Gardening – A great hobby

Gardening may be a fun and relaxing way to get in touch with nature, but did you know that it also has plenty of health benefits? Gardening is an activity that’s good for both the mind and body, and can be enjoyed by people of all ages. Plus, you get to eat the delicious fruits, vegetables and herbs that you grow. So, grab your tools and get in the dirt!

It only takes a little bit of gardening to work up a sweat. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, just 2.5 hours of moderate activity each week can help reduce the risk of many health problems, including heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure and Type 2 diabetes.

You may not think of gardening as exercise, but all the lifting, shoveling and raking involved definitely counts, says Raychel Santo, MA, senior research program coordinator for the Center for a Livable Future at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Your brain also benefits from time spent in the garden. Being outside in the fresh air and sunshine is an effective way to boost your mood and de-stress. In fact, gardening has shown to be helpful in reducing the risk of depression. If something is weighing heavily on your mind, gardening can allow you to focus on an activity that will bring you joy.

Don’t forget the health benefits that come from the produce you grow. Gardening is a simple way to get more fresh fruits and vegetables into your diet, and you’re sure to appreciate them even more because you grew them.

When it comes to deciding what to plant, it may be hard to know where to begin. But if you’re new to gardening, keep it simple with produce that’s easy to grow. Santo recommends herbs and greens such as lettuce, kale and collards.

Santo says these foods are not only easy for first-time gardeners, they are also full of important nutrients.

Gardening is also an excellent opportunity to try new healthy foods that will help you and your family become more adventurous eaters. Growing a variety of produce is as fun as it is healthy. Don’t get discouraged if you don’t get it right the first time. Gardening requires some patience, but it’s worth it when you get to dig into a plate of your own fresh produce.

Make sure that you have the proper tools and gear for a safe gardening experience. Santo recommends wearing light, long-sleeved shirts and pants and a hat for protection from the sun, as well as slathering on sunscreen. Wearing gardening gloves is a must to keep yourself safe when pulling weeds and carrying out other tasks that could hurt your hands. And don’t forget to wear mosquito repellent.

The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons encourages gardeners to take regular breaks and drink enough water. Remember, this is exercise. The organization also suggests making the physical activity in gardening as easy as possible, from sitting on a garden stool to getting close to the objects you want to lift to reduce strain. Using a wheelbarrow is helpful for these kinds of tasks. Ask for help if something is too big or heavy to move by yourself, or if you’re unfamiliar with certain tools.

Soil safety is another thing to keep in mind. Santo notes that especially in urban and suburban areas, soil may be contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants. Soil could also have tetanus bacteria, which is why it’s so important to wear gloves and stay up on vaccinations. That way, any cuts on your hands won’t get infected. It’s a good idea to get your soil tested before you start gardening.


How to avoid pimples from air pollution?

The air pollution index has reached the ‘severe’ mark in Delhi and neighbouring cities are enveloped in a blanket of smog. It is not easy to avoid skin problems like acne when surrounded by poor air quality. Lets have a quick lookout on how to save yourself from having pimples while traveling and working in such a harsh polluted environment.

1. Water is Life! For glowing skin, drinking a glass of water every hour is key. Try to consume eight to 10 glasses of water a day. This will remove toxins from your body, accelerating a healthy blood flow. This also helps in boosting metabolism.

2. Switch to eating healthy and clean! Keeping your skin healthy is as simple as eating right. Avoid oily snacks and trans-fat food. Adding fresh fruits, green vegetables, nuts and omega-3 fatty acids to your diet will help detoxify skin.

3. Don’t skip fitness! Don’t take fitness lightly. Regular exercise can help reduce stress and delivers the right amount of oxygen to the skin cells. Perspiring during workout will keep toxins away, and make your skin healthy and acne-free.

4. Skincare routine to follow! Avoid touching your pimples and breakouts as it triggers infection. Popping a pimple will cause skin irritated or inflamed resulting in swelling, scarring and redness. Wash hands regularly with anti-bacterial soap/hand wash before touching your face.
Apart from that, keep your face clean with facial scrubs, moisturisers and masks. Opt for an acne medication that has a potent pimple/acne reduction activity or the ability to prevent occurrence of pimples/acne.

5. Shavers beware! Make sure you thoroughly clean your razors, blade and electric shaver. Before shaving, always soften skin with lukewarm, soapy water.

6. Haircare is very important! It is extremely important to keep your hair clean and dandruff-free. Negligence can result in acne.
To protect your hair against pollution, always wear washed caps, headbands and scarves. When visiting a salon, avoid using another person’s towel as it may carry infections resulting in risk of acne, redness and skin inflammation.

7. Aiming for a minimal makeup look! Remove make-up before going to bed as this lowers the risk of breakouts. Also, go for the minimal make-up as it lets the skin breathe and look natural.
Essential oils help in treating skin inflammations and acne. A combination of various essential oils like tea tree oil, moringa oil, lemon oil, chamomile oil and lavender oil will treat the acne effectively.

Best Yoga for PCOS

Lets start with what is PCOS…

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6 to 12 percent of women during their childbearing years, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This common female endocrine disorder causes your ovaries to produce an excess of male hormones, resulting in irregular periods, weight gain, and problems with fertility and ovulation.

But recent research points to a regular practice of yoga as an effective way to manage PCOS symptoms.

There are five easy yoga asanas that can actually help to deal with this issue as yoga helps to decrease testosterone levels in women and increase estrogen and also opens up the uterus and ovaries that makes ovulation much easier to occur. It even controls stress!

Asana 1:- Bridge Pose or Setu bandhasana

Asana 2:- Cat- Cow Pose or Chakravakasana

Asana 3:- Garland Pose or Malasana

Asana 4:- Sun Salutations or Surya Namaskar

Asana 5:- Head to Knee Pose or Janusirasana

Remember that always start from a beginning stage. You don’t need to be perfect and accurate from the very beginning as it always happens gradually. Practicing makes it easier and perfect. Consistency is the key!



A system of techniques utilised in ancient times to harmonise the mind and body through physical activity, mindfulness meditation, and emotional and breathing regulation.

yoga can be defined in many ways, every one has there own meaning.

Photo by Felipe Borges on

Importance of Yoga in daily life:

People’s minds can be calmed by using the many breathing techniques used in yoga. Also, it increases your capacity for awareness and stillness. Also, you can find inner calm through meditation. It also aids in instilling commitment and discipline in one’s life. And Yoga promotes mental health, mindfulness, healthy eating, weight loss, and restful sleep in addition to stress management.While the sole purpose of yoga is to challenge the mind and body through a series of yoga asanas, the overall goal of yoga is to cultivate self-reflection, control the breath, achieve profound relaxation, and progress through meditation.

Types of yoga:

There are six types of yoga.

1.Karma yoga

2.Bhakti yoga

3.Jnana yoga

4.Raja yoga

5.Tantra yoga

6.Hatha yoga

1.Karma yoga:

A route to moksha through employment is karma yoga. A commitment to one’s duty, making the best effort but being unattached to rewards or outcomes like success or failure, are all examples of righteous activity without being swayed by what the results may be.

2.Bhakti yoga:

Bhakti yoga, also known as Bhakti marga, is a Hindu spiritual path or practise that is centred on adoring devotion to any particular deity.

3.Jnana yoga:

One of the three traditional Hindu paths to moksha, jnana yoga, also known as the jnana marga, emphasises the “road of knowledge,” also known as the “path of self-realization”.

4.Raja yoga:

Raja yoga describes both the end result of yoga and the path to getting there. As a result, it is also regarded as the feeling of tranquilly and contentment that results from regular yoga and meditation practise. Raja yoga is essentially the practise of controlling one’s mind and body, with an emphasis on meditation and energetics.

5.Tantra yoga:

Tantra is a branch of yoga that combines a variety of practises, including pranayama, mudras, visualisation, mantra meditation, and initiation to study the inner world through the human body. These Tantric practises and rituals are primarily concerned with kundalini energy development and accumulation.

6.Hatha yoga:

In order to achieve a condition of spiritual purity in which the mind is detached from the outside world, Hatha yoga emphasises physical control.

Benefits of Yoga: reduce the mental stress.

2.It improves strength, balance and flexibility. releases to you, to help you sleep better. gives more energy in positive vibration. control the mental stress.

6.It improves heart health

7.It can melt away tension.

8.Gain muscle strength.

9.It improves the quality of life.

Is yoga and meditation both are same:

No, meditation and yoga are not the same thing. Yoga is a form of exercise that uses specific body postures to achieve physical and mental health benefits, while meditation is a practice that can be done with or without movement in order to focus and calm the mind.


Definition of Feminism:

Feminism advocates for equal rights and opportunities for people of all genders. It involves valuing the different experiences, identities, skills, and strengths of women and working to ensure that every woman has the opportunity to exercise all of her legal rights.

Types of Feminism:

1.Liberal feminism.

2.Radical feminism.

3.Marxist and Socialist feminism.

4.Cultural feminism.

5.Eco feminism.

1.Liberal feminism:

The primary goal of liberal feminism, often known as mainstream feminism, is to achieve gender equality within the framework of liberal democracy through political and legal reform. It is frequently regarded as economically centrist and culturally progressive.

2.Radical feminism:

Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that calls for a radical reorganisation of society in which male supremacy is eliminated in all social and economic contexts while acknowledging that other social divisions, such as those based on race, class, and sexual orientation, also have an impact on women’s experiences.

3.Marxist and Socialist feminism:

Marxism is one of the main sources of inspiration for socialist feminists, who contend that patriarchal hierarchies and the subjection of women were intended purposes of capitalism. Marxist and socialist feminism holds that overthrowing capitalist economic structures that exploit and undervalue women’s work is necessary to achieve gender equality.

4.Cultural feminism:

A subset of feminism known as cultural feminism emphasises the fundamental distinctions between men and women that are based on their biological capacities for procreation. Cultural feminism credits these distinctions with giving women special and superior qualities.

5.Eco feminism:

Like the social movements it arose from, ecofeminism is a combination of political activism and intellectual critique. Ecofeminism unites feminism and environmentalism in its claim that patriarchy and capitalism are to blame for capitalism’s environmental damage and the dominance of women.

History of feminism:

The history of feminism comprises the narratives of movements and ideologies which have aimed at equal rights for rights.

history of feminism can be divided in three waves.

1.First wave of feminism:

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a climate of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics gave rise to the first wave of feminism. With a focus on suffrage, this wave sought to increase possibilities for women.

2.Second wave of feminism:

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, there was a second wave of feminism that concentrated on concerns of equality and prejudice. The feminist liberation movement first gained popularity among American women, and it quickly expanded to other Western nations.

3.Third wave of feminism:

The Third Wave of Indian Feminism began in 1980 with the Five-Year Plan’s decision to prioritise women’s health, work, and education. Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) run by women have multiplied in an effort to support other women. The Dalit and marginalised women’s rights were also championed by the movement.

Future of feminism:

The struggles for equality of opportunity in the workplace, political influence, and representation will be at the centre of the next wave of feminism. It will be about imagining and building a democracy and economy that works for all of us, safeguarding the weakest among us, and holding those responsible for our safety accountable.


“Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is probably the reason so few engage in it.” – Henry Ford

Photo by Polina Zimmerman on

Thinking requires effort and in a world where every thing is just a click away, it’s no wonder that so many people would indulge in instant gratification rather than take time to engage in impactful thinking. Why bother with thinking when one can scroll endlessly through social media feed and Tik Tok videos? I mean let’s be real, who has time to sit down and ponder the mysteries of the universe when there are new episodes of your favorite shows to binge-watch?

In fact thinking can be exhausting. It requires concentration, mental energy and the willingness to question one’s own beliefs and assumptions. Let’s not forget that thinking also requires a certain type of intelligence, not every person has the ability to come up with coherent thoughts or ideas, and the effort required to do so can be overwhelming but not impossible.

What Is Thinking?

Psychologist define thinking as a cognitive process that involves mental processes such as perception, attention, memory, problem solving to generate new ideas, form judgements, and make decisions. Thinking can be broadly divided into two categories, controlled thinking which is slower and effortful and automatic thinking which is fast, effortless and largely unconscious. Then there is divergent and convergent thinking. A person who thinks divergently will be able to generate multiple solutions or ideas to a single problem where as a person who thinks convergently will focus on one single solution or idea that is the most logic or efficient.

Another important aspect of thinking is metacognition, it refers to our ability to monitor and control our own thinking process. It includes our ability to recognize when we don’t know about something, self evaluating our own thinking and problem solving strategies and also being able to adjust our thinking as needed. For example metacognition practices have shown to increase a student’s ability to transfer or adapt their learning to new concepts and tasks fast by gaining a level of awareness about their subject matter. So if you want to simply put it metacognition is thinking about one’s own thinking.

How to develop the habit of thinking fast?

Make minor unimportant decisions fast : For example, challenge yourself to choose your next meal in less than a minute, or when you go to a clothing store decide that you would buy what you want in half an hour and leave the store.

Practice doing the things you are good at faster: If you are an artist decide that you will finish a painting in 2 hours. See how fast you can do the things you are good at and take it as a challenge.

Practice meditation: There are many benefits to practicing meditation on a daily basis. It calms our body and mind and also build a more efficient brain by stimulating the formation of new brain cells and neural connection. Meditation also helps strengthen the communication between the brain cells which in turn speeds up mental processes such as the ability to think, learn and concentrate.

Stop multitasking there are many researches that suggest that it is less efficient to multitask. This is because multitasking can interfere with our working memory, reduce our concentration on each task hinder our performance and increase the time that we take to do each task. So watching TV when doing your homework may not be a good idea after all.

Being someone who likes to take time with thinking and making decision in not always a bad trait to have but there are situations where fast thinking and decision making can lead to a number of advantages like being able to do your work faster and avoid procrastination or it can help you seem smarter, confident and help you feel comfortable around others without the feeling of being left out. Even though there are genetical factors and natural talent that can make some people faster thinkers than others, there are plenty of ways to improve your thinking speed. But always remember that it won’t happen overnight, but with a little bit of effort and daily practice fast thinking is a skill that everyone can develop.


Early life of Mahatma Gandhi:

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatma Gandhi) was born on October 2, 1869, into a Hindu Modh family in Porbanadar, Gujarat, India. His father, named Karamchand Gandhi, was the Chief Minister (diwan) of the city of Porbandar. His mother, named Putlibai.

At the age of 13, Mahatma Gandhi was married to Kasturba which is an arranged marriage. They had four sons namely Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas and Devdas. She supported all the endeavors of her husband until her death in 1944.


Gandhi attended a neighbourhood school in Rajkot when he was nine years old, where he learned the fundamentals of math, history, geography, and languages. He attended a high school in Rajkot when he was eleven years old. His studies were disrupted by his marriage for at least a year, after which he rejoined the school system and finished his education. In 1888, he enrolled in Samaldas College in Bhavnagar, Gujarat. Mavji Dave Joshi, a family friend, then sought higher education, including law, in London. Gandhiji, who was dissatisfied with his academic performance at Samaldas College, became thrilled about the London plan and persuaded his mother and wife that he would not touch non-vegetarian food, alcohol, or women.

Contribution of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian freedom struggle:

The Champaran Movement in 1917, the Kheda Movement in 1918, the Khilafat Movement in 1919, the Non-Cooperation Campaign in 1920, the Quit India Movement in 1942, and the Civil Disobedience Movement are all part of Mahatma Gandhi’s freedom movement.

Champaran Movement:

Being Gandhi’s first Satyagraha movement in India, the Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 is regarded as a pivotal uprising in the history of the Indian Independence Movement. During the British colonial era, there was a farmer’s uprising in the Champaran area of Bihar, India.

Kheda Movement:

Mahatma Gandhi organised the Kheda Satyagraha of 1918, a satyagraha movement in Gujarat, India, during the reign of the British Raj. In the fight for Indian independence, it was a significant uprising. It was the third Satyagraha movement, and it began four days after the mill strike in Ahmedabad. Gandhi organised the effort to aid peasants who were unable to pay the tax because of starvation and plague epidemic after the successful Satyagraha staged in Champaran in Bihar.

Khilafat movement;

In addition to advocating for a larger campaign of non-cooperation at the same time, Mahatma Gandhi had supported the movement as part of his opposition to the British Empire. Several prominent members of the Congress, such as Vallabhbhai Patel and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, also backed the initiative.

Non co-operation campaign:

The leading proponent of the non-cooperation movement was Mahatma Gandhi. He published a manifesto in March 1920 outlining the movement’s nonviolent noncooperation stance. Follow swadeshi ideals is what Gandhi urged people to do in his manifesto. Leaders.

Quit india Movement:

On August 8, 1942, during World War II, Mahatma Gandhi began the August Kranti Campaign, also known as the Quit India Movement, calling for the end of British rule in India at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee.

Civil disobedience Movement:

Civil disobedience, also known as passive resistance, is the act of refusing to comply with the requests or orders of a government or occupying power without using force or other aggressive forms of resistance. Its typical goal is to pressure the government or occupying power into making concessions.

Mahatma Gandhi as Father Of Nation:

Mahatma Gandhi is the common name for Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Gandhi was a nationalist, lawyer, and opponent of colonialism. In opposition to British control over India, he organised a nonviolent mass movement that eventually led to the country’s independence. In India, Mahatma Gandhi is regarded as the founding father of the country.

The Eleven vows of Mahatma Gandhi:









9.Sarva Dharma Samanatva

10.Asangraha non posession


these are the 11 vows of Mahatma Gandhi.


What is motivation?

The word “motive,” which refers to a person’s needs, wishes, wants, or drives, is the root of the word “motivation.” It is the process of inspiring people to act in order to accomplish a goal. In the context of career aspirations, psychological factors influencing people’s behaviour may include a desire for money.

How will you motivate yourself to achieve your goals:

1.Keep an ongoing review of your objectives and results. Making improvement is incredibly motivating in and of itself, and it also raises your self-esteem.

2.Continue to set new goals. Think about what you want to achieve next week, next month and next year. Tackle one goal at a time so you don’t feel overwhelmed.

3.Maintain the momentum. The average person needs  months to form a new habit, but it might take considerably longer for other people. Over time, it becomes increasingly automatic as long as the momentum and pattern are maintained.

4.Identify role models who have experience in the habit you want to change, such as someone you look up to. You might find a mentor by looking for social or support groups with a similar interest.

5.Be in the company of uplifting individuals. Your positive self-talk is strengthened by supportive friends and relatives. Moreover, it aids in the management of anxiety and depression symptoms.

6.Make exercising a daily priority to enhance your mental well-being.

Types of Motivation:

Motivation is four types.

They are:

1.Incentive motivation.

2.Fear motivation.

3.Power motivation.

4.Social motivation.

Importance of Motivation:

The general growth of a person’s personality and thinking depend greatly on their level of motivation. Together with that, it makes a person active and competitive. The efficiency and motivation to accomplish the goal both increase as a result. Stability and progress at work follow from it.

Self Motivation:

Self-motivation is the ability to remain motivated despite the impact of outside circumstances and individuals. Also, self-motivated people always find the strength and logic to finish a task. Also, they do not require outside motivation to complete a difficult activity.

Importance of Self Motivation:

In whatever task they are performing, they learn how to show their best selves. Because accomplishing their goals requires time and work, they grow more resilient. They are driven by passion, which gives them a desire to succeed. When they fail, they view the criticism as a teaching moment.

Types of Self Motivation:

1.Extrinsic Motivation.

2.Intrinsic Motivation

3.Family Motivation.

Self motivation is the key to success:

The capacity to inspire oneself to take initiative and action in pursuit of objectives and task completion is known as self-motivation. It’s an innate desire to act, to create, and to accomplish things. It is what motivates you to continue working on projects, especially those that you are pursuing for personal reasons rather than because someone else ordered you to.

The role of the Vice –President of India as the chairman of the Rajyasabha

The Vice-President of India holds a unique position in the country’s political landscape. Not only is the Vice-President the second-highest-ranking official in the government, but they also serve as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha, one of the two houses of Parliament. This dual role gives the Vice-President a significant responsibility in shaping the legislative agenda of the country.

Jagdeep Dhankhar, the 14th Vice-President of India

The Role of the Vice-President as Chairman of the Rajya Sabha:


As the chairman of the Rajya Sabha, the Vice-President presides over its proceedings and ensures that they are conducted in an orderly and efficient manner. They have the power to maintain order and decorum in the house and can expel members who engage in disruptive behavior.

One of the key responsibilities of the chairman of the Rajya Sabha is to ensure that the house functions smoothly and efficiently. This involves managing the time allotted for various debates, ensuring that all members get a chance to speak, and resolving any disputes that may arise during the proceedings.

The chairman of the Rajya Sabha also has the power to decide which bills and motions will be taken up for discussion and when. They work closely with the leaders of the various political parties in the house to ensure that the legislative agenda is balanced and reflects the interests of all sections of society.

In addition to their role as the presiding officer of the Rajya Sabha, the Vice-President also plays a critical role in the functioning of the Indian government. They serve as the backup to the President of India and assume the role of acting President in the event of the President’s absence or incapacity.

The Importance of the Vice-President’s Role:

The role of the Vice-President as chairman of the Rajya Sabha is critical to the functioning of India’s democracy. The Rajya Sabha plays a vital role in the legislative process, serving as a forum for debating and passing laws that impact the lives of millions of people across the country.

The chairman of the Rajya Sabha is responsible for ensuring that the proceedings of the house are conducted in a fair and impartial manner, allowing all members to voice their opinions and concerns. They must balance the interests of different political parties and ensure that the legislative agenda reflects the needs of the country as a whole.

Moreover, the Vice-President’s role as the backup to the President of India is equally important. In the event of a crisis or emergency, the Vice-President must be ready to step in and assume the responsibilities of the President, ensuring that the government continues to function smoothly and effectively.


In conclusion, the role of the Vice-President of India as chairman of the Rajya Sabha is critical to the functioning of the country’s democracy. They must manage the proceedings of the house, ensure that all members have a chance to speak, and balance the interests of different political parties. Moreover, as the backup to the President of India, the Vice-President must be ready to assume the responsibilities of the presidency in the event of a crisis or emergency. The Vice-President’s dual role gives them a unique position in India’s political landscape, and their contribution to the functioning of the government is invaluable.

The significance of the lion and bull figures in Indian mythology, art, and architecture.

India is a land of diverse cultures, traditions, and mythology. Its ancient texts, such as the Vedas, Puranas, and the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata, are replete with tales of gods, goddesses, and mythical creatures. Among these creatures, two of the most significant are the lion and the bull, which have been depicted in Indian mythology, art, and architecture for centuries.

Popular Indian Epics

The Lion in Indian Mythology:

In Indian mythology, the lion is a symbol of power, strength, and courage. It is associated with various deities, such as Lord Vishnu, who is often depicted with a lion as his mount. Similarly, goddess Durga, the embodiment of feminine power, is depicted riding a lion or tiger. It is believed that the lion’s roar is so powerful that it can shake the foundations of the earth, and its strength can overpower any foe.

Lord Vishnu

One of the most famous stories involving a lion in Indian mythology is the tale of Narasimha, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. The story goes that the demon king Hiranyakashipu had received a boon from Lord Brahma that made him invincible. He became arrogant and began to torment the gods and humans. However, his son, Prahlada, was a devotee of Lord Vishnu and refused to worship his father. This enraged Hiranyakashipu, and he tried to kill Prahlada several times.

Lord Narasimha

Finally, he challenged Prahlada to show him where his God was, and when Prahlada pointed to a pillar, Hiranyakashipu smashed it open. To his surprise, a half-man, half-lion creature emerged from the pillar and killed him. This creature was Narasimha, who had been created to defeat Hiranyakashipu and restore peace to the world.

Lord Narasimha killing Hiranyakashipu

The Bull in Indian Mythology:

The bull, or Nandi, is another significant creature in Indian mythology. It is considered to be the vehicle of Lord Shiva and is often depicted kneeling in front of him. The bull symbolizes strength, fertility, and prosperity and is worshipped in many parts of India.

Nandi, Lord Shiva’s vehicle

According to Hindu mythology, the bull is said to have been created by Lord Shiva himself. The story goes that once when Lord Shiva was meditating, a demon named Jalandhara appeared before him and began to attack him. To defeat the demon, Lord Shiva created a bull from his own body and sent it to fight Jalandhara. The bull was successful in defeating the demon, and Lord Shiva was able to continue his meditation in peace.

The Significance of Lion and Bull in Indian Art and Architecture:

The lion and the bull are not only significant in Indian mythology but also in Indian art and architecture. They can be found in various forms, from sculptures to paintings and even on currency notes. These figures are often depicted in temples, palaces, and other important buildings, symbolizing the power and strength of the gods and kings.

One of the most famous examples of the lion’s significance in Indian architecture is the Ashoka Pillar, which was erected by Emperor Ashoka in the third century BCE. The pillar features a sculpture of four lions standing back to back, with the wheel of dharma between them. This sculpture has become an iconic symbol of India and can be found on the Indian national emblem.

Ashok Pillar: Sarnath

Similarly, the bull is also a common feature in Indian architecture, particularly in temples dedicated to Lord Shiva. One of the most famous examples of this is the Nandi Bull sculpture at the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. This sculpture is one of the largest in India, measuring over five meters in height and seven meters in length.

Brihadeeshwara temple: Thanjavur


In Indian mythology, the lion and the bull hold great significance as symbols of power, strength, and courage. These creatures have been depicted in Indian art and architecture for centuries, serving as reminders of the gods and kings who embody their qualities. From the Ashoka Pillar to the Brihadeeswarar Temple, the lion, and the bull continue to inspire and awe people with their majestic presence. They remain an integral part of India’s rich cultural heritage, reminding us of the enduring legacy of the country’s mythology and artistic traditions.

Has the formation of linguistic states strengthened the cause of Indian unity?

India, as a nation, is characterized by its diversity in terms of culture, religion, and language. The linguistic diversity of India has been a critical factor in the evolution of the Indian state. The formation of linguistic states in India was an effort to provide representation and autonomy to linguistic minorities in the country. The question that arises is whether the formation of linguistic states has strengthened the cause of Indian unity or not.

The idea of linguistic states was first proposed by the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) in 1955, which recommended the formation of states on the basis of linguistic and cultural identity. The commission’s recommendations were implemented in 1956, leading to the formation of states based on linguistic identity.

The formation of linguistic states was seen as a necessary step toward promoting the linguistic and cultural diversity of the country. The idea was to provide linguistic minorities with a voice in the political process and to give them a sense of identity and belonging. The formation of linguistic states was also seen as a way to address the concerns of regionalism and separatism, which were seen as a threat to the unity and integrity of the country.

Indian Map

The formation of linguistic states has had both positive and negative consequences for the cause of Indian unity. On the positive side, the formation of linguistic states has helped to preserve and promote the cultural diversity of the country. It has given linguistic minorities a sense of identity and has provided them with a voice in the political process. The formation of linguistic states has also helped to address the issue of regionalism and separatism by giving regions greater autonomy and representation.

On the negative side, the formation of linguistic states has led to the emergence of linguistic chauvinism and regionalism. It has led to the creation of linguistic and cultural silos, where people identify more with their linguistic and cultural identity than with the larger Indian identity. This has resulted in the emergence of regional political parties, which often focus on narrow regional interests rather than the larger national interest.

How British Imperialism Influenced the Creation of Linguistic States

The formation of linguistic states has also led to the emergence of language-based conflicts, such as the demand for separate statehood by linguistic minorities. This has led to violence and disruption in some parts of the country, such as the demand for Gorkhaland in West Bengal and the demand for Telangana in Andhra Pradesh.

In conclusion, the formation of linguistic states has had both positive and negative consequences for the cause of Indian unity. While it has helped to preserve and promote the cultural diversity of the country, it has also led to the emergence of linguistic chauvinism and regionalism. The challenge for India is to find a balance between promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and maintaining the unity and integrity of the country. It is essential to recognize that India’s strength lies in its diversity, and linguistic diversity is an essential part of that diversity. By recognizing and celebrating this diversity, India can strengthen its unity and emerge as a strong and vibrant nation.

The Sharabha Avatar

Sharabha is an avatar of Lord Shiva which is not commonly known. This is considered as the most powerful appearance taken by Shiva to protect the universe. His manifestation as Sharabeshwara was to dominate over the fierce embodiment of Lord Vishnu as Narasimha which was the combination of half human and half lion. The objective of Vishnu’s incarnation was to save his favorite devotee prince Prahalada from the demon king Hiranyakashipu who was his father too. After killing him, Narasimha seemed to be very furious in nature. He created an awful situation in the Universe by roaring dreadfully and continuously. By foreseeing the negative outcome of this, other Gods and sub-gods sought help from Mahadeva who then decided to take the Sharaba form to pacify the angry Narasimha and convert him to normal Vishnu.

The Sharaba form of Shiva was the structural blend of human, animal and bird with gigantic as well as blistering look. It had so many hands, claws and legs, and almost resembled a huge dragon. The entangled tresses in the body highlighted the ferocity of the structure to a greater extend. In the head there was a massive crest which looked like a dome. There were well spread wings on the back side of the body with a long tail. The extremely sharp incisors in the mouth and inflexible claws were its main weapons. Its thunder like voice created echo in the environments and was horrible to hear. It had three eyes which were glowing like fire balls. Its teeth and lips were well formed and can be seen properly. It produced awful hissing sounds throughout.

Narasimha is often visualized as having a human torso and lower body, with a lion face and claws. This image is widely worshiped in deity form by a significant number of Vaishnava groups. Vishnu assumed this form on top of Himvat Mountain (Harivamsa). He is known primarily as the ‘Great Protector’ who specifically defends and protects his devotees in times of need. Vishnu is believed to have taken the avatar to destroy the demon king Hiranyakashipu. The Puranas describe Lord Narasimha deva’s pastime of killing the demon, saying that the Lord consumed every drop of Hiranyakasipu’s blood, then wore the demon’s mangled body as a garland to make sure that none of the demon’s physical remains made contact with the universe.

So how did lord Narasimha died?

After the destruction, Prahlada, Laksmi and various demigods attempted to soothe the Lord’s anger, but without success. At first Lord Shiva took the form of Veerabhadra and asked Narasimha to cool down. But Narasimha ignored this appeal. So he himself transformed to colossal Sharabha which outclassed Narasimha both in structure and power. Then Sharabha lifted Narasimha with its long tail and was about to throw him. Narasimha realized this and prayed Sharabha to forgive him with beautiful epithets, which later became the Ashtothra (108 Names) of the victorious Lord.

Lord Shiva then revealed to all the Devas that: “To annihilate the Asura, Lord Narasimha came, and to appease Lord Narasimha, I have come as Sarabeswara. Be aware that we are both one and the same like water and water, milk and milk, ghee and ghee, both inseparable and to be worshipped as one”.

Lord Shiva ensured the recovery of Lord Vishnu from his ferocious nature and hence did not hurt him. As a mark of respect to Lord Shiva, Narasimha removed the skin of lion from his body and presented to Sharabeshwaramurti. Thus the incarnation as Sharabha by Lord Shiva pacified the Narasimha manifestation of Lord Vishnu. This embodiment of Shiva is referred as Sarabeswara. In Shiva temples idols of two Sharabheswara are found at the entrance of sanctum sanctorum. He embraced Sri Narasimha, cooled Him down and made Him accessible to all beings. This Sri Sharabhesvara is Lord Shiva’s universal Omkara form.

While numerous temple deities, painted images and sastric references are found to Lord Shiva’s Sharabha form, the major Puranas like Srimad Bhagavatam do not mention the Sharabha form of Lord Shiva. Likewise, no mention appears to have been made in the Upa Puranas like the Narasimha Purana, or other Upanishads associated with Sri Narasimha dev. Rather, they stop at the point in the lila pastime with the destruction of Hiranyakasipu and the pacification of the Lord’s anger by Bhakta Prahlad and the demigods and goddesses.

Although the post-destruction pastimes are not mentioned in the primary shastra, there are many references found to Shiva Sharabha and to Lord Narasimha deva’s own Sharabha Form – Gandaberunda. Included amongst them are references to Sri Narasimha’s Form as Gandaberunda, a rare two-headed bird incarnation worshipped in South India, as well as to versions of a pastime wherein Shiva Sharabha actually fought with and killed Lord Narasimha dev. Some have concluded that this incarnation of Shiva was simply created by a group of South Indian Shaivites as a means to position Shiva as being greater than Vishnu, and that question seems left to the discussions of academics and pandits.

In the Atharva Veda, the tenth of thirty-one Upanishads is the Sharabha Upanishad, which glorifies Lord Shiva in his fierce Sharabha manifestation. Verse 3 of this Upanishad states that Maheswarah took the form of Sharabha and killed Narasimha.


What is computer?

A computer is a programmable electronic device that accepts data, performs mathematical and logical processes as directed quickly, and displays the outcomes. There are many distinct kinds of computers, including mainframes, desktop and laptop computers, tablets, and cellphones.

The Basic components of a computer Hardware:

1.CPU(central processing unit)

2.RAM(Random Access Memory)

3.ROM(Read Only Memory)

4.Mother board



1.Cental Processing Unit:

The part of a computer that obtains and executes instructions is called the central processing unit (CPU). A CAD system’s CPU can be thought of as its brain. It is made up of a control unit, a number of registers, and an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). The term “processor” is frequently used to refer to the CPU.

2.Random Access Memory:

A computer’s short-term memory, or RAM (random access memory), is where the data that the processor is presently using is kept. RAM memory capacity is essential for system performance since your computer can access RAM memory data more faster than data on a hard drive, SSD, or other long-term storage device.

3.Read Only Memory:

A type of computer storage called read-only memory, or ROM, contains non-volatile, permanent data that typically may only be read from, not written to. The software that enables a computer to boot up or regenerate each time it is turned on is stored in the ROM.

4.Mother Board:

The primary printed circuit board in all-purpose computers and other expanding systems is called a motherboard. It provides connectors for additional peripherals and retains and enables communication between many of the critical electronic parts of a system, including the memory and central processing unit.


A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or textual form. A discrete monitor comprises a visual display, support electronics, power supply, housing, electrical connectors, and external user controls.


A computer mouse is a tiny, movable object that you can use to operate a variety of things. Most mouse types have two buttons, while some may also have a wheel positioned in the middle of the buttons. The majority of mouse models utilise the computer’s power and a cable connection to connect to it. Wireless mouse come in a few varieties.

versions of a computer:

On the basis of data handling capabilities. Three types of versions are there. they are

1.Analog computers.

2.Digital computers

3.Hybrid computers

1.Analog computers:


A computer that uses continually changing components, such as mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, etc. is known as an analogue computer. They originally saw use in the 1950s and 1960s. They employ continuous values rather than discrete ones. These computers therefore operate on an analogue signal.

2.Digital computers:


A digital electronic computer is a type of computer that is both an electrical computer and a digital computer, according to computer science. Digital electronic computers include devices like the Apple Macintosh, the IBM PC, and contemporary smartphones.

3.Hybrid computer:


Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit features of analog computers and digital computers. The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical and numerical operations, while the analog component often serves as a solver of differential equations and other mathematically complex problems. 

History of computer:

An abacus was one of the earliest and most well-known tools. The first mechanical computer was then being developed by Charles Babbage, the inventor of computers, in 1822. Finally, he created an analytical engine, a general-purpose computer, in 1833.

Top ten Universities Proving MBA

There many universities in the world and some of them have earned reputation of global standard.

Every year, many students plan to study abroad at top-ranked universities. The decision of selecting top-ranked universities in the world for your higher studies plays an important role in your academic and professional quest. You will get the best education with lots of international exposure at top universities. The ranking of the universities is measured through their global reputation, academics, teaching performance, research opportunities, etc. This article will bring a comprehensive list of top universities in the world as well as the popular study destinations for abroad study.

Are you looking for the world’s top universities? Following is the list of top universities in the world ranked by QS World University Ranking 2023 and Times Higher Education Ranking 2023.

List of Top 10 Universities in the World

UniversitiesQS World University Rank 2023THE World University Rank 2023
Massachusetts Institute of Technology15
University of Cambridge2=3
Stanford University3=3
University of Oxford41
Harvard University52
California Institute of Technology66
Imperial College London610
ETH Zurich9=11
University of Chicago1013

Harvard University

Ranked among the top universities in the world, Harvard University is one of the oldest universities in the USA founded in 1636. Almost 30% of the total students are from over 150 countries in the world. Some of the popular majors offered by Harvard are Computer Science, History, Social Sciences, Biological Sciences, Law, and Mathematics. Harvard University’s acceptance rate is 5%, so it is difficult for international students to get into this university.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private university based in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This top-ranked university in the world and founded in 1861 to provide the best research program to students. Sloan School of Management and School of Engineering are some of its highly ranked graduate schools. Apart from this, its popular programs include Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, Psychology, and Economics. The acceptance rate of MIT is 7.3% because of which the Massachusetts Institute of Technology admissions are selective. 

Stanford University

Stanford University is a private research university founded in 1891. This university is placed among the top 5 universities in the world. The students to faculty ratio of Stanford is 7:1 better than other universities in the world. Stanford University is located in the heart of Northern California’s Silicon Valley, which is home to top tech giants and multinational companies like Yahoo!, Google, Microsoft, and Hewlett-Packard.

California Institute of Technology

California Institute of Technology is among the best university to study engineering in USA. It is the leading private university in the world. Caltech has five institutes namely Beckman Institute, Kavli Nanoscience Institute, Rosen Bioengineering Center, Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience, and the Resnick Sustainability Institute. Caltech is known for offering excellent science and engineering-related programs in the USA.

University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge is the world’s fourth oldest and most respected university with its origin going back to 1209. The research university is the second-oldest English-speaking University. Cambridge specializes in offering high-quality education in social sciences, arts, humanities and sciences, and engineering. It is extremely difficult to get into Cambridge and share the experience of studying with some of the brightest minds.

Popular Universities among Top 100 in the World

UniversitiesTHE World University Rank 2023QS World University Rank 2023
Columbia University, US=1122
University of Pennsylvania1413
Rockefeller UniversityNANA
Johns Hopkins University, US1524
Cornell University, US2020
University of California – Los Angeles Campus2144
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor2325
Duke University, US2550
Northwestern University, US=2632

Note: The order of the universities is not based on their rankings.

As we see Universities in USA dominate in top-ranked universities in the world. Therefore, we can conclude that the USA is the top study destination in the world followed by the United Kingdom (UK). The regular contenders Australia and Canada have proved their mettle in the field of higher education. In addition, Singapore has emerged as the top-most study destination for international students in Asia. China is also emerging as a preferred destination for international students.

Factors for Calculating World University Ranking

1. Academic reputation (40%)

2. Employer reputation (10%)

3. Faculty/student ratio (20%)

4. Citations per faculty (20%)

5. International student ratio (5%)

6. International faculty ratio (5%)


In every nation on earth, women are the primary kid and elder caretakers. Worldwide studies show that women take the lead in assisting the family in adjusting to new realities and problems as a society’s economy and political structure change.

These are the fundamental building blocks of society; they form a family, which in turn forms a home, which in turn forms a society, which in turn forms a nation. Hence, from giving birth and caring for a child throughout their entire life, women contribute in many different ways.

They are portraying a professional, a competent housewife, and a proud mother and daughter. In the past, women were only thought of as caring for the home and young children. Yet these days, people work in many industries to discover their hidden skills as well as to get independence and make money for themselves

Women’s role as a family guide:

The success of sustainable development and family life depends on women. The different roles that women play in the family include those of wife, head of the household, administrator, manager of finances, and last but not least, mother.

women’s role in education system:

Women with education can contribute significantly to society’s socioeconomic growth. Inequalities and disparities are eliminated through education as a way to regain one’s standing both inside and outside of one’s family. It is essential to women’s empowerment, prosperity, growth, and wellbeing.

In addition to encouraging their girl children’s education, educated women are better able to guide their entire family. Moreover, educated women can contribute to population increase and a decline in infant mortality.

women’s role in politics:

In terms of the percentage of women in Parliament, India comes in twenty-first from the bottom. In India, women have served as president, prime minister, and chief ministers of several different states. Women have long been elected by Indian people to various state legislative bodies and the national parliament.

As a working women:

Working women typically view their employment favourably because it has a significant impact on their status. Notwithstanding the impact that stress and family issues play, employment inevitably improves her status, boosts her feeling of self-worth, and gives her higher psychological well-being.

Women’s role in sports:

Sports have long been recognised for their beneficial effects on young girls’ and women’s liberation. Sports participation can help dispel gender stereotypes, boost women’s and girls’ self-esteem, and promote the growth of leadership and strategic thinking abilities.

The role of women in society:

1.A women should be given equal opportunities i socially and economically.

2.Because they are women, they must always be respected and never treated with disrespect.

3.Schooling should be made available for the girls in the rural area

4.Women should be headstrong and believe in them. They must voice their option without any fear.

5.During the middle ages, the women’s position in the society became inferior as compared to men, and the condition of the deteriorated.

6.We should remember the contribution of woman leaders and have a positive attitude towards woman controlling the government.

To what extent globalization has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India?

Globalization has become an increasingly influential force in shaping the world we live in today. Its impact can be seen in every aspect of our lives, from the way we communicate to the products we buy. India, with its rich cultural diversity, has also been significantly influenced by globalization. The question that arises is to what extent has globalization influenced the core of cultural diversity in India?

India has always been a diverse country, with a rich tapestry of cultures, traditions, and languages. Globalization has undoubtedly had an impact on this diversity, both positive and negative. On the one hand, it has led to the spread of Indian culture and traditions across the world, as well as the adoption of foreign cultures in India. On the other hand, it has also led to the erosion of some traditional cultural practices and values.

One of the most significant impacts of globalization on India’s cultural diversity has been the spread of Western culture. The influence of Western culture can be seen in the way people dress, the music they listen to, and the food they eat. The rise of globalization has led to the proliferation of Western-style malls and fast-food chains in India, leading to the displacement of traditional markets and food vendors. This has led to concerns about the homogenization of cultures, as traditional practices and values are replaced by Western ones.

Globalization has also had a significant impact on the entertainment industry in India. Bollywood, India’s film industry, has become increasingly global in its outlook. It has led to the spread of Indian cinema across the world, with Bollywood films becoming popular in countries such as the United States, China, and Japan. This has helped to promote Indian culture and traditions across the world.

Bollywood as a means of globalization

However, the rise of globalization has also led to the erosion of some traditional cultural practices in India. The spread of Western values and lifestyles has led to a decline in traditional practices such as joint families, arranged marriages, and the caste system. This has led to concerns about the loss of cultural identity and the impact of globalization on India’s social fabric.

Traditional way of farming

In conclusion, globalization has undoubtedly had an impact on India’s cultural diversity. While it has led to the spread of Indian culture across the world, it has also led to the erosion of some traditional cultural practices and values. The challenge for India is to find a balance between embracing the benefits of globalization and preserving its rich cultural diversity. It is essential to recognize the importance of preserving traditional practices and values while also embracing the opportunities that globalization presents. India’s cultural diversity is a source of its strength, and it is important to ensure that it remains an integral part of its identity in a globalized world.

How clean energy is the order of the day?

The world is rapidly moving towards a clean energy revolution. As concerns about climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on the environment continue to grow, governments, businesses, and individuals are increasingly turning to clean energy sources such as wind, solar, and hydropower.


Clean energy is the order of the day because it is essential to combat climate change. Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of energy for the world. However, their use has led to the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming and climate change. The transition to clean energy is critical to reducing these emissions and mitigating their impact on the environment.

Clean energy is also becoming increasingly cost-competitive. In the past, renewable energy sources were more expensive than traditional fossil fuels. However, as technology has improved, the cost of renewable energy has decreased significantly, making it a more affordable and viable option for many countries.

Countries using clean energy

The benefits of clean energy go beyond environmental and economic advantages. It also has social benefits. Many communities around the world do not have access to reliable electricity, and the use of traditional fossil fuels such as kerosene for lighting and cooking can have serious health implications. The use of clean energy sources such as solar and wind can provide these communities with reliable and clean energy, improving their health and quality of life.

Renewable sources of energy

The transition to clean energy is not without its challenges. The infrastructure required to support clean energy is still developing, and the intermittency of some renewable sources such as solar and wind can make it challenging to maintain a stable energy supply. However, with continued investment in research and development, these challenges can be overcome.

Research on clean energy

Governments, businesses, and individuals all have a role to play in the transition to clean energy. Governments can provide incentives and policy frameworks to encourage investment in clean energy sources, while businesses can invest in research and development and the deployment of renewable energy systems. Individuals can make lifestyle changes such as reducing energy consumption and investing in rooftop solar panels.

Government of India supporting clean energy

In conclusion, clean energy is the order of the day. It is essential to combat climate change, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve access to energy for all communities around the world. The transition to clean energy is not without its challenges, but with continued investment and commitment from governments, businesses, and individuals, we can build a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable future for ourselves and future generations.

Is boredom only a perspective?

What is the most ridiculous thing you’ve ever done to pass time?

Depressed musician vintage drawing by The British Library is licensed under CC-CC0 1.0

Francis Bacon , the famous English philosopher once said “I don’t think there is any truth. There are only points of view. Boredom, for example, is a point of view. So is total exaltation.” well if that is the case we have been viewing boredom all wrong! For most people, boredom is a dreaded feeling we all try to avoid at all costs. it’s that moment we are stuck in a meeting or in traffic, and we feel like our brain is slowly turning to mush. but according to Francis Bacon, its all just a matter of perspective. boredom is a point of view which means we can choose to see it in a different light.

What is boredom?

Boredom is a universal experience that we all encounter. It’s that feeling of restlessness, dissatisfaction, and the disinterest that creeps in every now and then when we have nothing to do or when we are doing something that fails to engage us. While boredom is a common human experience it’s also a complex and multifaceted emotion that has intrigued psychologists for decades. While most people view boredom as a negative emotion, it can also be seen as a signal that something is amiss in our lives. For example if we are bored at work it could mean that we need more challenging projects or that our values and interest don’t align with our work anymore. As Salvador Dali one said “Boredom is the mother of all creativity.” Boredom can motivate us to seek out new experiences, learn new things or make changes to our environment.

What causes boredom?

There are many factors that leads to the feeling of boredom, including

Monotony: Doing the same thing over and over again can quickly lead to boredom. This is especially true when the activities lack novelty and variation.

Lack of challenge: When a task is too easy or doesn’t require much effort, it can fail to engage us and lead to boredom.

Lack of control: When we feel that we have no control over our situation we may feel helpless and disengaged leading to boredom.

Understimulation: When we are not receiving enough sensory input, we may feel bored. this happens in situations where there is little to no stimulation like waiting in line or sitting in traffic.

Overstimulation: When we are overstimulated we become bored as our brains become overwhelmed and desensitized to the stimuli.

The Effects of boredom

While boredom may seem like an harmless emotion, it can have significant effect on our health and well-being. Chronic boredom has been linked to a range of negative outcomes like anxiety, depression, substance abuse and also many health problems. So one of the main problem of boredom is that it can lead to negative coping strategies like eating too much food, drugs or alcohol. These behaviors can give you temporary relief but can lead to long term negative consequences.

Ways to alleviating boredom

Engage in new activities: One way to compact boredom is to try new activities that challenges your brain. This keeps our brains busy and alleviate boredom.

Set Goals: Setting goals can give us a sense of direction, which helps alleviate boredom

Practice mindfulness: Practices such as meditation can help us be more present and engaged in the movement, which can alleviate boredom

Finding meaning: Find the meaning and purpose in every activity we do. The question we should ask ourselves is “why are we dong this activity right now?” or “How does it benefit me in the long run?” Once we know the answer we are likely to be more engaged in what we do and feel less bored.

Take breaks: Continuously working for hours can make us fell drained or overwhelmed, this can lead to loss of motivation and boredom. So sometimes taking brakes from an activity can recharge our batteries and we will be able to come back to it with renewed energy and interest.

Boredom is a very common human experience that can have significant impact on our mental and physical wellbeing. But by understanding the cause and effect of boredom we can develop strategies to alleviate it and lead more fulfilling lives.

So there you have it Folks. boredom and total exaltation are just points of view, according to Francis Bacon. While we may not be able to achieve total exaltation all the time, but with proper strategies we certainly can find ways to make the most of our moments of boredom and cultivate moments of joy and creativity. After all life is too short to be bored all the time!

How to get relief from menstrual cramps?

Certain over-the-counter products and home remedies, like using a heating pad, may help relieve pain associated with period cramps. Avoiding certain foods may also help.

It’s common to feel discomfort around your abdomen, lower back, and thighs when you’re menstruating. During your period, the muscles of your womb contract and relax to help shed built-up lining. It may include nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhea.

Some tips to reduce pain are:-

1. Taking over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

2. Applying heat

3. Massaging with essential oils

4. Having an orgasm

5. Avoiding certain foods such as alcohol, beverage, fatty foods, caffeine and salty foods.

6. Adding herbs to your diet

Maintaining a healthy diet and keeping up a regular exercise regimen can go a long way toward preventing menstrual pain. A 2016 study Trusted Source of 250 women found significant differences between period pain in women who maintained a nutritious diet, exercised regularly, and reduced stress. Generally, a diet geared toward decreasing menstrual pain should be high in minimally processed foods, fiber, and plants.

Boron is a mineral that helps your body absorb calcium and phosphorus. It also reduces menstrual cramps.

A 2015 study that looked at 113 university students found that boron reduced the intensity and length of menstrual pain. The foods include are avocado, peanut butter, bananas etc.

It sounds odd, but drinking water keeps your body from retaining water and helps to avoid painful bloating during menstruation. Warm or hot water is usually better for cramps, as hot liquids increase blood flow to your skin and may relax cramped muscles.

The idea of exercising immediately before or during your period may not appeal to you, but exercise releases endorphins.

Research suggests exercise is effective at reducing menstrual pain to the extent it may also eliminate or reduce the need for pain-relief medication. Moderate activity such as walking can be beneficial during your period in place of more strenuous activity. Yoga is a gentle exercise that releases endorphins and can help prevent or reduce menstrual symptoms. Some poses are :-

Cat-Cow pose
Child’s pose
Plank pose
Cobra pose

Remember taking care of your body as well as your mind during that time of the month is the utmost priority for all women out there as well as the responsibility of their men too to look after them and just ask what they need.

Comment down your views and tips that you want to share below.

Subhash Chandrabose Vs Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for India’s Freedom

The Indian freedom struggle was a long and arduous journey that involved the efforts of several leaders and activists. Among the prominent leaders of the freedom struggle were Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi. While both of these leaders shared the same goal of freeing India from British colonial rule, they differed significantly in their approaches to achieving this goal.

Subhash Chandra Bose (Left); Mahatma Gandhi (Right).

Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as Netaji, was a charismatic and dynamic leader who believed in direct action and armed struggle to achieve freedom for India. He believed that the British would never leave India voluntarily and that the use of force was necessary to achieve freedom. Bose’s approach was influenced by his belief in the importance of military power and his admiration for the success of revolutionary movements in other countries.

Netaji Subhash Chandrabose

Bose’s approach to the freedom struggle was reflected in his establishment of the Indian National Army (INA) in 1942. The INA was formed with the objective of using military force to drive the British out of India. Bose’s approach was controversial, and his methods were often criticized by other leaders of the freedom struggle.

Netaji with his Indian National Army.

Mahatma Gandhi, on the other hand, believed in nonviolent resistance as the most effective means of achieving freedom for India. Gandhi’s approach was based on his belief in the power of truth and nonviolence to effect change. He believed that nonviolent resistance would create moral pressure on the British to leave India and would inspire Indians to stand up for their rights.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

Gandhi’s approach to the freedom struggle was reflected in his campaigns of nonviolent resistance, such as the Salt Satyagraha and the Quit India movement. These campaigns involved peaceful protests, civil disobedience, and noncooperation with the British authorities. Gandhi’s approach was widely supported by the Indian people, and his campaigns of nonviolent resistance played a critical role in the eventual achievement of Indian independence.

Quit India movement.

The differences between Bose’s and Gandhi’s approaches to the freedom struggle were significant. While Bose believed in the use of force and military power, Gandhi believed in nonviolence and peaceful resistance. Bose’s approach was based on the idea of taking direct action against the British, while Gandhi’s approach was based on creating moral pressure on the British through nonviolent resistance.

Another significant difference between Bose’s and Gandhi’s approach to the freedom struggle was their attitude toward religion. Bose was a secular leader who believed that religion had no place in politics. Gandhi, on the other hand, was a deeply religious leader who believed that religion played a critical role in politics and public life.

To conclude, Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi were two prominent leaders of the Indian freedom struggle who differed significantly in their approach to achieving independence for India. Bose believed in the use of force and military power, while Gandhi believed in nonviolence and peaceful resistance. While their approaches were different, both leaders made significant contributions to the freedom struggle, and their legacy continues to inspire future generations of Indians.

The Role Of Women In The Freedom Struggle Especially During The Gandhian Phase

India’s freedom struggle was a long and arduous journey that spanned several decades. The Gandhian phase of the Indian freedom struggle, which began in 1915 and lasted until 1947, was a critical period in India’s fight for independence. During this phase, women played a vital role in the freedom struggle, contributing in various ways to the movement.

A gathering during the Indian Independence Day Act

Women’s involvement in the Gandhian phase of the Indian freedom struggle was not limited to a particular class, religion, or region. Women from all walks of life participated in the movement, including peasants, urban workers, middle-class professionals, and elite women. These women actively contributed to the movement, challenging the norms of society that relegated them to the margins.

One of the most significant contributions of women during the Gandhian phase of the freedom struggle was their participation in nonviolent protests. Women took part in marches, picketing, and satyagraha movements, which were a hallmark of the Gandhian phase of the freedom struggle. Women’s participation in these protests was an assertion of their agency and a demonstration of their commitment to the cause of freedom.

A fistful of salt: Women actively participated in large numbers during the salt satyagraha at Dandi Beach under Gandhiji.

Women’s contribution to the nationalistic discourse was also significant during this period. They actively participated in debates, discussions, and public meetings, where they articulated their views on the political and social issues of the day. Women’s involvement in the nationalistic discourse challenged the patriarchal structures of society, which had relegated them to the margins of public life.

Indian women, post-independence.

Women’s role in the freedom struggle was not limited to protests and political engagement. They also played a vital role in the social and economic empowerment of women. Women’s organizations, such as the All India Women’s Conference and the National Council of Women, worked towards improving the status of women and promoting their participation in public life. These organizations helped women acquire skills, provided them with education, and encouraged their participation in the political process.

Skilled women, using charkha to earn a living.

One of the most prominent women leaders of the Gandhian phase of the freedom struggle was Sarojini Naidu. She was a poet, a writer, and a social activist, who played a critical role in the freedom movement. She was actively involved in the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement, and the Quit India Movement. She was also the first woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress.

Sarojini Naidu, the nightingale of India.

Another notable woman leader of the freedom struggle was Kasturba Gandhi, the wife of Mahatma Gandhi. Kasturba was an active participant in the nonviolent protests led by her husband and played a critical role in organizing women’s groups to support the freedom struggle. She was also a prominent figure in the women’s movement and worked towards improving the status of women in society.

Kasturba Gandhi.

To conclude, women played a vital role in the Gandhian phase of the Indian freedom struggle. They challenged patriarchal structures, participated in nonviolent protests, contributed to the nationalistic discourse, and worked towards the social and economic empowerment of women. Their contribution to the freedom struggle was critical, and it paved the way for the recognition of women’s rights in independent India. The legacy of these women leaders continues to inspire women’s participation in public life and their pursuit of equality and justice.


Social media supports many businesses as well as society as a whole. It offers resources like social media marketing tools to connect with millions of potential customers. Using social media, we may easily access information and obtain news. Any social cause can benefit greatly from the usage of social media.

Social media in our society used in several ways.

they are:

1.Education .




In many ways social media used.


Teachers can use social media to connect with their peoples. even when they are not in the classroom. Students may access an infinite number of resources and texts from reliable sources by using social media platforms, which they can then use to their advantage in essays, projects, and presentations.

Students are inspired and encouraged to learn through the usage of social media platforms in the classroom. Major factors that contribute to educational progress include simple access to e-books, online notes, and learning through video conversations.

Advantages of social media in Education:

1.To learn new things for studying

2.Social media provides current information and updates to the students.

3.Increases connections among to the students.

4.Learn new skills to students

5.Improve Knowledge retention and understanding.

6.It builds a community for students.

7.Even Teachers are out of the station .They are communicate in online class room.


Most farmers today use smartphones with internet and social media capabilities. Social media is being used by farmers to exchange information, novel techniques, etc. The most well-known social media sites for agricultural marketing. .The spread of various agricultural information is being greatly aided by social media in the agricultural sector. It aids in bridging the geographic gap that separates farmers in various locations.

Advantages of social media in Agriculture:

1.Advanced training provided by farmers on use of social media.

2.Farmers share there plans in groups by use of socil medioa.

3.create organic content.

4.Get knowledge about what type of crops are in fields.


Social media provides a venue for businesses to engage with their clients and establish a cherished relationship, making social media marketing a crucial component of digital marketing. It streamlines communication between brands and customers by cutting out the middlemen.

Advantages of social media in Business:

1.Develope the brand of our business.

2.Do market research and reduce marketing prices

3.Increase your market,international market business.

4.attract customers, get customer feedback and build customer loyalty.

5.Improve business ideas to develop business.

6.keep an eye for your competitors.


In essence, social entertainment marketing may be used to describe any type of online content that is published or broadcast with the intention of entertaining its audience. Long or short-form videos, live streaming, and other types of content that promote a closer relationship between content producers and users are now popular trends.

The popular social media entertainment apps are You tube,face book,Whats app,Instagram,Twitter,Tiktok.

Advantages of social media on Entertainment:

1.Use of social media for promoting and advertising.

2.To watch movies on online OTT platforms.

3.Stress relief for entertaining apps.

4.stay update on local and global events.

5.Enjoy video games and films.

6.Wide range of availability.

Disadvantages of social media:

1.It addict the people.

2.Self image issues

3.Increasing of usage, The more time spent on social media can lead to social anxiety,depression and exposure content

that is not appropriate.

4.A fear of missing out can keep you returning to social media again and again.

5.Feeling inadequate about your life or your appearance.

The economic significance of the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences

The Arctic Sea is known for its frigid temperatures and harsh weather conditions, but it is also a region that is rich in natural resources, including oil. The discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea has significant economic implications, but it also raises concerns about the potential environmental consequences.

Arctic Ocean

The Arctic region is estimated to contain up to 90 billion barrels of oil, which is equivalent to 13% of the world’s undiscovered oil reserves. This represents a significant opportunity for economic growth and energy security for countries that have access to this resource. The potential economic benefits of the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea are numerous, including increased investment, job creation, and increased revenues for governments.

Oil mining in the Arctic Sea

The discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea is particularly significant for countries like Russia, Canada, Norway, and Denmark, which all have territories in the region. These countries are already major oil producers and have the infrastructure and expertise necessary to extract oil from the Arctic Sea. In addition, the melting of Arctic ice due to climate change has made it easier to access previously inaccessible oil reserves.

Arctic Ocean Countries

However, the extraction of oil from the Arctic Sea also poses significant environmental risks. The region is home to a delicate ecosystem that is already under threat due to climate change. The extraction of oil could result in spills and leaks that could have devastating consequences for the environment and the animals that live in the region. The harsh weather conditions in the Arctic Sea also make it difficult to contain and clean up spills, which could result in long-term damage to the environment.

Melting of glaciers due to oil mining in the arctic ocean

In addition to the environmental risks, the extraction of oil from the Arctic Sea also contributes to climate change. The burning of fossil fuels, including oil, is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming. As the Arctic Sea becomes more accessible due to melting ice, the extraction of oil could accelerate the process of climate change, leading to more severe weather events, rising sea levels, and other environmental problems.

Green House Gas Emissions

Despite the potential environmental risks, the economic benefits of the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea are significant. As such, there is a need for a balanced approach that takes into account both the economic benefits and the environmental risks. This could include measures to reduce the environmental impact of oil extraction, such as the use of new technologies and best practices to minimize spills and leaks. It could also include investments in renewable energy sources that could reduce the world’s dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to a cleaner and more sustainable future.

Oil spillage due to oil mining

In conclusion, the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea has significant economic implications, but it also raises concerns about the potential environmental consequences. The extraction of oil could lead to spills and leaks that could have devastating consequences for the environment and contribute to climate change. As such, there is a need for a balanced approach that takes into account both the economic benefits and the environmental risks of oil extraction in the Arctic Sea.

Can Germany Be Held Responsible For Causing The Two World Wars?

The two World Wars are arguably the most catastrophic events in modern history. Millions of people lost their lives, and countless others were affected in unimaginable ways. As such, it is natural for people to seek answers as to what caused these wars. One of the most commonly discussed factors is the role of Germany. Many people believe that Germany, specifically the German government, was primarily responsible for causing both World Wars. However, this is a complex issue that requires careful analysis.

A painting depicting the plight of thousands of martyrs during World War 1

To begin with, it is important to acknowledge that Germany played a significant role in both World Wars. In the case of World War I, Germany was one of the main instigators of the conflict. The country’s aggressive foreign policy, particularly its support for Austria-Hungary in the aftermath of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, helped to spark the war. Additionally, Germany’s invasion of Belgium and its use of unrestricted submarine warfare were significant factors in the escalation of the conflict.

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

In the case of World War II, Germany was once again a major player. The country’s invasion of Poland in 1939, which led to the formal declaration of war by Britain and France, marked the beginning of the conflict. Additionally, Germany’s aggressive expansionist policies in Europe, as well as its alliance with Italy and Japan, contributed to the outbreak of war.

Germans invading Poland under Hitler’s dictatorship

However, it is important to recognize that Germany was not the only country involved in these conflicts. Other nations, such as Britain, France, Russia, and the United States, also played important roles. Furthermore, the causes of the two World Wars were multifaceted and involved numerous political, economic, and social factors.

The Allied Forces and the Axis Forces during World

In the case of World War I, for example, the complex system of alliances between European nations, the arms race, and the competition for colonial territories all contributed to the outbreak of war. Similarly, in the case of World War II, the Treaty of Versailles, which imposed harsh economic sanctions on Germany after World War I, and the rise of fascist regimes in Italy and Japan, were significant factors.

Paris peace conference and the signing of the treaty of Versailles.

It is also important to acknowledge that not all Germans were responsible for causing the two World Wars. While the German government and military leadership played a significant role in both conflicts, many ordinary Germans were also victims of the wars. Millions of German civilians were killed or displaced during both World Wars, and many others were conscripted into the military against their will.

German Civilians during World War 1.

In conclusion, while Germany certainly played a significant role in causing the two World Wars, it is important to avoid simplistic explanations that assign all responsibility to a single country. The causes of these conflicts were complex and multifaceted and involved numerous political, economic, and social factors. Furthermore, it is important to acknowledge that many ordinary Germans were also victims of the wars. Ultimately, understanding the causes of the two World Wars requires a nuanced and comprehensive approach that takes into account the actions of all nations involved.

Indian Independence Without Mahatma Gandhi

The struggle for Indian independence from British colonial rule was a long and difficult one, marked by a series of protests, movements, and uprisings. While there were many leaders who played important roles in this struggle, it is widely acknowledged that the achievement of Indian independence would have been much more difficult without the influence and leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

Image of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhi’s Role in the Independence Struggle:

Mahatma Gandhi was a central figure in the Indian independence struggle, using his philosophy of non-violent resistance, or satyagraha, to lead a series of movements and campaigns against British colonial rule. Gandhi’s ideas and leadership were instrumental in uniting the Indian people around a common cause and inspiring them to take action against the British.

Gandhi at the time of Indian Independence

Gandhi’s Influence on the Indian National Congress:

Gandhi’s influence on the Indian National Congress, the leading political party in the struggle for independence, was particularly significant. Gandhi joined the Congress in 1919 and quickly became a prominent figure within the party, advocating for non-violent resistance and leading a number of successful campaigns against the British.

Indian National Congress Logo

Under Gandhi’s leadership, Congress became a mass movement that attracted millions of Indians from all walks of life. Gandhi’s ability to connect with people and inspire them to take action was critical in creating a unified movement for independence that transcended caste, religion, and regional differences.

Gandhi’s Influence on International Opinion:

Gandhi’s influence extended beyond India, as he became a global symbol of resistance against colonialism and oppression. His philosophy of non-violent resistance inspired movements for civil rights and social justice around the world, including the American civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr.

Gandhi’s international influence helped to raise awareness of the Indian independence struggle and put pressure on the British to grant India its independence. His ability to connect with people from different cultures and backgrounds helped to create a powerful international coalition of support for the Indian cause.

The Difficulty of Achieving Independence Without Gandhi:

Without Gandhi’s leadership and influence, the achievement of Indian independence would have been much more difficult. Gandhi’s ability to unite the Indian people and create a mass movement for independence was critical in putting pressure on the British and forcing them to grant India its freedom.

British Atrocities

Without Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, the independence struggle may have descended into violent conflict, leading to a much longer and bloodier struggle for independence. Gandhi’s international influence also helped to raise awareness of the Indian cause and put pressure on the British to grant India its independence.

Gandhi’s philosophy of Non-Violence


In conclusion, the achievement of Indian independence would have been much more difficult without the influence and leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violent resistance, his ability to unite the Indian people, and his international influence were all critical in the struggle for independence. While there were many leaders who played important roles in this struggle, Gandhi’s contribution was unique and irreplaceable. His legacy as a global symbol of resistance against oppression and injustice continues to inspire people around the world to this day.

The Effects Of Globalization On The Aged Population of India

Globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people, economies, and cultures around the world, has had significant effects on populations of all ages in countries around the world. In India, a rapidly aging population has been impacted by the forces of globalization in a number of ways, both positive and negative.

Demographic Shifts:

India is experiencing a significant demographic shift, with the proportion of elderly people in the population expected to rise from 8% in 2015 to 19% by 2050. This shift is a result of a combination of factors, including increased life expectancy and declining birth rates. Globalization has played a role in these demographic changes, as access to better healthcare and improved standards of living have led to longer lifespans and smaller families.

Positive Effects:

One positive effect of globalization on the aged population in India has been increased access to healthcare and medical treatment. Globalization has brought with it new medical technologies, improved pharmaceuticals, and access to global networks of medical experts, all of which have helped to improve the health outcomes of the elderly population in India.

Globalization has also created new opportunities for elderly people to stay engaged in the workforce and remain economically active. Advances in technology and the rise of the gig economy have made it easier for elderly people to find work and stay productive, even as they age.

Negative Effects:

However, globalization has also had negative effects on the aged population in India. One major challenge is the erosion of traditional family structures, which have often been the primary source of support for elderly people in India. As younger generations have migrated to cities and adopted more Westernized lifestyles, the traditional family structure has come under strain, leaving many elderly people without the social and economic support they need.

Left: Nuclear Family; Right: Joint Family.

Another negative effect of globalization is the growing prevalence of ageism or discrimination against elderly people. In India, as in many other countries, youth-oriented cultural values and trends have created a perception that older people are less valuable or less relevant than their younger counterparts. This has led to a range of negative attitudes and behaviors towards the elderly population, including exclusion from social and economic opportunities.


In conclusion, the effects of globalization on the aged population in India are complex and multifaceted. While globalization has brought with it improvements in healthcare and increased economic opportunities, it has also created new challenges and exacerbated existing ones. As India continues to grapple with the challenges of an aging population, it will be important to find ways to address the negative effects of globalization while harnessing its positive impacts. This may involve strengthening traditional family structures, investing in healthcare and social services, and promoting more inclusive and age-friendly attitudes and policies.

How was Africa chopped into states artificially created by the accident of European competition?

The continent of Africa is made up of 54 countries, each with its own unique culture, language, and history. However, the way that these countries are divided and organized is not necessarily reflective of the continent’s indigenous population or their natural boundaries. Rather, the current geopolitical landscape of Africa is a product of a complex history of colonialism and European competition for resources and territory.

The Scramble for Africa:

The “Scramble for Africa” refers to the period of rapid colonization and exploitation of the African continent by European powers in the late 19th century. This period was marked by the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, during which European powers convened to negotiate and divide up African territory among themselves. At the time, European nations had developed superior military technology and were eager to expand their empires, as well as access the continent’s abundant natural resources, including rubber, diamonds, and ivory.

The result of the Berlin Conference was a hodgepodge of borders and boundaries that were drawn up by European powers with little regard for Africa’s indigenous populations. In many cases, these borders cut across ethnic and linguistic groups, creating artificial states and perpetuating divisions that would have lasting effects on the continent.

Arbitrary Borders:

The borders that were established during the Scramble for Africa often divided groups that shared cultural, linguistic, and historical ties. For example, the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria were split across the borders of modern-day Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea, despite their shared language and cultural heritage. Similarly, the Maasai people of Kenya and Tanzania were divided by a colonial border, which made it difficult for them to continue their traditional pastoral lifestyle.

Arbitrary Borders In Africa

The arbitrary nature of these borders has contributed to conflicts and tensions between neighboring countries, as well as within countries. Ethnic groups that were divided by colonial borders may feel a stronger allegiance to their fellow kin across the border than to the national government of their own country, leading to separatist movements and calls for secession.

Impact on Development:

The artificial borders of Africa have also had a significant impact on the continent’s economic and political development. In many cases, borders were drawn to maximize the extraction of resources for European powers, rather than to create viable and sustainable states. This legacy of resource extraction has persisted into the modern era, as African countries struggle with corruption, inequality, and underdevelopment.

The arbitrary borders of Africa have also made it difficult for countries to cooperate on a regional level, which has hindered economic growth and development. Regional trade agreements, for example, are often stymied by the fact that the borders of African countries do not correspond with natural trade routes or economic zones. This has prevented African countries from harnessing the benefits of trade and integration that have been enjoyed by other regions of the world.


In conclusion, the current geopolitical landscape of Africa is a product of a complex history of colonialism and European competition for resources and territory. The arbitrary borders that were established during the Scramble for Africa have perpetuated divisions between ethnic and linguistic groups, hindered economic and political development, and contributed to conflicts and tensions on the continent. While it is impossible to undo the legacy of colonialism, there is a growing recognition among African leaders and intellectuals of the need to rethink the borders and boundaries of the continent, to create more sustainable and equitable societies.

Yoga Asanas that help in weight loss

The development of yoga has benefited many people in losing weight in a healthy way. Yoga for weight loss is a debatable topic. Many people believe that Yoga alone does not promote weight loss.

Yoga, when combined with healthy eating, has proven beneficial as it helps to lose weight along with keeping your mind and body healthy.

Yoga increases your mindfulness and how you relate to your body. You will start seeking out food that is healthy instead of binging on food that can increase your fat accumulation.

Losing weight has two important aspects, healthy eating, and exercise. Yoga poses for weight loss demand these aspects.

Yoga is not just about a few poses that strengthen you. It has more benefits to offer, such as:

  • Increased flexibility
  • Improved respiration
  • Improved energy and vitality
  • Balanced metabolism
  • Improved athletic health
  • Increased muscle tone
  • Improved cardio health
  • Weight reduction
  • Stress management

1. Chaturanga Dandasana – Plank Pose

Chaturanga dandasana is the best way to strengthen your core. As simple as it looks, its benefits are immense.

It is only when you are in the pose that you start to feel its intensity on your abdominal muscles.

2. Virabhadrasana – Warrior Pose

Toning your thighs and shoulders, as well as improving your concentration has become more accessible and interesting with the Warrior II pose. The more you hold that pose, the better the results you gain. With just a few minutes of Virabhadrasana, you will get tighter quads. Warrior III pose is made to improve your balance along with toning your back end, legs, and arms. It also helps to tone your tummy and give you a flat belly if you contract your abdominal muscles while you hold the position.

3. Trikonasana – Triangle pose

The trikonasana helps to improve digestion as well as reduce the fat deposited in the belly & waist. It stimulates and improves blood circulation in the entire body. The lateral motion of this asana helps you burn more fat from the waist and build more muscles in the thighs and hamstrings.

Though this pose does not make your muscles shake as others do, it does give you the benefit that other asanas do. It also improves balance & concentration.

4. Adho Mukha Svanasana – Downward Dog pose

Adho Mukha Svanasana tones your whole body with a little extra attention to specific muscles.

It helps to strengthen your arms, thighs, hamstring and back. Holding this pose and concentrating on your breathing engages your muscles and tones them, as well as improves your concentration and blood circulation.

5. Sarvangasana – Shoulder Stand Pose

Sarvangasana comes with multiple benefits, from increasing your strength to improving digestion. But it is known for boosting metabolism and balancing thyroid levels.

6. Sethu Bandha Sarvangasana – Bridge pose

Yet another asana with multiple benefits is the Sethu Bandha Sarvangasana or Bridge pose. It is excellent for glutes, thyroid as well as weight loss.

7. Parivrtta Utkatasana – Twisted Chair pose

The Parivrtta Utkatasana is also called the Yoga’s version of the squat. But you must know that it is a little more intense and tones the abdominal muscles, works the quads and glutes.

The asana also improves the lymph system and the digestive system. It is a great way to lose weight.

8. Dhanurasana – Bow Pose

Are you looking for the best way to lose that belly fat? Dhanurasana helps massage the abdominal organs, improves digestion, and strengthens the thighs, chest, and back. It stretches your whole body, strengthens and tones your muscles with improved blood circulation.

9. Surya Namaskara – Sun Salutation Pose

The Surya Namaskara or Sun Salutation does more than warm up the muscles and get the blood flowing. It stretches and tones most of the major muscles, trims the waist, tones the arms, stimulates the digestive system, and balances the metabolism.

Surya Namaskar is a whole package of good health and the best way to lose weight.

5 Biggest Environmental Issues in India in 2023

1. Air Pollution

Undoubtedly one of the most pressing environmental issues in India is air pollution. According to the 2021 World Air Quality Report, India is home to 63 of the 100 most polluted cities, with New Delhi named the capital with the worst air quality in the world. The study also found that PM2.5 concentrations – tiny particles in the air that are 2.5 micrometres or smaller in length – in 48% of the country’s cities are more than 10 times higher than the 2021 WHO air quality guideline level. 

Vehicular emissions, industrial waste, smoke from cooking, the construction sector, crop burning, and power generation are among the biggest sources of air pollution in India. The country’s dependence on coal, oil, and gas due to rampant electrification makes it the world’s third-largest polluter, contributing over 2.65 billion metric tonnes of carbon to the atmosphere every year.  

The months-long lockdown imposed by the government in March 2020 to curb the spread of Covid-19 led to a halt in human activities. This unsurprisingly, significantly improved air quality across the country. When comparing the Air Quality Index (AQI) data for 2019 and 2020, the daily average AQI in March-April 2019 was 656, the number drastically dropped by more than half to 306 in the same months of 2020.  

2. Water Pollution

Among the most pressing environmental issues in India is also water pollution. The Asian country has experienced unprecedented urban expansion and economic growth in recent years. This, however, comes with huge environmental costs. Besides its air, the country’s waterways have become extremely polluted, with around 70% of surface water estimated to be unfit for consumption. Illegal dumping of raw sewage, silt, and garbage into rivers and lakes severely contaminated India’s waters. The near-total absence of pipe planning and an inadequate waste management system are only exacerbating the situation. Every day, a staggering 40 million litres of wastewater enter rivers and other water bodies. Of these, only a tiny fraction is adequately treated due to a lack of adequate infrastructure.

In middle-income countries like India, water pollution can account for the loss of up to half of GDP growth, a World Bank report suggests. Water pollution costs the Indian government between USD$6.7 and $7.7 billion a year and is associated with a 9% drop in agricultural revenues as well as a 16% decrease in downstream agricultural yields.

Besides affecting humans, with nearly suffering from waterborne diseases like typhoid, cholera, and hepatitis and nearly 400,000 fatalities each year, water pollution also damages crops, as infectious bacteria and diseases in the water used for irrigation prevent them from growing. Inevitably, freshwater biodiversity is also severely damaged. The country’s rivers and lakes often become open sewers for residential and industrial waste. Especially the latter – which comprises a wide range of toxic substances like pesticides and herbicides, oil products, and heavy metals – can kill aquatic organisms by altering their environment and making it extremely difficult for them to survive.

3. Food and Water Shortages

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), India is the country expected to pay the highest price for the impacts of the climate crisis. Aside from extreme weather events such as flash floods and widespread wildfires, the country often experiences long heatwaves and droughts that dry up its water sources and compromise crops. 

Since March 2022 – which was the hottest and driest month recorded in 120 years – the North West regions have been dealing with a prolonged wave of scorching and record-breaking heat. For several consecutive days, residents were hit by temperatures surpassing 40 degrees Celsius, while in some areas, surface land temperatures reached up to 60C. There is no doubt among experts that this unprecedented heatwave is a direct manifestation of climate change.

The heatwave has also contributed to an economic slowdown due to a loss of productivity, as thousands of Indians are unable to work in the extreme heat. The agriculture sector – which employs over 60% of the population – is often hit hard by these erratic droughts, impacting food stability and sustenance. Currently, farmers are struggling to rescue what remains of the country’s wheat crops, piling on existing fears of a global shortage sparked by the war in Ukraine.

Already among the world’s most water-stressed countries, the heatwave is causing further water shortages across the nations. Even though water tankers are keeping communities hydrated, the supply is not enough to cover the needs of all residents. But heat is not the only factor contributing to water scarcity. In an interview with the Times of India, lead researcher at Pune-based Watershed Organisation Trust Eshwer Kale described the national water policy as very ‘irrigation-centric’. Indeed, over 85% of India’s freshwater is used in agriculture. This has led to a crisis in several states, including Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh. The indiscriminate use of water for irrigation, coupled with the absence of conservation efforts and the huge policy gap in managing water resources has left over 10% of the country’s water bodies in rural areas redundant. A 2019 report predicts that 21 major cities – including New Delhi and India’s IT hub of Bengaluru – will run out of groundwater by 2030, affecting nearly 40% of the population. 

4. Waste Management

Among the most pressing environmental issues in India is also waste. As the second-largest population in the world of nearly 1.4 billion people, it comes as no surprise that 277 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) are produced there every year. Experts estimate that by 2030, MSW is likely to reach 387.8 million tonnes and will more than double the current value by 2050. India’s rapid urbanisation makes waste management extremely challenging. Currently, about 5% of the total collected waste is recycled, 18% is composted, and the remaining is dumped at landfill sites.

The plastic crisis in India is one of the worst on the planet. According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India currently produces more than 25,000 tonnes of plastic waste every day on average, which accounts for almost 6% of the total solid waste generated in the country. India stands second among the top 20 countries having a high proportion of riverine plastic emissions nationally as well as globally. Indus, Brahmaputra, and Ganges rivers are known as the ‘highways of plastic flows’ as they carry and drain most of the plastic debris in the country. Together with the 10 other topmost polluted rivers, they leak nearly 90% of plastics into the sea globally. 

5. Biodiversity Loss

Last but not least on the list of environmental issues in India is biodiversity loss. The country has four major biodiversity hotspots, regions with significant levels of animal and plant species that are threatened by human habitation: the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the Sundaland (including the Nicobar Islands), and the Indo-Burma region. India has already lost almost 90% of the area under the four hotspots, according to a 2021 report issued by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), with the latter region being by far the worst affected.

Moreover, 1,212 animal species in India are currently monitored by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, with over 12% being classified as ‘endangered’. Within these hotspots, 25 species have become extinct in recent years.

Due to water contamination, 16% of India’s freshwater fish, molluscs, dragonflies, damselflies, and aquatic plants are threatened with extinction and, according to the WWF and the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), freshwater biodiversity in the country has experienced an 84% decline. However, given these activities’ dramatic consequences on biodiversity, committing to end and reverse deforestation should be a priority for India.



A calm environment with few distractions, a relaxed posture, a focus of attention, and an open mindset are the four essential components of meditation. Meditation is described as a mind-body activity that focuses on interactions between the brain, mind, body, and behaviour.

Types of Meditation:

Different types of Meditations are there. But mainly three types of meditations.

they are:

1.concentrative Mefitation.

2.Mindfulness Meditation.

3.Guided Meditation.

1.Concentrative Meditation:


The focus of attention is highlighted in concentrated meditation. This type of meditation involves concentrating on just one thing, such as the sensation of one’s breath, a sound like a ticking clock, the repetition of a single word or phrase in one’s head, or an actual object, such a candle that is burning or a piece of art.

Purpose of Concentrative Meditation:

The goal is to just be aware of your feelings, not to lose yourself in them. An object, speech, or breath that is the focus of concentration. To stop your mind from wandering, the objective is to let go of your thoughts and maintain or redirect your concentration on that area.

2.Mindfulness Meditation:


A particular form of meditation known as mindfulness focuses on your ability to be acutely aware of your senses and emotions in the present moment without analysing or judging them. In order to calm the body and mind and help with stress reduction, practising mindfulness involves breathing techniques, guided imagery, and other techniques.

purpose of Mindfulness Meditation:

By practising mindfulness, we can prevent ourselves from losing our cool and becoming overwhelmed by unpleasant bodily sensations, pessimistic thoughts, and painful emotions that arise in response to stressful events. Stressful situations won’t go away, but we can learn how to react to them wisely.

3.Guided Meditation:

A style of meditation known as “guided meditation” is one that is conducted by a teacher, either in person or via audio or video. It is advised that you have a professional guide you through the fundamentals of your meditation practise when you first begin.

Purpose of Guided Meditation:

The duration of guided meditation might range from a few minutes to several hours. In any case, the goal is to relieve stress and promote physical, mental, and emotional recovery.

Why Meditation is so powerful:

Your sensation of quiet, peace, and balance that meditation can bring you can help your physical and emotional health. By concentrating your attention on something peaceful, you can also utilise it to unwind and manage stress. You can learn to keep your focus and maintain inner serenity by practising meditation.

Advantages of Meditation:

1.Improve Self awareness.

2.Enhances Mental health.

3.Reduce fear.

4.Pecefulness of Mind.

5.Improve Sleep hygiene

6.Increasing patience and tolerance

7.Reduce Negative emotions.

8.Skills to control your stress.

9.Improve Creative thinking

10.Increasing the concentration to our goal.

11.Generate empathy and kindness.

12.lowering resting of heart rate

13.control blood pressure

14.immunity our health

15.focusing on the present situation.

Rules of Meditation:

1. Sit down. Locate a quiet, peaceful area where you may sit.
2.Set a time limit
3. Take note of your body.
4.Feel your breath.
5. Recognize when your thoughts have strayed.
6. Close with kindness.
7. End on a kind note.


The coronavirus pandemic’s effects on India have primarily disrupted economic activities and resulted in fatalities. With a few notable outliers where high growth was witnessed, almost all industries have been negatively impacted since domestic demand and exports have dramatically decreased.

With over 2.5 million confirmed cases and an increasing death toll, India has one of the highest rates of COVID-19 infection in the world (15, 16). On January 30, 2020 in Kerala a student who had just returned from Wuhan, China, was found to have the first instance of COVID-19 .

Which sectors are Effected by Covid-19 pandemic In India:

The following sectors effected by the covid-19 pandemic in India.

They are:

1.Agriculture and food security




5.Automobilee industries industry.

7.Textile industry


1.Agriculture and food :

COVID-19 had a negative impact on the food supply chain financially and by restricting labour movement, altering consumer demand, closing food manufacturing facilities, and restricting food trade laws. Governments should therefore make it easier for people and agricultural and food products to travel.

Food security has been compromised since the COVID-19 pandemic as a result of limitations on food production, processing, and marketing. A high price was noted for fresh goods, particularly vegetables, fish, and meat, as a result of delivery route disruptions.


There is a good likelihood that the education of female and transgender children will have an impact on the opportunity and financial expenses of doing so, as their parents may see. In addition to affecting students, this epidemic also negatively impacted low-cost institutions and schools, forcing several to close.

Almost 250 million pupils in India were impacted by the shutdown of schools at the start of the lockdown brought on by COVID-19. The epidemic presented both public and private schools with a number of difficulties, including an increase in dropouts, learning losses, and the digital divide.


In every country in the world, the tourism industry has been severely hit by the coronavirus outbreak. Every aspect of the tourism industry, whether it be aviation, hotels, transportation, tour guides, or restaurants, has been negatively impacted in a way that is unprecedented.

The epidemic has disrupted local communities overall by affecting not just foreign exchange earnings (FEE), but also numerous regional developments and job prospects. The research seeks to forecast foreign tourists’ arrival in India and FEE using artificial neural networks in light of a significant reduction in foreign visitor visits in 2020. (ANN). Additionally, we examine the effects of COVID-19 in terms of loss and gain in FEE based on four scenarios that take lockdown into account. Last but not least, the outcomes will assist policymakers in optimising FEE while also assisting them in making important strategic and operational decisions.


With comparison to 2019, it is predicted that traffic will decrease by 56% in 2020. As the previous projection was $66 billion, the region’s GDP that is supported by aviation will continue to decline by up to $85 billion. The transportation industry has been one of COVID-19’s main victims. Every industry, from airlines to rickshaw pullers, has been impacted financially by the pandemic. In March 2020, India’s total energy demand decreased by 11%. The demand for passenger travel has been significantly impacted by lockdown in several nations. Regarding the short-term need for transportation, the freight industry has had a mixed impact. Truck drivers are in high demand for the conveyance of necessities. For instance, after the COVID outbreak, there has been a 40% to 60% rise in the volume of goods moving into supermarkets and warehouses in the US2. However in the medium run, it’s anticipated that COVID’s slowdown and supply chain disruption will reduce demand for freight.

5.Automobile industries:

COVID‐19 affected automobile new vehicle sales very badly especially in the month of February 2020. Like, in China new sales of vehicles have fallen by 92% in February. Also, in European countries total vehicle sales were dropped by 7.4% when compared to that of sales in last year. industry :

The reduction of fishing and fish farming activities will reduce the amount of fish available for processing and trade. Furthermore, mobility restrictions will adversely affect the transfer of fish to markets. This will particularly impact women, who are mostly in charge of these activities. Traders had projected a price decline of 20–40%. Fish is a perishable food, therefore panicked consumers are driving up demand for packaged and frozen goods. But, the processing and canning industries won’t be able to meet this demand due to a lack of labour.

7.Textile industry:

According to the organisation representing the garment industry, Clothes Manufacturers Association of India, there could be up to one crore job layoffs in the textiles sector, which has been adversely impacted by the current shutdown.

The 40,000 textile and garment manufacturers that were forced to close as a result of the enforced lockdown caused a significant disruption in supply and demand. According to a research by the apparel export development council, 83% of export orders had been fully or partially cancelled.

It is believed that the Corona virus is hurting India’s construction sector Rs 30,000 crore every day. This pandemic would likely reduce investment in the building sector by 13 to 30 percent, which will likely have an impact on employment and gross value added.

positive impact of Covid-19:

The sudden changes in human behaviour in response to the COVID-19 epidemic are having some unusual and unexpectedly favourable side effects, according to doctors and experts. The sky is bluer, there are fewer traffic accidents, fewer crimes, and some infectious diseases are disappearing from hospital emergency rooms.

“Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what the west had experienced. 

The industrial revolution that swept across Europe and America in the 18th and 19th centuries is often considered the most significant event in human history since the Agricultural Revolution. It transformed the world from an agricultural to an industrial society and laid the foundations for modern economic growth. However, the industrial revolution in Japan was unique and involved certain factors that were markedly different from what the West had experienced. This article will examine these factors and discuss how they contributed to Japan’s “latecomer” industrial revolution.

Latecomer in Industrial Revolution: Japan

Japan’s Industrial Revolution: A Late Bloomer

Japan’s industrial revolution came relatively late in comparison to the West. While the industrial revolution began in Britain in the late 18th century and spread to other parts of Europe and America in the 19th century, Japan’s industrialization began in the late 19th century, after the country had been forced to open up to foreign trade following its defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). The Japanese government recognized the importance of industrialization in strengthening the country’s economy and military power and embarked on a policy of rapid modernization and industrialization, known as the Meiji Restoration.

First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)

Unlike the West, which had a long history of technological innovation and scientific discovery, Japan had been largely isolated from the rest of the world until the mid-19th century. The country had no significant industrial base and relied heavily on agriculture and handicrafts. However, the Meiji government was determined to catch up with the West and implemented a range of policies to promote industrialization.

Meiji Government restoring peace

Unique Factors Contributing to Japan’s Industrialization:

1. Confucianism and Samurai Culture:

One of the factors that contributed to Japan’s industrialization was the influence of Confucianism and Samurai culture. Confucianism emphasized the importance of education and hard work, and this attitude was ingrained in the Samurai culture. Samurai were trained to be disciplined and dedicated, and they were expected to work hard and show loyalty to their lords. This work ethic was a key factor in Japan’s industrialization, as workers were willing to put in long hours and work hard to achieve the country’s industrial goals.


2. Strong Government Involvement:

Another unique factor that contributed to Japan’s industrialization was the strong involvement of the government. The Meiji government implemented a range of policies to promote industrialization, including building infrastructure such as railways and ports, providing subsidies and tax breaks to encourage investment, and setting up state-owned industries. The government also invested heavily in education and research, establishing universities and research institutions to train scientists and engineers.

Meiji Government

Emphasis on Technological Transfer:

Unlike the West, which relied on indigenous innovation, Japan’s industrialization was largely based on the transfer of technology from the West. The Meiji government sent students and scholars to study in Europe and America, and imported machinery and equipment to set up factories. Japanese engineers and technicians were also sent to the West to learn about the latest technologies and manufacturing methods. This emphasis on technological transfer enabled Japan to quickly acquire the skills and knowledge needed to build a modern industrial economy.

4. Unique Relationship between the Government and Private Sector:

Another factor that contributed to Japan’s industrialization was the unique relationship between the government and the private sector. Unlike in the West, where the government and the private sector were largely separate, the Japanese government actively encouraged the private sector to invest in industrial development. The government provided financial support, such as subsidies and tax breaks, to private companies, and also established a range of industry associations to promote cooperation between companies and encourage the sharing of knowledge and expertise.

Impact of Japan’s Industrial Revolution:

The impact of Japan’s industrial revolution was significant, both for Japan and for the world. It transformed Japan from an agrarian society into a modern industrial nation and set the stage for Japan’s emergence as a major economic power in the 20th century.

  1. Economic Growth

Japan’s industrial revolution led to rapid economic growth and the development of a modern industrial economy. The country became a major producer and exporter of manufactured goods, including textiles, steel, machinery, and electronics. This economic growth fueled Japan’s rise as a major economic power and allowed it to compete on a global scale.

  1. Military Expansion

Japan’s industrial revolution also had significant implications for its military expansion. The country’s rapid industrialization allowed it to modernize its military and build a powerful navy and army. Japan’s military expansion was a key factor in its emergence as a major power in Asia and its eventual involvement in World War II.

  1. Social and Cultural Changes

The industrial revolution also brought about significant social and cultural changes in Japan. The shift from an agrarian to an industrial society led to the growth of urban areas and the emergence of a new middle class. New social and cultural norms emerged, including a greater emphasis on education and individualism.

  1. Global Influence

Japan’s industrial revolution had a significant impact on the rest of the world as well. The country’s success in industrialization inspired other countries in Asia and beyond to follow a similar path. Japan’s technological advancements in fields such as electronics and automobiles also had a global impact, with Japanese companies such as Sony, Toyota, and Honda becoming household names around the world.

  1. Environmental Impact

However, rapid industrialization in Japan also had negative environmental consequences. The heavy use of natural resources and the rapid expansion of industrial infrastructure led to pollution and environmental degradation. The environmental impact of Japan’s industrial revolution is still felt today, and the country has since made efforts to reduce its carbon emissions and promote sustainable development.


In conclusion, Japan’s “Latecomer” Industrial Revolution was a remarkable achievement that propelled the country from a feudal society to a modern industrial nation. The factors that drove Japan’s industrialization, including government-led economic policies, social and cultural changes, and unique geopolitical circumstances, were markedly different from the experience of the West. Japan’s industrial revolution had far-reaching impacts on its economy, military, society, and global community. It serves as a reminder that innovation and progress can emerge from unexpected places and circumstances, and that every nation has the potential to forge its own path toward development and prosperity.

Assess the contributions of Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar to the making of modern India

Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar was a prominent figure in the making of modern India. His contributions to education, women’s rights, social reforms, and literature were significant and far-reaching. His impact on Indian society can still be felt today, more than a century after his death. In this article, we will assess the contributions of Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar to the making of modern India.

Iswarchandra Vidyasagar

Promotion of Education:

Vidyasagar was a firm believer in the power of education. He understood that education was the key to social and economic progress. He was an advocate for the education of girls, who were often excluded from formal education. Vidyasagar established several schools and colleges for girls in Bengal, which provided them with opportunities to learn and grow. He believed that education was the only way to eradicate poverty and empower the masses.

People along with Vidyasagar promoted girls’ education during British rule.

In addition to promoting education for girls, Vidyasagar also worked to reform the education system in Bengal. He believed that the education system was outdated and needed to be modernized. He introduced new teaching methods, textbooks, and curricula to make education more accessible and relevant to the needs of the time. His efforts in promoting education have had a lasting impact on Indian society.

Women’s education in Bengal during Vidyasagar’s period

Reforms in the Bengali Language:

Vidyasagar was a linguist who believed that language was an essential tool for communication and expression. He worked to standardize the Bengali language by simplifying its grammar and introducing punctuation marks. His efforts made the language more accessible to the common people and helped to promote its use in literature and education.

“Exotic India Art” a book written by Vidyasagar in Bengali

Vidyasagar was also a prolific writer in Bengali. He wrote several textbooks, novels, and essays that helped to popularize the language. His works were widely read and admired, and they helped to establish Bengali as a literary language.

Vidyasagar’s contribution to Bengali Literature

Women’s Rights:

Vidyasagar was a champion of women’s rights. He understood that women were often marginalized and oppressed in Indian society and believed that they deserved equal rights and opportunities. He advocated for the education of girls and fought for their right to study. He believed that education was the key to empowering women and enabling them to participate fully in society.

Vidyasagar also worked to reform laws that discriminated against women. He was a strong advocate of widow remarriage, which was taboo at the time. He believed that widows deserved a second chance at happiness and worked to change social attitudes towards remarriage. His efforts led to the passing of the Widow Remarriage Act of 1856, which legalized widow remarriage.

Social Reforms:

Vidyasagar was an ardent social reformer who believed that society needed to change to ensure the welfare of all its members. He worked to abolish social evils such as caste discrimination, polygamy, and the dowry system. He was a strong advocate of social equality and believed that all individuals were equal and deserving of respect.

Vidyasagar’s efforts to abolish caste discrimination were particularly significant. He believed that caste was a social construct that had no place in modern society. He worked to break down the barriers between castes and promote social equality. His efforts have had a lasting impact on Indian society, and today, caste discrimination is illegal in India.


Vidyasagar was a prolific writer who made significant contributions to Bengali literature. He wrote several textbooks, novels, and essays that helped to popularize the language. His works were widely read and admired, and they helped to establish Bengali as a literary language.

Vidyasagar was also a translator who translated several works of English literature into Bengali. His translations helped to introduce English literature to a wider audience and made it more accessible to those who could not read English.


Overall, Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar’s contributions to the making of modern India were significant. His advocacy for education, women’s rights, social reforms, and literature has had a lasting impact on Indian society. He was a visionary who foresaw the importance of education and social reform in building a modern and progressive India.

How did Communalism manifest in the Indian political scene? Explain the background of the passing of the momentous Pakistan Resolution.

Communalism is a phenomenon that has been prevalent in Indian politics for a long time. It is the belief that one’s religion or community is superior to others, leading to conflict between different communities. The partition of India in 1947 was the most significant consequence of communalism in the Indian political scene. This article will explore the background of the passing of the Pakistan Resolution and how communalism manifested in the Indian political scene.

Communalism in Indian politics:

Communalism has been a persistent issue in Indian politics for centuries. It is rooted in the country’s diverse religious and cultural makeup, with different religious communities coexisting in the same territory. Communalism manifests in different ways, from religious extremism to caste politics. In recent years, communalism has been seen in the form of hate speech, violence, and discrimination against minority communities.

The Pakistan Resolution:

The Pakistan Resolution, also known as the Lahore Resolution, was a historic moment in the Indian political scene. It was passed on March 23, 1940, at the All India Muslim League’s annual session held in Lahore. The resolution demanded the creation of an independent Muslim state in the northwestern and northeastern regions of India.

Left: M.A Jinnah; Right: Pt.Jawaharlal Nehru

The background to the Pakistan Resolution was the growing communal tensions between the Hindu and Muslim communities in India. The Muslim League, led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, believed that Muslims needed a separate state to protect their political, social, and economic rights. They argued that a Hindu-dominated government would not safeguard the interests of the Muslim minority in India.

The mass exodus of Indians from Pakistan during the partition

The Pakistan Resolution was a turning point in Indian politics, leading to the eventual partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. The partition was marked by widespread violence, displacement, and loss of life, with estimates suggesting that up to two million people were killed in the aftermath.

Violence in the Pakistan-Punjab border

Manifestation of communalism in Indian politics:

Communalism has manifested in different ways in the Indian political scene. One of the most significant manifestations is religious extremism, where extremist groups advocate for the supremacy of one religion over others. These groups use violence and hate speech to further their agenda, leading to communal tension and conflict.

Communal violence in Jammu-Kashmir

Caste politics is another manifestation of communalism in Indian politics. The caste system is a hierarchical social structure prevalent in India, with each caste having its own social and economic status. Caste-based politics involves using caste identities to mobilize voters, leading to division and tension between different castes.

Communalism also manifests in the form of discrimination against minority communities, particularly Muslims and Dalits. These communities face discrimination in employment, education, and social opportunities, leading to a sense of alienation and marginalization.


Communalism has been a persistent issue in the Indian political scene, leading to conflict and division between different communities. The Pakistan Resolution was a significant moment in Indian history, leading to the eventual partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. Communalism has manifested in different ways in Indian politics, including religious extremism, caste politics, and discrimination against minority communities. It is essential for India’s political leaders and citizens to work towards creating a society that values tolerance, inclusivity, and diversity, and rejects the divisive forces of communalism. Only then can India truly realize its potential as a vibrant, pluralistic democracy.

Are tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism the key elements in the making of an Indian form of secularism?

India is a diverse country with multiple religions, languages, and cultures. The idea of secularism has been an integral part of the Indian ethos since its inception. India’s Constitution guarantees the freedom of religion to all citizens, and the government is expected to remain neutral in matters of religion. However, the concept of secularism in India is different from the Western notion of secularism. In India, tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism are considered to be the key elements in the making of an Indian form of secularism.


Tolerance is the first and foremost element of Indian secularism. It is the ability to respect and accept differences among people of different religions, cultures, and beliefs. Tolerance allows people to live together harmoniously without fear of persecution or discrimination. It is not just about accepting different beliefs but also acknowledging and embracing the diversity of Indian society. Tolerance is the cornerstone of the Indian Constitution, and it is enshrined in the Preamble, which declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.


Assimilation is the second element of Indian secularism. It is the process by which people of different cultures, religions, and beliefs come together to form a common national identity. India’s history is full of examples of assimilation, where people of different cultures and religions have come together to form a distinct Indian identity. One of the best examples of assimilation is Indian cuisine, which is a blend of various regional cuisines. Indian music, dance, and literature are also the result of assimilation, where different cultures have come together to create a unique Indian identity.


Pluralism is the third element of Indian secularism. It is the recognition and acceptance of diversity within society. India is a country with multiple religions, languages, and cultures. Pluralism recognizes and respects this diversity and provides equal opportunities to all communities. The Indian Constitution provides for the protection of minority communities, and it ensures that they have equal rights and opportunities. Pluralism is not just about accepting diversity, but it is also about celebrating it.

The role of tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism in Indian secularism:

Tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism have played a significant role in the making of Indian secularism. The Indian Constitution guarantees freedom of religion to all citizens, and the government is expected to remain neutral in matters of religion. The concept of secularism in India is different from the Western notion of secularism, where religion is kept separate from the state. In India, secularism is about acknowledging and respecting the diversity of Indian society.

Tolerance has played a significant role in maintaining communal harmony in India. Indian society is diverse, with multiple religions and cultures coexisting peacefully. Tolerance has allowed people of different religions to live together harmoniously without fear of persecution or discrimination.

Assimilation has helped in creating a distinct Indian identity. Indian cuisine, music, dance, and literature are all the result of assimilation, where people of different cultures have come together to create a unique Indian identity. Assimilation has helped in creating a sense of belongingness among people of different cultures and religions.

Pluralism has played a significant role in providing equal opportunities to all communities. The Indian Constitution provides for the protection of minority communities, and it ensures that they have equal rights and opportunities. Pluralism has helped in recognizing and respecting the diversity within society and has played a significant role in the making of Indian secularism.


In conclusion, tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism are integral to the Indian form of secularism. The diversity of India’s religions, languages, and cultures is a strength that has been fostered through these elements, allowing for peaceful coexistence and a unique national identity. The Indian Constitution guarantees the freedom of religion and equal opportunities for all communities, while also ensuring the protection of minority communities. The concept of Indian secularism is distinct from the Western notion of secularism, and it is rooted in the idea of acknowledging and respecting diversity. Tolerance, assimilation, and pluralism continue to be essential elements in the making of Indian secularism, promoting communal harmony and providing a sense of belongingness to all communities.

The forces that influence ocean currents and their role in the fishing industry of the world


Ocean currents play a crucial role in the distribution of heat, nutrients, and marine life throughout the world’s oceans. These currents are driven by a variety of forces, including wind, temperature, and the Earth’s rotation. Understanding these forces and how they influence ocean currents is essential to many industries, including the fishing industry. In this article, we will explore the forces that influence ocean currents and their role in the fishing industry around the world.

Ocean Currents
Ocean Currents

Forces that influence ocean currents:

1. Wind:

The wind is one of the primary forces that influence ocean currents. The wind creates surface currents, which are responsible for distributing heat and nutrients across the ocean. The wind also creates upwelling, which is the process by which deep, nutrient-rich water is brought to the surface. Upwelling is crucial to the fishing industry, as it provides an abundance of nutrients for marine life.

2. Temperature:

Temperature is another significant force that influences ocean currents. Warm water is less dense than cold water, so it tends to rise to the surface. This creates surface currents that move warm water away from the equator and towards the poles. Cold water, on the other hand, is dense than warm water and tends to sink. This creates deep ocean currents that move cold water toward the equator.


3. Salinity:

Salinity, or the concentration of salt in the water, is another important force that influences ocean currents. When water evaporates, it leaves behind salt, which increases the salinity of the water. This increases the water’s density, causing it to sink and creating deep ocean currents. Areas of high salinity, such as the Mediterranean Sea, can also create surface currents that move water toward areas of lower salinity.


4. The Earth’s rotation:

The Earth’s rotation also influences ocean currents. The Coriolis effect, which is caused by the rotation of the Earth, causes moving objects, including ocean currents, to appear to deflect to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This deflection causes ocean currents to move in a circular pattern, known as a gyre.

Earth's rotation

Role of ocean currents in the fishing industry:

Ocean currents play a crucial role in the fishing industry. The distribution of nutrients and marine life is influenced by ocean currents, which affect where fish are found and how abundant they are in different areas. Some of the most significant ways that ocean currents impact the fishing industry include:

1. Upwelling:

As mentioned earlier, upwelling is the process by which deep, nutrient-rich water is brought to the surface. This process is essential to the fishing industry, as it provides an abundance of nutrients for marine life. Areas of upwelling, such as the coasts of Peru and West Africa, are known for their rich fishing grounds.


2. Migration patterns:

Ocean currents also influence the migration patterns of fish. Some species of fish, such as salmon, are known to migrate long distances to reach their spawning grounds. Ocean currents can impact the timing and location of these migrations, which can affect the fishing industry’s ability to catch these fish.

Fish migration pattern

3. Fishing locations:

Ocean currents also influence where fish are found. Areas with high nutrient concentrations, such as upwelling zones, tend to have more abundant fish populations. The Gulf Stream, for example, is known for its rich fishing grounds, particularly for tuna and swordfish.

Fishing locations in oceans worldwide

4. Climate patterns:

Ocean currents also play a role in climate patterns. The movement of warm and cold water influences regional weather patterns, which can impact the fishing industry. Changes in ocean currents can also lead to changes in water temperature, which can affect the migration patterns and abundance of fish.

Climate patterns due to movement of earth


In summary, the forces that influence ocean currents play a critical role in the fishing industry worldwide. Wind, temperature, salinity, and the Earth’s rotation all contribute to the distribution of nutrients and marine life in the world’s oceans. Upwelling, migration patterns, fishing locations, and climate patterns are all impacted by ocean currents and affect the fishing industry’s ability to catch fish. Understanding these forces and their role in ocean currents is essential to the fishing industry’s sustainability and success. As we continue to study and monitor these forces, we can better manage and protect our oceans’ resources for future generations.

The main contributions of the Gupta period and Chola period to Indian heritage and culture


The Gupta and Chola periods are considered to be two of the most significant eras in Indian history, spanning over centuries and leaving an indelible mark on Indian heritage and culture. These periods were marked by numerous achievements and innovations, including art, architecture, literature, religion, and science. In this article, we will explore the main contributions of the Gupta and Chola periods to Indian heritage and culture.

Coins minted in both Gupta and Chola periods

The Gupta Period (320 CE-550 CE):

The Gupta period is known as the Golden Age of India. The period saw the rise of a centralized state, with strong rulers like Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II. The period was marked by numerous achievements in various fields, including art, literature, science, and religion.

1. Art and Architecture:

The Gupta period is known for its significant contributions to art and architecture. The period saw the development of the Gupta style of architecture, which is characterized by its elegant and intricate designs. The most notable examples of Gupta architecture are the caves at Ajanta and Ellora. These caves are adorned with exquisite paintings and sculptures that depict various scenes from Hindu mythology.

Varaha, Udaigiri

2. Literature:

The Gupta period is also known for its contributions to literature. The period saw the development of several literary works in various languages, including Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Pali. The most notable literary works of the period include the plays of Kalidasa, the poetry of Bhartrihari, and the Buddhist texts of Ashvaghosha.

A story from the Mahabharata in Prakrit

3. Science and Mathematics:

The Gupta period saw significant advancements in science and mathematics. The most notable contribution of the period was the development of the decimal system, which is still used in modern mathematics. The period also saw the development of the concept of zero and the invention of the decimal place value system. The Gupta period was also marked by significant progress in medicine and astronomy.

Aryabhatta, was a famous mathematician and astronomer of the Gupta era.

The Chola Period (850 CE-1250 CE):

The Chola period is considered to be one of the most significant periods in South Indian history. The period saw the rise of the Chola dynasty, which ruled over a vast territory in South India. The Chola period was marked by numerous achievements in various fields, including art, architecture, literature, and religion.

1. Art and Architecture:

The Chola period is known for its significant contributions to art and architecture. The period saw the development of the Dravidian style of architecture, which is characterized by its intricate designs and richly ornamented sculptures. The most notable examples of Chola architecture are the Brihadeshwara Temple and the Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Brihadeeshwara Temple: Cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site

2. Literature:

The Chola period is also known for its contributions to literature. The period saw the development of several literary works in the Tamil language, including the works of the Tamil poets Thiruvalluvar and Kambar. The most notable literary work of the period is the Thirukkural, a collection of 1,330 couplets that deal with various aspects of human life.

Inscription in Tamil

3. Religion:

The Chola period saw significant developments in religion, particularly in the Shaivism tradition. The period saw the construction of several temples dedicated to Lord Shiva, including the Brihadeshwara Temple and the Chidambaram Temple. The period also saw the rise of the Bhakti movement, which emphasized the importance of devotion to God over rituals and ceremonies.

Shaivism in Chola Empire


In conclusion, the Gupta and Chola periods were marked by numerous achievements and innovations, including art, architecture, literature, religion, and science. The Gupta period saw the development of the Gupta style of architecture, significant advancements in science and mathematics, and the production of several literary works.

Analyzing the salience of ‘sect’ in Indian society vis-a-vis caste, region, and religion


The term ‘sect’ refers to a group of people who share common beliefs, practices, and rituals that distinguish them from other groups. In Indian society, the concept of the sect has a significant role in shaping the social, cultural, and religious landscape. It is essential to analyze the salience of ‘sect’ in Indian society, vis-a-vis caste, region, and religion, to understand the dynamics of the social structure and its impact on individual and collective identity.

The Role of Sects in Indian Society:

Sects in Indian society are primarily organized around religious beliefs and practices. The Indian subcontinent has a diverse range of religious sects, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and Islam, among others. These sects are further divided into sub-sects, each with its own distinct beliefs and practices. For instance, in Hinduism, there are several sects, including Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism, Smartism, and others. Each sect has its own set of beliefs and practices, including the worship of specific deities, observance of specific rituals, and adherence to specific codes of conduct.

The salience of ‘sect’ in Indian society is closely intertwined with other social categories, such as caste, region, and religion. For instance, in Hinduism, caste and sect are closely linked, with each caste group having its own religious practices and beliefs. Similarly, in Islam, there are different sects, such as Sunni and Shia, each with its own set of beliefs and practices. Religion and region are also closely linked, with certain regions being associated with specific religious traditions. For instance, North India is primarily associated with Hinduism, while the South is associated with Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity.

The Impact of Sects on Social Identity:

The concept of the sect has a significant impact on social identity in Indian society. Individuals’ identification with a particular sect often determines their social status and the social groups they belong. In the Hindu caste system, one’s sect determines their caste, which, in turn, determines their occupation, social status, and access to resources. Similarly, in Islam, the sect one belongs to can have a significant impact on their social status and the social groups to which one belongs to.

The concept of the sect also impacts individual and collective identity formation. Individuals often identify themselves based on their sect, which shapes their religious beliefs, practices, and values. This, in turn, impacts their social interactions and relationships, as they tend to associate with individuals from the same sect. The concept of the sect also shapes collective identity formation, as individuals from the same sect often come together to form social and religious organizations that promote their shared beliefs and practices.

The Role of Sects in Inter-Group Relations:

The concept of the sect also plays a significant role in inter-group relations in Indian society. Sects often compete for resources and influence, leading to conflict and tensions between different sects. For instance, in Hinduism, there have been historical tensions between Shaivites and Vaishnavites, as both sects venerate different deities and have different beliefs and practices. Similarly, in Islam, there have been tensions between Sunni and Shia sects, as they have different beliefs and practices.

However, sects can also facilitate inter-group cooperation and solidarity. Individuals from the same sect often come together to support each other in times of need and form social and religious organizations that promote their shared beliefs and practices. Sects can also facilitate inter-group dialogue and cooperation, as individuals from different sects come together to share their beliefs and practices and learn from each other.


In conclusion, the concept of sect plays a crucial role in shaping the social, cultural, and religious landscape of Indian society. Sects are closely intertwined with other social categories, such as caste, region, and religion, and impact individual and collective identity formation, social status, and inter-group relations. While sects can lead to conflicts and tensions, they can also facilitate inter-group cooperation and dialogue. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of sects in Indian society is essential for promoting social cohesion, inter-group understanding, and harmony.


Early life of Gautama Buddha:

He was born into a royal family in Lumbini, Nepal, in 623 BC. His mother was Queen Maya, and his father was King Shuddhodan. His mother passed away shortly after his birth, thus his stepmother Mahaprajapati reared him. He had another name as a child, Siddharta.

Family of Gautama Buddha:

At the age of sixteen, Yasodhara married Siddhartha. Although they had a good connection and showed respect for one another, it is also reported that neither of them had any strong feelings for marriage. It took Yaodhar a long time to become pregnant. Rahula, a boy, was born on the day Siddhartha departed the palace.

Founder of Buddhism:

The founder of Buddhism is thought to be Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhartha Gautama and Lord Buddha; those who practise Buddhism are known as Buddhists. Gautama Buddha is also known as the Buddha, which is a term for an enlightened person who has gained nirvana, or the state of being free from pain and ignorance.

The way to alightenment of Buddha:

Buddha left his wife in silence, without waking her, and headed for the forest while dressed in a straightforward monastic garment. He collaborated alongside Udraka Ramaputra and Alara Kalama, two professors. He learned how to prepare his thoughts to enter the realm of nothingness from Alara Kalama. He learned how to enter the zone of focus in the mind, which is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness, from Udraka Ramaputra. Buddha ultimately parted ways with both of his gurus in search of freedom.

Buddha and his five companions engaged in asceticism for six years, eating only one grain of rice each day and battling their bodies. Buddha’s five companions dispersed once he decided to give up asceticism.

In a village, Buddha was offered a disk of milk and several vessels of honey by a woman named Sujata. After this, he went to bathe himself in the Nairanjana river, and then sat underneath the bodhi tree, where he meditated. After seven days, he was liberated from the chains of human suffering and became “Buddha”, the enlightened one.

Who is the founder of Buddhism?

Siddhartha Gautama, the father of Buddhism, was a well-off family man who was born in the year 563 BCE. Gautama abandoned his luxurious lifestyle in favour of asceticism, or strict self-control. Gautama became the Buddha, or “enlightened one,” after 49 days of nonstop meditation.

History of Buddhism:

The birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama marks the beginning of Buddhism’s history, which extends from the sixth century BCE to the present. As a result, it ranks among the oldest current religions. The religion evolved over this time as it faced numerous nations and cultures, adding Hellenistic, Central Asian, East Asian, and Southeast Asian cultural aspects to its original Indian core. As a result, the majority of the Asian continent was impacted at some point by its geographical expansion. The rise of several movements and schisms, most notably the Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana traditions, along with contrasting eras of expansion and seclusion, are other features of Buddhism’s history.

Types of Buddhism:

There are mainly three types.

1.Theravada Buddhism

2.Mahayana Buddhism.

3.Vajrayana Buddhism.

1.Theravada Buddhism:

Theravada Buddhism places a strong focus on achieving self-liberation by personal endeavour. Concentration and meditation are essential steps on the path to enlightenment. The best path is to dedicate oneself to monastic life full-time.

2.Mahayana Buddhism:

In contrast to other Buddhists, Mahayana adherents aim to not only free themselves from suffering but also to guide others on the path to enlightenment and liberation.

3.Vajrayana Buddhism:

According to Vajrayana Buddhism, enlightenment can be attained in a single lifetime as opposed to requiring repeated practises of morality, compassion, ethics, and meditation. This rapid transformation is facilitated by the use of spiritual tools including breathing exercises, mantras, and visualisation.

The Teaching’s of Gautama Buddha:

  1. Be mindful of your objective.
  2. Speak kindly to others.
  3. Your mindset is socially conscious.4.Come join the orderly occupation.
  4. Don’t depend on other people.
  5. Focus on the now.



Analytical reasoning connotes a person’s general aptitude to arrive at a logical conclusion or solution to given problems. Just as with critical thinking, analytical thinking critically examines the different parts or details of something to fully understand or explain it.

Logical thinking requires the use of reasoning skills to study a problem critically, which will enable you to draw a reasoned decision on how to proceed. Examples of logical thinking: The Rubik cube. Mathematical puzzles and riddles.

Example of Analytical Skills;

  • Critical Thinking. Any position across all levels of a company can benefit from critical thinking skills. …
  • Data Analysis. …
  • Creative Thinking. …
  • Communication. …
  • Problem-solving. …
  • Collaboration.

Critical Thinking;

Critical thinking is a kind of thinking in which you question, analyse, interpret, evaluate and make a judgement about what you read, hear, say, or write. The term critical comes from the Greek word kritikos meaning “able to judge or discern”.

Data Analysis;

Data Analysis is the process of systematically applying statistical and/or logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense and recap, and evaluate data.

Creative Thinking;

Creative thinking is the ability to come up with unique, original solutions. Also known as creative problem-solving, creative thinking is a valuable and marketable soft skill in a wide variety of careers.


According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, communication can be defined as the process or act of exchanging, expressing or conveying information and ideas through writing, speaking and gesturing.

Problem solving;

Problem solving is the act of defining a problem; determining the cause of the problem; identifying, prioritizing, and selecting alternatives for a solution; and implementing a solution. 


Collaboration is a partnership; a union; the act of producing or making something together. Collaboration can take place between two people or many people, strangers or best friends. 



The rich heritage of India, one of the world’s oldest civilizations, is an all-embracing confluence of religions, traditions and customs. The highlights of Indian heritage lie in the treasure of its art, architecture, classical dance, music, flora and fauna, and the innate secular philosophy of its people.

What are the 7 natural heritage of India?

Natural World Heritage Sites

Sl. No.Name of WH SiteState Location
1Great Himalayan National Park Conservation AreaHimachal Pradesh
2Western GhatsMaharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala
3Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National ParksUttarakhand
4Sundarbans National ParkWest Bengal

The first sites to be listed were the Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves, Agra Fort, and Taj Mahal, all of which were inscribed in the 1983 session of the World Heritage Committee. The most recent site listed was Dholavira, in 2021.

. Objectives
In this lesson, students investigate various facets of Indian culture. Throughout the chapter,
emphasis will be on the concept and importance of Indian culture through various ages of India.
After studying this lesson you will be able to:

  • understand the concept and meaning of culture;
  • establish the relationship between culture and civilization;
  • establish the link between culture and heritage;
  • discuss the role and impact of culture in human life.
  • describe the distinctive features of Indian culture;
  • identify the central points and uniqueness of Indian culture;
  • explain the points of diversity and underlying unity in it; and
  • trace the influence and significance of geographical features on Indian culture

Culture has two types: (i) material, and (ii) non-material. The first includes technologies, instruments, material goods, consumer goods, household design and architecture, modes of production, trade, commerce, welfare and other social activities. The latter includes norms, values, beliefs, myths, legends, literature, ritual, art forms and other intellectual-literary activities. The
material and non-material aspects of any culture are usually interdependent on each other. Sometimes, however, material culture may change quickly but the non-material may take longer time to change. According to Indologists, Indian culture stands not only for a traditional social code but also for a spiritual foundation of life.

Culture and Heritage;
Cultural development is a historical process. Our ancestors learnt many things from their
predecessors. With the passage of time they also added to it from their own experience and gave up
those which they did not consider useful. We in turn have learnt many things from our ancestors. As
time goes we continue to add new thoughts, new ideas to those already existent and sometimes we
give up some which we don’t consider useful any more. This is how culture is transmitted and
carried forward from generation to next generation. The culture we inherit from our predecessors is
called our cultural heritage.

General Characteristics of Culture;
Now let us discuss some general characteristics of culture, which are common to different cultures throughout the world.
Culture is learned and acquired: Culture is acquired in the sense that there are certain behaviors which are acquired through heredity. Individuals inherit certain qualities from their parents but socio-cultural patterns are not inherited. These are learnt from family members, from the group and the society in which they live. It is thus apparent that the culture of human beings is
influenced by the physical and social environment through which they operate. Culture is shared by a group of people: A thought or action may be called culture if it is shared and believed or practiced by a group of people.
Culture is cumulative: Different knowledge embodied in culture can be passed from one generation to another generation. More and more knowledge is added in the particular culture as the time passes by. Each may work out solution to problems in life that passes from one generation to another. This cycle remains as the particular culture goes with time.
Culture changes: There is knowledge, thoughts or traditions that are lost as new cultural traits are added. There are possibilities of cultural changes within the particular culture as time passes.
Culture is dynamic: No culture remains on the permanent state. Culture is changing constantly as new ideas and new techniques are added as time passes modifying or changing the old ways. This is the characteristics of culture that stems from the culture’s cumulative quality. Culture gives us a range of permissible behavior patterns: It involves how an activity
should be conducted, how an individual should act appropriately.
Culture is diverse: It is a system that has several mutually interdependent parts. Although these parts are separate, they are interdependent with one another forming culture as whole.

Importance of Culture in Human life;
Culture is closely linked with life. It is not an add-on, an ornament that we as human beings can use. It is not merely a touch of color. It is what makes us human. Without culture, there would be no humans. Culture is made up of traditions, beliefs, way of life, from the most spiritual to the most material. It gives us meaning, a way of leading our lives. Human beings are creators of culture
and, at the same time, culture is what makes us human. A fundamental element of culture is the issue of religious belief and its symbolic expression. We must value religious identity and be aware of current efforts to make progress in terms of interfaith dialogue, which is actually an intercultural dialogue. As the world is becoming more and more global and we coexist on a more global level we can’t just think there’s only one right way of living or that any one is valid. The need for coexistence makes the coexistence of cultures and beliefs necessary. In order to not make such mistakes, the best thing we can do is get to know other cultures, while also getting to know our own. How can we dialogue with other cultures, if we don’t really know what our own culture is? The three eternal and universal values of Truth, Beauty and Goodness are closely linked with culture. It is culture that brings us closer to truth through philosophy and religion; it brings beauty in our lives through the Arts and makes us aesthetic beings; and it is culture that makes us ethical beings by bringing us closer to other human beings and teaching us the values of love, tolerance and peace

Characteristics of Indian culture;
Traditional Indian culture, in its overall thrust towards the spiritual, promotes moral values and the attitudes of generosity, simplicity and frugality. Some of the striking features of Indian culture that pervade its numerous castes, tribes, ethnic groups and religious groups and sects are as follows;

. A Cosmic Vision;
The framework of Indian culture places human beings within a conception of the universe as a divine creation. It is not anthropo-centric (human-centric) only and considers all elements of creation, both living and non-living, as manifestations of the divine. Therefore, it respects God’s design and promotes the ideal of co-existence. This vision thus, synthesizes human beings, nature
and God into one integral whole. This is reflected in the idea of satyam-shivam-sundaram

Sense of Harmony;
Indian philosophy and culture tries to achieve an innate harmony and order and this is extended to the entire cosmos. Indian culture assumes that natural cosmic order inherent in nature is the foundation of moral and social order. Inner harmony is supposed to be the foundation of outer harmony. External order and beauty will naturally follow from inner harmony. Indian culture
balances and seeks to synthesize the material and the spiritual, as aptly illustrated by the concept of purushartha

An important characteristic of Indian culture is tolerance. In India, tolerance and liberalism is found for all religions, castes, communities, etc. Many foreign cultures invaded India and Indian society gave every culture the opportunity of prospering. Indian society accepted and respected Shaka, Huna, Shithiyan, Muslim, Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist cultures. The feeling of tolerance
towards all religions is a wonderful characteristic of Indian society. Rigveda says-“Truth is one, even then the Scholars describe it in various forms. In Gita, Lord Krishna says, “Those praying others are actually praying me.” This thought is the extreme of tolerance. There is a peaceful coexistence of various religions in India and all have been effecting each other – although this
tradition has been badly affected by activities of converting religion by some religious organizations. All the religions existing in India are respected equally. Indian culture accepts the manifoldness of reality and assimilates plurality of viewpoints, behaviors, customs and institutions. It does not try to suppress diversity in favor of uniformity. The motto of Indian culture is both unity in diversity as well as diversity in unity.

. Adaptability;
Adaptability has a great contribution in making Indian culture immortal. Adaptability is the process of changing according to time, place and period. It’s an essential element of longevity of any culture. Indian culture has a unique property of adjustment, as a result of which, it is maintained till today. Indian family, caste, religion and institutions have changed themselves with time. Due to
adaptability and co-ordination of Indian culture, it’s continuity, utility and activity is still present. Dr. Radha Krishnan, in his book, ‘Indian culture: Some Thoughts’, while describing the adaptability of Indian culture has said all people whether black or white, Hindus or Muslims, Christians or Jews are brothers and our country is the entire universe

Spirituality is the soul of Indian culture. Here the existence of soul is accepted. Therefore, the ultimate aim of man is not physical comforts but is self-realisation. Radha Kumud Mukerjee, in his book, ‘Hindu Civilization’, has analysed that Indian culture, which kept it’s personal specialities, bound the entire nation in unity in such a way that nation and culture were considered
inseparable and became unanimous. Nation became culture and culture became nation. Country took the form of Spiritual World, beyond the physical world. When Indian culture originated in the times of Rigveda, then it spread with time to Saptasindhu, Bramhavarta, Aryavarta, Jumbudweepa, Bharata Varsha or India. Because of its strength, it reached abroad beyond the borders of India and established there also.

9.Thoughts about Karma and Reincarnation.;
The concept of Karma (action) and Reincarnation have special importance in Indian culture. It is believed that one gains virtue during good action and takes birth in higher order in his next birth and spends a comfortable life. The one doing bad action takes birth in lower order in his next birth and suffers pain and leads a miserable life. Upanishads say that the Principle of fruits of action
is correct. A man gets the fruits as per the action he does. Therefore, man needs to modify his actions, so as to improve the next birth also. Continuously performing good actions in all his birth, he will get salvation, i.e. will be liberated from the cycle of birth and death. This concept is not only of the Upnishads but is also the basis of the Jainism, Buddhism, etc. In this way, the concept of
reincarnation is associated with the principle of action. The actual cause of reincarnation is the actions done in the previous birth



Poverty has various manifestations: hunger and malnutrition; ill health; limited or lack of access to education and other basic services; increased morbidity and mortality from illness; homelessness and inadequate housing; unsafe environments; and social discrimination and exclusion.


Hunger is the condition where both adults and children cannot access food constantly and have to decrease food intake, eat poor diets, and often go without any food


There are basically three current definitions of poverty in common usage;

absolute poverty

relative poverty

social exclusion

Absolute poverty is defined as lack of sufficient resources with which to keep body and soul together

Relative poverty defines income or resources in relation to the average. It is concerned with the absence of material needs to participate fully in accepted daily life

Social exclusion as shorthand label for what can happen when individuals or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment ,poor skills ,low incomes, poor housing, high crime environments, bad health and family breakdown

Issues relating to poverty and hunger

India is one of the fastest growing economies. Despite this, poverty and hunger in India are very high. About 20-35% of children suffer from severe undernutrition in the majority of Indian states. According to India’s 2011 government data, 65 million people live in areas that lack basic facilities, which puts them under the risk of various diseases alongside hunger, which is often life-threatening.

In recently published the Global Hunger Index (GHI), India has slid down, falling behind its South Asian neighbors to rank 101 out of 116 countries. The government has dismissed the report’s ‘unscientific’ methodology.

Issues relating to poverty and hunger

Poverty and hunger have been a universal and increasing menace to humankind. Let us learn about these issues in detail.

Issues relating to Hunger

  • Hunger is the condition where both adults and children cannot access food constantly and have to decrease food intake, eat poor diets, and often go without any food.

Root causes of hunger;

Hunger at global scale is one of the main problems that large number of the global population faces presently. Hunger varies with severity. World hunger has many annoying factors and major causes, such as insufficient economic systems, misinformation, and climate changes. But the main unbearable factor is poverty as poverty always has led to people going without regular meals because they cannot afford to eat. There are majority of people in developing countries such as Kenya, Uganda, and Ethiopia that are in desperate need of food. It has been observed that with the growth of population, the number of hungry people also increases at an uneven rate.

Among numerous issues, Hunger and malnutrition are closely associated in indian scenario;

  • The Global Study revealed that 42% children in India are underweight and 58% of children are stunted by two years of age.
  • Malnutrition occurs when a person’s body receives little or no nutrients. People who are malnourished get sick more often and as a result in many cases die.
  • Malnutrition is consequently the most important risk factor for the problem of disease in developing countries.
  • It is the direct cause of about 300,000 deaths per year and is indirectly responsible for about half of all deaths in young children.
  • It can be said that world hunger must be taken seriously and should be approached with all deliberate and instant policies.
  • There are different issues of world hunger but the three main ones are poverty, climate changes, and also feeble economies.
  • In India, 21.9% of the population lives below the national poverty line in 2011.
  • In India, the proportion of the employed population below $1.90 purchasing power parity a day in 2011 is 21.2%.
  • For every 1,000 babies born in India in 2017, 39 die before their 5th birthday.
  • Poverty is a condition characterized by lack of basic needs such as water, health care, foods, sufficient access to social and economic services, and few opportunities for formal income generation.
  • Poverty is often described in terms of the income level below which people are unable to access sufficient food for a healthy working life.
  • Hunger and food insecurity are the most serious forms of extreme poverty.
  • Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia and especially East Asia. In other areas, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased especially in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Poverty in India is primarily due to improper government policies and the misuse of the financially weaker section by the wealthier community.

  • Poor health services: It has been observed that People of India have less access to good health services as compared to industrialized nations. The relationship between poverty and access to health care can be seen as part of a larger cycle, where poverty leads to ill health and ill health maintains poverty.
  • Child malnutrition: The occurrence of under-nutrition in India is amongst the highest levels found in any country in the world and in spite of the development in food production, disease control and economic and social development; India is facing an acute problem of child malnutrition.
  • Insufficient education and training: In developing countries, children do not have access to basic education because of inequalities that originate in sex, health and cultural identity. It has been revealed in reports that illiteracy and lack of education are common factor that lead to poverty
  • Other causes include:
    • Population Rise
    • Low Productivity in Agriculture
    • Under-Utilized Resources
    • Low Rate of Economic Development
    • Price Rise
    • Unemployment
    • Shortage of Capital and Able Entrepreneurship
    • Social Factors

What are the causes of poverty (Indian perspective)?

  • Colonial exploitation: India under the colonial hegemony was forced to de-industrialize resulting in increased raw material production and a decrease in the export of value-added goods like traditional handicrafts and textiles. The natives were forced to buy British goods, thus discouraging them from manufacturing indigenously. This led to massive unemployment. The droughts, diseases, and others increased the plight of the Indians during that time.
  • Caste Based Rural Economy: The traditional village economy revolved around a hereditary caste hierarchy that prescribed individuals´ occupations. Upper castes were the landowners, middle-ranked (backward) castes the farmers and artisans, and the lowest-ranked (scheduled) castes the laborers who performed menial tasks. Though after globalization rural economy extending towards semi-urban economy yet right to choose occupation is still massive hurdle for rural population.
  • Increase in the population: the rapid increase in the population due to a decrease in the mortality rate and an increase in the birth rate can be an asset for the Indian economy. However, in the present scenario, this is turning out to be a liability due to massive unemployment and an increase in the dependence on those working populations. The massive population must be converted to human capital to promote the growth of the economy.
  • Natural Calamities: In India, the maximum of the population who belong to BPL is from states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. The reason behind this is that these states are prone to natural disasters and also most of the population in these states are from SC/STs thus making them unrepresented. The natural calamities in these states hamper the agricultural progress and economic development of these states.
  • The rise of unorganised sectors: many sectors in the Indian economy are unorganised. This brings in the problem of labour exploitation. The increase in demand for work also causes job insecurities.
  • Failing Agricultural sector: the agricultural sector is one of the most vulnerable sectors of the Indian economy. Farmer suicides and protests are on the rise due to the increasing debt and decrease in production. This, in the long run, would result in them suffering from poverty. This sector employs a maximum of the Indian population but provides little profit.
  • Lack of investment: The investment provides more job opportunities. For this, the Indian economy must be favourable for foreign investment. However, some parts of India remain unfavourable due to corruption, political instability, militancy etc.
  • Social factors: Illiteracy, unrepresented minorities, social norms, caste systems are still prevalent in certain parts of India.
  • Lack of skilled labour: the population can be an asset to the economy if it is utilized efficiently. This can be done through human capitalization. Measures to improve the literacy of the population are very slow. Some, due to the lack of sufficient skills are not accepted in the workforce. This results in unemployment and poverty.
  • Corruption: Many measures have been taken by the government to eliminate poverty. However, there is still a lack of political will. The corruption by those in power also contributes to poverty.
  • Inefficient use of resources: India is a country that has abundant natural resources which, if utilized efficiently, without wastage, can be turned into an asset.
  • Lack of entrepreneurship: There are many activities in India that can be of asset to the economy. For example, some tribes have rich art and culture which can be utilized for the tribes’ growth and development through proper entrepreneurship. However, due to a lack of leadership and entrepreneurial skills, they go to waste. The tribes remain one of the most vulnerable sections of Indian society.
  • Lack of infrastructure: Many parts of India still remain isolated despite the rapid economic growth. There are several villages in India that still don’t have access to basic commodities like electricity, thus resulting in poor standards of living. They don’t even have proper roads or railways. Their contribution to the economy goes to waste due to inaccessibility.
  • Recession induced by coronavirus pandemic.


Definition of Online Shopping:

Electronic commerce, sometimes known as e-commerce, is fundamentally the act of purchasing and selling products and services via the internet when consumers purchase online. Nonetheless, the phrase is frequently used to refer to all of a seller’s online efforts to offer goods to customers directly.

Photo by cottonbro studio on

Who was invented online shopping?

Michael Aldrich, an English businessman, invented online shopping in 1979. His technique utilised a domestic telephone line to connect a real-time transaction processing computer to a modified domestic TV.

Who started online shopping in India?

When planning: Get to know the man who launched India’s first online store in the 1990s. In 1999, K Vaitheeswaran launched, which was India’s first e-commerce site. There was Fabmart before there was Flipkart, Myntra, and Snapdeal. K. Vaitheeswaran predated the Bansals.

History of Online shopping:

Either NetMarket or Internet Shopping Network conducted the first secure online retail transaction in 1994. Right after, in 1995, eBay and both established their online retail platforms. Taobao and Tmall, two websites owned by Alibaba, were introduced in 2003 and 2008, respectively.

Features of Online Shopping:

There are 7 key features of online shopping.

they are:

1.A mobile website option.

2.Free are affordable delivery alternatives.

3.Improved navigation and search possibilities.

4.Excellent image selections and images.

5.A through product description.

6.product reviews from customers.

7.A quick check out option for Guests.

A list of websites for Online shopping in India:


2.Flip cart


4. Ajio

5.Snap deal






these are commonly used websites for online shopping.


Amazon has had a big impact on the internet business scene. It provides a huge selection of goods. They offer a range of things, including furniture, electronics, appliances, clothing, toys, and sportswear. They provide a Prime membership that offers a variety of advantages like free shipping and faster delivery. The “Amazon Great Indian Sale,” which is their biggest annual sales event, is held there. Without a doubt, Amazon is a popular service both in India and around the globe.

2.Flip cart:

Flipkart is an all-in-one destination for all of your daily needs. Their online store sells apparel, appliances, sporting goods, furniture, laptops, and electronics. They provide significant discounts on the bulk of their products and a range of convenient payment options. They have gained phenomenal success as a consequence of their unbelievable daily deals.


Meesho is redefining the way that internet markets function. This Indian market offers a platform for small businesses to promote their products. Anyone can use it as a platform to sign up as a vendor and run a home-based business. It made use of social media platforms to help its merchants connect with customers. It provides goods throughout several different categories. It’s simple to shop on and browse our online store.


Ajio is an online fashion store that launched in 2016. This online store offers the biggest selection of women’s private label apparel. The inventory consists of apparel and accessories from all across the nation, the globe, and India. The online store offers more than 200 domestic and foreign brands of clothing, accessories, jewellery, and footwear.


Snapdeal is another online store that offers a wide range of products at deep discounts, including electronics, mobile phones, clothing for men and women, shoes, and home appliances. You may purchase high-quality goods while still saving money with their daily promotions. Snapdeal offers particular products with free shipping and same-day delivery.


An Indian online eyewear retailer called Lenskart offers a variety of goods to the general public, including contact lenses, prescription sunglasses, and eyeglasses. Robotics are used internally by Lenskart to make and assemble lenses to the highest standards of quality. The leading eyeglasses e-commerce site has an omnichannel strategy and has both an online and rapidly expanding offline presence. Lenskart not only sells eyewear but also accessories, all of which are sent right to your house. Men’s and women’s sunglasses and eyeglasses come in a variety of designs and hues.


Luxury items, beauty products, accessories, and clothing are just a few of the products available on Myntra. Their expansive reach and reputation as a trustworthy online shopping destination have been built through their aggressive advertising and massive sales events. Not to mention how straightforward it is for them to return or exchange items. Myntra is owned by Flipkart, which also offers a rewards programme called Myntra Insider to promote customer interaction. Consumers can show their thanks by exchanging their Insider points for deals and other prizes.


Almost anything is now feasible to perform online thanks to the development of the internet, including pharmaceutical delivery to a patient’s door. As a market leader today, Pharmeasy was a pioneer in India’s online e-pharmacy industry. Together with prescription drugs, it also gives consumers access to online testing, virtual doctor visits, and a number of other services. The organisation has faith in its ability to offer top-notch services at a competitive price.


Nykaa has swiftly become India’s top source for beauty products. This online store sells just about anything you can think of. From soaps to luxury cosmetics, there is something for everyone. The business has worked with numerous international brands over the years, launching these products just on their website. It’s a great place to purchase for skincare, toiletries, personal care, and cosmetics because they are all offered at steep prices. They also market products under their own name, including body wash, shampoo, lipsticks, and lotions.


The goal of Pepperfry is to satisfy every customer’s furniture needs. This online store provides everything, including rentals, a wide range of furniture options, and custom items. If you only need the furniture for a short time, it’s a lovely alternative. It is one of India’s more well-known online furniture businesses and offers a wider selection than any other furniture company.

purpose of online shopping:

A web-based programme called Online Shopping was created with online retailers in mind. This application’s key goals are to be user-friendly and interactive. It would facilitate product searching, viewing, and selection.

Importance of online shopping:

Because we are buying items for the people we care about or  shopping with them, shopping makes us happy. Shopping is a means to express affection, which in turn helps you feel good and not simply buy things or calm yourself down. Another approach to show that you care is to go shopping.

Advantages of online shopping:

1.The convenience of shopping at home.

2.Save time and efforts.

3.Wide variety of products are available.

4.Good discounts or low prices are available.

5.Get detailed information about the product.

6.We can compare various models and brands.

7.Saves money.

Disadvantages of online shopping:

1.Delay in delivery.

2.Frauds in online shopping.

3.Online stores do not offer substantial discounts.

4.Absence of product touch and feel while shopping online.

5.Online shopping’s lack of interaction.

6.No experience with shopping.

7.Online shopping is done without careful inspection.



Mechanical engineering is the study of physical machines that may involve force and movement. It is an engineering branch that combines engineering physics and mathematics principles with material science, to design , analyze, manufacture, and maintain  mechanical systems It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering branches.

Disciplines within mechanical engineering include but are not limited to:

  • Acoustics.
  • Aerospace.
  • Automation.
  • Automotive.
  • Autonomous Systems.
  • Biotechnology.
  • Composites.
  • Computer Aided Design (CAD


acoustics, the science concerned with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound. The term is derived from the Greek akoustos, meaning “heard.


Aerospace is a term used to collectively refer to the atmosphere and outer space. Aerospace activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace engineering consists of aeronautics and astronautics.


Automation is a term for technology applications where human input is minimized. This includes business process automation (BPA), IT automation, personal applications such as home automation and more.


The word automotive comes from the Greek autos (self), and Latin motivus (of motion), referring to any form of self-powered vehicle.


An autonomous system (AS) is a network or a collection of networks that are all managed and supervised by a single entity or organization. An AS is a heterogeneous network typically governed by a large enterprise. An AS has many different subnetworks with combined routing logic and common routing policies.


CAD (computer-aided design) is the use of computer-based software to aid in design processes. CAD software is frequently used by different types of engineers and designers. CAD software can be used to create two-dimensional (2-D) drawings or three-dimensional (3-D) models.

Female Mechanical Engineer Designs 3D Engine on Her Personal Computer while Male Automation Engineer Uses Laptop for Programming Robotic Arm.



Mechanical Design. 

System Dynamics and

Control. Transportation Systems.


Mechanical Engineering with the focus only on Machine Tools, Materials Science, Tribology, and Quality Control is known as Manufacturing Engineering. Professional manufacturing engineers are responsible for all aspect of the design, development, implementation, operation and management of manufacturing system.

Mechanical design;

Mechanical design is to design parts, components, products, or systems of mechanical nature. For example, designs of various machine elements such as shafts, bearings, clutches, gears, and fasteners fall into the scope of mechanical design.

System dynamics;

System Dynamics is a computer-based mathematical modeling approach for strategy development and better decision making in complex systems. This approach uses computer-aided simulation methodology based on feedback systems theory which complements the other Systems Thinking approaches.

Control transportation systems;

Transportation control measures (TCMs) are strategies that reduce transportation-related air pollution, GHG emissions, and fuel use by reducing vehicle miles traveled and improving roadway operations



Problem-solving involves identifying an issue, finding causes, asking questions and brainstorming solutions. Gathering facts helps make the solution more obvious. Decision-making is the process of choosing a solution based on your judgment, situation, facts, knowledge or a combination of available data.


This unit focuses on two key management functions in schools: Decision-making and Problem-solving. Exceptions apart, the work performed by school heads involves or is related to decision making in the institution. Problems are addressed. Choices are made. Resources are committed. Consequences are experienced. These decisions have the potential to have a considerable impact on the school and its members.

After going through this unit, you should be able to:
1) define decision-making and problem-solving;
2)explain the importance of decision-making and problem-solving skills;
3) understand the types of decisions and decision-making styles;
4) describe the attributes of an effective decision maker;
5)discuss a model for problem-solving: and
6)I apply the model as a way to improve your decision-making styles.

Approaches to problem solving;

There are many approaches to problem-solving, depending on the nature of the problem and the people involved in the problem.
Rational Approach
The rational approach involves clarifying, giving description of the problem, analysing causes, identifying alternatives, assessing each alternative, choosing one, implementing it, and evaluating whether the problem was solved or not.
Appreciative Inquiry ,
This approach asserts that “problems” are often the result of our own perspectives on a phenomenon. For example, if we look at a particular’ situation as a “problem,” then it will become one and we’ll probably get very stuck with the “problem”. Appreciative inquiry includes identification of our best times about the situation in the past, wishing and thinking about what worked best then, envisioning what we want in the future, and building from our strengths to work toward our vision.

Decision-making Process;
The basic characteristics of decision-making are as follows:
It is the process of choosing a course of action from among the alternative courses of action.
It is a human process involving to a great extent the application of intellectual abilities.
It is the end process preceded by deliberation and reasoning.
It is mostly related to the environment. A decision may be taken in a particular set of circumstances and another in a different set of circumstances.
It involves a time dimension and a time lag.
It always has a purpose. Keeping this in view, there may just be a decision not to decide.
It involves multiple actions like defining the problem and probing and analyzing the various alternatives before a final choice is made.

The decision-making process comprises the following components;
The decision-maker
The decision problem
The environment in which the decision is to be made
The objectives of the decision maker
The alternative courses of action
The outcome expected from various alternatives
The final choice of the alternative

Decision making styles;

There are four styles of decision-making based on who makes the decision:

Individual decision-making;
In individual decision-making, the leader must make the decision alone, and input from others is limited to collecting relevant information.
Decision-making through consultation;
In consultation, the leader discusses the issue with one or more people-seeking ideas, opinions, and suggestions-and then makes a decision. The leader considers the input of others, but the final decision may or may not be influenced by it.
Group decision-making
In this case, the leader and others work together until they reach a consensus decision. Each group member’s opinion and point of view is considered. As a result of participating in the decision making, group members buy into the final decision and commit to supporting its implementation.
Delegating the decision
When delegating a decision, the leader sets the parameters, and then allows one or more colleagues to make the final decision. Although the leader does not make the decision, he or she supports it.

Problem solving;

There are many different decision-making / problem-solving models that you can use. The five-step model shown below has proven effe d tive in emergency situations.
It is not necessary to document each step, but it is important to think through every step

Identify the problem;
Problem identification is undoubtedly the most important and the most difficult step in the process. All subsequent steps will be based on how you define and assess the problem at hand. A problem is a situation or condition of people or the organization
that exist but members of the institution consider that undesirable

Delineating the problem parameters;
Identifying the problem also involves analysing the situation to determine the extent of the problem. Problem parameters include:
What is happening (and is not happening)?
Who is involved?
What the stakes are?

Books are our best friends

We all need friends who would be there for us when needed and who would understand us without being judgemental. And books can be our best friends for life, for all the right reasons. Good books enrich our mind and broaden our perspective towards life. What’s more, one can never feel lonely in the company of books. 

They don’t question us

They don’t ask questions. They rather provide answer to the questions that keep troubling us.

They make us forget our troubles

They are the best refuge from the woes and troubles of life. Even as you may be battling the worse in life, reading a book can be a saviour as it will divert you from your troubles.

They make us smarter

They are our best teachers. A well-read person has not just answers to worldly questions but also has solution to queries of the soul. Besides, as add on you get a good vocabulary and a vast arena of knowledge.

They are always there for us

They are always there for us, no matter what. Even in the middle of the night, when everyone else is fast asleep, you can enjoy the company of books. They are a perfect cure for our loneliness.

They make us a better person

Reading fiction makes us empathise with others and also opens up our world view. Reading good books makes us a better person, that too without preaching too much.

They are non-judgemental

They don’t judge. “Great books help you understand, and they help you feel understood,” John Green once said.

We can travel with them anywhere in the world

Stephen King once said, “Books are uniquely portable magic.” Reading a book transports us to a different place each time– they are your quickest bet to instantly travel to a new place.

Books help us escape

Whether we are stuck in a boring party or had a bad day at work, reading a book can take us on an exciting adventure. What’s better than having a great companion on such journeys?

They change our perspective towards life

They bring in so many perspectives and influence the way we see the world, broadening our worldview. Books offer us to live many different lives and enable us to empathise with others.

Books teach us to accept our emotions and that it’s okay to feel sad sometimes

Books are more patient than most people and they understand us. They allow us to feel our emotions and they teach us that it’s okay to feel sad sometimes; after all, we are humans. Also, just like our best friends, good books cheer-up our mood and soothe the soul, sometimes even making us laugh out loud.

Beginning of Birdwatching

It’s one of the first eye-openers for people who are just starting to pick up birdwatching: the experience of hearing a birder call out names of birds in quick succession as a flock passes by, seemingly without looking. But like anything, it’s mainly practice—and it’s surprisingly easy to learn. You can watch (and listen to) birds pretty much anytime you’re outside. You mainly just need patience, careful observation, and a willingness to let the wonder and beauty of the natural world overtake you. Here are some tips on how to get started:

1. Binoculars. Your enjoyment of birds depends hugely on how great they look through your binoculars, so make sure you’re getting a big, bright, crisp picture through yours. In recent years excellent binoculars have become available at surprisingly low prices. So while binoculars under $100 may seem tempting, it’s truly worth it to spend $200 to $300 for vastly superior images as well as better warranties, waterproof housing, and a great feel.

2. Field Guide. Once you start seeing birds, you’ll start wondering what they are. An informal poll of my coworkers showed a clear field guide favorite: the Sibley Guide, in either its full North America version or smaller, more portable Eastern and Western editions. Other useful guides are Kaufman’s, Peterson’s, and the National Geographic guide. Don’t forget that on the Web you can get information and sounds.

3. Bird Feeders. With binoculars for viewing and a guide to help you figure out what’s what, the next step is to bring the birds into your backyard, where you can get a good look at them. Bird feeders come in all types: we recommend starting with a black-oil sunflower feeder. Add a suet feeder in winter and a hummingbird feeder in summer (or all year in parts of the continent). From there you can diversify to millet, thistle seeds, mealworms, and fruit to attract other types of species.

4. Spotting scope. By this point in our list, you’ve got pretty much all the gear you need to be a birder… until you start looking at those ducks on the far side of the pond, or shorebirds in mudflats, or that Golden Eagle perched on a tree limb a quarter-mile away. Though they’re not cheap, spotting scopes are indispensable for getting those last few clues about a species ID—or to simply revel in intricate plumage details that can be brought to life only with a 20x to 60x zoom. And scopes, like binoculars, are coming down in price while going up in quality.

6. Skills. Once you’re outside and surrounded by birds, we recommend practicing a four-step approach to identification. First you judge the bird’s size and shape; then look for its main color pattern; take note of its behavior; and factor in what habitat it’s in. 

7. Records. Birders like the ones who inspired the 2011 movie The Big Year are called listers—people who love (or are obsessed with) compiling lists of the species they’ve seen. But you don’t have to be a lister to reap benefits of writing down what you see—think of notes as a kind of diary with a focus, chronicling the days of your life through the birds you’ve seen and places you’ve been. Many people keep their records online in our free eBird project, which keeps track of every place and day you go bird watching, allows you to enter notes and share sightings with friends, and explore the data all eBirders have entered.



Political Science and International Relations are complementary and inter-related disciplines that explore power and politics in many different contexts. They provide concepts with which to explain, justify and critique the modern world. They examine ideologies such as colonisation and socialism.

scope of political science and international relations;

Political Science and International Relations graduates understand diplomacy, conflict, power structures, and politics in a globalised world. Political Science and International Relations students develop strong skills in conceptual analysis, research, strategic thinking, and persuasive communication.

Breadth of study

We are able to offer an excellent range of modules providing both a national and international focus, giving students plenty of choice. Pathways offer students module choices to develop their own specialist interests. 

Personal atmosphere

The staff at the Department of Politics work to create a relaxed and friendly atmosphere. Due to the small size of the seminar groups and the MA-programme in general, lecturers know students individually, and are easily accessible. This stands in stark contrast to the vast and anonymous lectures in some competing MA-programmes at other Universities.

Research-active staff

The University of Liverpool is a Russell Group member, an organisation of leading research and teaching Universities in the UK. All staff are actively researching and publishing in their fields and have national and international reputations. This provides huge benefits for the MA programme as this translates into the classroom. Courses are based on the latest research and give students insight into cutting-edge developments in their fields.


Studying Politics develops critical and research skills valued by employers – data collection and analysis, problem-solving, argument and self-expression. Graduates have achieved much success in areas such as broadcasting, journalism, the civil service, government (local, national and European), marketing, public relations and academia.

Positive and flexible

We offer postgraduate degrees and adopt a positive and flexible policy towards the requirements of overseas and/or part-time students, including effective timetabling on taught programmes, facilitation of language training, help with practical problems where appropriate, etc. The department fully embraces the University’s Equal Opportunities strategy and works closely with the Student Welfare and Disability Team and the International Office to provide appropriate facilities for students with additional needs including English language support.

Teaching and Research Environment

The University library is well-resourced, up-to-date and easy to use, with particularly good collections in Politics and allied subjects. There are multiple copies of all of the main teaching texts.



While our knowledge of the ancient era begins with Thales in the 6th century BCE, little is known about the philosophers who came before socrates (commonly known as the pre Socrates). The ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools. Most notable among the schools influenced by Socrates’ teachings were plato, who founded the platonic academy and his student  Aristotle who founded the peripatetic school Other ancient philosophical traditions influenced by Socrates included cynicism, cyrenaicism stoicism, and Academic skepticism. Two other traditions were influenced by Socrates’ contemporary , Democritus: pyrrhonism and Epicureanism

Ancient era

Medieval era;Medieval philosophy (5th–16th centuries) took place during the period following the fall of the Western roman empire and was dominated by the rise of christianity; it hence reflects judeo-christianism theological concerns while also retaining a continuity with Greco-Roman thought. Problems such as the existence and nature of God, the nature of  faith and reason, metaphysics, and the problem of evil  were discussed in this period. Some key medieval thinkers include Augustine ,Thomas,Aquinas, Boethius,Anselm and Roger Bacon. Philosophy for these thinkers was viewed as an aid to theology (ancilla theologiae), and hence they sought to align their philosophy with their interpretation of sacred scripture. This period saw the development of scholasticism, a text critical method developed in medieval universities based on close reading and disputation on key texts

Early  modern philosophy;

Early modern philosophy  in the Western world begins with thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes and Rene Descartes (1596–1650). Following the rise of natural science, modern philosophy was concerned with developing a secular and rational foundation for knowledge and moved away from traditional structures of authority such as religion, scholastic thought and the Church. Major modern philosophers include spinoza, Leibniz, Lockie, Berkeley, Hume and Kant.

Indian philosophy

Adi shankara is one of the most frequently studied Hindu philosophers.

Indian philosophy (Sanskrit: darśana, lit ’point of view’, ‘perspective’) refers to the diverse philosophical traditions that emerged since the ancient times on the Indian subcontinent. Indian philosophy chiefly considers epistemology, theories of consciousness and theories of mind, and the physical properties of reality.  Indian philosophical traditions share various key concepts and ideas, which are defined in different ways and accepted or rejected by the different traditions. These include concepts such as dharma,karma,pramana,dukha ,samsara,moksha.

Some of the earliest surviving Indian philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the  later vedic period(1000–500 BCE), which are considered to preserve the ideas of Brahmanism Indian philosophical traditions are commonly grouped according to their relationship to the Vedas and the ideas contained in them. Jainism and Buddhism originated at the end of the vedic period, while the various traditions grouped under Hinduism mostly emerged after the Vedic period as independent traditions. Hindus generally classify Indian philosophical traditions as either orthodox (astika) or heterodox (nastika) depending on whether they accept the authority of the vedas and the theories of  brahman and atman found therein.


At its core the study of metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, of what exists in the world, what it is like, and how it is ordered. In metaphysics philosophers wrestle with such questions as:

  • Is there a God?
  • What is truth?
  • What is a person? What makes a person the same through time?
  • Is the world strictly composed of matter?
  • Do people have minds? If so, how is the mind related to the body?
  • Do people have free wills?
  • What is it for one event to cause another?


Epistemology is the study of knowledge. It is primarily concerned with what we can know about the world and how we can know it. Typical questions of concern in epistemology are:

  • What is knowledge?
  • Do we know anything at all?
  • How do we know what we know?
  • Can we be justified in claiming to know certain things?


The study of ethics often concerns what we ought to do and what it would be best to do. In struggling with this issue, larger questions about what is good and right arise. So, the ethicist attempts to answer such questions as:

  • What is good? What makes actions or people good?
  • What is right? What makes actions right?
  • Is morality objective or subjective?
  • How should I treat others?


Another important aspect of the study of philosophy is the arguments or reasons given for people’s answers to these questions. To this end philosophers employ logic to study the nature and structure of arguments. Logicians ask such questions as:

  • What constitutes “good” or “bad” reasoning?
  • How do we determine whether a given piece of reasoning is good or bad?

History of Philosophy

The study of philosophy involves not only forming one’s own answers to such questions, but also seeking to understand the way in which people have answered such questions in the past. So, a significant part of philosophy is its history, a history of answers and arguments about these very questions. In studying the history of philosophy one explores the ideas of such historical figures as:


What often motivates the study of philosophy is not merely the answers or arguments themselves but whether or not the arguments are good and the answers are true. Moreover, many of the questions and issues in the various areas of philosophy overlap and in some cases even converge. Thus, philosophical questions arise in almost every discipline. This is why philosophy also encompasses such areas as:

Philosophy of LawPhilosophy of Feminism
Philosophy of ReligionPhilosophy of Science
Philosophy of MindPhilosophy of Literature
Political PhilosophyPhilosophy of the Arts
Philosophy of HistoryPhilosophy of Language




Medical science covers many subjects which try to explain how the human body works. Starting with basic biology it is generally divided into areas of specialisation, such as anatomy, physiology and pathology with some biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology and genetics.

Subjects in medical science;

Medical science includes Physics, Chemistry, Biology, English, and an optional subject are required for medical students. Non-Medical: Physics, Chemistry, Math, English, and an optional subject are required for non-medical students.

Role of medical science;

It leads to significant discoveries, improves health care, and ensures that patients receive the best care possible. It is what makes the development of new medicines and treatments possible, without it we would not be able to move forward in the development of medicine.

Current medical science (original name: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology Medical Sciences) is published bimonthly by Huazhong University of Science and Technology in partnership with Springer Publishing Company. It provides a forum by publishing peer-reviewed papers, to promote academic exchange between the Chinese researchers and doctors and their foreign counterparts. The journal covers the subjects of biomedicine such as physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, immunology, pathology and pathophysiology etc., and subjects of clinical medicines such as surgery, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics and otorhinolaryngology etc. High priority is given to studies on the mechanism underlying human diseases and clinical trials. In China, it is one of the five periodicals that are firstly included in Index Medicus (IM) and is now under the coverage of the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E).

  • A platform for academic exchange between Chinese medical researchers and their foreign colleagues
  • Published primarily in English
  • Presents articles concerning the latest advances and experiences in biomedicine and clinical medicine

Our Medical Science programme always places students’ interest and learning experience at the heart of the teaching and learning activity, as supported by a strong integration of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles and inclusive teaching. We have dedicated staff with diverse experience, outstanding level of pastoral care as well as scientific and clinical research informed teaching.

After successfully completing year one, Medical Science students will be equipped with fundamental knowledge of and practical skills in chemistry and biochemistry, anatomy and physiology, microbiology and personal and professional skills. In year two, students integrate their understanding of the healthy human body with disease pathology and processes before being introduced to the disciplines and techniques involved in delivering quality healthcare, and an insight into management principles relevant to many professional settings in year three.

uring this course you will have the option to complete a paid placement year, an invaluable opportunity to put the skills developed during your degree into practice. This insight into the professional world will build on your knowledge in a real-world setting, preparing you to progress onto your chosen career. 

Our careers programme DMU Works can help to hone your professional skills with mock interviews and practice aptitude tests, and an assigned personal tutor will support you throughout your placement. 

Students have previously undertaken placement opportunities at Institute of Lung Health at Glenfield Hospital, Clintec and private healthcare organisations.


DMU Global

Our innovative international experience programme DMU Global aims to enrich studies, broaden cultural horizons and develop key skills valued by employers. 

Through DMU Global, we offer an exciting mix of overseas, on-campus and online international experiences, including the opportunity to study or work abroad for up to a year.

The DMU Global initiative has seen Medical Science students explore preventative healthcare in Berlin, raise awareness of type 2 diabetes in Kentucky and perform a parasitological and public health research study in New York.

CCJ Policing Graduate

Graduate careers

To help students prepare for specific careers choices, not only do we have a professional careers team, careers conferences, and employment talks, but an initiative where alumni give their advice for students following in their footsteps, including students who have gone on to postgraduate medicine and dentistry, research, and clinical laboratory careers.

Graduate opportunities exist in medical research, writing, education, commerce and sales. This is an appropriate entry qualification for graduates who wish to apply for further study in graduate entry medicine, physician associate, pharmacy, dentistry or NHS medical care practitioner training.



Economics is the study of scarcity and its implications for the use of resources, production of goods and services, growth of production and welfare over time, and a great variety of other complex issues of vital concern to society.

There are 4 definitions of economics

These are – production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services. Ans. Adam Smith defined economics as the “science of wealth.” The definition implies that the economy is determined by the wealth generated when people produce valuable commodities that are consumed.

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What are the 5 concepts of economics?

Some of the concepts are scarcity, supply & demand, incentives, trade-off and opportunity cost, economic systems, factors of production, production possibilities, marginal analysis, circular flow, and international trade.

What is economics all about?
Economics is the study of how things are made, moved around, and used. It looks at how people, businesses, governments, and countries choose to use their resources. Economics is the study of how people act, based on the idea that people act rationally and try to get the most value or benefit. Economics is the study of how work and business are run. Since there are many ways to use human labour and many ways to get resources.

Economic Indicators
Economic indicators show how a country’s economy is doing in a specific area. When government agencies or private groups put out these reports regularly, they usually have a big effect on the stock, fixed income, and foreign exchange markets. They can also help investors figure out how the economy will affect markets and make decisions about investments.

Gross national product (GDP)
Many people think that a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) is the best way to measure how well its economy is doing. It is the total market value of all finished goods and services made in a country during a certain year or other time period. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) releases a monthly report at the end of each month. Many investors, analysts, and traders pay attention to the advance GDP report and the preliminary report, which come out a few months before the annual GDP report.

Retail sales
The Department of Commerce (DOC) puts out a report on retail sales in the middle of each month. This report measures the total amount of money made or the dollar value of all products sold in stores.

Oil Refinery, Chemical & Petrochemical plant abstract at night.

Industrial manufacturing
The Federal Reserve puts out a report every month called “Industrial Production” that shows how the production of U.S. factories, mines, and utilities has changed over time. One of the closely watched variables in this study is the capacity utilisation ratio, which shows how much of the economy’s productive capacity is being used instead of sitting idle. A country should see its production values increase and its capacity is used to its fullest

Employment Data
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports “nonfarm payrolls” every first Friday of the month with information about jobs.
Most of the time, a strong economy means that jobs are being added quickly. In the same way, big drops could mean that contractions are coming. Even though these are broad trends, it is important to look at how the economy is doing.

Changes in prices for consumers (CPI)
The Consumer Price Index (CPI), which the BLS also puts out, is the standard way to measure inflation. It shows how much retail prices (consumer costs) have changed. The CPI compares price changes from month to month and from year to year by putting goods and services from the economy into a basket.



Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans. Veterinary Science is the science of diagnosing, treating and curing diseases in birds and animals. It covers the study of animal physiology, treatment and prevention of diseases among animals.

Animal nutrition;

1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – nitrogenbalance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods inruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg,wool, and meat production.

1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships. Evaluation of protein quality.Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy,lactation, egg, wool and meat production.

1.3 Major and trace minerals – Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxicminerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fat-soluble and water – soluble vitamins in the body, theirsources and deficiency symptoms.

1.4 Feed additives – methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides ,antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics – latest concepts.

. Animal Physiology;

2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in health and disease.

2.2 Blood constituents – Properties and functions-blood cell formationHaemoglobin synthesis andchemistryplasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood;Haemorrhagicdisorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volumePlasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood.Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.

2.3 Circulation – Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms. Work and efficiency of heart-effect of ions on heart function metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary and pulmonary circulation, Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal fluid- circulation in birds.

.Animal Reproduction;

Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination- Components of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition of diluents, sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat breeding

.Livestock Production and Management;

4.1 Commercial Dairy Farming Comparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle ;supply of greens throughout the year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm.

Animal Diseases;

2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses, pigs and poultry.

2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.

2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.

2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.

2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.

2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseases herd immunity- disease free zones- zero disease concept- chemoprophylaxis.

2.7 Anaesthesia- local, regional and general-preanesthetic medication. Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomasal displacement- Caesarian operations. Rumenotomy-Castrations.

2.8 Disease investigation techniques.- Materials for laboratory investigation Establishment of Animal Health Centers Disease free zone.


Veterinary Public Health;

: 3.1 Zoonoses. – Classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases occupational zoonotic diseases.

3.2 Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological features of air, water and foodborne infections. OIE regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.

3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases – State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases-S P C A- Veterolegal cases Certificates -Materials and Methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.

Meat Hygiene and Technology;

5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgment of carcass meat cuts-grading of carcass meat cuts- duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.

5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat- Spoilage of meat and control measures- Post -slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them- Quality improvement methods – Adulteration of meat and detection – Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.

5.2 Meat Technology.5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat- Meat emulsions- Methods of preservation of meat-Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products, processing and formulations

5.3 By- products- Slaughter house byproducts and their utilization- Edible and inedible by products-Social and economic implications of proper utilization of slaughter house by-products- Organ products for food and pharma


Ozone layer:

The majority of the UV light from the Sun is absorbed by the Earth’s stratosphere’s ozone layer, also known as the ozone shield. Compared to other areas of the atmosphere, it has a high concentration of ozone, yet it is still relatively low in comparison to other gases in the stratosphere.

Ozone Layer Depletion:

The high atmosphere’s ozone layer gets thinned due to ozone layer depletion. This occurs when ozone molecules come into touch with chlorine and bromine atoms in the atmosphere and are broken down. Ozone molecules can be destroyed by one chlorine molecule. It doesn’t get made as quickly as it gets destroyed.

Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion:

The ozone layer blocks harmful ultraviolet (UVB) light wavelengths from entering the Earth’s atmosphere. These wavelengths hurt plants and animals as well as cause skin cancer, sunburn, permanent blindness, and cataracts, all of which were predicted to sharply increase as a result of the weakening of the ozone layer.

Increased UV radiation reaching Earth as a result of ozone depletion may increase the incidence of skin cancer, cataracts, and immune system impairment. The most lethal form of skin cancer, melanoma, is thought to be on the rise as a result of excessive UV exposure.

Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion:

Mainly there are 5 types of causes for Ozone Layer Depletion.

They are:

1.Chlorofluoro Carbons.

2.Nitrogenous Compounds

3.Bromine Compounds

4.Natural Causes

5.Fossil fuels destroy the Ozone Layer

1.Chlorofluoro Carbons:

CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons, are to blame for the ozone layer’s thinning. The Ozone Layer helps block dangerous UV rays that would otherwise burn plants and cause skin cancer in people. Ozone molecules break down as a result of chemical processes brought on by CFCs, decreasing the amount of UV radiation that can be absorbed.

2.Nitrogenous Compounds:

Just above the region with the highest ozone concentrations, nitrogen oxides are the main cause of ozone depletion. As a result, NOx effectively destroys ozone . Because only around 10% of N2O is converted to NOx, compared to the CFCs’ potential contribution of all of their chlorine, the ODP of N2O is smaller than that of CFCs.

3.Bromine Compounds:

Loss of ozone. Ozone molecules are destroyed when chlorine and bromine atoms come into touch with them in the stratosphere. Until it is eliminated from the stratosphere, one chlorine atom can destroy more than 100,000 ozone molecules. More quickly than it is produced naturally, ozone can be destroyed.

4.Natural Causes:

It has been discovered that some natural processes, such solar flares and stratospheric winds, degrade the ozone layer. Yet, it only contributes to 1-2% of the ozone layer loss. The ozone layer is being destroyed due to volcanic eruptions as well.

5.Fossil Fuels destroy the Ozone:

The widespread usage of fossil fuels in daily life has brought about an era of ozone layer depletion and global warming. When burned, fossil fuels like gasoline, diesel, natural gas, etc. release dangerous greenhouse gases like CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, etc.

Effect of Ozone Layer Depletion on Environment:

ncreased UV-B rays that reach the earth’s surface as a result of stratospheric ozone loss have the potential to disrupt biological processes and harm a variety of materials. The common sunburn that results from excessive sun exposure is a good example of how UV -B can have an impact on biological processes.

Effect of Ozone Layer Depletion on Plants:

More dangerous UV rays are penetrating Earth’s surface as a result of the ozone layer being destroyed. As radiation levels rise, plants are unable to swiftly adapt, which can have a negative impact on their physiological and developmental processes.

Effect of Ozone Layer Depletion on Animals:

Early developmental stages of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians, and other marine species have been discovered to be damaged by UVB light. Reduced fertility and hampered larval development are the most serious impacts.

Solutions for Ozone Layer Depletion:

1.Minimize the use of Vehicles

2.Use Eco-Friendly cleaning products

3.Pesticides should not be used

4.Ozone Depleting products Should not be used

5.Renewable sources of Energy.

6.Reuse and Recycle

1.Minimize the use of Vehicles:

The simplest method to stop ozone depletion is to minimise the number of cars on the road. Large amounts of greenhouse gases are released by these vehicles, which eventually condense into smog and contribute to the ozone layer’s thinning.

2.Use Eco-Friendly cleaning products:

The bulk of cleaning supplies for the home are made with harsh chemicals that leach into the air and thin the ozone layer. Use natural and environmentally friendly cleaning supplies to prevent this from happening.

3.Pesticides should not be used:

Pesticides are useful tools for managing weeds and pests on your farm, but they can dramatically harm the ozone layer. The most efficient technique to get rid of weeds and pests is with natural remedies. Simply hand-weed your farm and use environmentally safe pesticides as an option to combat pests.

4.Ozone Depleting products Should not be used:

When you go shopping, avoid purchasing products that contain chlorofluorocarbons in aerosol form. If the primary ingredient in your fire extinguishers is “halon” or “halogenated hydrocarbon,” check them out. Dispose of any outdated freezers and air conditioners that use chlorofluorocarbons. This could result in the discharge of toxic compounds into the atmosphere.

5.Renewable Sources of Energy:

In order to stop the destruction of the ozone layer, renewable energy sources must be used and developed. Fossil fuels like coal are a key source of electricity in addition to nuclear energy.

6.Reuse and Recycle:

We should also make an effort to reuse as many of our possessions as we can. We need to make sure they can be properly recycled if we stop using them. In this approach, we can lessen the demand on natural resources. As a result, we also prevent the harm that resource exploitation causes to the ecosystem.


What are the major challenges of the Public Distribution System (PDS) in India?

The Public Distribution System (PDS) in India is a food security program that aims to provide essential food grains to the poor and needy sections of society. However, despite being a significant component of the government’s social welfare policy, the PDS has faced several challenges in its implementation. In this article, we will explore the major challenges of PDS in India.

Major Challenges:

1. Leakages and inefficiencies:

One of the primary challenges of the PDS is the issue of leakages and inefficiencies in the system. A significant portion of the food grains allocated for distribution through the PDS does not reach the intended beneficiaries due to pilferage, diversion, or corruption in the supply chain. The lack of transparency and accountability in the system further exacerbates the issue of leakages and inefficiencies.

2. Targeting and identification of beneficiaries:

Another challenge of the PDS is the issue of targeting and identification of beneficiaries. The current system of identification of beneficiaries is based on the Below Poverty Line (BPL) criteria, which has been criticized for its inadequacy in identifying deserving beneficiaries. Many deserving beneficiaries are excluded from the PDS due to the limited coverage of the BPL criteria, while many non-deserving beneficiaries also manage to obtain benefits from the system.

3. Quality of food grains:

The quality of food grains distributed through the PDS is also a significant challenge. Poor quality grains, which are often infested with insects and rodents, are supplied to the beneficiaries, which not only compromises the health and nutrition of the beneficiaries but also leads to the wastage of food grains.

4. Supply chain management:

Supply chain management is another significant challenge in the PDS. The PDS involves a complex supply chain, which starts from the procurement of food grains from farmers to their distribution to the beneficiaries. The supply chain involves several intermediaries, including state agencies, transportation agencies, and fair price shops. The lack of coordination and accountability among the various intermediaries in the supply chain leads to delays, leakages, and inefficiencies in the system.

5. Infrastructure and logistics:

The inadequate infrastructure and logistics facilities are also significant challenges in the PDS. The lack of storage facilities, transportation infrastructure, and technology systems for monitoring and tracking the supply chain leads to the wastage of food grains, delays in distribution, and inefficiencies in the system.

6. Awareness and participation of beneficiaries:

Another challenge of the PDS is the issue of awareness and participation of beneficiaries. Many beneficiaries are not aware of their entitlements under the PDS and do not participate actively in the system. This leads to a lack of accountability and transparency in the system, which in turn facilitates leakages and inefficiencies.

7. Financial sustainability:

The financial sustainability of the PDS is also a significant challenge. The cost of procuring and distributing food grains through the PDS is enormous, and the government bears a substantial part of this cost. The government’s fiscal deficit and the high cost of subsidies have led to calls for the reform of the PDS and the introduction of more targeted and efficient food security programs.


In conclusion, the Public Distribution System in India has faced several challenges in its implementation. The issue of leakages and inefficiencies in the system, targeting and identification of beneficiaries, quality of food grains, supply chain management, infrastructure and logistics, awareness, and participation of beneficiaries, and financial sustainability are some of the major challenges faced by the PDS. However, with the right policies and strategies, these challenges can be addressed, and the PDS can be made more efficient, transparent, and effective in achieving its goal of providing food security to the poor and needy sections of society.



​​The word geology means ‘Study of the Earth’. Also known as geoscience or earth science, Geology is the primary Earth science and looks at how the earth formed, its structure and composition, and the types of processes acting on it

The Principles of Geology

  • Uniformitarianism.
  • Original horizontality.
  • Superposition.
  • Cross-cutting relationships.
  • Walther’s Law.

What are the 4 laws of geology?

Image result

The four laws are the law of superposition, law of original horizontality, law of cross-cutting relationships, and law of lateral continuity. Nicolaus Steno was a 17th-century Danish geologist.


Minerals are natural occurring elements and compounds with a definite homogeneous chemical composition and ordered atomic composition.

Each mineral has distinct physical properties, and there are many tests to determine each of them. The specimens can be tested for:

  • Luster: Quality of light reflected from the surface of a mineral. Examples are metallic, pearly, waxy, dull.
  • Color: Minerals are grouped by their color. Mostly diagnostic but impurities can change a mineral’s color.
  • streak: Performed by scratching the sample on a porcelian plate. The color of the streak can help name the mineral.
  • Hardness: The resistance of a mineral to scratching.
  • Breakage pattern: A mineral can either show fracture or cleavage, the former being breakage of uneven surfaces, and the latter a breakage along closely spaced parallel planes.
  • specific gravity the weight of a specific volume of a mineral.
  • Effervescence: Involves dripping hydrochloric acid on the mineral to test for fizzing.
  • Magnetism: Involves using a magnet to test for magnetism
  • Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, such as halite (which tastes like table salt ).


The rock cycle shows the relationship between igneous sedimentary and metamorphic rocks A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloids Most research in geology is associated with the study of rocks, as they provide the primary record of the majority of the geological history of the Earth. There are three major types of rock: igneous sedimentary, and metamorphic. The  rock cycle illustrates the relationships among them .

innerscale of the Earth

The following five timelines show the geologic time scale to scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this gives little space for the most recent eon. The second timeline shows an expanded view of the most recent eon. In a similar way, the most recent era is expanded in the third timeline, the most recent period is expanded in the fourth timeline, and the most recent epoch is expanded in the fifth timeline.

Millions of Years (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th)
Thousands of years (5th)

Relative dating;

Cross cutting relations can be used to determine the relative ages of  rock strata and other geological structures. Explanations: A – folded  rock strata cut by a thrust fault B – large intrusion  (cutting through A); C – erosion angular unconformity  (cutting off A & B) on which rock strata were deposited; D –  volcanic dyke (cutting through A, B & C); E – even younger rock strata (overlying C & D); F – normal fault  (cutting through A, B, C & E).

Methods for relative dating  were developed when geology first emerged as a natural science . Geologists still use the following principles today as a means to provide information about geological history and the timing of geological events.

The principle of uniformataism states that the geological processes observed in operation that modify the Earth’s crust at present have worked in much the same way over geological time. A fundamental principle of geology advanced by the 18th-century Scottish physician and geologist James Hutton  is that “the present is the key to the past.” In Hutton’s words: “the past history of our globe must be explained by what can be seen to be happening now.”

Absolute dating;

Geologists also use methods to determine the absolute age of rock samples and geological events. These dates are useful on the own and may also be used in conjunction with relative dating methods or to calibrate relative methods.

At the beginning of the 20th century, advancement in geological science was facilitated by the ability to obtain accurate absolute dates to geological events using radioactive isotopes  and other methods. This changed the understanding of geological time. Previously, geologists could only use fossils and stratigraphic correlation to date sections of rock relative to one another. With isotopic dates, it became possible to assign absolute ages  to rock units, and these absolute dates could be applied to fossil sequences in which there was datable material, converting the old relative ages into new absolute ages.

Methods of geology;

A standard  Brunton pocket transit commonly used by geologists for mapping and surveying Geologists use a number of fields, laboratory, and numerical modeling methods to decipher Earth history and to understand the processes that occur on and inside the Earth. In typical geological investigations, geologists use primary information related to petrology  (the study of rocks), stratigraphy (the study of sedimentary layers), and structural geology (the study of positions of rock units and their deformation).

Field methods

A typical USGS field mapping camp in the 1950

Today, handheld computers with  GPS and geographic information systems software are often used in geological field work digital geological mapping

A pertified log in pertified forest national park Arizona U.S.A.

Geological  field works varies depending on the task at hand. Typical fieldwork could consist of:

  • Geological mapping
    • Structural mapping: identifying the locations of major rock units and the faults and folds that led to their placement there.
    • Stratigraphic mapping: pinpointing the locations of sedimentary facies (lithofacies and biofacies) or the mapping of  isopachs of equal thickness of sedimentary rock
    • Surficial mapping: recording the locations of soils and surficial deposits
  • Petrology
  • In addition to identifying rocks in the field (lithology), petrologists identify rock samples in the laboratory. Two of the primary methods for identifying rocks in the laboratory are through optical microscopy and by using an electronic microprobe. In an optical minerology analysis, petrologists analyze thin sections of rock samples using a  petrograhic microscope .where the minerals can be identified through their different properties in plane-polarized and cross-polarized light, including their birefringence, pleochroism, twinning, and interference properties with a conoscopic lens In the electron microprobe, individual locations are analyzed for their exact chemical compositions and variation in composition within individual crystals. stable and radioactive isotope studies provide insight into the geochemical  evolution of rock units.

Economic geology;

Economic geology is a branch of geology that deals with aspects of economic minerals that humankind uses to fulfill various needs. Economic minerals are those extracted profitably for various practical uses. Economic geologists help locate and manage the Earth’s natural resources, such as petroleum and coal, as well as mineral resources, which include metals such as iron, copper, and uranium.

Mining geology;

Mining geology consists of the extractions of mineral resources from the Earth. Some resources of economic interests include gemstones metals such as gold and copper, and many minerals such as perlite, mica, phosphates, zeolites, clay, ,pumice,, quartz and silica, as well as elements such as sulfur, chlorine , and helium

Petroleum geology

Mud log in process, a common way to study the lithology when drilling oil well petroleum geologists study the locations of the subsurface of the Earth that can contain extractable hydrocarbons, especially petroleum and natural gas. Because many of these reservoirs are found in sedimentary basins they study the formation of these basins, as well as their sedimentary and tectonic evolution and the present-day positions of the rock units.

Engineering geology

Engineering geology is the application of geological principles to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geological factors affecting the location, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of engineering works are properly addressed. Engineering geology is distinct from geological engineering, particularly in North America


Geology and geological principles can be applied to various environmental problems such as stream restoration, the restoration of  brown fields, and the understanding of the interaction between natural habitat and the geological environment. Groundwater hydrology, or hydrogeology, is used to locate groundwater, which can often provide a ready supply of uncontaminated water and is especially important in arid regions, and to monitor the spread of contaminants in groundwater wells.

Is inclusive growth possible in a market economy? State the significance of financial inclusion in achieving economic growth in India.

Inclusive growth, also known as equitable growth, is a concept that emphasizes the importance of economic growth that benefits all members of society, regardless of their socio-economic status. In a market economy, where the allocation of resources is primarily determined by the interplay of supply and demand, achieving inclusive growth can be daunting. However, inclusive growth can be possible in a market economy with the right policies and strategies. This article will explore the concept of inclusive growth and its feasibility in a market economy. We will also discuss the importance of financial inclusion in achieving economic growth in India.

The concept of inclusive growth is based on the idea that economic growth should be broad-based and inclusive, and not limited to a select few individuals or groups. It emphasizes the importance of creating opportunities and access to resources for all members of society, particularly those who are traditionally marginalized or excluded from economic activities. Inclusive growth is necessary to reduce poverty, inequality, and social exclusion and promote sustainable and long-term economic growth.

Market economies are based on the principles of supply and demand, where the market determines the allocation of resources. While market economies have the potential to generate economic growth and create wealth, they are also characterized by inequality and social exclusion. The benefits of economic growth are not distributed equally, and certain segments of society may be left behind. This is particularly true for marginalized groups such as women, minorities, and low-income households.

However, it is possible to achieve inclusive growth in a market economy by implementing policies and strategies that promote access to resources and opportunities for all members of society. For example, policies that focus on improving education, healthcare, and infrastructure can help create a more inclusive economy. Additionally, policies that promote entrepreneurship and innovation can help create new opportunities for marginalized groups and reduce barriers to entry.

Financial inclusion is a critical component of inclusive growth, particularly in developing economies such as India. Financial inclusion refers to the process of providing access to financial services to all members of society, particularly those who are traditionally excluded from the formal financial sector. Financial inclusion can help reduce poverty, increase economic growth, and promote social inclusion.

In India, financial inclusion has become a key priority for policymakers in recent years. The government has launched several initiatives to promote financial inclusion, including the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), which aims to provide access to financial services to all households in the country. The PMJDY has been successful in reaching millions of unbanked households and has helped promote financial inclusion in the country.

Financial inclusion can have a significant impact on economic growth in India. By providing access to financial services, particularly credit, financial inclusion can help promote entrepreneurship and innovation, which are critical drivers of economic growth. Additionally, financial inclusion can help reduce poverty and improve the standard of living for marginalized groups.


However, achieving financial inclusion is not without its challenges. One of the key challenges is the lack of access to formal financial institutions in rural and remote areas. Many marginalized groups, particularly those living in rural areas, do not have access to formal financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies. This limits their ability to access financial services and can perpetuate poverty and exclusion.

Another challenge is the lack of financial literacy among marginalized groups. Many individuals, particularly those who are not well-educated or do not have access to formal financial institutions, may not understand how financial services work or how to use them effectively. This can limit their ability to take advantage of financial services and can lead to financial insecurity.

To address these challenges, policymakers in India must focus on developing innovative solutions that promote financial inclusion. For example, mobile banking and digital payment systems can help reach marginalized groups in remote areas and provide access to financial services.



In Maths, Statistics is a method of interpreting, analysing and summarising the data. Hence, the types of statistics are categorised based on these features: Descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on the representation of data such as using pie charts, bar graphs, or tables, we analyse and interpret it.

What are the 3 types of statistics?

They are: (i) Mean, (ii) Median, and (iii) Mode. Statistics is the study of Data Collection, Analysis, Interpretation, Presentation, and organizing in a specific way.


Mean is an essential concept in mathematics and statistics. The mean is the average or the most common value in a collection of numbers.

In statistics, it is a measure of central tendency of a probability distribution along median and mode. It is also referred to as an expected value.

How to Calculate Mean?

There are different ways of measuring the central tendency of a set of values. There are multiple ways to calculate the mean. Here are the two most popular ones:

Arithmetic mean is the total of the sum of all values in a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in a collection. It is calculated in the following way:

Arithmetic mean - Formula

Geometric mean is an nth root of the product of all numbers in a collection. The formula for the geometric mean is:

Geometric mean - Formula

The geometric mean includes the volatility and compounding effects of returns. Thus, the geometric average provides a more accurate calculation of an average return.


The median of a set of data is the middlemost number or centre value in the set. The median is also the number that is halfway into the set.

Median Formula

The formula to calculate the median of the finite number of data set is given here. The median formula is different for even and odd numbers of observations. Therefore, it is necessary to recognise first if we have odd number of values or even number of values in a given data set.

The formula to calculate the median of the data set is given as follows.

Odd Number of Observations

If the total number of observations given is odd, then the formula to calculate the median is:

Median = {(n+1)/2}th term

where n is the number of observations

Even Number of Observations

If the total number of observation is even, then the median formula is:

Median = [(n/2)th term + {(n/2)+1}th term]/2

where n is the number of observations


In statistics, the mode is the value that is repeatedly occurring in a given set. We can also say that the value or number in a data set, which has a high frequency or appears more frequently, is called mode or modal value. It is one of the three measures of central tendency, apart from mean and median

Mode Definition in Statistics

A mode is defined as the value that has a higher frequency in a given set of values. It is the value that appears the most number of times.

 Bimodal, Trimodal & Multimodal (More than one mode);

  • When there are two modes in a data set, then the set is called bimodal

For example, The mode of Set A = {2,2,2,3,4,4,5,5,5} is 2 and 5, because both 2 and 5 is repeated three times in the given set.

  • When there are three modes in a data set, then the set is called trimodal

For example, the mode of set A = {2,2,2,3,4,4,5,5,5,7,8,8,8} is 2, 5 and 8

  • When there are four or more modes in a data set, then the set is called multimodal

Summary Statistics;

In Statistics, summary statistics are a part of descriptive statistics (Which is one of the types of statistics), which gives the list of information about sample data. We know that statistics deals with the presentation of data visually and quantitatively. Thus, summary statistics deals with summarizing the statistical information. Summary statistics generally deal with condensing the data in a simpler form, so that the observer can understand the information at a glance. Generally, statisticians try to describe the observations by finding:

  • The measure of central tendency or mean of the locations, such as arithmetic mean.
  • The measure of distribution shapes like skewness or kurtosis.
  • The measure of dispersion such as the standard mean absolute deviation.
  • The measure of statistical dependence such as correlation coefficient.

Summary Statistics Table;

The summary statistics table is the visual representation of summarized statistical information about the data in tabular form.

For example, the blood group of 20 students in the class are O, A, B, AB, B, B, AB, O, A, B, B, AB, AB, O, O, B, A, AB, B, A.

Blood GroupNo. of Students

Thus, the summary statistics table shows that 4 students in the class have O blood group, 4 students have A blood group, 7 students in the class have B blood group and 5 students in the class have AB blood group. The summary statistics table is generally used to represent the big data related to population, unemployment, and the economy to be summarized systematically to interpret the accurate result.

Scope of Statistics;

Statistics is used in many sectors such as psychology, geology, sociology, weather forecasting, probability and much more. The goal of statistics is to gain understanding from the data, it focuses on applications, and hence, it is distinctively considered as a mathematical science.

Methods in Statistics

The methods involve collecting, summarizing, analyzing, and interpreting variable numerical data. Here some of the methods are provided below.

  • Data collection
  • Data summarization
  • Statistical analysis

What is Data in Statistics?

Data is a collection of facts, such as numbers, words, measurements, observations etc.

Types of Data

  1. Qualitative data- it is descriptive data.
    • Example- She can run fast, He is thin.
  2. Quantitative data- it is numerical information.
    • Example- An Octopus is an Eight legged creature.

Types of quantitative data

  1. Discrete data- has a particular fixed value. It can be counted
  2. Continuous data- is not fixed but has a range of data. It can be measured.

Representation of Data

There are different ways to represent data such as through graphs, charts or tables. The general representation of statistical data are:

  • Bar Graph
  • Pie Chart
  • Line Graph
  • Pictograph
  • Histogram
  • Frequency Distribution
Statistics- Bar graphBar Graph
A Bar Graph represents grouped data with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally.
Statistics-Pie chartPie Chart
A type of graph in which a circle is divided into Sectors. Each of these sectors represents a proportion of the whole.
Statistics-Line graphLine graph
The line chart is represented by a series of data points connected with a straight line.
The series of data points are called ‘markers.’
A pictorial symbol for a word or phrase, i.e. showing data with the help of pictures. Such as Apple, Banana & Cherry can have different numbers, and it is just a representation of data.
Statistics- HistogramHistogram
A diagram is consisting of rectangles. Whose area is proportional to the frequency of a variable and whose width is equal to the class interval.
Frequency distribution in StatisticsFrequency Distribution
The frequency of a data value is often represented by “f.” A frequency table is constructed by arranging collected data values in ascending order of magnitude with their corresponding frequencies.


When chemicals contaminate water sources, the water becomes unsafe for use in drinking, cooking, cleaning, swimming, and other activities. Chemicals, waste, microorganisms, and parasites are examples of pollutants. All types of pollutants eventually end up in water.

Causes of Water Pollution:

  1. Climate change.
  2. Deforestation.
  3. Livestock farming, agriculture, and industry.
  4. Dumping of waste and faeces.
  5. Shipping activity.
  6. Petrol leaks.
  7. Industrial waste is number.
  8. Sewage and Wastewater.
  9. Dumping of Marines.
  10. Unintentional Oil Leakage.
  11. The use of fossil fuels for energy.

Effects of Water pollution:

*Damage to biodiversity. Water pollution destroys aquatic ecosystems and causes eutrophication, or the uncontrolled growth of phytoplankton in lakes.
*Food chain contamination 
* lack of potable water
*infant mortality

Different Types of Water Pollution:

There are six types of water pollutions are there

1.Chemical Water pollution

2.Ground water pollution

3.Microbiological pollution

4,Nutrient water pollution

5.Oxygen-depletion pollution pollution

6.Surface water pollution

1.Chemical Water pollution:

Heavy metals like mercury, lead, and cadmium, industrial solvents, pesticide runoff, ship oil spills, and other chemicals are examples of chemical pollution. They are lethal to aquatic life forms and can impair reproduction. When the metal wastes enter our bodies, they become harmful to us as well.

2.Ground Water pollution:

Applications of pesticides and fertilisers to crops and lawns can build up and move to the water table. Moreover, bacteria can enter water through leaks from septic tanks and/or landfills, and pesticides and fertilisers that permeate agricultural soil can eventually end up in water obtained from a well. 

3.Microbiological Water pollution:

Water sewage treatment facilities, combined sewage overflows (CSO), non-collective sewage systems, domesticated animals (manure spreading, pit stock overflow), and wildlife are frequently the sources of faecal contamination.

4.Nutrient Water pollution:

When too many nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus, are added to water bodies, they can function as fertiliser and encourage an excessive amount of algae growth. This process is known as nutrient pollution. When lawn and garden fertilisers are applied in metropolitan areas, nutrients may drain off the ground.

5.Oxygen-Depletion Water pollution:

When the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO; molecular oxygen dissolved in the water) falls to a level that is harmful to the aquatic creatures that are living in the system, a phenomena known as oxygen depletion takes place.

6.Surface Water pollution:

A type of pollution known as surface water pollution occurs above ground in places like lakes, rivers, streams, and seas. Runoff from dirty rainwater into surrounding water sources causes these waters to become polluted.


Water pollution Impact on Human health:

According to the WHO, nearly 2 billion people are forced to drink water that has been tainted by faeces, putting them at risk for illnesses including cholera, hepatitis A, and dysentery. infant death rates. Over 1,000 children globally die from diarrheal infections each day, according to the UN, which are connected to poor hygiene. Water is a crucial component of human health, hence contaminated water has an immediate impact on human health. Many illnesses including typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, cancer, etc. are brought on by water contamination. By lowering the water’s oxygen concentration, water pollution harms the river’s flora and aquatic life.

Control of Water pollution:

1.Appropriately Dispose of Hazardous Chemicals.

2.Think about water pollution when you shop.

3.Employ phosphate-free detergent and dish soap

4.Avoid pouring fat and grease down the drain.

5.Inspect your sump pump or cellar drain.

6.Eat more organic food.

7.Appropriately dispose of medical waste.

8.Help clean up litter in water filled areas.

These are some points to control Water pollution.

Schemes to Prevent water pollution in India:

1.National River Conservation Progarmme

2.National Lake Conservation Programme

3.Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation

4.Smart cities mission

5.Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

these are the schemes to prevent Water pollution in India



Anthropology is the systematic study of humanity, with the goal of understanding our evolutionary origins, our distinctiveness as a species, and the great diversity in our forms of social existence across the world and through time.

There are 4 types of anthropology;

  • Archaeology.
  • Bioanthropology.
  • Linguistic Anthropology.
  • Social-Cultural Anthropology.


Archaeology is the study of the human past using material remains. These remains can be any objects that people created, modified, or used. Portable remains are usually called artifacts. Artifacts include tools, clothing, and decorations. Non-portable remains, such as pyramids or post-holes, are called features.


Bioanthropology is a biosocial science that explores both the sociology and the biology of human groups. Biological anthropologists are interested in human evolution, from our origins and diversity in the past to our probable future as inhabitants of this planet.

Linguistic anthropology;

Linguistic anthropology studies the nature of human languages in the context of those cultures that developed them. Scholars in the field seek to understand the social and cultural foundations of language itself, while exploring how social and cultural formations are grounded in linguistic practices.

social cultural anthropology;

Social-cultural anthropology studies the diversity of human societies in time and space, while looking for commonalities across them. It uses a holistic strategy linking local and global, past and present—to offer various approaches to understanding contemporary challenges.

Applied anthropology;

Applied or practicing anthropologists are an important part of anthropology. Each of the four subfields of anthropology can be applied. Applied anthropologists work to solve real world problems by using anthropological methods and ideas. For example, they may work in local communities helping to solve problems related to health, education or the environment. They might also work for museums or national or state parks helping to interpret history. They might work for local, state or federal governments or for non-profit organizations. Others may work for businesses, like retail stores or software and technology companies, to learn more about how people use products or technology in their daily lives.

Anthropology around the world;

While anthropologists devote much of their attention to what human groups share across time and space, they also study how these groups are different. Just as there is diversity in the ways people physically adapt to their environment, build and organize societies, and communicate, there are also many ways to do anthropology. Unique approaches to anthropology developed in many countries around the world. For example, in some countries the four-field approach is not as strong as it is in others. Anthropologists from across the globe work together through international organizations to try and understand more about our lives as humans.


Anthropologists are employed in a number of different sectors, from colleges and universities to government agencies, NGOs, businesses, and health and human services. Within the university, they teach undergraduate and graduate anthropology, and many offer anthropology courses in other departments and professional schools such as business, education, design, and public health. Anthropologists contribute significantly to interdisciplinary fields such as international studies and ethnic and gender studies, and some work in academic research centers. Outside the university, anthropologists work in government agencies, private businesses, community organizations, museums, independent research institutes, service organizations, the media; and others work as independent consultants and research staff for agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control, UNESCO, the World Health Organization, and the World Bank