi) and symbolized a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly.

Mohandas Gandhi was called “Mahatma” meaning “great-souled” by the common people, who viewed him as India’s national and spiritual leader. This honorific was first applied to him in 1914 in South Africa, is now used throughout the world. His legacy continues to this day which is why he is still regarded as the “Father of the nation”

Gandhi’s vision for an ideal Indian is based on four pillars – Truth (satya), non-violence (ahimsa), welfare of all (sarvodaya) and peaceful protest (satyagraha). These principles together are the backbone of “Dharma” which means ‘to hold together’.

Satya means truth or oneness in your thoughts, speech and actions. Gandhi believed that “there is no religion higher than truth”. This is evidently witnessed in Gandhi’s classic autobiography “The Story of My Experiments with Truth”. Written between his childhood and 1921, this is a magnificent piece of literature touching on his life. It was written in weekly instalments and published in his journal Navjivan from 1925 to 1929.

Ahimsa or non-violence means the personal practice of not causing harm to one’s self and others under every condition.  It should be practiced not only in actions but also in thoughts and speech. Ahimsa also forms the basis of Jainism and Hinduism as a religion.

The third principle is sarvodaya or welfare for all. The basic fundamental teaching of the Vedic science is also based on sarvodaya. It talks about “bahujan hitay-bahujan sukhay” – “the good of the masses, the benefit of the masses”.

Satyagraha is protest based on satya (path of truthfulness) and non-violence and includes peaceful demonstrations, prolonged fasts etc. i.e., a non-violence-based civil resistance. It is based on the law of persistence. 

Gandhi’s teachings and principles are still preached among the civilians today. His vision for India is celebrated on his birth anniversary. This day, 2nd October is declared as a national holiday across India. On this day, people celebrate with prayer services, commemorative ceremonies and cultural events that are held in colleges, local government institutions and socio-political institutions. The statues of Mahatma Gandhi are decorated with garlands and flowers. His favourite song Raghupati Raghava is also sung at some of the meetings.

Many other countries celebrate his birth anniversary as well. In a resolution adopted on June 15, 2007, the UN General Assembly designated October 2 as International Day of Non-Violence. Resolution reiterates “the universal significance of non-violence” and pledges to “to cultivate a culture of peace, tolerance, understanding, and non-violence”.

Digital Marketing Strategies

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Digital marketing is the component of marketing that utilizes internet and online based digital technologies such as desktop computers, mobile phones and other digital media and platforms to promote products and services. Since it was developed in the 1990s and 2000s, technology for marketing has changed. Digital marketing campaigns became widespread as people increasingly used digital devices rather than in-person shopping. As digital platforms become widely integrated into marketing plans and everyday life. Employing combinations of search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing, e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, e-mail direct marketing, display advertising, e-books, and optical disks and games have become commonplace.

One or more online channels and techniques (omnichannel) can be used in digital marketing strategies to increase brand awareness. The following methods/tools may be used to build brand awareness:

  1. Search engine optimization (SEO)

Business websites and brand-related content may be made more visible with search engine optimization techniques for common industry-related queries. With the growing influence of search results and search features such as featured snippets, knowledge panels, and local SEO on customer behavior, SEO has become increasingly important to increasing brand awareness. Search engines work by crawling the web using bots called spiders. By following links from one page to another, these web crawlers find new content to add to the search index. Using a search engine, relevant results are extracted from the index and ranked according to an algorithm. As complicated as that sounds, it is. Nonetheless, you need a basic understanding of how search engines find, index, and rank content if you want to rank higher in search engines.

  • Search engine marketing (SEM)

Paid search, also known as SEM, involves the placement of ads in prominent, visible positions on search results pages and websites. A positive impact of search ads on brand awareness, recognition, and conversions has been demonstrated. The advertiser bids on keywords that users of services such as Google and Bing might enter when looking for certain products or services, which allows their ads to appear alongside search results when users enter those keywords. Approximately 33% of searchers who click on paid ads do so because they are directly related to their search query.

  • Social media marketing

The social media revolution has changed our society and the way we interact with one another. Marketing on social media platforms aims to increase brand awareness for 70% of marketers. Social media marketing teams use Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube as their primary platforms.

  • Content marketing

56% of marketers believe personalized content, such as blogs, articles, social media updates, videos, and landing pages, are helpful in boosting brand recognition and engagement. Mentionlytics claims that blogging, social networking, and interactive content strategies can improve brand awareness and loyalty by 88% when combined. This can be done via various approaches like-

  • Infographics -These are generally long, vertical graphics that include statistics, charts, graphs, and other information.
  • Podcasts- As this format for content production is growing, some brands have become interested in the value that podcasting can bring to their business. Podcasting allows brands to communicate to a captive audience. With lifestyle on-the-go, the power to have the podcasting on demand allows companies and brands tell their story anywhere at any time, which helps to establish authority in your industry and create advocates brand along the way.

Covid-19 Pandemic And Students

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This school year, there were Coronavirus outbreaks at several schools. however, the rate of transmission was generally the same or lower in communities that had measures in place to minimize disease spread. Today, however, many school districts are being pressed to remove practices such as masking or testing. Although cases of COVID-19 with the delta variant doubled nationwide, this is despite a surge in outbreaks. Testing in schools will become even more important with the delta variant. In an ideal world, all students would be tested daily with free tests. If someone was infected, that test would detect it instantly and with 100 percent accuracy. But there are no such tests. Plus, schools don’t have unlimited funds or the ability to create perfect protocols. Instead, districts will have to weigh the pros and cons of different Coronavirus tests. There will have to be a balance between how often they test and who they test. Below is a look at the type of tests that schools use, along with their benefits and challenges.

Pooling tests

A new test was introduced at a school in America. Each week, thousands of students (with parental consent) swabbed their noses at home. A plastic baggie was used to store the swab, which they then brought to school. A nearby lab received swabs, which were mixed into 16 groups and shipped there. In the lab, technicians combined the samples from these swabs and performed PCR tests.

A PCR reaction is a polymerase chain reaction (PUL-im-er-ace). Genetic material can be detected in samples by these tests. A coronavirus is being looked for here. These tests are the gold standard for diagnostic tests. A PCR test will almost never reveal the presence of the Coronavirus in an uninfected individual. That would be what’s known as a false positive. But PCR tests can miss real infections. Ten to twenty percent of the time, it misses them. Nevertheless, it’s the most accurate test currently available. Tests that are less accurate are less expensive than tests that use PCR. Additionally, it takes longer to run. A cost-saving measure is combining individual samples into pools. The pooled test doesn’t need to be repeated if it’s negative. This can save a lot of money.

To make pooled testing work, students must buy-in. The peak participation rate in these schools averaged about 60 percent. Whenever a student tested positive, school nurses would scramble to contact the child. The kids were told to isolate themselves and identify everyone they had recently interacted with. Those contacts would then be notified about the possible exposure by the nurses. Contact tracing is a method of identifying contacts.

It does, however, have some drawbacks. PCR-testing labs are not readily available in all schools. In addition, the results take a few days to appear. Then we have to trace the contacts, which is even more time-consuming. As a result, the virus can spread easily among infected students. In the case of the delta variant, this may prove particularly troubling. As soon as they become infected, they are much more likely to spread it.

Online Courses for Students

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Being stuck in a pandemic, students have been confined to the four walls of their home. Everyone, from preschoolers to college students pursuing degrees, has been forced to learn online. In such a time of despair, it is only wise to make the most of it.

In today’s times, we are privileged to have an access to the internet, and using it wisely can provide a wealth of information. Amongst the plethora of resources, there are a few platforms that offer great courses, curated for the youth of today, with aim to up their skills in their respective fields. These courses will help you to learn new things from the comfort of your home.

Here are a few such platforms and courses that you can do to update your skills.

  1. Swayam.Gov.In-

SWAYAM is a Sanskrit acronym that stands for “Study Webs of Active-Learning for Young Aspiring Minds” is an Indian Massive open online course platform.  It offers over 2,748 courses taught by close to 1,300 instructors from over 203 Indian universities. They are officially launched by the Ministry of Education, Government of India.  It was launched on 9th July 2017 by Honourable President of India. The aim of Swayam is to give a coordinated stage and free entry to web courses, covering all advanced education, High School and skill sector courses. All the courses offered by SWAYAM are recognized by the government of India. certificates are awarded to students only after successful completion of the course which is valid pan India even while applying for jobs.

  • Oxford Home Study-

Oxford home study is UK’s leading Home Study Centre offering highly affordable home study courses. They deliver fully accredited courses in a variety of different fields; from art & design and management, through to interior design and work health & safety. Every course is created by a team of noted academics and experienced industry experts. This maintains the highest possible quality standards and provide the ultimate online learning experience for every student. These courses aren’t free; however, a student can take a loan or apply for scholarships. The certificates offered by these courses are valid and well recognised.

  • Udemy Courses-

Courses available on Udemy help you make the most of your time, from working at home to learn trending technical skills and self-improvement from wherever you are. They provide a wide range of courses, covering a variety of subject from writing, finance, commerce, e-commerce, lifestyle, fashion, designing and many more. Some of them are paid but many of them are free as well. Additionally, they provide a certificate too, however, only on paid courses.

  • Google Digital Garage-

The Digital Garage is a non-profit nationwide programme from Google delivering free digital skills training via an online learning platform. You can learn soft skills like personality development, building confidence or even practice our interview skills. The majority of courses are free, and are approved by industry experts, top entrepreneurs and some of the world’s leading employers. This ensures the student that they are learning from authentic sources. The speciality of these courses is that they are flexible i.e., can be learnt on own’s own pace, and extremely personalised. The most popular courses on this platform are Data and Tech, Digital marketing, online business. These are paid/free certificated courses. There are numerous reputed institutes providing courses on this platform; Monash University, university of Auckland, to name a few.

India’s Most Beautiful Botanical Garden You Must Visit

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A botanical garden is an educational and research facility that grows plants such as ferns, conifers, and flowering plants. The purpose of these gardens is not to provide flowers for entertainment, which is what parks and pleasure gardens provide. But more often than not, plantations are designed for the purpose of generating shade and services for public parks, as well. A botanic garden that specializes in trees is sometimes referred to as an arboretum. Sometimes, you can find them in zoos. A unique laser show is featured in Nashik’s botanical garden, the only one in Southeast Asia of its kind. The botanical gardens in India are typically maintained by research institutes, universities, or other organizations. 

We’ve put together a list of some mesmerizing botanical gardens that offer something for everyone

  1. Government Botanical Gardens, Ooty

Government Botanical Garden was first constructed in 1848 near Coimbatore (Ooty), Tamil Nadu, India, by architect William Graham McIvor. The garden has a terraced layout and is located 2,200 m above sea level in the Nilgiri hills. The garden is maintained by the Tamil Nadu Horticulture Department. There are around 1,000 species of plants, shrubs, ferns laid out in an Italian style, trees, herbs, several lawns with flowering plants, ponds with lilies, and bonsai plants in the Gardens, including exotic and native species. Located in the Garden’s middle is a fossilized tree trunk that is estimated to be 20 million years old. The Gardens also consist of a variety of medicinal plants.

  • The Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden, Kolkata

A wonderful garden that stretches across 150 hectares was constructed in 1787. It is situated in Shibpur, Howrah near Kolkata. This garden has the unique privilege of having famous botanists, scientists, and taxonomists as its superintendents. On June 25, 2009, the Garden was named the Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden in honor of Jagadish Chandra Bose, the Bengali polymath, and natural scientist. It is under the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. There are more than 2,500 species of trees and shrubs in the open areas of the garden. Plants of the screw pine genus are also often found here, as well as orchids, bamboo, and palms. Jackals, Indian mongooses, and Indian foxes are among the animals that live in the Botanic Garden. One of the main attractions at the park is the 250-year-old Banyan tree, which occupies about 4 acres of the park.

  • Lalbagh Botanical Gardens, Bangalore

Located in Bengaluru, Lalbagh Botanical Garden is an ancient botanical garden. Originally laid out in the 1760s, the garden was designed by Hyder Ali. Plants of both ornamental and economic value are introduced and propagated in this garden. One of the most appealing features of the garden is the glasshouse.  In addition to providing a social function as a park and recreation area, the glasshouse was also a place where flower shows were held. There are two flower shows celebrated during Republic Day week (26 January) and Independence Day week (15 August). Lalbagh has good bird watching opportunities, both on the ground and in the lake. Additionally, a “Garden centre” is available here for citizens to purchase ornamental plants.

  • Lloyd’s Botanical Garden, Darjeeling

It is located at an altitude of about 2,100 meters in the middle of the Himalayas and is a garden of 24 acres that was established in 1878. It is one of India’s most picturesque botanical gardens. Over 1,800 exotic botanical species are located in the garden, including a living fossil tree and the Ginkgo biloba, plants that date back thousands of years.

PALACE OF ILLUSIONS

“Palace of illusions” is a 2008 novel by award-winning novelist and poet Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni. It is a retelling of the Hindu epic Mahabharata based on Draupadi’s (Paanchali’s) perspective, namely, that of a woman living in a patriarchal society. The book touches on themes like feminism, patriarchy, and marginalization. It tells the story of Draupadi’s courage, determination, and power. 

The Mahabharta Epic has been immortalizing Indian legends for centuries, and every Indian household is familiar with it. Despite the passage of time, it still remains relevant today. Throughout this mythological tale, there are countless characters, scenes, and segments from all different epochs.

This book particularly focuses on the rendition of Draupadi’s story. Draupadi was the daughter of King Drupada, king of Panchalas kingdom. Being a princess of the Panchalas kingdom, she was also addressed as Panchaali. She had a twin brother named Dhristadhyumna, and a sister turned brother named Shikhandi. As king Drupad never wanted a girl child, Draupadi was aware of her father’s disdain for her. Growing up, she craved attention from her father and his approbation. While being stuck in a chaotic world of constant oppression, she found peace and solace in her dear friend, Lord Krishna, the King of Dwarka. He wasn’t just a mere friend, but also a confidante, a well wisher, and a savior in times of need. 

Draupadi is described as a young rebel. She grew up questioning and battling patriarchal expectations. Her effrontery didn’t meet with any fortuitous results as she had to bow down to the higher values instilled in her. She lived in an era where values like protecting the family’s honor or choosing the kingdom’s greater good were lauded at the expense of vitiating a woman’s dignity. Draupadi was truly stuck in a “man’s world”.

The book begins with Draupadi’s childhood and goes back and forth providing flashbacks as the plot evolves, getting the reader acquainted with the characters. When Draupadi attains the age to be married off, King Drupad holds a Swayamwar for his daughter. Draupadi is perpetually subjected to capitulate her own heart’s desire for the betterment of those around her. The concatenation of compromises starts with the Swayamvar, where she had to choose Arjuna over Karna, whom she admired. Later, her mother in law, Kunti, asks Draupadi to marry all five of her sons. This culpable decision made by Kunti was under the pretext of keeping all her sons together for eternity; but it was at the expense of Draupadi’s well being. The book doesn’t change the narrative or the course of Mahabharta. It further underlines the myriad sacrifices that Draupadi had to make in order to live up to the axiomatic definition of an ideal wife as well as a good daughter in law. Draupadi is constantly struggling to find love and freedom. Although she was coerced to be quite submissive at first, she later created an austere image of herself and gained respect in everyone’s eyes, especially her husbands’.

Contrary to the original story of Mahabharta, ‘Palace of Illusions’ establishes that Draupadi secretly loved and admired Karna. The author proficiently interlaces the original stories from Mahabharata, while adding her own subtle twists to events.

Overall, this book portrays the beautiful journey of Draupadi evolving from being a young, rebellious girl to a glorious queen of all times.