What happened? Why are you so quiet? Do you have any problem? Why are you always so serious? Why are you antisocial? Don’t you know how to have fun? These are some of the common questions asked from introverts. If you are an introvert these questions make you feel horrendous. Introverts are often misunderstood as depressed, baffled, devastated.

Common Misconceptions

There are many myths framed by people about introverts. If you are an introvert, you might have heard of the following misconceptions

People often think that you lack confidence and you don’t like to socialize so you can’t be a good public speaker.
✔This is just a myth, it may not apply to every introvert. If a person has the particular traits required to be a public speaker then personality type hardly plays any role in this.
It is believed that introverts don’t have any fun, they don’t like to enjoy. They don’t like to go out.
✔Everyone likes to enjoy. Everyone has different ways to have fun. Your way of enjoying yourself may be different.
People assume that introverts are fools, they think that most of the time you are lost in your world, you are not aware of anything, you are not ready to face the world.
✔This can’t be applied to all, you may be cognizant and you are a keen observer, you observe everything but just keep it yourself rather than conversing it with other people.
This is the most common misconception about introverts.
✔Being shy and introverted is different
An introvert may not necessarily be shy. An introvert interacts with others only when necessary whereas a shy person is afraid to interact with anyone but this is not the case with introverts.

People often think that you are depressed just because you don’t speak much. ✔ You spend most of the time with yourself so you are often misunderstood.
A person is much more than being an introvert, extrovert, ambivert. A person is defined by the qualities not by these personality types, but people just try to underestimate you if you don’t speak much, if you speak more then also people criticize you. Some people try to change themselves just by getting triggered by the particular questions or statements of people. My motive is not to depict any personality as inferior or superior, it’s just that if you are an introvert then many people want you to change your personality.

Every personality type has some weaknesses and strengths, even if you are an extrovert then also people have problems with you and you are perceived as a wild, loud, overweening person. Now how to answer those repulsive questions, you can just ignore them or just become blunt and reply whatever you want to or just give a cunning smile to that person. These may sound weird but most of the time they do work.
The biggest mistake an introvert can make is trying to become an extrovert and vice versa. Introversion is not any fault which needs to be fixed. Just remember no one will ever know you entirely, people only know some aspects of your life and they judge you on that basis and they will keep on judging, so never doubt your capabilities or try to change your personality under the influence of these people.

Green Tea- Key to Increase the Immunity

As we are looking forward to a healthy future after the present health calamity of COVID-19 subsides, now is when is the best time to drink green tea with many options such as Lipton and Patanjali green tea price well available in the Indian market.

In these days of modernization, humans have maligned the environment and our resources with chemicals and dirt. These substances have found their way into the food chain and, now, are acting as poisons to the overall well being of all the components of nature’s complex food network. Health refers to the physical, mental and emotional well being of an individual that leads to a well-formed bodily structured and this is endangered in present times.

With overall levels of exercise reduced in the body due to the rapid involvement and fascination of the youth with office desk jobs, this has only been proven to lead to lethal results in the near future. We have also started consuming processed food full of preservatives and sugars which is debasing the health condition in general.  This has led to an increased number of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, hyper cholesterol and obesity in today’s community.

Nutrition and Health

Nutrition plays a key role in maintaining a healthy lifestyle for an individual along with exercise. Hence it is important that we indulge ourselves into healthy eating habits and adopt the ergonomic pieces of advice by the professionals who suggest to cut down on sugars, unhealthy fats, and to drink plenty of water and eat fibre.

Green Tea – the modern-day ‘Amrut’

Today, on social media we see that people are giving up the consumption of back tea and replacing it with green tea. Green tea is sometimes referred to as “amrut” or ‘the drink of longevity’ by some nutritionist.

Green tea is made from the leaves of plant Camelia senesis. The same plant is used to make oolong tea and black tea when it is harvested in a different season that causes it to undergo  (or not) a different level of oxidation. Green tea’s origin dates back to 618-907 A.D. in China. It was popularized during the rule of the Emperor Shennong.

How to make Green Tea?

If not brewed to perfection, green tea can taste too bitter to drink when is the best time to drink green tea is. Therefore, it is important that you make the perfect cup using Green Tea Bags, Loose-leaf Green Tea or Matcha Green Tea.

Green Tea Bags

Boil around 250 ml of water and let it cool down to around 79˚C  as using boiling water can burn the tea bag and make green tea bitter. Place the teabag in the cup. Use 1 teabag per cup and pour hot water over it.  Let the tea brew for 2 to 3 minutes and then remove the teabag. Don’t squeeze the teabag.


Loose Leaf Green Tea

Heat the water to around 77˚C to 80˚C. Put 1 teaspoon of loose-leaf green tea leaves in a teapot and add around a three-fourth cup or 180ml water to it. Leave it covered for 1 to 2 minutes and then serve using a strainer.

Matcha or powdered Green Tea

Bring one cup of water to boil around 82˚ to 88˚C. Place a strainer over the cup and add one teaspoon of green tea powder to it and push the powder into the cup using the back of a spoon. Add the boiled water to the cup and stir it well.

Green tea Caffeine content

 Even though it is difficult to measure the exact green tea caffeine content, it depends upon the type of green tea used, its brand and serving size. On average green tea caffeine content can range from 12mg to 75mg of caffeine. Matcha or other types of powdered Green tea caffeine content is even higher.

Benefits of Green Tea

Green tea has high antioxidant content which makes it extremely beneficial for our health.  Some of the green tea benefits are listed below.

Improves brain function

Since it is a caffeinated beverage, it acts as a stimulant to the brain and makes us active mentally.  This improves various brain functions thus keeping our mood lifted and memory improved.

Improved immunity

Due to the presence of potent plant antioxidants or polyphenols, green tea benefits us by improving our immune system. It is found to kill influenza virus if consumed without milk.

Increased fat burning

Green tea is known to improve the metabolism rate of our system, thus, aiding in the fat-burning process.

Lowered Cancer Risk

Oxidative damage to the cells has been linked to cancer. Due to the high antioxidant content, green tea benefits us with cancer prevention.

Gives you fresh breath

New studies show that green tea benefits our oral hygiene by suppressing the growth of bacteria in our oral cavity and prevents bad breath.

Lower risk of Cardiovascular Diseases

Due to its high antioxidant content, green tea prevents the oxidation of bad cholesterol in our body, which is one of the reasons for various heart conditions.

When to Have Green Tea?

The best answer to when is the best time to drink green tea lies in your schedule and activities throughout the day. Following are some of the best times of the day to have green tea to give you its full green tea benefits.

Not too early in the morning

Having green tea on an empty stomach can have ill effects on the liver due to its high catechin content.

In between meals

Having green tea two hours prior to or after the meal can help in better digestion and iron absorption.

Before Bedtime

Having green tea two hours before bedtime can increase the metabolism post-dinner.

Before exercise

This aids in burning fat better and faster.

Best Green Tea options in Indian Market

Organic India   

Price INR 400

LaPlant Green Tea

Price INR 130

Himalaya Green Tea

Price INR 110

Lipton (available in multiple flavours)

Price INR120

Patanjali Green tea Price

INR 50

India is one of the nations at the top of the list of lifestyle diseases. So let’s do our best and take care of our health.


Strings attached: A new concept

The day I started getting far away from all the strings was the day I found myself caught among those strings. 

These strings were nothing but the relationships I was in, I am friend to few, daughter to two, and sister to one. Sometimes I think if our life was just about us, then why our story isn’t, our story contains all characters which were role-played by thousands of people who led our way to complete our story. These people are like beads on a string some fall off, some stays but everyone had a role.

With time passing by, and we growing up through different age groups have witnessed cutting off of strings leaving behind memories and pain and strings attached from who have decided to stay and support.

Strings hold us both in negative and positive ways. They will be there to share victory with, tears to shed down with and shoulder to lean on and few strings which might weaken you. You have to be cautious while you sort out the various strings. When we were child , our world felt small yet sufficient and our dreams came with no expiry date. Teenage and adulthood are the age of being a rebel. The strings which were shielding us, start feeling like a boundary which is taking away our independence. How are we so sure that are independence lies away from those strings?

We cover miles, all of us travel in our life journey but at the end of day we all come back to our home i.e;to that string in whose embrace we can grow. We all are weird , just in different ways, we want things to get dispatched but are also waiting for a parcel to come up saying “P.S. I love you.” We ain’t sure about the doorway to our life shall be left open to let people walk in or door shall be closed to keep away toxicity. It feels like a lot to decide on, but keeping decisions wait listed has surrounded us with pile around.

When I ponder upon this concept , the string which is connected to me from far away, seems to be more strong as compared to the one who is close by me. Maybe things which are far away are much easier to handle as compared to those we have to come across daily.

What is ‘No strings attached ‘ ? I think whoever have been a part of our life has also got their strings attached but then , it’s there will if they want to be attached or just walk away. Walking away different ways is called ‘ no strings attached .’

Life is too short to mess it up, instead find a way out to strings which will strengthen you more.

Vikram Batra-Ye Dil Mange More

Vikram Batra belongs to a Hindu family in Palampur, Himachal Pradesh. He was a son of a government school principal. He joined the Air Wing of the National Cadet Corps in his college. From his college life, he was interested in serving the nation. He cleared the exam of NCC, get the C certificate. After participating in the Republic day parade, he shared his thought with their parents that he wants to join the Indian Army.

1n 1995, he pursuing MA at Punjab University and start the preparation for Combined Defense Service Exam. In 1996, he joined Indian Military Academy(IMA). In 1997, after concluding training in IMA, he was commissioned as a lieutenant into the 13 JAK RIF. 

In 1998, after undergoing many training and postings, he finally posted to Sopore, Baramulla District, J&K .He had many encounters with militants over there. In one operation, Batra was leading the platoon and had killed all the militants before the morning. In 1999, Batra completed his commando course at Belgaum, Karnataka.

In 1999, it was Holi time. Vikram Batra enjoying his vacation with his fiancée Dimple Cheema. In a conversation, Dimple said to Vikram Batra that he has to be careful about war. Then Batra smiled and replied-“I’ll either come back after raising the Indian flag in victory or return wrapped in it. But I’ll come back for sure.”

He returned to his troop from his hometown. After few days,13 JAK RIF reached Dras on  6 June 1999. The 18 Grenadiers failed to capture the peak of Tololing. But 2 RAJ RIF  captured the peak on June 13, 1999. After the success of that mission, Vikaram Batra and his platoon were ordered to march from Dras to Tooling. Another mission was planned to capture point 5140, which was assigned to the 13 JAK RIF. Under the command of Lt. Col. Yogesh Kumar Joshi,13 JAK RIF found that the enemy covered some major areas from top to bottom of point 5140. Joshi decided to attack from the east and south sides by two teams, lead by Lt. Sanjeev Singh Jamwal, and Lt. Vikram Batra. Both choose their winning signal, Jamwal chooses “Oh! Yeah, yeah, yeah!” and Batra chooses “Ye Dil Mange More!”.

Artillery fire was used for covering support of these two assault companies while climbing point 5140. Both the companies reached their destination on 20 June. Jamwals company had first captured their objective. It was difficult for Batra to covered the enemy from the rear side of the hill, but Batra did that impossible task with his 5 team members and killed 3 enemies single-handedly in close combat. He was injured but never stopped there, rather lead his troops and captured their objective by sharing his slogan”Ye Dil Mange More!”.

He was promoted as Captain after capturing point 5140. After the great success of 13 JAK RIF, the troop moved to Mushkoh Valley under the command of 79 Mountain Bridge. The next task was to captured point 4875 in the Mushkoh Valley. It was the dangerous mission ever for 13 JAK RIF till now. They had to protect around 30-40km of the National Highway from Dras to Malayan. The Pakistani soldiers easily observed the moment and position of our soldiers, saw the gun positions, army camps from that peak.  

On 4 July, the war began. The A and C Coys started their operation of capturing point 4875. But in the meanwhile, Batra was suffered from fatigue and fever.  Although its day time, these two troops were consolidated their hold on point 4875 after heavy bombarding and machine-gun attacks, and artillery fire. On 5 July, Pakistani enemies attacked with heavy fire and accuracy from their position in north point 4875. Area Flat was captured by 13 JAK RIF on 5 July, that was the key objective of that mission, without that point Indian Army never succeed in their mission. Unfortunately within a few hours Pakistani enemies counter-attacked our soldiers and climbed faster to capture the peak. Captain N.A.Nagappa was lead a troop to fight against those enemies to acquire the peak. But suddenly he was badly injured. Pakistani soldiers were climbing faster as Nagappa was injured.

Batra observing all those things lying on the bed went to Mr.Joshi and insisted to let him go. As the team of Nagappa needed reinforcement, Vikram Batra and his team were ready to capture the peak 4875 and determined for this in any situation and circumstances. All the members of 13 JAK RIF wanted to join Batra for the honor of their battalion despite the orders of their seniors.

Batra began to climb with 25 members of D Coy at night. When the troop neared the top, they had to climb vertically, where the visibility was almost zero due to heavy fog. Batra found a machine gun of Pakistani soldiers and destroyed it with a grenade. Batra finally located the machine gun post of enemies, but unfortunately, no option was left without a direct frontal assault in daylight. Under heavy fire from enemies’ machine guns and grenade launchers, Batra killed 5 Pakistani soldiers with his AK-47. Batra saw one of his men was shot in this process. With heavy firing, Batra said his teammate Sub. Raghunath Singh evacuates that injured soldier. He also said to Singh, “You have a family and children to go back to, I am not even married”.Batra had continuously given his maximum effort to drag the soldier to a safe place, suddenly a bullet hit his chest from a very close distance, and after few seconds another on his head from an RPG. Batra lies down on that battleground.

He was aware of the great danger of his mission, but instead of all those things, he was never afraid of death. Vikram Batra was awarded Indian’s highest military honor, the Param Vir Chakra. His supreme sacrifices for his country will always be memorable.

Fixing Homemakers’ Notional Income Will Recognize Their Work and Sacrifice.

by Yogiraj Sadaphal

” The Homemaker has the ultimate career. All other careers exist for one purpose only and that is to support the ultimate career.”

– C.S Lewis.

In Indian society, homemakers’ contributions to the growth of their homes but unfortunately they are being underestimated economically. Many in this patriarchal system argue that women “fit” the job of housewife and that it is therefore unnecessary to recognize their contributions. However, times have changed, and several laws and judgments in favor of treating persons of different sexes equally have been passed. However, the contribution provided by different groups of people on both the micro- and macro-economic scales was not recognized.

Surprisingly, it took an entirely different statute to recognize a homemaker’s economic contribution to society. This isn’t the first time a notional income has been calculated, but the accuracy with which the instant conclusion was reached deserves praise.

The Supreme Court of India recently recognized the importance of estimating a homemaker’s notional income for granting compensation under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 in Kirti and Anr. v. Oriental Insurance Company case. When determining compensation, a variety of criteria are considered, including the recipient’s age and income, the number of surviving dependents, future earning possibilities, and so on. Three children were left behind by the deceased couple in this case. The Motor Accident Claims Tribunal had given a compensation of Rs 46 lakh, which was challenged in the Delhi High Court, and the amount was reduced by almost 50% and fixed at Rs 22 lakh. The judgement was then appealed all the way to the Supreme Court. The courts have often concluded that the compensation awarded must always be just, fair, and reasonable, and that it must be controlled by equity principles, with the family’s quality of living taken into account.

In a separate concurrent ruling, Justice N V Ramana delivered a well-reasoned decision on the issue of the housewife’s notional income and the computation of future prospects. It is undoubtedly difficult to arrive at a fair pay based on the fictitious income. However, the court is faced with such challenges, particularly in circumstances when the victim is considered non-working. For example, in M R Krishna Murthi v. New India Assurance Co. Ltd., the court considered a student’s academic ability, course of study, and family background when determining his or her notional income.

It was previously held in Arun Kumar Agrawal v. National Insurance Co. Ltd that “In India, the courts have recognized that the contribution provided by the woman to the house is precious and cannot be quantified in terms of money, the wife’s selfless services of sincere love and affection to her children and husband, as well as managing the household matters, cannot be compared to those provided by others. It is impossible to place a monetary value on the services provided by the wife/mother to the family. However, some monetary estimate of the services of the housewife/mother must be provided for the purpose of awarding compensation to the dependents.” According to the statistical analysis presented in the current judgement, the majority of women spend the majority of their time doing unpaid home chores, and the verdict also highlights the gender disparity in this regard.

The most important point is the fact that such work is “accepted.” This will lead to a broader shift in people’s mindsets in order to reinforce what social equality really means, which is an important aspect of a civilized society with a legal framework in place .Obviously, the amount of compensation based on fictitious income varies from case to case, and there is no method for calculating it. However, recognizing efforts not just within the household, but also on a broader level of contribution to GDP, is a step in the right direction.



Easy start-up(ice cream parlor)

Is rolled ice cream a good business?

Wherever you are in the world, ice cream rolls with ice cream pro are a fantastic and fun business opportunity. With small investment to start your business, you can make a profit in just a few weeks.

How much do ice cream shop owner make a year?

management salaries run between 25000to 38000 a year. These are costs you will have to factor earning potential.

(*)How to start up an ice cream parlor in India:

INDIA is a land of tropical weather, with summer being the longest weather in the country. Thus, in niche food businesses in the cream business seems to be the most lucrative.

  1. Deciding The format:

In the present time there are a lot of ice cream parlor formats from cold stone, ice cream rolls, ice cream cake, nitrogen ice cream, live ice cream counters, and pre- packed ice cream counters there are endless.

so, the first step is choosing in starting with your ice cream business plan is to decide which type of ice cream parlor you want to open.

2. Investment & area required to open an ice cream parlor:

Pn average an ice cream business requires a 400-500spt carpet area shop or a small food truck which has the necessary arrangements for refrigerator.

3. Deciding the location of the ice cream parlor:

Eating ice cream is not necessity unlike another form of food but it is more fun and fashion in the crowd.

So, proper market research should be done before choosing the location.

4. Procurement of store type of equipment for the menu:

Once the format and location are Finalized, list down the number of items you want to sell at your store.

Then compare it with competition around and keep the pricing the low initially to penetrate the market and distribute free sample.

5. List of equipment required to open an ice cream parlor:

For a cold stone ice cream parlor, the list of equipment

  1. Cold stone refrigerator (2-2.5laks)
  2. Chest refrigerator with a capacity of 500L (40, 000rs)
  3. Storage cupboard and utensils (30000rs)
  4. Raw materials including packaging (rs. 1-1.5L)
  5. Miscellaneous (rs 50000)

6. staff required for an ice cream business in India:

In particular format the number of employees required us very less as you need three people including cashier to serve or to make specific flavor of the ice cream.

7. Maintaining consistency in ice cream parlor business

one thing you must ensure when you open an ice cream business is maintaining consistency in taste.

Standardization of recipe is a must in ice cream parlor.

8. Licensing & paperwork needed to open an ice cream parlor:

Since ice cream comes under the food category, so all licenses required are quite similar to that of a QSR- shop establishment license, FSSAI license, local municipal authority license and fire license.

Benefits of Self Learning

Students are beautifully made by nature, to self-direct their own learning. For almost all students, learning is innate, which is why they prefer learning on their own by exploring, observing, questioning, and participating. The learning instinct in them would work best if they are provided with opportunities to flourish

The benefits of self-learning can be different in terms of the types of leaner it develops. However in common, here are some of the importance and benefits of self-learning.

1. Learning at their own pace

During self-study, students learn at their own pace, focusing more on areas that interest them the most or that which they understand better. This helps reduce feelings of frustration, anxiety, or boredom that students may struggle with within a classroom setting.

2. Develops ownership of learning

This act of children taking up complete ownership of their learning can result in a sweep of knowledge for themselves.

They become their own masters. Students define what to do, how to when to, and how long to study or whether to re-study. By self-learning, students build an immense sense of self-confidence that helps them deal with all possibilities of their life.

They only get thirst to learn more and more but delve into deeper research to expand their knowledge. Such is the effectiveness of self-learning, which helps them to prepare for the future’s goal with resilience and complete immunity.

3. Better insights into learning

Students who self-learn have more opportunities to control their learning with better data insights. Learning Management System (LMS) these days come with adequate tools that let students be vigilant of their assessment performance with insightful data presentations and instant notifications about test scores.

Some software even details the number of time students spends learning with weblog analytics.

4. Freedom to use various models of learning

Students have a variety of learning modes to choose from. It could be from YouTube tutorials, books, podcasts, webinars, discussions, polls, activity walls, as they wish. Online learning software has most of these including self-learning through quizzes, PDFs, assignments, etc.
All that the students need to do is to choose the one that suits them the most that they find the most engaging and move on.

5. Most engaging learning experience through Mobile

Mobile learning is quite in now. Mobile tools as learning aids have become a part of higher educational institutions now.

Students use mobile phones to self-learn across multiple contexts, through social and content interactions. This sort of learning with their most favorite devices peps them up the most.

6. Learners demonstrate greater awareness

You know, self-directed learners demonstrate greater awareness while dealing with commitments. They are more focused when it comes to handling duties and responsibilities.
They even become ambassadors and try to generate awareness to their peers, and sometimes even to the broader community of learners.

7. Willingness to try out new things and learn new skills

Students’ curiosity to learn new things is triggered by self-paced learning. They nurture a willingness to try things out, view and handle problems from different perspectives, long for change, while they take pleasure in learning.

Students develop deep interest and enthusiasm while augmenting creative skills in the fields of sports, physical activities, singing, dancing, cooking, artworks, etc.

They also learn time management, how to set up goals, and move forward to achieving them. Students even bring forth strong problem-solving skills that give them the ability to identify problems and work on an effective solution to overcome them.

8. Students become an expert

Self-directed students become an epitome of perfection and exhibit characteristics that let their peers become motivated, persistent, self-disciplined, self-oriented, and target-oriented.
They develop a sense of accountability to comply with rules and become efficient and ingenuine.

9. Prompts more effective learning in students

Self-learners experience effective learning as they actively engage with whatever they learn. This has got more to do with an inner conscience that propels them to show more responsibility by moving from one topic to another.

Students start making connections to real life, which makes the learning remain fresh in their minds for the rest of their lives. In short, self-learners have a strong commitment to tasks, as they learn how to stick to a plan until they achieve their goals.

10. Boosts self-esteem and self-reflection of students

By self-learning, students become more confident learners. Being independent learners, they are well enough to try and master new things, all by themselves, which can be a major booster to the students.


Preparation through education is less costly than learning through tragedy

                                                                                 ~ Max Mayfield

When a person dies because of a disaster, the whole family behind him is left helpless and in a state of sorrowful environment. Recently, during a landslide in Manali a young girl lost her life due to disastrous landslide and many other people suffered too. A harsh reality of life where we see that how life is so unpredictable that anytime anywhere someone or the other becomes victim of such disasters without realising that his/her end is near. People who are saved from such disasters when stuck in such a situation find themselves fortunate that they were not the one. So, we must be accept the fact that life is not predictable so in order to deal with such a situation we must take active part in dealing with the disaster. As no one knows when a disaster would occur and  we may lose thousands of lives. 

What is a disaster?

A disaster is basically a sudden event where there is a lot of destruction of life and property.Earthquakes, tsunamis; floods are few examples of disaster which occur in different areas and regions at anytime.

How can the disasters be managed?

In order to deal with the situation of disaster, people must keep themselves prepared for all the situation which may occur in future .They must learn that how each disaster must be dealt for example in an earthquake, we must cover our head with a book or some sought of stuff that could protect us from unforeseen contingencies that may happen.

We must be prepared at home, at our workplace and know about the community vulnerability that how much are location may get affected from the disaster that may occur.There are certain tips that we must keep in mind while a disaster is known to affect our destination:


  • We must listen to a radio/TV to remain updated regarding disaster
  • We must stay away from floods and damaged areas until it is safe


  • Stay clear of bridges over fast-moving water.
  • We must keep an eye out for evacuation alerts.
  • We must try to move to higher ground.


  • Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.
  • Stay inside until the shaking stops, and it is safe to go outside. Most injuries occur to people trying to move a different location inside the building or try to leave.
  • Do not use the elevators.

We must remain alert everyday and everywhere and keep ourselves trained for the upcoming calamities. It is well said:

  “Training proves to be the key ingredient for handling any disaster”

Comparison of the two Authors: Murasaki Shikibu and Sei Shounagon

Murasaki Shikibu who wrote ‘The tale of Genji’ and Sei Shounagon who wrote ‘The Pillow Book.

It is not easy or possible to compare the two books because they are both of two completely different genres. The Tale of Genji is a psychological work of fiction that captures the climate in the court during the Heian period, whereas in the Pillow Book, the author writes about her own real-life experiences in the form of narratives, poems and essays. Both the books have shown two completely different background of the Heian period. But the aspects of the Heian court depicted by the author, Sei Shounagon in her book ‘The Pillow Book’ showed the reality of the Heian era. In the Pillow Book, the author showed us the court and her experiences while working in the court through the perception of a gentlewoman, whereas the author of ‘The Tale of Genji’ majorly focused on nothing but nobility.

Their books may be world apart, but both these authors had a lot in common. They both served in the imperial court; they were both ladies-in-waiting. Both showed their love for nature and very highly intelligent and witty. They were very knowledgeable, and both had learnt the kanji writhing system but hid it well. But Murasaki Shikibu’s view of the world was completely different from how Sei Shounagon viewed the world.

From her novel ‘The Pillow Book’, the author, Sei Shounagon appears to be a very outgoing and witty person with a powerful personality and a good sense of humour. She can be mean, prideful but is an utterly compassionate person.

On the other hand, Murasaki Shikibu appears to be very sensitive person who thinks about things very deeply and in all seriousness. She added a few funny scenes as well in her novel but on the overall scale the tone of her book, The Tale of Genji, was dejected and dark.

source: http://thelittlewhiteattic.blogspot.com/2020/07/the-pillow-book-heian-literature-and.html

Zerodha – 0 to 1 Billion Dollar Company

In just 10 years, Zerodha went from 0 to 1 billion dollars in valuation. 

But how and what is Zerodha?

Zerodha is a financial service company founded by two brothers Nithin Kamath and Nikhil Kamath in the year 2010 to make trading barrier-free in the Stock Market. The name Zerodha comprises two terms, ‘Zero’ and ‘Rodha’. The latter term has been taken from Sanskrit, combining it with zero gives the meaning ‘barrier free’. 

All of this was done with zero funding and zero marketing. That means Zerodha went from 0 to 1 billion dollars in valuation with zero marketing and zero funding. In today’s competitive world where companies are pouring millions of money for advertisement just to be in the market here, Zerodha built his empire with zero funding and zero marketing.

Nithin and Nikhil Kamath

The Idea Behind Zerodha

In 2016, Kunal Shah – one of the most legendary entrepreneurs in the Indian startup ecosystem, deliberated an ink talk where he proposed a very interesting theory which more or less explains the root cause of the success of some of the biggest startups in the world.

According to Kunal Shah, “in this world, there are terms of system which have a term of inefficiencies and hurdles which often prevent ordinary people like you and me from moving into a more efficient system but we human beings once we find an efficient system, we have this innate ability to move on from where we never ever come back.”

Before Zerodha, Nikhil Kamath observed that three hurdles were troubling the investors and were also preventing the common people of India from investing in the stock market.

These hurdles were – 

  • Lack of knowledge and awareness – People in India make decisions based on myths rather than knowledge and strategy.

  • Exorbitant brokerage fees – As the conventional brokerage forms for charging percentage commission, all the amount of investment that in investing was made which results in exorbitant brokerage fees.

  • The entire process of investment was very tedious and complex for a common man to understand.

“The problem we are trying to solve with this is how to grow the capital market ecosystem in India. It can only happen through educating people on a platform which has content and engagement both,” Nithin said.

That is why they came up with three unique solutions which turned Zerodha into billion-dollar company

  • Tackle the lack of knowledge and awareness – To educate the Indian population about investment in stocks, they came up with something called Zerodha Varsity, which is an investor education platform wherein customers can enhance their knowledge and skills on trading and investments.

  • Discount the brokerage fees to such a large extent that it results in it into revolution. They came up with a super affordable price of 20 rupees or 0.03% which is even less for all intraday trades and they charge 0 fees for all equity and direct mutual fund investments.

  • To resolve the tedious process of investment, they came up with a website with a simple user interface which any common man can get familiar with the entire process of investment.   

Now Zerodha is India’s first discount brokerage firm with over 8.5 lakh active clients. 

Do you want to spend a year on Mars? Nasa has started the application process.

Nasa is looking for anyone who want to pretend to live on Mars for a year. The United States Space Agency has began accepting applications for four people who would spend a year living in a 3-D built module that simulates life on Mars.

Limited supplies, communication delays, and equipment breakdowns will be among the challenges the team will confront on Mars. Nasa has built a 1,700-square-foot Martian home inside a building at Johnson Space Center in Houston, using a 3D printer. The module is about the size of a tennis court.

Limited resources, communication delays, and equipment malfunctions will be among the challenges that paid volunteers will confront on Mars. They will also conduct scientific studies and mimic spacewalks. NASA intends to conduct three of these experiments, the first of which will begin in the fall of next year. There will be no windows and all of the food will be ready-to-eat space food.

The application process for a NASA Mars mission is as follows:

This will be a ‘physically and mentally taxing’ expedition, according to Nasa, with similarly high application standards.
A Master’s degree in a science, engineering, or math subject, as well as pilot experience, is required.
He or she should be in good physical condition, have no dietary restrictions, and be immune to motion sickness.
Only citizens of the United States or permanent residents of the United States are eligible.
A person must also have at least 1,000 hours as a jet pilot or two years of professional experience in their area.
Nasa claims that its research will aid in the preparation of a human mission to Mars, which might start in the 2030s.

Pillow Book (Makura no Soushi)

‘Makura no Soushi’ or ‘The Pillow Book’ is a book written by Sei Shounagon in the year 1002 while she was serving the empress consort Teishi. The book comprised of poems, essays anecdotes and her personal thoughts and experiences while working in the court during the Heian period. The passages she wrote had very miniscule relation with one another, they were basically her ideas and the experiences she had in her daily life. It consisted all her personal thoughts her opinions on her fellows, poetry and all the interesting things that happened in the court. Although what she wrote were just her personal experiences and her feelings, the book turned out to be an important piece of literature of the Heian era. The book ‘The Pillow Book’ was originally meant for her eyes only, it was accidently revealed in the court. She wrote the book for her own amusement and enjoyment for herself, it was like her personal diary wherein she wrote her thoughts and feelings, a place where she could express her thoughts and emotions that she could not share with anyone, or the things she couldn’t say out loud in the open due her lower status in the court.

The work that was meant for her eyes only and not for an audience was revealed by accident is now one of the national gems for the nation, a great piece of literature.

In ‘The Pillow Book’ the author Sei Shounagan also wrote how she had to turn the courtier away due to his lack of writing skills.

The Pillow Book’s genre is called ‘Zuihitsu’; this genre writing consists of one’s personal essays and ideas and not tales or lore’s, therefore, The Pillow Book comprises of three different types of writings: the events that she experienced while her time in the court, her thoughts on various subjects going on in the court or in general regarding any issue, and the things that made her upset happy; she wrote all her emotions in one book.

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pillow_Book


Decoding Indian ways of Eating

Food is a very complex subject to understand. The world is experimenting new types of food, new recipes, new combination and new styles of consuming it to make it more aesthetically beautiful. But they are breaking the age-old science of healthy eating.

How we eat is equally important to what we eat. Our ancestors have passed on to us the right recipes, the right way to eat, and the right way to make it. We should start acknowledging the science and it’s significance. Food depends many variables:-

  • Season
  • Geography
  • Local availability
  • Attitude
  • Body type

Right Medium of Food Consumption

1. Eating with hands

People are getting used to eating with spoons and they consider eating with hands as unhygienic and unpleasant. According to Ayurveda, eating food should involve all senses. The touch of food to your fingers and feeling the texture can really trigger the nerve endings of your fingers which are connected to your digestion. These nerves stimulations are know to activate and stimulate your digestive juices. Also according to Ayurveda the five fingers represent the five elements:-

  • Thumb represents Fire (agni)
  • Index finger represents Air (wayu)
  • Middle finger represents Sky (Akash)
  • Ring finger represents Earth (Prithvi)
  • Little finger represents Water (jal)

Holding food with all five finger symbolises the union of all elements, which are essential for the normal functioning of our body.

2. Sitting on the floor

In India, sitting on the floor and eating is a family activity. It involves many muscles, the sitting position presses our lower spine and relaxes the whole body. The back and forth movement while eating gives a nice compression to your abdomen. Compression is maximum in sitting position and this also stimulates the digestive juices. It also has an effect on your mind. When the individual sits on the floor, the nervous systems performances better and transmission of signals happens very effectively. As a result sitting on the floor and eating has a huge weight reduction advantage.

Sitting on chair brings more pressure on your heart. When you’re sitting on chair your heart has to pump blood from toe to upwards against gravity and that is a strain. If you sit on a chair with folded legs that will reduce the gravity force that would help your heart and general health conditions so that more blood will be facilitated for digestion.

3. Food containing vessels

Vessels have an important effect on food, it can be positive as well as negative. In Indian tradition, every vessel has its own advantage in cooking or storing food.

For example, copper as has a strong intoxication property over water. That’s why copper vessels was used to store water in India. Another example, Ghee, if stored in a bronze vessel can become toxic. That is why ghee is stored in a metal vessel like steel.

In old times, food used to be kept in the leaves covered with leaves and it always remains healthy. Stones which were used for crushing, grinding is said to be more superior than done in mixers. So make sure to put right food in the right container.

Even the healthiest of food can become toxic if not consumed in right way. The ways of eating food is always been highlighted in all the cultures because it is the cultural identity of every community. Indian have always tried to introduce every healthy aspects into the food. So let’s follow these food habits and acknowledge deep science in the ancestral way of eating. We should not forget the valuable lessons which are passed down to us and understand that food once consumed can become medicine or junk. Your way of consuming it will decide what it will turn to – healthy or junk. So eat food in a right way, the Indian way.

Summary of the Tale of Genji

In ‘The Tale of Genji’ our hero or the main character of the story, Genji, is the son of the emperor and his most beloved concubine of his, Kiritsubo. Genji’s future was predicted to be brilliant but his mother died after suffering the envy of her rivals in court, which led to her sickness and then eventually she died. The emperor then finds himself another concubine, Fujitsubo, who reminds him of his erstwhile lover. After his mother’s death, as Genji did not have much of a standing in the court the emperor reduces his status to a commoner and designate him to the membership of the non-royal Genji clan. After reducing his status to that of a mere commoner the eldest son of the emperor with lady Kokiden was that announced as the crown prince of the nation.
Genji was a very striking young man with inept skills who was loved by all but was also dreaded by none other than lady Kokiden and her family.
At the very beginning of the story, the author talks about Genji’s ardent adventures with diverse group of women and talks about his friendship with To No Chujo. The author then talks about his marriage to To No Chujo’s sister, Aoi and the birth of their son. After that the author talks about his blooming relation with Murasaki, his wife later in the story.
During this time, while Genji got married and had a son, the old emperor died and was then superseded by his and lady Kokiden’s son. Meanwhile, Genji’s amorous trysts started to cause troubles in the court, and he was exacted to leave the capital and forced to stay in Suma for the years to come, until the time period of his sentence was up.
In the next chapter of his tale, Genji met with the Ex- governor along with his daughter ‘The Akashi Lady’. After this as his time away from the capital is up, he returns the then emperor renounces his throne in favor of Fujitaubo’s and Genji’s son. This makes Genji to reinstate his position at the court while he and the Akashi Lady welcomed a daughter. After he returned to the capital, he settles down with Murasaki and several other women of his in his Rokujo mansion. As he was reinstated in his position at the court his authority in the court increases with many of his children and grandchildren were started to be appointed in the court. He then visits the Sumiyoshi Shrine to give his utmost
respect to the deity for his protection while he was stuck in a storm at Suma. Later, Genji is convinced to marry the third princess who then gives birth to a young boy but soon after renounces herself becoming a Buddhist nun.
In the last chapters of his story, the author then shows the adventures of Genji’s son and grandson in the background of the mountain area of Uji, Kaoru and Niou, who are best of friends but are also vying the attention of the same lady. This intriguing plot circles around the daughters of the eighth prince and Genji’ half-brother and the impulsive Ukifune.

source: http://www.taleofgenji.org/


Financial independence can be defined in a number of ways. However, when most think of financial independence they dream of a time in their lives when they are generating enough income to cover the essential expenses so that they never have to work again. For some, financial independence is far off into the distance, for others it’s within close reach. Wherever you fall on the spectrum, here are 10 financial rules to never break if you want to achieve full financial independence someday:

Financial Freedom

Earn More Money Than You Spend

You obey this principle by always living below your means. Follow this simple rule, no matter what your income and everything else will fall into place. As your income goes up, so will the extra money for savings and investment.

Make a Budget and Stick to It

You cannot live within or below your means without knowing what your expenses are and where you can start cutting. The path to that higher knowledge is a budget. There are dozens of free budget templates online. Fill in the template blanks and you’ll learn some rather eye-opening facts about where your money is going. Follow that budget and see how spending discipline give you an immediate leg up on financial independence.

Eliminate Unnecessary Living Expenses

Take a critical look at your budget. Are you spending over $100 for cable TV, for example? Cut the cable and save an extra $1,200 a year. Look everywhere and be ruthless.

Get Into Daily Financial Awareness Habits That Result in Wealth Accumulation

If your daily habits include a stop at Starbucks for that $5 latte, you are spending $100 a month — another $1,200 a year. Make your own frothy caffeinated beverage from the mixes on sale at your grocery store. Look for ways to save costs and expenses through coupons and sales. Keep track of your monthly bills and look for ways to cut down on energy expenses, for example.

Avoid Money-Making Schemes and Scams

No matter what the slick infomercials and bombastic websites shout out, there is no shortcut to wealth. Anyone who advertises that buying their plan or paying to attend their seminar is manly only interested in making money from you. That meets their financial goals, but detracts from yours.

Pay off Your Debts

If you are bogged down in heavy debt and your monthly expenditures are beginning to leapfrog your income, it may be time to consolidate your debts. There are many pathways to debt consolidation. Check around on the web. There is help out there.

Pay Your Monthly Credit Card Bill on Time

If you’re carrying a monthly balance on your credit card, you’re swimming upstream in your quest to get out of debt. Consider instead using a bank debit card, or at least get into the habit of paying off your monthly credit card balance.

Begin a Savings and Investment Plan

Start slow if you must, but save something each month. You’re in this for the long term and your goal is to be debt-free and to accumulate real wealth (i.e., to be financially independent). The savings and investment plan that is best for you depends on your age, situation and how much you need for a comfortable retirement. Again, look around. There are financial experts and expertise out there ready to help.



Safety Travel Precautions To Be Followed During COVID- 19 Outbreak

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), you need to follow certain rules and precautions to keep yourself safe if you travel during the COVID-19 outbreak. Traveling is riskier during the coronavirus outbreak, especially in light of the delta variant. But these tips can help keep your trip as safe as possible.

1.Wash your hands habitually:

The main thing that you can do to try not to get contaminated by COVID is routinely washing your hands. Make sure that it’s not simply a speedy flush with cleanser and water. You need to wash your hands for in any event twenty to thirty seconds at whatever point you get an opportunity, particularly subsequent to getting to public spaces specially after accessing public spaces or if you have taken a mode of public transport. If you took the flight to a place, wash your hands after leaving the airport. Always keep a hand sanitiser gel with you. In case you don’t get access to soap and water, you put a few drops of the sanitiser gel and rub it on your hands and wrists.

2. Keep your safe distance: 

The symptoms of coronavirus disease are similar to that of common flu or cold. So, if you see someone is coughing, sneezing or has any common signs of flu, try to stay at least three feet away from that person. It’s possible to contract the virus through respiratory droplets by cough or sneeze.

3. Make sure to try not to contact your face with unwashed hands: 

Avoid contacting your face except if you haven’t altogether cleaned your hands and particularly when you have been in a public spot. It can undoubtedly spread to somebody who interacts with the item through their mouth, nose, and eyes. 

4. Always wear a mask:

If you develop the symptoms of the COVID-19, wear a mask so that you don’t further spread the virus and infect other people. Isolate yourself and seek medical help immediately.

5. Stay away from swarms:

Crowds are the most noticeably awful spot to be during the Covid episode. In case you’re venturing out to a spot with countless Coronavirus cases, avoid any spot with many individuals.

6. Do Your Research:

Before you decide to travel and pack your bags, do your research. Are cases rising where you’re going? What about where you live? If the answer is yes to one or both questions, you’re at a higher risk for getting or spreading the virus. Also, keep in mind that states and countries have varying travel restrictions. Some may not allow travel or may require proof that you’ve recently tested negative and/or been vaccinated before visiting. For more information, check your destination’s official tourism site.

7. Preparing for Travel:

A little preparation can go a long way. Use applications to check into your flight online and scan for touchless boarding. Bring a mask, hand sanitizer and wipes to clean your phone, ID and any other items you may need to exchange at security checkpoints.

8. Notice Your Surroundings:

Whether on a bus, train or plane, check your surroundings before boarding or take off. Is everyone wearing masks? Does the bus or train have good ventilation? Do the people closest to you, seem sick or rundown? If so, it’s not worth the risk. Exit the plane, bus or train and catch the next one.

9. Safe Bathroom visits:

Wash your hands thoroughly and bring your own paper towels. Hand dryers can blast dead skin cells and germs into the air. Use a towel to open the door and toss disposable masks after exiting.

Love yourself.

Love yourself means accept yourself as what you are. Love plays different roles in everybody’s life. When you love yourself you may feel something special which no one can’t give you. No matter how you are and what you are, all going to be end one day so why you making yourself in trouble by thinking about your stuff.

People who are biting about you and criticizing about you won’t stop. Unless and until when you stop hearing them. So don’t take other people words, just be yourself for that first love yourself.

Many people stuck towards depression, anxiety, grief, loneliness, displeasure and Unsatisfactory. Do you people think when and how all these begun. It’s initially starts when you trust somebody very deeply. So ask yourself why are you like that. And also ask yourself, I may know how to love other one, why not myself?

yes, instead of trusting others, why you are not trusting yourself ? If somebody come and says you are not capable of doing that or this. You may feel worried and incapable of yourself. Right! Don’t carry negative words which make you down. You know yourself and how you capable so honestly trust you with your own confidence.

Have a look :

  • Talking to and about yourself with love.
  • Prioritising yourself
  • Giving yourself a break from self-judgement.
  • Trusting yourself.
  • Being true to yourself.
  • Being nice to yourself.
  • Setting healthy boundaries.
  • Forgiving yourself when you aren’t being true or nice to yourself.

Love yourself – BTS

The message is clear. A love that’s based on changing or hiding your true self can never be fulfilling and will ultimately tear apart. This builds on the underlying theme of the Love Yourself series: before you can truly love someone else, you must first be able to love yourself.

True self-love

True self-love involves showing up for yourself even when you feel unlovable, or shameful. It involves taking the steps to listen to yourself, identify what caused you to not respect or identify your needs or boundaries.

Loving yourself means loving every aspect of yourself – even the not so good parts. It’s letting go of your past in hope of your future. It’s trusting that everything happens for a reason and your mistakes are merely lessons learned. Life is too short to spend time regretting the things who made you who you are.

An example of self love is when you have a positive view of yourself and are confident in yourself and your place in the world. The instinct or desire to promote one’s own well-being; regard for or love of one’s self. Regard for oneself and one’s own interests.

The Tale of Genji (Genji Monogatari)

The Genji Monogatari or the Tale of Genji, a masterpiece of Japanese literature and is also contemplated as the world’s first novel and the first psychological novel ever written. It was one of the most popular stories written in the Heian period. It was written at the beginning of the 11th century by a great author of that time Murasaki Shikibu, as the many women in the Heian period the real name of the author is unknown. This story written around a thousand years back in history, serves as the kind of a travel guide helping us to make our way through the Heian period and the world of Genji, seeing his journey and story through our own eyes.

The book puts light on the culture of aristocracy in the early Heian period- like the dressing practices, what kind of entertainment did people enjoy, the daily lifestyle of the people and its moral codes and customs being followed. The author introduces us to Genji, whose character is portrayed as handsome, friendly and sensitive, a consummate courtier, a trusted friend and an excellent lover. The major portion of the story revolves around the lovers of Genji, and how each and every lover of his is evocatively depicted. The story is a beautiful journey of human emotions and displays the nature in its glory, but as the story progresses it take is a dark U-turn and starts to reflect the Buddhist persuasion of the world’s impermanence.

Murasaki Shikibu, wrote The Tale of Genji, while she was working as a lady in the Japanese court. At the time Japanese literary works mostly consisted the collections of poems written in the language of Tang, the kanji script that was appropriated from China. Therefore, during her time in the court, the court’s official and scholarly works were written in Chinese rather that in Japanese, as the literary works written in prose, usually by the women of court, were taken not so seriously and were not viewed as the literary work as equal of poetry. Proses written during the Heian period were restricted to fairy tales and only very few chronicles were written in the new phonetic language, Kana. Murasaki Shikibu was the first lady to write a complete convoluted novel, along with lots of plot twists and turns though out the narration of the tale. However as for The Tale of Genji, it was perceived as a refined work of imagination with a comprehensive knowledge of both Japanese and Chinese poetry. It constitutes of about 800 wakas, which tells the story of that one character and his legacy through a whole of 54 chapters.

Background of the Tale of Genji

In the Heian period, the community that is delineated is that of the cream of the society or so to say the aristocrats, who are unconcerned with anything but themselves, their own amusement and entertainment, and the emperor is at the center of their universe. These people are preoccupied with the ranks and the rearing. But the find grace in nature and enjoy the raptures of music, calligraphy, poetry and the way of dressing in fine clothes. The courtiers in the Heian period were more or less unaware of the outside world and could care less about it, they did not travel and considered people lower than the as less human. The highest three ranks were the high court nobles known as the ‘Kugyo’ and the ranks below that, meaning the fourth and the fifth ranks were the provincial governor class that was frequently looked down upon because of its low rank. Our author, Murasaki Shikibu, herself was the daughter of the governor of Echizen, a Fujiwara.

During the Heian period the women of the family were to stay hidden from any man who was not her father or husband, so these women mostly spent their time indoors hidden behind screen doors, the only escape for these house- bound ladies were these tales. And ‘The Tale of Genji’ provided them with all of it- Romance, drama, the supernatural and the perfect hero. The women who entered the courts as lady-in-waiting to become an empress or a royal concubine were free to seek associations with the gentlemen in the court, this also provided a background for the setting of the first part of the novel.

The men were more interested in women of good breeding who had an interest in poetry and calligraphy. The sense of style and fashion of a woman was what attracted the men to them. The men in the Heian period were unable to see women’s physical beauty so the only physical attribute they were attracted to in a woman were her hair. The thicker and longer a women’s hair were the more beautiful she was. This was also the reason why our main character Genji, did not let his wife in the story to have a tonsure whilst she was sick.

During the Heian period Buddhism had already started to affect the way of thinking for the aristocratic class, it was only obvious that it will also have an influence on the literary works of the writers of the era. Buddhist concepts ran deep in the literary works of this period, and the concepts of Buddhism and the practices that were followed in it found its way into the novel, the Tale of Genji, as well as it was shown by the author that all the characters in the story had the concept of Karma was always evidently present in the minds of all the central characters.

In the early adventures of our hero, Genji, he was rather hard- headed and egocentric, but after the development of his character in the story he was later portrayed as a gallant man who took care of women even after he lost interest in them. He mostly spent time boating on lakes while listening to flute and Koto music.

source: http://www.taleofgenji.org/



Hi hello,
Today what should I write.
A story, a trending news, a joke. Whatever, it’s my choice. Isn’t it!! .
Yes, in life everything is our choice.

Let me share a beautiful story,
Once a man got lost in a desert. The water in his flask had run out two days ago, and he was on his last legs. He knew that if he didn’t get some water soon, he would surely die. The man saw a small hut ahead of him. He thought it would be a mirage or maybe a hallucination, but having no other option, he moved toward it. As he got closer, he realized it was quite real. So he dragged his tired body to the door with the last of his strength.

The hut was not occupied and seemed like it had been abandoned for quite some time. The man entered into it, hoping against hope that he might find water inside.
His heart skipped a beat when he saw what was in the hut – a water hand pump…… It had a pipe going down through the floor, perhaps tapping a source of water deep under-ground.

He began working the hand pump, but no water came out. He kept at it and still nothing happened. Finally he gave up from exhaustion and frustration. He threw up his hands in despair. It looked as if he was going to die after all.

Then the man noticed a bottle in one corner of the hut. It was filled with water and corked up to prevent evaporation.

He uncorked the bottle and was about to gulp down the sweet life-giving water, when he noticed a piece of paper attached to it. Handwriting on the paper read : “Use this water to start the pump. Don’t forget to fill the bottle when you’re done.”

He had a dilemma. He could follow the instruction and pour the water into the pump, or he could ignore it and just drink the water.
What to do? If he let the water go into the pump, what assurance did he have that it would work? What if the pump malfunctioned? What if the pipe had a leak? What if the underground reservoir had long dried up?

But then… maybe the instruction was correct. Should he risk it? If it turned out to be false, he would be throwing away the last water he would ever see.

Hands trembling, he poured the water into the pump. Then he closed his eyes, said a prayer, and started working the pump.

He heard a gurgling sound, and then water came gushing out, more than he could possibly use. He luxuriated in the cool and refreshing stream. He was going to live!!
After drinking his fill and feeling much better, he looked around the hut. He found a pencil and a map of the region. The map showed that he was still far away from civilization, but at least now he knew where he was and which direction to go.

He filled his flask for the journey ahead. He also filled the bottle and put the cork back in. Before leaving the hut, he added his own writing below the instruction: “Believe me, it works!”

In the above story, it was the man’s choice, whether to use the water to start the pump or to drink that.
Though he was in a dilemma state, still he chose to use the water to start the pump, which helped him to get enough water.
Like this, in your life, everything is your choice.
To love, or not love someone.
– To care, or not to care someone.
– To work, or not to work
– To have faith, or not to have faith.
– To stay positive, or to be negative.
– To help anyone, or not to help anyone.
– To quit, or not to quit.
– To take revenge, or not to take revenge.
– To forget, or not to forget (bad memories)
– To move on, or not to move on. And so on.

Everything is your choice.
One of my friends once told me
“Every individual’s life, is all about the choice he/she gets, and the decision of that choice he/she makes”.
So, make a choice in such a way, so that in future, you will not regret for anything..

Have a good day.

Keep smiling ❣️

Link for the above story; http://www.dailytenminutes.com/2018/06/inspirational-story-water-in-desert.html?m=1

Waka during the Heian period

In the Nara and early Heian period, the Chinese style poetry known as ‘Kanshi’ and the waka poetry form ran out of favour officially in courts. But then in the 9th century the official representatives that were being sent to China were no longer being sent, worsening ties with the Tang dynasty and leading to the isolation of the country from the rest of the world. But this led to the court to encourage and foster new and native talent and harmonize Chinese poetic style and technique as per the local traditions. This was the time when the waka form of poetry started to gain popularity during the rule of emperor Daigo, who arranged for compiling the waka of poets into an anthology which came to be known as ‘Kokin Wakashuu’ meaning ‘’collection of ancient and modern Japanese poems’’. It was the first anthology that was issued by the imperial court to be issued, after that the tradition to issue these anthologies under the imperial court continued till Muromachi period.

The first three anthologies issued by the imperial court were Kokin Wakashuu, Gosen Wakashuu and Shuui Wakashuu. Kokin Wakashuu was compiled by Ki no Tsurayuki, Ki no Tomonori, Mibu no Tadamine and Oushikouchi no Mitsune on command of emperor Daigo in the year 905.

Gosen Wakashuu was commanded by emperor Murakami in 951 and Shuui Wakashuu was commanded by emperor Ichijou in 1005.

After these three anthologies another five anthologies known as the ‘Collection of Eight Ages’ or ‘Hachidai shuu’ was compiled during the Heian era.

Waka can be first traced back to the 8th century in the ‘Kojiki’ and ‘Manyoushuu’ but as time passed it came under the influence of other types of poetry and stories such as ‘The Tale of Genji’ it broadened its view and expressions.

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waka_(poetry)

Zero Waste During Lockdown.

The Corona virus pandemic has swept over the planet and with it has brought about concepts like quarantine and social distancing which were earlier seen only in films. The lockdown that is widely being followed all over the world has not been the easiest time for people. With no provision to step out of the house, markets aren’t functioning and economies are crashing. A common man would wonder, ‘How am I supposed to help out, when I am locked inside my own house?’

Your miniscule contributions to the society, can massively assist the authorities and the paramedical staff in this time of need. A major step you can take during this quarantine period is to ensure that the waste produced in your home is minimized. In India alone, 21 million tonnes of food is wasted every year. This wasted food is often treated with plastic waste leading to emission of methane gas in a large quantity. While a life-threatening disease is upon the earth, one must not forget another crisis that is underway, that of global warming. Dealing with the COVID-19 gives us no excuse to forget caring for nature. The small roles we play at our house can make a huge impact outside.

How has Pandemic increased Waste Production?

The Corona Virus has forced the government to take some drastic measures. The shutting up of all non-essential shops across the country was the first of many shocks. People were advised to reduce their trips to the market in order to encourage social-distancing. Lots of families misunderstood this message and hoarded up on supplies to minimize their trips to the market. This uncalculated decision made by the people has led to the wastage of food on a large scale. The pandemic has led to the limitation of a few commodities and we cannot afford to waste even the slightest of food.

1. Buying Smart

The first step in moving towards a zero-waste lifestyle is to by only the amount of food you will require. Hoarding should be thoroughly discouraged as it is the main cause of waste production. The limited number of supplies means that the food you waste could have actually filled the stomach of a person in need.

2. Proper Storage


In these testing times, you never know, when even a single loaf of bread could be useful. Hopefully, the situation won’t get to such an extremity but storing items should still be a priority. Keep food items in cool and covered places to ensure that they are not spoiled. This could immensely reduce the amount of waste being produced at your place.

3. Use Items before they Expire

About 40% of the food produced in the country is thrown into the trash, uneaten. During the lockdown period, try and have a basic idea of the expiry dates all food items in your home. It is essential to make sure that no sort of canned or packaged food is kept win your house past its expiry date. Make sure that you have completely finished an item before going out to buy more. An interesting fact about packaged food is that some of it is safe to consume even after its ‘best before’ date. Check on the internet to find out if the can in your store room is still safe to consume. If not make sure it is disposed off correctly. Separate the food item from its packaging before throwing it away in two separate bins.

4. Utilize the Leftovers

The most important aspect of living a zero-waste life is to ensure that your leftovers are put to good use. Segregation into two different bins is an ideal way to dispose off leftover food. The only problem lying with this situation is that many garbage trucks and cleaners just pile all the garbage into one huge bag regardless of its recycling and ecological properties. The perfect way to deal with this problem would be to use the leftover food as compost.

People often avoid using compost as it is a long and slightly difficult process. The quarantine makes it a perfect time to finally do something good for the environment. Before creating compost make sure that you are doing it right. There are a lot of factors that need to be considered before generating a manure in your kitchen. Use proper tips and techniques from professionals for optimal results.

5Mini Farming

Now that you have composed manure just from your wasted food, it is time to put that compost to good use. Indoor farming is not easy and it requires care and time but it is not necessary for you to own a huge balcony or a garden. You can grow vegetables even in the small terrace of your house. There are families around India who have become completely self-sufficient. Shilpa and Nitin, a couple based in the traffic heavy Bengaluru, grow more than 50 vegetables in their small balcony. Just one small pot for each type of vegetable is enough to sustain a family of four. The food they consume is from their own balcony and the waste produced in their home is used as manure to grow more vegetables. This ecological cycle can have a huge positive impact on the environment.

6. Eat Healthy

Perhaps the most underestimated way to reduce food wastage is to eat healthy. Junk food, has a much faster rate of decay when compared to fresh vegetables and fruits. Having a balanced and planned diet can help you minimize the amount of waste you generate. If you do not have the provision to create compost and farm in your balcony, you can start by eating healthy.

The COVID-19 pandemic has not been an easy time of us. Para medical staff and nurses are working overtime to ensure that we are safe the least we can do is reduce the burden on the planet. Correct utilization of leftovers and controlled generation of waste will make sure that the country has ample supply of food for the poor and needy. Play your part in the quarantine by changing to a zero-waste lifestyle.


August 14 will be observed as Partition Horrors Remembrance Day: Says Modi

A day before 74th Independence Day our prime minister Narendra Modi made a big announcement through his twitter channel, he announced a new day on 14th August , Prime minister Modi said segment and the savagery that followed it was an awful piece of history. Dislodging of millions, killing and assaults during the segment are as yet clear and noticing this day is an acknowledgment of their penances.

A day before he tends to the country from the defenses of the Red Fort on India’s Independence Day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi pronounced that August 14 will be seen as Partition Horrors Remembrance Day. Pakistan observes August 14 as its Independence Day.

“Partition’s torments can never be neglected. A huge number of our sisters and siblings were uprooted and many lost their lives because of careless disdain and viciousness. In memory of the battles and forfeits of our kin, fourteenth August will be seen as Partition Horrors Remembrance Day,” Modi tweeted.

In a resulting tweet, he said exercises ought to be drawn from the savagery that ejected during Partition to additional improve amicability and human strengthening. “May the #PartitionHorrorsRemembranceDay continue to help us to remember the need to eliminate the toxin of social divisions, disharmony and further fortify the soul of unity, social agreement and human strengthening.”

Commenting on the choice to notice August 14 as Partition Horrors Remembrance Day, Vijay Chauthaiwale, accountable for the international concerns branch of the decision Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), said the time has come to recognize the revulsions of Partition and the savagery that followed after India and Pakistan were cut out as two nations in 1947.

“This is a long-late acknowledgment that Partition brought about viciousness, dislodging of millions of individuals, episodes of killing and assault of the individuals who came from the present-day Pakistan. The narratives are as yet distinctive and noticing this day is an acknowledgment of their penances. Segment was a heart-breaking piece of history and the brutality that followed it too. PM Modi has shown gigantic fortitude by recognizing something very similar,” Chauthaiwale said.

The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, the philosophical tutor of the BJP, has been noticing August 14 as the Akhand Bharat Divas or Unified India Day. On a few events, its top chiefs have presented a defense for the reunification of Akhand Bharat, including parts that got isolated from India, for example, Afghanistan and Pakistan yet not through intimidation.


Life is a gift offered by god which needs to be used in the most efficient way possible. Life revolves around experimenting, experiencing, creating wonderful memories. When you have been given this chance, why should you let it go? Life teaches you many lessons. It helps you cope up with difficulties, face many challenges, enjoy fortunate times. Every morning you wake up with a motto. You plan how your day has to proceed. To do justice to the LIFE offered to you, have aims in life, work hard to achieve them. It’s totally okay to think about yourself. A person shouldn’t be in a dilemma thinking, what if people entitle him/her selfish.

It’s important to have plans in life. When you properly plan, go according to it, strive hard to work on it, and achieve your goal. If you plan what you are going to do in life, where will you be in the forthcoming years, then you have surely fulfilled the purpose of your life.

That is what life is about. We do not get redos, but we do get second chances.

The key feature to focus on is, Does life provide you a second chance? 

By all means, you have all the chances to claim it if you are really worthy enough. That doesn’t refer to you to be carefree at the first go assuming you have a second chance. If you totally have the ability to gain a chance then no one can restrain you from grabbing the opportunity. A person obtaining a second chance bears extra pressure to prove that he/she is worthy of it and has succeeded. Offering a second chance in life isn’t wrong at all. What if that person extremely does great and yields benefits to others? A second chance is often given when a person commits a mistake and has a chance to correct it and prove others wrong who are having a bad impression on him/her.

Let’s consider certain examples to check if a person really deserves a second chance.

In a company, an employee violates the norms of the company or commits some mistakes unknowingly. What is going to happen?

  • FIRST POSSIBILITY:- If the mistakes committed by that person are really big and have brought a great loss to the company, then for sure giving a second chance is impossible. Many kinds of thoughts emerge like-
  1. What if he makes the same mistake again?
  2. Is he/she really worthy to have it?
  • SECOND POSSIBILITY:- If he/she is very hardworking and has yielded outstanding success to the company, then a second chance can be given. What if he brings more glory to the company? Hence, to be on the safer side, offering a second chance isn’t wrong.

If we consider the example of a second chance in friendship, how would it be? 

Imagine a friend lying to his/her friend, may it be anything. How would the other one think? Does he/she feel betrayed? The trust developed, the love for each other is all put at stake. A ray of hope of a second chance can be provided considering how close is that person. If he/she desperately wants to save the friendship, all barriers can be broken. A promise of trust, love, laughter should be rebuilt. Assurance should be offered to state that such a mistake wouldn’t be repeated again. In this world, finding true friendship is rare. Therefore, when you possess it, respect the trust and love built in it.

Life is lead by experimenting. So don’t lose hope if you commit mistakes. Learn from your mistakes, work on them. When life offers you a second chance, grab that opportunity and make the most of it and prove the right choice was made by offering you SECOND CHANCE.

A Guide to Introverts

Do you know people who are too shy to interact or speak up, who prefer their own company and actually enjoy it? It often leaves people with personality traits different than that of introverts, befuddled to see introverts having the time of their lives- alone!

Here is a write up to help you understand more about introverted people.

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“Telling an introvert to go to a party is like telling a saint to go to Hell.”

-Criss Jami, Killosophy

Introduction to Introverts

Merriam Webster defines introversion as the state of or tendency toward being predominantly concerned with and obtaining gratification from one’s own mental life.

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Introvert is one of the, basic personality types according to the theories of the 20th-century Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. According to these theories, an introvert is a person whose interest is generally directed inward toward his own feelings and thoughts.

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The typical introvert is shy, contemplative, and reserved and tends to have difficulty adjusting to social situations. Excessive daydreaming and introspection, careful balancing of considerations before reaching decisions, and withdrawal under stress are also typical of the introverted personality.


  • In simpler words, introversion is the state of being shy and quiet, and preferring to be alone than in company of people.
  • Introverts are people whose character traits are marked by signs of introversion. These are the quiet, observant wallflowers who stick to the corners than the limelight.
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Fun Fact:

Scientifically, introverts are highly sensitive to dopamine (feel good hormone) and large quantities of it can make them overstimulated as opposed to extraverts.

Signs of Introversion

  • They prefer to be alone than seek company.
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  • Too much socializing often drains them of their energy.
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  • They may prefer writing over vocalising things. They are often not great talkers.

“Writing is something you do alone. Its a profession for introverts who want to tell you a story but don’t want to make eye contact while doing it.”

John Green
  • They may fear social confrontations and speaking in large groups due to a fear of humiliation.
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  • They usually have a public and private self.
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  • They tend have impeccable ability of concentration and can concentrate for long periods of time.
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  • They usually have a small circle of friends.
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  • They tend to need time for decision making and are likely to struggle with overthinking.
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  • They mentally rehearse before speaking.
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  • They are in constant need of privacy
  • They tend to be observant and pick up things by observing them.
  • Vulnerable to bouts of anxiousness or social anxiety.
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Some people enjoy their own company, some people are apprehensive in sharing everything about themselves, some people prefer solicitude, some people prefer to speak less, some people don’t open up to others or take time.

Prodding people to come out of a place that you deem lonely might not always be the brightest idea. Don’t become energy vampires, draining people of their energy.

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Give introverts the berth they need to thrive and grow.

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citation: https://www.britannica.com/science/introvert

Smoking Problem

One of the most common problems we are facing in today’s world which is killing people is smoking. A lot of people pick up this habit because of stress, personal issues and more. In fact, some even begin showing it off. When someone smokes a cigarette, they not only hurt themselves but everyone around them. It has many ill-effects on the human body.
Ill-Effects of Smoking
Tobacco can have a disastrous impact on our health. Nonetheless, people consume it daily for a long period of time till it’s too late. Nearly one billion people in the whole world smoke. It is a shocking figure as that 1 billion puts millions of people at risk along with themselves.
Cigarettes have a major impact on the lungs. Around a third of all cancer cases happen due to smoking. For instance, it can affect breathing and causes shortness of breath and coughing. Further, it also increases the risk of respiratory tract infection which ultimately reduces the quality of life.
In addition to these serious health consequences, smoking impacts the well-being of a person as well. It alters the sense of smell and taste. Further, it also reduces the ability to perform physical exercises.
It also hampers your physical appearances like giving yellow teeth and aged skin. You also get a greater risk of depression or anxiety. Smoking also affects our relationship with our family, friends and colleagues.
Most importantly, it is also an expensive habit. In other words, it entails heavy financial costs. Even though some people don’t have money to get by, they waste it on cigarettes because of their addiction.

How to Quit Smoking?
There are many ways through which one can quit smoking. The first one is preparing for the day when you will quit. It is not easy to quit a habit abruptly, so set a date to give yourself time to prepare mentally.
Further, you can also use NRTs for your nicotine dependence. They can reduce your craving and withdrawal symptoms. NRTs like skin patches, chewing gums, lozenges, nasal spray and inhalers can help greatly.
Moreover, you can also consider non-nicotine medications. They require a prescription so it is essential to talk to your doctor to get access to it. Most importantly, seek behavioral support. To tackle your dependence on nicotine, it is essential to get counselling services, self-materials or more to get through this phase.
One can also try alternative therapies if they want to try them. There is no harm in trying as long as you are determined to quit smoking. For instance, filters, smoking deterrents, e-cigarettes, acupuncture, cold laser therapy, yoga and more can work for some people.
Always remember that you cannot quit smoking instantly as it will be bad for you as well. Try cutting down on it and then slowly and steadily give it up altogether.
Thus, if anyone is a slave to cigarettes, it is essential for them to understand that it is never too late to stop smoking. With the help and a good action plan, anyone can quit it for good. Moreover, the benefits will be evident within a few days of quitting.

Don’t smoke there are cooler ways to die. Don’t smoke you will choke! Don’t smoke, it’s not a joke. Don’t burn your life with cigarettes.

20 Things: A parent should tell their child

As a parent ,dealing with their child becomes difficult sometimes. Tell this to your child everyday to have a strong bond with them.

Good Parenting
Good Parenting
  • I love you unconditionally, even when you fail, quit, or got lost.

Tell this to your child daily. It helps to improve their confidence and self-love.

  • What can I do to support you?

Ask this to help them when they’re in trouble. It helps to improve their problem-solving ability and builds their trust.

  • You are safe.

Yes, tell this to them to make them feel safe.

  • You’re good enough.

Tell this daily to make them feel light and improve their focus on their career.

  • I’m sorry.

Yes, If you did something that hurt them, you should tell them sorry. It helps them to distinguish between right and wrong.

Teach them right
Teach them right
  • I will protect and listen to you.

Protect your child from toxic people and listen to them at times.

  • Dysfunction isn’t an act of love.

Yes, teach them this to learn, to work properly as part to show their love.

  • Why are you hurting, and how can I help you?

If they are hurt, help them to figure out what hurts them and ask if they need help.  

  • Yes, I will read your poetry.

Reading their poetry helps you to know them. 

  • You are not a bother.

Tell them that they are not a bother even when you’re busy.

  • You’re allowed to be a kid.

Yes, allow them to be a kid for some time. They will eventually learn to grow.

  • I am not too busy for you.

Tell them that you’re not busy when it comes to them.

  • Did someone hurt you?

When your child is upset, ask this first to know their situation.

  • You have a choice, and your voice matters.

Tell them that they are part of the family to make a choice and their voice matters. It helps them to make the right decisions.

  • Love Yourself.

Teaching them self-love is the most important as they grow.

Teach them right
Listen to them
  • I may not understand, but I will try.

Try to understand them or support them.

  • Flaws and all, you are beautiful.

Telling this helps them to improve their self-love.

  • I see and accept you.

Yes, Your act should show make them feel this.

  • You are wanted and welcomed.

They need to know this by your actions towards them.

  • Do you need a hug?

Ask it! No, You should give them a hug whenever they need you. It shows that you are there for them always.

It is not only for your child also for your younger self to hear as part of your healing. It helps your relationship strong with your child, they will feel at ease to tell you everything that happened to them. 



Osteoarthritis can be mainly classified into two. They are primary and secondary. The criterion for this classification is based on the different types of risk factors. Primary OA is mainly due to age where the reason for cartilage breakdown is not known or maybe due to genetics. Secondary OA is due to direct injury through sports or trauma, stress, inflammation, or other metabolic diseases. In this case, the cause may localize.

OA grading

Grading is the process of classifying the disease based on its extent or severity. OA has been graded into 5 from grade 0 to grade 4

Stage numberCondition

This was proposed by Kellgren and Lawrence and it is known as KL grading. The five grades have been proposed based on radiographic analysis of subjects. This was accepted as a standard measure by WHO in 1961. The grading has been done based on the narrowing of joint space and the formation of osteophytes.

  • grade 0 (normal): no changes in knee x-ray
  • grade 1 (minor): minimalistic joint space narrowing with possible osteophyte lipping
  • grade 2 (mild): definite osteophytes and  joint space narrowing
  • grade 3 (moderate): multiple osteophytes, definite narrowing of joint space and some sclerosis and possible deformity of bone ends
  • grade 4 (severe): large osteophytes, marked narrowing of joint space, severe sclerosis and definite deformity of bone ends

Grade 0

Grade 0 is considered normal. The subject will not exhibit any features for OA. The x-ray image from this grade is taken as a standard and the other grades are compared with this grade.

Credit:- Häggström, M (2014). “Medical gallery of Mikael Häggström 2014“. WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). doi:10.15347/wjm/2014.008. ISSN 2002-4436. Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication
X-ray of a healthy knee 
Credit:- Häggström, M (2014). “Medical gallery of Mikael Häggström 2014“. WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). doi:10.15347/wjm/2014.008. ISSN 2002-4436. Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication
This is the joint space which is observed in healthy patients.

Grade 1

Grade 1 is known as the minor. It can be considered as the initial grade. The joint space has just started to decrease. Osteophyte refers to excess bone growth. It is also known as bone spurs since spur refers to kind to sharp material. This bone growth can be observed as sharp spikes. Here there is very minimal growth of excess bone. Bone spurs occur only at the bones adjacent to the joint. There will be very minor loss of cartilage but this does not contribute to the narrowing of the joint space. Subject in this stage is not confirmed with osteoarthritis. However, subjects having any of the risk factors become more prone to the disease

Grade 2

Grade 2 is known as mild. In this grade, the narrowing of the joint space is more and is visible through the x-ray. There will be also more formation of osteophytes. This grade can be considered as the precursor to many complications like bone dislocation and rubbing. None of these complications are seen in this grade but these complications are soon to occur. The subject in this grade is confirmed with osteoarthritis. Special care has to be taken by those in this grade and through proper medications, they can prevent those further complications.

Grade 3

Grade 3 is known as moderate. Obvious damage occurs to the cartilage and the joint space narrows even at a faster rate. Swelling of the joints starts to occur in this stage. Erosion of cartilage becomes prominent in this stage. The joints become rougher due to spurs leading to stiffness. Inflammation occurs at regular intervals. Subjects can experience popping sounds from the knee.

Grade 4

Grade 4 is known as severe. It is the worst and highest grade of all. The changes become prominent and occur at larger scales. There will be no gap literally meaning the joint is absent. The bones start to rub over each other causing pain. The joint becomes stiff like a rock. The cartilage wears down and maximum growth of osteophyte is seen. Various cytokines are released at cartilage resulting in further death. Life would be dreadful for those in this grade. The arrow in the given X-ray indicates the bones are touching each other and there is no gap in between them.

Grade 4 osteoarthritis
Courtesy: – James Heilman, MD Osteoarthritis of the left knee. Note the osteophytes, narrowing of
 the joint space (arrow), and increased subchondral bone density (arrow). the joint space (arrow), and increased subchondral bone density (arrow). Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0



Osteoarthritis is the most well-known type of joint pain, influencing a huge number of individuals in the world. It occurs as a result of the wearing down of the cartilage that cushions the ends of your bone over time. It is a complex disease that integrates biomechanics and biochemistry associated with the knee. This is the standard way of defining OA which will be difficult to understand. Hence let us try to understand what OA is. The best way is by splitting the word and analyzing it part by part

Osteo- bone

Arth- joint                        

It is- inflammation    

Knee, Old, Care, Injury, Pain, Knee Pain
x-ray of the osteoarthritic knee joint


As mentioned earlier, the unit of bone is called osteon and any word ending with itis refers to inflammation. Also, arthro term refers to joints in general. Hence the combination of the terms corresponds to inflammation of bones in the joint. This rather sounds simplified. The previous definition had complex terms like biomechanics and biochemistry. Biomechanics refers to the study of movement in living beings. Biochemistry refers to the study of the reactions occurring in living things. So in short, osteoarthritis is such a disease that results in inflammation of joints that occur due to wearing down of the bones surrounding the joint hence affecting the movement and chemical reactions which used to occur properly during normal conditions.

Osteoarthritis can occur in any joint in the human body like elbows, hips, knees, etc. Since our primary focus is on the knee, we will take a deep dive into it. In view of its expectancy and the tolerance that goes with sickness in the knee osteoarthritis represents more prevalence with daily activities like climbing steps and walking when compared to other diseases. Osteoarthritis is the most standardized reason for total knee replacement. As a result of the frequency of this disease especially in middle-aged people, osteoarthritis can act as an extensive barrier towards work and can lead to early retirement.

Coining of OA

Many say that the term osteoarthritis was coined by the British physician John Kent Spender but it was Richard Von Volkmann who tried to separate it from rheumatoid arthritis. The other names which were offered to this disease were ‘chronical rheumatism’

‘senile arthritis’

‘hypertrophic arthritis’

‘arthritis deformans’.

Effect of age

Osteoarthritis can affect people of any age group but it majorly affects old age people. National Library of Medicine suggests that people with an age greater than 70 have more risk to get osteoarthritis. The reason lies in the definition of osteoarthritis. The definition says that disease occurs due to the wearing down of bones. So the bones don’t get worn down the next instant a baby is born. Every process requires time to occur. A mother has to wait for a minimum of 9 months to give birth to a healthy baby. A student must wait for 4 years to get a degree from college. Similarly, it takes time for the bones in the knee to get worn down.

This disease has always troubled old aged people in their lives. Living with osteoarthritis is dreadful. Even climbing the stairs will be a difficult task for them. Hence it is worth knowing about the disease.


Introduction: Identity Politics and Political Correctness

Identity Politics

Identity politics is a term that describes a political approach wherein people of a particular religion, race, social background, class or other identifying factor develop political agendas and organize based upon the interlocking systems of oppression that may affect their lives and come from their various identities. Identity politics centers the lived experiences of those facing various systems of oppression to better understand the ways in which racial, economic, sex-based, gender-based, and other forms of oppression are linked and to ensure that political agendas and political actions arising out of identity politics leave no one behind.

There is a very positive element to identity politics, that identity politics can be a great source of strength and unity to minority communities: they help them feel psychologically safe and secure especially when coping with life in the West. Language, culture and religion are the ways in which people also cope with the psychological stress of trauma or rapid change — refugees and migrants will band together in ethnic communities in new countries in order to stay connected to what they have lost or left behind. More and more people join the social groups which results in more authority and power. And as it is said, power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. The social groups formed on the basis of their particular identity now starts to diminish, cancel and supress any valid argument made against them. Now that the majority of people are on the side of these social groups related to Feminism, Gay right activism, anti-racism etc, a person having an opposing but a valid strong argument can’t place it without being called as anti-feminist, homophobic, and racist. In most cases it leads to their career being destroyed.

This whole mob mentality which evolutionized from a primary cause to help the oppressed groups, class is because of the absolute power it gets on the later stages. They think that everything they do is correct and which is horribly wrong. This whole thing of identity politics has a bad effect on the society. Forget forgiveness, something said mistakenly isn’t tolerated at all and the criticism, hate and abuse the person has to suffer is immense and eventually leaves a mark for the rest of his life.

Political Correctness

Political correctness is a term used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. The term has been used to describe a preference for inclusive language and avoidance of language or behaviour that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting to groups of people disadvantaged or discriminated against, particularly groups defined by ethnicity, sex, or gender.

Political correctness makes sure we remain within societal boundaries that have been previously established. This helps us maintain the previous progress we have made regarding acceptance, equality and inclusivity. By directing people to be careful in their speech we help prevent negative polarisation and the acceptance of prejudices. This way we do not lose progress in tolerance and equality. The spread of hate crimes, extreme nationalism and prejudices can also be attributed to from lack of political correctness in politics. When people with a platform say bigoted things, the wider population sees these views as legitimate.

Political correctness restricts public debates and thinking in society and in mainstream media. This results in ‘touchy’ issues not being discussed efficiently. There is no flexibility with social boundaries. Political correctness is a form of social engineering used to silence people with ‘controversial’ ideas. Political correctness is not fixed, so what is unacceptable changes. But who gets to decide what qualifies as unacceptable? Politicians who condemn others citing political correctness (excluding ‘hate speech’ or clear examples of discrimination) are going against the principles of freedom of speech. They are silencing people according to their own standards. Some people think political correctness is a leftist plot that silences the right and removes ‘alternative politicians’ from mainstream media. Because much of the world’s views are not strictly ‘politically correct’, they are not represented. Others think that ‘The whole political correctness movement was invented by the Far Right to inhibit any meaningful discussion of diversity issues in order to keep racial, gender, and other barriers in place.

Everyday health foods

  1. Ginger- helps to over come cancer disease :

#. Ginger appears to be effective for treating gastrointestinal disturbance, especially in reliving diarrhea or nausea caused by morning sickness durning pregnancy and nausea and vomiting after surgery or after cancer patients chemotherapy treatment.

#. It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual pseudostems about one meter tall bearing narrow leaf blades.

2. Cinnamon for stable blood sugar:

#. Cinnamon twig appears to have some antibiotics and anti-national inflammatory properties.

#. This healing food may also help treat gastrointestinal disturbance, including diarrhea and indigestion.

#. cinnamon seems to have antioxidant effects as well.

#. Glassman say that cinnamon is excellent for controlling blood sugar levels and has been shown to lower bad cholesterol level in people with type 2 diabetes.

3. Garlic for canner protection:

#. Garlic is most well-being known for the healing herb’s potential anti-cancer effect, Glassman says as well as it’s ability to slow other disease, including hypertension and even the common cold.

#. One of the most common place healing herbs, garlic is a great flavor enhance on stews and soup, such as this quick and easy Asian pork soup.

4. Coriander for bad cholesterol

#. “‘Coriander may aid in lowering’ bad’ cholesterol and increasing’ good ‘ cholesterol, ” Glassman says. ” It can help lower blood sugar levels as well “.

#. This healing food also appears to have anti-cancer bacterial and anti-cancer anti-cancer fungal properties.

5. Bay leaves for sinus relief:

#. There’s a reason why bay leaves are in so many cold soothing stews. ” Bay leaves contain an oil with the active ingredient cineole, which eases discomfort caused by sinusitis.

#. Says rovenia brock, phD, a nutrition expert and author.

Does Formal Education imply a successful career?

Is CBSE better than SSC? A conflict going on for years now. Even while talking to a friend who’s studying from a different educational board we end up comparing and at times arguing over which teaching and learning technique is superior. Over the past years we have come across many such instances where a formal education is compared or considered necessary for a for a ‘successful career’. Many of us must have also heard statements like’ You need to have a formal learning to achieve your desired or well settled career’. But can any one exactly define what a formal education or formal learning is?

If we put it in simple words formal education is generally a structural well organized system of training wherein we have to follow a given fixed way of learning which was followed previous learners. So such type of learning focuses more on theoretical learning and minimal practical learning. Now a query may arise that there has to be a structure, a pattern for a disciplined and proper learning experience. In a formal learning the subjects and curriculum is fixed, whatever we learn is pre-decided and repeated monotonously. Those subjects might be of liking to one student but not the other, some may excel in one subject and have hard time coping with other subject. But in the end the overall performance is noted and not individual. This results in students not being able to understand what they are good at.

Each one of us has a certain field of liking, some talents and also a few pros and cons. We on our own are very much aware of our strengths and weaknesses. All we have to do is to know what our strengths are, improve them, nurture them and whatever our weaknesses are we need to learn how to tackle them. So when it comes to formal education exploring a specific field of interest is difficult as we are obliged to keep up with all the other subjects too. This may not be the case for everyone some may even find there scope through this type of learning, but the important thing is only some may not everyone.

Photo by NEOSiAM 2021 on Pexels.com

Now, let’s come to the the point of a ‘successful career’. I am sure every one out there has own perspective towards what exactly a successful career is. Our expectations from our ownself as well as our will and capacity to achieve them collectively would give us a successful career. For me it would me something I would achieve in coming years and would enjoy, learn and grow during the process. It goes like the famous saying ‘Success is about the journey and not the destination’.

But now if we compare A formal education with a successful career what similarities can you guess? Is it really necessary that a strict patterned learning guarantees us a career? A formal education is needed but it shouldn’t be considered as the only criteria to define our success or if we could achieve our goals. Ultimately success depends on individual’s capacity to use their talents and creativity in the most effective manner. May be now we could modify a very familiar proverb ‘Education is a key to success, but not the only key to success.’


Nowadays, the people all around the world are the most familiar with the Japanese poetry style known as the ‘Haiku’. Haiku is a 17-syllable poem and gained popularity in the 17th century. Whereas, on the other hand there is another type of poetic form that was developed thousands of years before the haiku, known as ‘Waka’. Waka (和歌) is a form of classical Japanese poetry and the word ‘Waka’ translates to ‘’Japanese Poem’’. Haiku was extracted from the Waka style of poetry.

Waka is a type of short poem with a specific structure, it has 31-syllables and is perfectly arranged in five lines in the form of 5-7-5-7-7 respective words in each line. Waka can be divided into two verses; it has an ‘upper verse’ that refers to the first three lines and then there is the ‘lower verse’ referring to the last two lines of the waka.  Waka is written to convey our heart’s feelings. Waka’s both form and influence differs from the form and influence that our own traditional poetry has. Waka is written to encapsulate a person’s emotions and feeling rather than elucidating or explicating their emotions.

There are different forms of waka namely, the major forms being ‘Tanka’ (the short poem) and the ‘Chouka’ (the long poem), the other types of waka also include ‘Bussokusekika’, ‘Sedouka and ‘Katauta’, but these other types of forms were discontinued at the very beginning of the Heian period, now only ‘Tanka’ is the only waka that has remained till this age and when someone mentions waka it refers to tanka only.

Photo by Evgeny Tchebotarev on Pexels.com

In the Heian period, waka was the most major or the most important form of communication among lovers. Not only that but a person’s ability or skills in poetry was a dominant basis for ascertaining a person’s social and political standing in the society.

During the Heian period a renowned poet, Ki no Tsurayuki wrote the following about Japanese poetry:

“The poetry of Japan has its roots in the human heart and flourishes in the countless leaves of words. Because human beings possess interests of so many kinds it is in poetry that they give expression to the meditations of their hearts in terms of the sights appearing before their eyes and the sounds coming to their ears. Hearing the warbler sing among the blossoms and the frog in his fresh waters — is there any living being not given to song!”

The ‘song’ he mentioned in the lines above is nothing but a ‘Waka’.

source: http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/japan_600ce_waka.htm

mikiso hane



            Money is neither invented nor discovered. It evolved over years. Several centuries ago, there existed a system named the barter system. The barter system is the system where the goods and services are exchanged with each other. For example, If a person says X sells vegetable to another person Y, then the person Y have to sell fruits to the person X. Thus they exchanged goods between them. As time evolves, yellow metal and paper currency was used by the people. The yellow metal is nothing but gold, silver. In this system, the people used gold and silver to buy goods and commodities. As time evolves, the government has said that no need to use gold metals and they will issue notes, i.e, currencies with the value written on them. The government has ordered everyone to use and accept this. As long as people trust the system introduced by the government, paper currency is available. This is how money evolved over a while. Today, there are multiple forms of money. They are credit cards, debit cards, mobile banking, electronic wallets.


            There are five forms of spending. They are needs, wants necessities, comforts, and luxuries.

NEEDS: Needs are the things that you must require at that time. Some of the common needs of a man are food, clothing, shelter, transport, communication, education. For example, as a college student, you need to have a phone since many study materials have been sent to your devices.

WANTS: Wants are the thing that you desire to have. Unlike needs, wants have options to choose from. If you do not have those things, it will not affect you. For example, well-furnished home, time-saving home devices, AC rooms, etc.,

NECESSITIES: Necessities have been categorized into three types: 

  • Necessities for life: This includes the basic things you need to run life on earth. Example: Food, clothing, and shelter.
  • Necessities for efficiency: This includes the bike for college students, a car for a businessman.
  • Conventional necessities: It is a social habit of practicing some habits. For example, people spend more money on wedding receptions.

COMFORTS: Comforts are the things that make life more enjoyable. The examples include a Well-furnished home, AC bedrooms, etc.,

LUXURIES: Luxuries represents the higher strata of spending. For example: Having a BMW car, buying diamonds.

       The important point is that needs and wants change with time. For instance, when you are a college student, having a Macbook pro is want. But when you are in the corporate world, having a Macbook pro becomes the need. Necessities, comforts, and luxuries will also differ from time to time and people to people. In the 1990s having a phone is a luxury, in 2000 having a phone is comfort and now it is a necessity to have a phone.


TAX: The part of our earnings has to be paid to the government in a form of taxes. The reason why we have to pay the taxes is that the government sets up the environment for our earnings. Taxes enable the government to maintain the city infrastructure by providing good roads, hospitals, and transports. To be a good citizen, we must pay the taxes honestly. The tax rate will be increased if some of the people are not paying their taxes properly. Once we paid the tax, then that money will be the government’s money. There are two types of taxes namely direct tax (income tax) and indirect tax (GST).

SAVINGS: Savings is the money that remains after you spend the money from your earnings. You can put your money in a savings bank account. The money in your account will be safe. The ability to convert them into cash is high. The rate of risk is low in a savings account. If you need money within one year, then put the money in a savings account. The ideal equation is INCOME-SAVINGS=EXPENSE.

INVESTMENT: You can invest the money in bank deposits, mutual funds, equity shares, fixed deposits, gold. The return of the money will be higher or lower. The risk of losing money varies by the investment you made. It is a long-term process generally more than 2 years. The liquidity depends on the type of investment. If you want to need the money a few years later, then invest the money.


Geology is the study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. It includes the study of organisms that have inhabited our planet. An important part of geology is the study of how Earth’s materials, structures, processes and organisms have changed over time.

The word was first used in 1778 in the work of Jean Andrea de Luc (a Swiss-born scientist who lived at Windsor for much of his life as adviser to Queen Charlotte) and at much the same time in the work of Swiss Chemist, S.B. Saucer.

Geology is a fascinating subject .

Geology feels the pulse of the earth.

Geologists contribute their part to the nation through the discovery of new deposits of rocks and minerals of economic value.A student should know what lies beneath the crust and how long back the earth came into existence.

Geology is a science of many facets and includes the study of:

1. Physical geology

It deals with the endogenous (internal) and exogenous (external) agencies and the processes that bring about changes on the earth’s surface. James Hutton is regarded as the father of physical geology.

2. Geo tectonic

It concerns with the movements of the earth’s crust and the deformations caused by them.

3. Structural geology

It deals with the configuration of the rocks in the earth’s crust produced due to a number of forces generated both exogenously and endogenously.

4. Gecmorphology

It deals with the study of landforms.

5. Crystallography

It is the study of the external forms and internal atomic structure of the crystalline minerals.

6. Mineralogy

It deals with the minerals, their composition, characteristics, modes of occurrence and origin.

7. Petrology

It deals with the origin, structure, texture, mineralogical composition etc. of the different types of rocks.

8. Stratigraphy

It deals with the strata of sedimentary rocks, their succession, thickness, age, variations and correlations, Thus it is the study of strata as a record of geological history.

9. Paleontology

(Greek-‘Palaios’ meaning ancient and ‘Ontos’ meaning being). It is the study of fossils of plants and animals that are found in the rocks of past geological periods. They indicate the climate, age and environment of deposition of the rock unit in which they are found.

10. Economic geology

It deals with the study of mineral deposits, their modes of formation, modes of occurrence, distribution etc.

Importance of Geology

i. Geology provides a systematic knowledge of construction materials, their structure and properties.

ii. The knowledge of Erosion, Transportation and Deposition (ETD) by surface water helps in soil conservation, river control, coastal and harbour works.

iii. The knowledge about the nature of the rocks is very necessary in tunneling, constructing roads and in determining the stability of cuts and slopes. Thus, geology helps in civil engineering.

iv. The foundation problems of dams, bridges and buildings are directly related with geology of the area where they are to be built.

v. The knowledge of ground water is necessary in connection with excavation works, water supply, irrigation and many other purposes.

vi. Geological maps and sections help considerably in planning many engineering projects.

vii. If the geological features like faults, joints, beds, folds, solution channels are found, they have to be suitably treated. Hence, the stability of the structure is greatly increased.

viii. Pre-geological survey of the area concerned reduces the cost of engineering.


The Burj Khalifa height is a staggering 828 meters (2716.5 feet) tall, soaring over Dubai. It is three times as tall as the Eiffel Tower and nearly twice as tall as the Empire State Building. Laid end to end, its pieces stretch over a quarter of the way around the world. Its cloud-piercing height is one of the most impressive facts about Burj Khalifa.

Burj Khalifa
Burj Khalifa

The Burj Khalifa took six years to build. Foundational excavation work commenced in January 2004, and the tower was formally opened on January 4, 2010. However, the opening took place before the interior was completed. The Burj Khalifa was built by over 12000 workers, by the peak of construction.

Why famous?

It is famous because of:

  • Highest occupied floor in the world. 
  • The highest outdoor observation deck in the world. 
  • Elevator with the longest travel distance in the world. 
  • Tallest service elevator in the world.
View from the top of Burj Khalifa
View from the top of Burj Khalifa

The building has the longest single-running elevator, which is 140 floors. The Burj Khalifa elevator speed is 10 meters per second, making the elevators among the fastest in the world. The Burj Khalifa elevator time to reach the observation deck on the 124th floor is only one minute.

Flight attendant of Fly Emirates standing on the top of Burj Khalifa for their company advertisement
Flight attendant of Fly Emirates standing on the top of Burj Khalifa for their company advertisement

An advertisement shoot for the FLY EMIRATES recently took place in Burj Khalifa, where a flight attendant stood on the top, shuffling placards with different messages about the services of the airline. After the last placard, the camera zooms out and she is seen standing on top of 828-meter-high Burj Khalifa.

Watch the video here:

In the BTS video, The woman featured in the ad is heard saying ‘Hi mom, I’m on top of the world’. The video then shows a crew surrounding the model and attaching safety ropes. The video also shows how the ad was planned and executed.

Watch behind the scenes video here:


Unemployment is a serious issue. There are many factors which are responsible for this. Some of these include lack of proper education, lack of good skills and skills, inability to perform, lack of good employment opportunities and rapidly growing population. A look at unemployment stability, unemployment consequences and measures taken by the government to control it further.

Unemployment related statistics in India

The Ministry of Labor and Employment in India maintains unemployment records in the country. Unemployment figures are calculated based on the number of people who had no work for a substantial period of time during the 365 days prior to the date the figures were matched and are still seeking employment.

From 1983 to 2013, the unemployment rate in India was the highest at 9.40% with an average of 7.32 percent and in 2013 it was a record of 4.90%. In the year 2015-16, the unemployment rate was 8.7% for women and 4.3 percent for men.

Result of unemployment

There are serious socio-economic issues due to unemployment. This affects not only one person but the whole society. Some of the major consequences of unemployment are explained below:

  • Rise in poverty

This statement is absolutely true that the increase in the unemployment rate has increased the poverty rate in the country. Unemployment is mainly responsible for inhibiting the economic development of the country.

  • Crime rate increase

Unemployed unable to find a suitable job usually takes the path of crime as it is an easy way to make money. Unemployment is one of the main causes of the rapidly increasing cases of theft, robbery and other heinous crimes.

  • Exploitation of labour

Employees generally take advantage of the lack of jobs in the market by offering lower wages. People unable to find a job linked to their skills usually settle for a low-paid job. Employees are also forced to work for a specified number of hours each day.

  • political instability

Lack of employment opportunities results in a lack of trust in the government and this situation often leads to political instability.

  • mental health

The level of dissatisfaction increases among unemployed people, which gradually leads to anxiety, depression and other mental health problems.

  • Loss of skill

Staying out of a job for a long period of time leads to dull life and loss of skills. This reduces a person’s confidence to a great extent.

Government initiative to reduce unemployment

The Government of India has started several programs to reduce the problem of unemployment as well as to help the unemployed in the country. Some of these include Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Drought Prone Areas Program (DPAP), Training for Self-Employment, Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY), Employment Assurance Scheme, Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Alleviation Program (PMIUPEP), employment offices, employment in foreign countries, development of small and cottage industries, employment guarantee scheme and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana etc. Not.

Apart from providing employment opportunities through these programs, the government is also sensing the importance of education and providing skill training to unemployed people.

  • Self-employment training

The program, started in 1979, was called the National Scheme of Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment (TRYSEM). It aims to reduce unemployment among youth in rural areas.

  • Integrated Rural Development Program (IRDP)

To ensure full employment opportunities in rural areas in the year 1978-79, the Government of India launched the Integrated Rural Development Program. 312 crores were spent on this program and 182 lakh families benefited from it.

  • Employment in foreign countries

The government helps people in getting employment in foreign companies. Special agencies have been set up in other countries to hire people.

  • Small and cottage industries

In an effort to reduce the issue of unemployment, the government has also developed small and cottage industries. Many people are earning their living with this initiative.

  • Golden jubilee employment scheme

The program aims to provide self-employment and wage-employment opportunities to the urban population. It consists of two schemes:

  • Urban self-employment program
  • Urban wage employment program
  • Employment assurance scheme

This program was started in 1994 for 1752 backward classes in the country. Poor unemployed people living in rural areas were provided unskilled manual work for 100 days under this scheme.

  • Drought prone area program (DPAP)

The program was launched in 13 states and covered 70 drought-prone districts with the aim of eliminating seasonal unemployment. The government spent Rs 474 crore in its seventh plan.

  • Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

The program, launched in April 1989, was intended to provide at least one member in each poor rural family with the employment of fifty to one hundred days for a year. Employment opportunities are provided in the vicinity of the individual and 30% of these opportunities are reserved for women.

  • Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)

There are a total of three schemes under this program. Under the first scheme, the urban poor is subsidized to set up micro-enterprises. Under the second scheme, wage-employment is arranged for labourers in cities with a population of less than 10 lakh. Under the third scheme, the urban poor in cities is given employment opportunities matching their skills.

  • Employment guarantee scheme

The unemployed people are provided financial assistance under this scheme. It has been started in many states including Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan etc.

Apart from this, several other programs have been launched by the government to reduce unemployment.

Unemployment in India can be divided into several categories:

Hidden unemployment

When people more than required is hired for a job. This condition is called as the hidden unemployment as removing these people will not affect the work. 

sessional Unemployment

As the name suggests this type of Unemployment is only in a specific season of the year. Usually works related to agriculture, Ice factory, resorts and sports industries are affected by this.

Open Unemployment

This means when labour in large number is not able to get a job which provides them with regular income. This situation arises when physical labour increases more as compared to the economy

Technical Unemployment

This situation arises due to the increasing technical machines and instrument to replace human work.

Structural Unemployment

This type of unemployment occurs due to a major change in the economic structure of the country. It is the result of technological advancement and economic development.

cyclical unemployment

A decrease in the overall level of business activity leads to cyclical unemployment. However, this incident is only for a short time.

Educated unemployment

Inability to find a suitable job, lack of employable skills and faulty education system are some of the reasons that educated unemployed remain.

Contract unemployment

In this type of unemployment, people either work on a part-time basis or do the kind of work for which they are more qualified.

Preventive unemployment

This occurs when the demand for the labour force and its supply are not properly coordinated.

Long term unemployment

Long term unemployment is one that continues in the country due to rapid growth in population and low level of economic growth.

Sudden unemployment

Such unemployment occurs due to a sudden drop in demand, short term contracts or shortage of raw materials.

Factors that can increase unemployment in India

  • Increase in population

The rapid increase in the country’s population is one of the major causes of unemployment.

  • Manda Economic Development

The slow economic growth of the country results in fewer employment opportunities for people, leading to unemployment.

  • Seasonal business

A large part of the country’s population is involved in agriculture. Being a seasonal business it only provides work opportunities for a certain time of the year.

  • The slow growth of the industrial sector

The growth of the industrial sector in the country is very slow. Thus employment opportunities in this sector are limited.

  • The decline in cottage industry

Production in the cottage industry has fallen drastically and due to this many artisans have become unemployed.

Possible solutions to end unemployment

  • Population control

This is the right time when the Indian government takes drastic steps to control the population of the country.

  • Education system

The education system in India focuses on theoretical aspects rather than skill development. The system has to be improved to generate skilled manpower.

  • Industrialization

The government should take steps to promote the industrial sector to create more employment opportunities for people.

  • foreign companies

The government should encourage foreign companies to open their units in the country to create more employment opportunities.

  • Job opportunities

Employment opportunities should be created in rural areas for those who remain unemployed for the rest of the time by working at a certain time.


Unemployment is the root cause of various problems in society. Although the government has taken the initiative to reduce this problem, the measures taken are not effective enough. Due to this problem, various factors need to be studied thoroughly to see effective and integrated solutions. It is time that the government should recognize the sensitivity of the matter and take some serious steps to reduce it.

Child Labour

Childhood is considered the most enjoyable period of life. The is period is free from any time worry or responsibility. 

This period is the formative period of life. Parents do everything to fulfill the needs of their children. 

They are brought up with the utmost care, love, and affection. But it is sad to see that the innocent have to work to earn money. This is known as child labour.

The system of child labour is also prevalent in India. It is the worst type of child exploitation. No child likes to work in the budding periods of life of his life. 

It is the poverty of their parents that forces them to do labour. Some parents cannot earn enough to feed their family members. So they compel their children to do some job and earn money.

What are the pros and cons of child labour?

Problems of Child Labour in India

The problem of child labour has become a serious problem. Children have to work in homes or shops or factories where they are paid very low wages. 

They have to do every type of dirty work without any rest or interval. Some children do not return home at night. 

They sleep at the bus stands or in the railway waiting hall or on the footpath. Even their parents have never felt worried about them.

The Indian law prevents the employment of children in factories but not in cottage industries, family households, dhabas, and restaurants, or in fields. 

Most of the children are school drop-outs. Our system of education and economic policies needs a rethinking. Children should be provided job-oriented education right from primary classes. 

Poor and illiterate parents should be made aware of the disadvantage of child labor. Population control is also very necessary.

Child Labour is in India and the world

Child labour is one of the biggest problems. It is not only prevalent in India but also a world problem. This problem is not a new problem. 

It was also present in ancient times. Children were required to do some work either at home or in the field with their parents.

The most important causes of child labor are poverty, large family, ignorance, and lack of education. 

In poor families, children have to work to support their families. The poor parents are ignorant about the value of education. 

They are concerned only with earning two square meals a day. In this job, their children have also to work. 

Thus poverty compels them to work to keep the wolf away from their doors. But in spite of child labor, the poor lead a miserable life.

Exploitation of children

Child labour is the worst type of child exploitation. The Indians look upon children as the gifts of God. But poverty snatches their childhood from them. 

Sometimes poverty forces the poor parents to take loans from the zamindars or their master. This loan is never paid by them and they become bonded laborers’. 

Sometimes they have to pawn or pledge their children to get money. Thus the vicious circle of bandha mazdoor’ goes on from one generation to the other. 

Munshi Prem Chand’s famous novel ‘Godan’ and a serial ‘Udaan’ on Colors channel beautifully present the condition of bonded labour and child labour.

The economic condition of Poor families

Economic condition is the main reason for child labour. The economically bad classes believe that more hands bring in more resources. 

Thus they go on producing children. They feel that their children will become their supporters when they are six or seven years old. 

They never think of sending them to schools. According to a report, child labour is employed mainly in 20 products. 

These products include bidis, bricks, fireworks, glass bangles, matches, and carpets, etc. Some children work in homes and tea-shops where they have to clean the utensils and do sweeping.

Indian Law for Child labour

In India, there is a law against child labour. The Indian Constitution provides that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any workplace. 

The ban on child labor has been extended to the domestic and hospitality sectors. Because of this law, child labour is almost absent in the organized sector. 

But the situation is not good in the unorganized sector. There the anti-child labor law is thrown to the winds.

We can find a great number of child laborers in the rural areas, in farms, fisheries, and cottage industries. 

In England, when the Industrial Revolution took place, child labor was required to clean the factory chimneys. 

The miserable condition of the children has been presented in William Blake’s poem ‘Chimney Sweepers’. Child labour deprives children of attending school. 

Besides, working for long hours in unhygienic conditions, and eating unhealthy food, the health of the children is adversely affected. 

However, a great benefit to employers is that child labor does not form trade unions. Besides, it is available at low wages.

So far as the exploitation of child laborers is concerned, it is a naked truth.

A Survey report about Child labour

 According to a survey, children, for the same type of work, are paid less than the adult laborers. Poverty has an intimate relationship with child labor. 

Poor families need money to survive. and children are a source of additional income. Thus poverty and lack of social security are mainly responsible for child labour and bonded labour.

In The Tribune, the Chief Editor has expressed his views on child labour. He has said, “Make employers responsible.” 

According to him, a few months ago, hundreds of children were found working as labourers in one of the farms in Punjab. 

During the Prevention of Child Labor Week, 281 children were rescued from across the state. Of these, 116 were pursuing dangerous occupations. 

It is not that the country lacks legal protection to protect children from exploitation. Their numbers continue to grow. U.S. agencies estimate that the number of child laborers in India could be between four and six million.

The law stipulates only one-year imprisonment and a maximum of Rs. 20,000 fine; In fact, a small amount of Rs.200 is a penalty in most cases. 

The government has passed a number of laws

The government has passed a number of laws such as the Child and Adolescent Labor Prohibition Act, the Right to Education Act, 2010 and implemented schemes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which encourage the enrollment of children in schools.

It also claims that the number of child laborers has come down from 1.25 crore (Census 2001) to the current figure of 49.6 lakh (National Sample Survey).

Not surprisingly, these figures were arrived at on the basis of a sample size of approximately 70,000 across the nation. 

The government needs to conduct a genuine survey to gauge the magnitude of the problem and make the enforcement machinery accountable. 

Unless employers are made accountable under stringent laws, child labour will continue to shame the nation.

It has become a challenging job to deal with the child labor problem. Efforts are being made to lessen some of the evils of child exploitation. 

The world has set an aim to eliminate the practice of child labour by 20

16. In fact, the problem of child labour has three faces-social, economic and political. The most important factor of the three is poverty. 

Child labour can be checked by reducing poverty in rural areas. If child labour is banned all of a sudden, it will not bear fruitful results. In many poor families, it is necessary for children to work.

To some extent, child labour contributes to development. Most of the children belong to those families where the family’s survival depends on their labor. 

A distinction must be made between forced labour and employment. Children should be allowed to work in their family-based cottage industry like pottery, poultry, or knitting and weaving. Here the children can work in their spare time after school.

Conclusion of child labour essay

On the whole, the issue is how to root out the problem of child labour from India. Besides removing poverty, vocational and technical education should be introduced from the primary stage.

 It is true that this problem cannot be eliminated overnight but in a phased manner. At least, anti-child labour law should be enforced with an iron hand and the defaulters are put behind the bars.

Communication technology

Information and communication Technologies (ICT) is a broader term for Information technology (IT), which refers to all communication technologies, including the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, computers, software, middleware , video-conferencing, social networking, and other media applications and services enabling users to access, retrieve, store, transmit, and manipulate information in a digital form. ICT are also used to refer to the convergence of media technology such as audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks, by means of a unified system of cabling (including signal distribution and management) or link system. However, there is no universally accepted definition of ICT considering that the concepts, methods and tools involved in ICT are steadily evolving on an almost daily basis. To define professional skill levels for its ICT professional education products, the IEE computer society has adopted, for example, the Skills framework for the information age  (SFIA). The value of ICT strategies as a means of bridging the digital divide and as a powerful tool for economic and social development around the world should not be underestimated in agricultural and related sectors. Improving extension of ICT services to farmers would effectively improve the transmission of global open data for agriculture and nutrition for development of sensible solutions addressing food security nutrition and sustainable agriculture issue. By using ICTs, there have already “been diverse types of innovations taking place in the agriculture sector, which include commodity and stock market price information and analysis, meteorological data collection, advisory services to farmers for agricultural extension, early warning systems for disaster prevention and control, financial services, traceability of agricultural products, agricultural statistical data gathering, etc.

E-Agriculture refers to use of ICT in agriculture

In 2007, FAO and a group of founding partners launched the e culture community of practice- an online space to facilitate an exchange of knowledge and experiences of projects where ICT are used for agriculture and rural development.

To date, the e- agriculture community  has over 15,000 members from more than 170 countries and territories and about twenty international partners In 2016, the FAO and International Telecommunication Union (ITU)published the ‘E-Agriculture Strategy guide Piloted in Asia Pacific countries’. This toolkit provides countries with a framework to develop their national e-agriculture strategies, which should help rationalize both financial and human resources, as well as address ICT opportunities for the agricultural sector in a more efficient manner.On this page E- agriculture you will find all information related to the use of the ‘E-Agriculture Strategy Guide’, the related workshops organized, and the progress made in different countries. 

Types of communication technology

Technology has reinvented the way people communicate. Originally simple devices have evolved into Communication channels that create connections worldwide. There are four main types of communication technology that have contributed to the ease of sending messages: telephone, radio, television, and internet.

The telephone revolutionized verbal communication. People can talk to each other from any place in the world, strengthening relationships and eliminating the worries of long-distance communication. Speaking with someone across the country can be done just as easily as speaking with someone down the street.

As technology advanced, the device upgraded from “telephone” to “mobile phone.” What used to be a heavy piece of equipment can now easily fit in your pocket. Not only is the modern telephone portable, but the features and capabilities are also advanced.

As the telephone progressed, it adopted new types of visual and written communication. Today, text messages and electronic versions of photos are regularly sent using mobile phones, increasing the possible amount of information being shared using phones.

The telephone introduced a brand new approach to verbal, written, and visual communication, and exciting new features continue to change the communication technology game.

About twenty years after the telephone, communicating using the radio came into play. Another innovation in the realm of verbal communication, radio is used to reach sizable audiences, as opposed to just one person on the other end of a phone.

The radio’s ability to reach a large audience at a low cost continues to motivate a lot of communicators to take full advantage of the tool. Information providers, such as advertisers and newscasters, spend substantial amounts of time communicating with their massive audiences using radio technology.

Radio technology transformed the way information is delivered to large audiences and continues to strengthen mass communication.

Television is another way to reach extensive audiences, but it brought a new perk to the table: visual communication.

Some information is hard to describe using just words. Television provides audiences with the best of both worlds: information and visuals to accompany it. This advantage caused the television to replace the radio as the leading tool for mass communication.

Today, there are thousands of television channels that communicate information on almost any topic: history, sports, news, science, fiction, and so on. Whether it be for entertainment or cold hard facts, people are constantly turning to television for information.

The internet removes the need for communicators to have a separate device for each different type of communication technology. With the Internet, you can do it all in one place.

As the queen bee of interaction, the internet successfully combines all types of communication technology and houses them in one place. It provides the largest array of information and communication sources known to man.

The tools available on the internet make any type of communication effortless. Verbal and nonverbal communication can be accomplished with video conferencing software. Written messages can be sent through email. Electronic versions of pictures can be sent to and from any internet device.

Customer communication software is another example of one of these tools. While other gadgets help make communication between a business and their consumers easy, certain tools can often be considered hybrid – bringing together different types of communication.

Live chat is a rare hybrid tool that combines all types of communication – verbal, nonverbal, written, and rich media – through audio and video conferencing software, instant messaging, and file sharing capabilities.

Customers can place orders, ask questions, or troubleshoot issues through live chat, all on a single customer communication platform. This gives them access to a business and allows them to connect with an agent whenever they have a query. With live chat software, it’s never been easier to connect.

Information and communication technology

Information and communication technology refers to a connected system of interactive tools and technologies that are used to send and receive information. Whether it be an individual or an entire company, if a single entity is using multiple types of technology to communicate, they must be linked to ensure efficiency.

components of information and communication technology

These systems of interactive tools can include state-of-the-art innovations, such as artificial intelligence, and less advanced technology, like the corded telephone. The ability and newness of the device aren’t important. If multiple technology tools are being used by an individual or business, they should be connected.

Information and communication technology have changed the way people go about their days living, working, and communicating. These innovations have taken over certain duties that people never would have imagined a machine to do, such as answering phones and giving human-like responses or speaking into a device and having it write a message for you. Information and communication technology allows people to effectively communicate in the technological world.

Stay tuned : Information and communication technology is an expansive topic, and the ideas within it continue to evolve. You don’t have to be an expert, but understanding the basics and keeping up with new communication technology will help make you the best communicator possible.

Marie Salomea – most popular women scientist

Early life:

Born : 7 November 1867, Warsaw, poland

The youngest of five children, she had three oldest sister and brother. Her parents- father, wladislaw and mother- bronislava

Died : 4 July, passy, France

Spouse: Pierre cutie

discovered : radium, polonium

Awards: Nobel Prize in physics, novel prize in chemistry, John Scott legacy medal and premium.

QUOTES: 1. nothing In life is to be feared, it only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less.

2. Be less curious about people and mire curious about ideas

3. One never notices what has been done, one can only see what remain to be done.

Radioactive discoveries:

curie was intrigued by the report of German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen’ s Discovery of X-ray and by the French physicist henri becquerel’ s repot of similar ” Becquerel ray” Emitted by uranium salts.

According to Goldsmith, Curie coated one of the two metals plated with a thin layers of uranium salts.

then she measured the strength of the rays produced by the uranium using instrument designed the faint electrical current generated when the air between two metal plates was bombarded with uranium rays.

she found that uranium compound also emitted similar rays

In addition the strength of the rays remained the same, regardless of whether the compound were in solids or liquid state.


She worked extensively with radium throughout her lifetime, Characterizing it’s various properties and investigating it’s therapeutic potential.

However,her work with radioactive material was what ultimately killed her .she died of q blood disease.

Literature in Heian period

In the Heian period a lot of importance was placed on art and literature. The aristocracy paid a lot of heed to developing a refined taste in literature and developed strong customs and behavioural conduct.  During this period the nobles of the court known as ‘kuge’ accentuated on appearance and decorum and dictated rules for every aspect of life. Art, literature and poetry were an essential part of the imperial court. All the people working in the imperial court were expected to have a good education in writing and poetry. One’s writing skills were the parameter for earning a good reputation and position within the court.

Heian period was very rich period in development of Japanese culture because Japan was heavily influenced by the Chinese society and their culture, but it was in this period that japan started to keep clear of the Chinese influence on their way of lifestyle and their own traditions and practices.

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In the Heian period, only men used to write works in kanji (the writing system that was borrowed by China) but they mostly or only wrote poems, and historical documents and not fiction. Whereas the women, although were not versed in kanji writing system but still wrote in kana. Men used to write in the Chinese script as it was believed that it was of higher social status. Ironically, the women of this period were the one who developed Japanese writing method and played a key role in the rise of Japanese vernacular literature. Female authors in Japan were more popular than the male because they wrote in an accessible language, the language of the common people, ‘kana’. The women wrote tales and fictional stories, the kinds that men usually shied away from. 

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The new writing system, Hiragana, was used by women to write their tales that gave them more freedom to express their emotions freely. Use of hiragana empowered women to be able to be able to write about their thought, feelings and their everyday hardships and lifestyle in the nation that they lived in. For the author Shounagon, she spent years in mastering kanji writing system so she could display her level of intelligence in the society dominated by men, and she often used kanjis in their writings. The most cardinal works of literature were written by women in the Heian period, the most notable work being ‘The Tale of Genji’ and ‘The Pillow Book’. Both books are considered to be masterpieces and very important work of literature of that time even today. Both books documented the important aspects of lifestyle of people during the Heian era.

source: Mikiso Hane