Manipur – Home to number of Indian Olympians

Manipur – Home to number of Indian Olympians

A relatively small northeastern state with a population little above twenty five lakhs, Manipur has produced many renowned athletes as well Olympians. The most recent example is Mirabai Chanu, silver medalist in weightlifting at Tokyo 2020 Olympics.

There are several reasons due to which Manipur produces many Olympians. The state has a very strong sporting culture. Amarjit Singh Kiyam, captain of Indian team at FIFA U-17 World Cup 2017 said “Everyone loves sports in Manipur, be it football, hockey, boxing or wrestling”. National footballer Gurmangi Singh said “There are no malls and multiplexes, so sports remains the primary source of entertainment.” and this is the reason why around 20 thousand people came up for a friendly match at Imphal which itself resides a population of 2.5 lakhs.

The sporting culture of Manipur is supported by the community clubs. These community clubs get huge amount of support from the people. And these community clubs are run by volunteers. Dr. R.K. Nimai Singh, former Commissioner of sports and youth affairs for Manipur, says the spirit of volunteering in the people of Manipur is a result of a pre-colonial tradition known as ‘lallup’. As per this tradition of the monarchy of Manipur, every man aged between 17 to 60 had to voluntarily work for the state for a few days each year. Although this tradition was exploited during the colonial period, still the spirit of volunteering remained a part of Manipuri heritage even after independence. Journalist Dipanjan Sinha wrote “Local clubs are started, run and funded by local communities”. Sportspersons and former players also extend their support to such clubs from funding to donating equipment or subsidizing the meals.

Another factor is the body type of people from Manipur which gives them advantage in various sports including boxing, weightlifting and football. Dangmei Grace, Indian Women’s National Football team says “Our body structure is quite different from other players. Our ability and speed are very good”. The key factor of their body structure is low center of gravity. Most popular example of such structure is Lionel Messi. Low center of gravity is useful especially for weightlifting due to which women from Manipur are efficient with heavy weights. Anita Chanu, former weightlifting champion and coach says the average Manipuri has the right built for weightlifting-“short but with good muscle mass”. For example Hidilyn Diaz the recent gold medalist in weightlifting from Philippines has a height of 4 feet 11 inches and Mirabai Chanu too is of the same height. And this low center of gravity can partly explain the Chinese domination in weightlifting.

Having many advantages doesn’t make success at national and international level easy. Sponsorship is still a struggle for the sportspersons of Manipur which leads them to go for other professions for financial stability. Politics also affects the game negatively. The insurgency of Manipur highlighted in the national and international media prevents foreigners etc. from lending their support. But Dr. R.K. Niami Singh said that the sporting culture of Manipur is so strong that even insurgents won’t interfere with a player or a game. And this is the main reason of sportsperson’s successes at events like the Olympics.

Operation Polo: an operation lead by real iron man

Pre- Independence Hyderabad

Operation Polo is called the military campaign after which the princely states of Hyderabad and Brar joined the Indian Union. This was needed because the Nizam of Hyderabad Osman Ali Khan Asif Jah VII decided to remain independent after the partition of the country. The continuation of an independent princely state in India was not acceptable to the government. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the principal architect of India’s political integration, made it his priority.

Attempts were made to persuade the Nizam but he refused to sign the treaty. The army was sent in defeat and Hyderabad joined the Indian Union on 12 September 1948.

Emergency-like situation was created for the first time in India on September 13, 1948. This was different from the Indira Emergency of 1975. On this day 36,000 soldiers of India camped in Hyderabad. From 13 to 17 September, there took place a genocide which shook whole Hyderabad. It was said that thousands of people were shot standing in line. The army called it ‘Operation Polo’. In some part it was also called ‘Operation Caterpillar’. Sardar Patel told the world that it was ‘police action’. Read the story of Hyderabad meeting in India.

One of the world’s richest people, Nizam wanted a separate country:

निज़ाम
Nizam of Hyderabad

After the independence of India, many princely states wanted their separate country. But the Indian government was not ready for this. Because it was not possible. No argument went in favor of his point. As a result, either out of love or reprimand, everyone had to unite with India. But some princely states had made up their mind to challenge India. One of these princely states was the princely state of Hyderabad.

Here the lineage of Asafjah who came from Samarkand used to run. These people were the governors of this princely state on behalf of the Mughals. After Aurangzeb, they were ruled here. They were called Nizams. So in 1948, Nizam Osman Ali Khan Asafjah used to rule the seventh subject, which was mostly Hindus. The Nizam was one of the richest people in the world at that time.

The Nizam’s dream was to have a separate country of its own. For this, apart from his army, he had made a separate army. In which there were people from the Muslim community. They were called Razakars. Before this, the Nizam had also gone to the British government. That they should have their own country under the Commonwealth.

But Mountbatten refused. A. G. Noorani has written that Nehru wanted to settle the matter through dialogue. But Sardar Patel did not have the patience to talk.

Agreements were broken, talk reached from country to America:

Till now there was an agreement with Hyderabad that you should run your state now. Just the Government of India will see your foreign relations. Also you don’t have to have any relation with Pakistan. But the princely state of Hyderabad had also given crores of rupees to Pakistan. Due to this, both the parties kept accusing each other of breaking the agreement.

The princely state alleged that the Indian government was besieging them from all sides. The government said that you are not even using our currency. Weapons are being imported from Pakistan. Razakar’s army is being built. What do you want?

रजाकार
Razakars

Mountbatten again placed an agreement in June 1948. According to this, everything will continue as it is. Nizam will remain head of state. But gradually the decision of the people will be brought. The Government of India agreed. But the Nizam was not ready. He wanted complete swaraj. For this, he also sought the help of the UN and US President Harry Truman. But not found. Those people didn’t say anything.

The head of the Razakars who wanted an Islamic country was sent to Pakistan:

There was already communal tension in Hyderabad. At the same time there was opposition to Telangana. At the same time a group of Muslims was formed, MIM, headed by Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung. After his death, Qasim Rizvi became the chief. Qasim was the leader of the Razakars. The purpose of these people was to create an Islamic state. They did not believe in democracy. These people spread terror.

Whoever was against him was his enemy. Communists and Muslims who were different from him were also his targets. The main target were Hindus. As a result, thousands of people were killed. Women were raped. They felt that by doing this their great kingdom would become.

The patience of the Indian government was broken. Sardar Patel sent an army contingent to Hyderabad. After the arrival of the army, there was a fierce battle for 5 days. Because of telling police action, no other country in the world has put its hand. As soon as the military action was called, the rest of the countries of the world would have accused India that India has attacked any other country. The Razakars were completely ruined. Qasim was put in jail.

His office Darussalam was made a fire station. MIM leaders were sent to Pakistan or stopped from going out in public. Later, Qasim was given two days’ time on his release from jail to go to Pakistan. When Qasim got two days’ time, the biggest question in front of him was what would happen to MIM now. For this a meeting of MIM was held.

A lawyer named Abdul Wahid Owaisi was also present in this meeting. He took the responsibility on his shoulders. Changed the name of the party to AIMIM i.e. All India Majliye-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen. This is the same party which is now run by Owaisi bhai.

ऑपरेशन पोलो के बाद नेहरू, निज़ाम और जे एन चौधरी
Nehru, Nizam of Hyderabad and J.N.Chaudhary

There were allegations against the Indian Army, the report came after 65 years:

हैदराबाद के मेजर जनरल सैयद अहमद भारत के मेजर जनरल जे एन चौधरी को सरेंडर करते हुए
Major General Syed Ahmed of Hyderabad surrendering to Major General JN Choudhary of India

There were many allegations on this fight. It was alleged that the people of the army and civil had started looting and rape in Hyderabad. But all these things were not allowed to come out. Sunder Lal Committee was also formed for this. But it took 65 years for its report to come out! This report came out in 2013. According to many people, 10-40 thousand people were killed in this fight. Some say that close to two lakh people died!

The report has clearly given the details of robbery and rape in Hyderabad State. Hyderabad was merged with India, but it had to pay a heavy price for it.

APJ Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (October 15, 1931 – July 27, 2015), known as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from July 25, 2002, to July 25, 2007. He was honored with several prestigious awards during the course of his carrier including India’s highest civilian honor “Bharat Ratna” in 1997. 

Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

He was born in Dhanuskhodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, and studied physics and aerospace engineering. 

Before becoming President of India, he worked with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) as an aerospace engineer and was intimately involved in India’s civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missiles and launch vehicle technology.

If you fail, never give up because FAIL means “First Attempt In Learning”

– APJ Abdul Kalam

Some biggest achievements of India’s ‘Missile Man’

  • Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam led India’s two major science research organizations – Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

  • Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period and Kalam played an intensive political and technological role in their success.

  • He directed the project to develop India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SVL). As a project director for the development of the indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle at ISRO led to groundbreaking scientific development. It was in July 1980, that India’s SVL-III successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in the near-Earth orbit leading to the country becoming a member of the exclusive Space Club. 

  • He was responsible for the successful launch of Agni and Prithvi missiles.

  • Dr. Kalam directed projects for the development of India’s ballistic missiles. He headed the projects Devil and Valiant, for the development of ballistic missiles using the technology behind the successful SLV programme. 

  • The Government of India honored him with Padma Bhushan in 1981, Padma Vibhbuhsan in 1990 for his work with ISRO and DRDO and his role as a scientific advisor to the Government. In 1997, Kalam received India’s highest civilian honor,the Bharat Ratna, for his contribution to the scientific research and modernization of defense technology in India. In 2013, he was the recipient of the Von Braun Award from the National Space Society “to recognize excellence in the management and leadership of space-related project”.

  • Dr. Kalam had always encouraged the young population of India to develop a habit of reading and penned down many inspirational books. Some of his notable masterpieces are India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium (1998); Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of A P J Abdul Kalam (1999); Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India (2002).

  • APJ Abdul Kalam made huge contributions to the healthcare sector. Woking jointly with the cardiologist Soma Raja, the late President developed a cost-effective coronary stent ‘Kalam-Raju Stent’ which helped in making healthcare accessible to all.

Dr. Kalam died on July 27, 2015, while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management in Shillong.

Reference Link : https://www.britannica.com/biography/A-P-J-Abdul-Kalam

Best places to study on campus

Studying is a must in college. It’s how you turn those grades into a degree. Unfortunately, studying can sometimes be a hassle to your busy schedule. Also, finding a quiet place to study and keep you focused can be an issue. Typically, it’s hard to study in your dorm or your apartment with all the distractions around you. You may want to hang out with your friends or watch some Netflix. However, you have to get up and start studying!

Here are some of the best places to study on your campus:

OUTSIDE:

Depending on the weather outside, studying under a tree or at a picnic bench can be the perfect study area. You can enjoy the outdoor weather while studying your notes and getting your homework done.  If you don’t want a lot of noise where you’re at, try finding a place on campus away from the dorms where you can study.

CAMPUS LIBRARY:

The most obvious option is the campus library. Everyone goes to the library for peace and quiet. It’s a distraction-free zone to get all your work done. Your library will usually have study rooms or quiet floors. Take advantage of the study rooms! You can rent one for a certain amount of time and its a great option to getting a lot of work done without distractions. Watch out during finals week in the library. Hoards of students will come to study and it might be a distraction for you. Try renting out a room a week or more in advance so you’ll be guaranteed to study without the distraction of all the new students in the library.

Empty Classrooms:

Another area to study is in an empty classroom. Generally, by the end of the day, most teachers and students will be out of the classrooms. This is your chance to study in a classroom where no one else can distract you and you can get some excellent studying done.

THE PARK:

Going to the park is a natural way to improve your mood as you surround yourself with nature. Furthermore, many people enjoy being outside rather than staying in a room or building. Consequently, studying at a park table, bench, or picnic area can boost your mood and inspire creativity and focus.

Not only do you receive natural light and vitamin D, but you also become more connected to the outdoors. Finally, consider bringing food and a drink so you can enjoy the breeze and eat a good meal. This will help you stay focused and provide optimal energy throughout your study session.

commons ROOM:

Finally, there’s the commons. Everyone knows about it, and only few utilize it for their studying needs.

This is a great place to study, so long as you pick the right times. It can get busy during meal times and other high traffic times throughout the day, but later at night or earlier in the morning, this is going to be one of the most quiet places on campus.

So if you’re an early bird or a night owl, definitely consider this option.

SOURCE:

https://www.thoughtco.com/places-to-study-3211504

https://howtostudyincollege.com/how-to-get-good-grades/where-to-study/

MOVIES THAT ARE A MUST WATCH !

This pandemic has left us all homebound and bored . Online school and college can be tiring and we long for recreation and a much needed break from this monotonous life . Well , there is always a way out, yes , Movies , the perfect form of escapism . So , here are a few movies to watch and have a good time with friends and family and to wind down a bit . Hope you enjoy ,

I KNOW WHAT YOU DID LAST SUMMER – If you are a horror/thriller movie fan , you need to watch this . The story about the 4 protagonists will surely blow your mind and keep you glued to your seats still the very end . The unexpected jumpscares , the casting , directing and the cinematography makes this a classic must watch . And there is a sequel as well , now thats a bliss , isn’t it?

CLUELESS – I highly doubt about the fact that people have not already watched this 90s classic romcom , but if you haven’t , then you must add it to your list. This quintessential teenage movie is evergreen and very entertaining , and the fashion element of the movie makes it even better . Cher’s closet is *chef’s kiss* , will surely make you want to go shopping. You will not regret watching this classic romcom.

SEVEN – If you love watching murder mysteries and movies about serial killers you will surely love this masterpiece . The casting is enough to tempt one to watch this movie , Morgan Freeman and Brad Pitt play the lead detectives here. The slow burn , suspense and unexpected turns will leave you completely shook .With an amazing storyline and amazing performance from all actors , this movie is a must watch .

ALPHA – In times like these where there is hopelessness and so much negativity , we need motivation and things that inspire us to keep moving forward . This movie will surely motivate and make you realise that us humans are more powerful than we realise and we can literally conquer anything if we put our mind to it. By the end of the movie you surely will be filled with positivity and hope.

Astronomers has discovered first bursts of light from a black hole, validating Einstein’s Theory

First of all What are black holes and how do they form?

A black hole is generated when a star dies with such a strong gravitational field that stuff is crushed into the little region underneath it, trapping the dead star’s light. Because matter is crammed into such a smallspace, gravity is extremely powerful. People cannot perceive black holes because no light can escape. They are undetectable.

Astronomers have spotted light behind a black hole for the first time, despite the fact that black holes are notorious for allowing no light to escape.

Black Holes, a massive emptiness capable of engulfing anything in its path, are notable for their vast gloomy blackness, which prevents light from passing through. For the first time, astronomers have spotted light from behind a black hole.

Researchers observed strong X-Ray flares erupting from a supermassive black hole at the centre of another galaxy, which is almost 800 million light-years away, deep in the universe. The new discovery is likely to alter our view of the universe’s largest baddies, which are capable of sucking planets and stars while defying gravitational forces.

The research published in the journal Nature reported the observations of X-ray flares emitted from ar0ound the supermassive black hole and its accretion disk. It is already known that the black hole’s extreme gravitational field redirects and distorts light coming from different parts of the disk.

Detecting light behind a black hole

Researchers were researching the region known as the corona when they noticed the light. It’s a type of X-Ray light produced by materials colliding with a supermassive black hole that can be used to map and characterise them.

However, the telescope picked up unexpected “luminous echoes”, smaller flashes, which were of a different colour than bright flashes. Analysis of the X-ray flares revealed short flashes of photons consistent with the re-emergence of emission from behind the black hole.

“These photons’ energy shifts reveal their origins from various areas of the disc. Photons that ricochet off the disk’s far side are curved around the black hole and intensified by the intense gravitational field “According to the study’s findings.

As photons bend around the black hole, the bright flare confirms Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Although it has long been known that any light that enters a black hole does not exit and cannot be seen again, astrophysicists believe they were able to glimpse the light because black holes warp space and bend light as the magnetic field surrounding them twists.

New Gold Regulations

Gold is not just an asset in India it holds significance in our culture. Being the symbol of the Goddess Lakshmi and considered to be auspicious.

It is part of several cultural and social events of Indian society. Not just bought on special occasions or passed down from several generations, but it also holds the great economical point. Being one of the most trusted investment all over the world even the RBI of India holds 695 tonnes of gold within it as a reserve.The government of India had mandatory hallmarking for gold in 256 districts and plan to implement it all over India in the future.


What is a Hallmark?

It is series of marks made on the metal to clarify the content of the noble metals like gold, silver, etc.In other words,s it lends credibility to the purity of gold. The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), in India, is the accreditation agency that certifies and Hallmark gold jewelry and other precious metals.

Other key terms related to gold-

Carat– It indicates the percentage of purity of the metal. Eg 24 carat means gold contains 100 pct gold. But to lend it some strength metal is mixed. Hence gold is about 18 -22 K only.

Stamp of BIS and year of the mark-It is a triangle mark assure of purity with the year of hallmarking of jewelry.

Jewelry Identification mark-BSI mark also carries jewellery stamps to Indicate that jewelry is certified. Its certification is cheap at Rs 2 per gram of gold.

Currently, this regulation is only imposed on jewelers having a turnover of above 40 Lakh only.

Mary Kom: The Living Legend

Mangte Chungneijang Mary Kom, popularly known as Mary Kom, is a Manipuri boxer and undoubtedly India’s most and one of the world’s most accomplished female boxers in modern times. Her various accomplishments and her boxing prowess have given her the nickname of ‘Magnificent Mary’, a nickname very fitting for her.

Mary was born in Kangathei village, Moirang Lamkhai in the Churachandpur district of Manipur on the 24th of November, 1982. She hails from a family of farmers and is the eldest of three children; with her having a younger brother and a sister. Throughout her school years, Mary extensively took part in athletics and played many sports; with a special interest in javelin and running. All this changed in 1998. Her fellow statesman, Dingko Singh had just returned from the 1998 Bangkok Asian Games with a Gold medal. Mary, like many other Manipuri youth was inspired by him and decided to give boxing a try. She moved to Imphal and started serious boxing training under the then Manipur State Boxing Coach, M. Narjit Singh. She kept her boxing training a secret from her family, as her father previously had voiced his concern that while boxing her face may get spoiled, thereby ruining her chances of marriage. In the year 2000, she won the state boxing championship, as a result of which she was featured in the newspaper. This led to her family finding out about her career as a boxer. This, along with her love for boxing caused her father to give her his whole hearted support.

Mary Kom’s career is filled with numerous accomplishments, medals and records. Mary’s major achievements and records are:

  • The only female to win the World Amateur Boxing Championship six times
  • The only female boxer to have won a medal in all the first seven World Championships
  • The only boxer, either male or female, to win eight medals at the World Championships
  • The world’s No. 1 female light-flyweight by the International Boxing Association (amateur) [AIBA]
  • The only boxer to win the Asian Amateur Boxing Championship 6 times
  • The only female Indian boxer who qualified for the 2012 London Olympics
  • The first Indian female boxer to win a gold medal at the Asian Games (2014 Incheon Games)
  • The first female Indian boxer to win a gold medal at the Commonwealth Games (2018 Gold Coast Games)

Mary Kom received a Padma Shri in 2006, and a Padma Bhushan in 2013. On 25th April 2016, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha. In March 2017, she was appointed by the Indian Ministry of Youth and Sports as a national observer for boxing. On the 11th of December 2018, the Government of Manipur bestowed upon her the title of ‘Meethoi Leima’ (exceptional lady). She was awarded the Padma Shri in 2006 and the Padma Bhushan in 2013. On the 25th of January 2020, Mary Kom was awarded with the Padma Vibhushan. She was declared as a female representative of boxing’s athlete ambassadors’ group for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.  

Mahatma Gandhi Jayanti – International Day of Non-Violence

  • Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated on the 2nd October year on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi). The great freedom fighter of India is regarded as the ‘Father of the Nation’. Mahatma Gandhi is popularly known as ‘GandhiJi’ and ‘BapuJi’ in India and the world.
  • He was born on 2 Oct 1869 to his Hindu parents named Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai in Porbandar, Gujarat. This day is observed as national holiday across all the states and territories of Republic of India. It is also one of 3 official national holidays of India which are 26 January (Republic Day) and 15 August (Independence Day) declared as public holidays.
  • On this national day, all the Govt. offices, banking, and postal services (excluding the emerging services) are normally closed to remember the great the son of Mother India. Private companies mark as holiday with opening of emergency services like medical, health care, and transport service for urgent needs of the public. However, most of the school, college, university and education institutes organise essay completion, quiz, public debate related on life and history of Mahatma Gandhi. There are cultural functions from the Govt. and private organizations, TV Channels and media circles to celebrate the learning and quotes by Gandhiji.

International Day of Non-Violence by the United Nations

Vande Mataram, Jai Hind and Satyamev Jayate’ 

On 15 June 2007, the United Nations General Assembly announced by adopted a resolution which declared that 2 October will be observed as the International Day of Non-Violence in the world. On this day, there are so many public debates arranged by the United Nations offices in various cities of the world.

In India, Gandhi Jayanti official celebration starts with a prayer services at Raj Ghat, Gandhi’s memorial (his cremated place) in New Delhi. National slogans like ‘Vande Mataram, Jai Hind and Satyamev Jayate’ are given with prayer meetings, commemorative ceremonies in different cities by local government institutions and educational institutions and political parties. Favourite painting competitions are conducted among the children with prizes given for projects in schools for peace, non-violence. A Hindu devotional song “Raghupathi Raghava Rajaram” is usually sung in his memory which Gandhi’s favourite Bhajan of spiritual.

People lighting candles and offering flowers on Gandhi’s statue or photo in all parts of India. Remembering his patriotic and philosophy which inspires all the Indian freedom for Independence of India from the British. Awards are given to important personalities for glorifying non-violence and peace of Gandhi’s ideology. There are 3 most important places of Mahatma Gandhi. Please travel the following historical places which explore you more about the life of Mahatma Gandhi.

  • Sabarmati Asharm – The place of the Gandhi’s most of the life living.
    Martyr’s Column at Gandhi Smriti in Delhi – Here Gandhi was shot down.
    Raj Ghat on banks of river Yamuna in Delhi – The place of his cremation.

TWO HACKS FOR INSTANT BRIGHT FACE AT HOME

Find out these incredible hacks that can save your party day!

Wishing to attend a party with a bright face, but no time to get ready. It is a big problem for us as we are not able to put makeup on our dull skin. Don’t worry! Check out these cheapest and easiest hacks that can bring instant brightness to your face without any harm. Also, these hacks are time-saving.

Coffee scrub:

Coffee powder essentially stays in our kitchen is our hero for this hack. Take two spoons of coffee powder and mix it with two spoons of powdered sugar. Now add coconut oil a little to make a paste with it.

That’s it! Now apply it to your face and neck. Scrub it with your hands. Then give a gentle massage to your face and leave it for ten minutes. Now wash your face with gentle soap and pat your face with a soft towel.

Now you can see your face brighter than before. This hack is suitable for dry skin people they can try it without worries.

Coffee Scrub
Coffee Scrub

Curd mask:

This hack is suitable for moist skin people. Take three spoons of curd and add a spoon of turmeric powder. Mix it with a tablespoon of lemon juice. That’s it! Now apply it to your face and neck. Leave it for ten minutes. Now wash your face with gentle soap and pat your face with a soft towel.

Now you can see your face brighter than before.

Curd mask
Curd mask

As you tried these hacks you can see your bright glowing face where your skin is fresh ready for makeup. I’m sure you’ll love these hacks as they give amazing results and are time-saving.

GREDA LENER

-Aastha Joshi

Gerda Lerner was bornin 30 April 1920 in Austria. She was Austrian born American historian and a women’s history author. Apart from scholarly publication she wrote numerous poems, fiction, screenplays, theater pieces and an autobiography. She also served as the president of organization of American historians from 1980 to 1981. She was also appointed as the history professor of Robinson Edward in Wisconsin until retiring. She was the founder of women’s history and in 1963 while she was still an undergraduate she taught “Great women’s in American history” which is considered as the first regular course for women in the field of women’s history. She played a key role in development of the curricula of the women’s history and formation of degree programs in women’s history at sarah Lawrence college and Wisconsin university were she also launched PH.D programe. Gerda Lerner was the first child of her parents and she had younger sister. She mentioned that as a child she has strained relationships. In 1938 at the time of anti-Nazi resistance Gerda got involved in it, because of which she and her mother were behind the bars and occupied the cell for 6weeks.In 1939 she immigrated to America on scholarship of bobby Jensen, her socialist fiance. Her marriage with Jensen did not work efficiently after she met carl Lerner who was a theater director. In 1951, Gerda Lerner collaborated with poet Eve Merriam on a musical, The Singing of Women. Her novel No Farewell was published in 1955. In the early 1960s, Lerner and her husband co authored the screenplay of the film Black Like Me, based on the book by white journalist John Howard Griffin. In 1966, Lerner became a founding member of National Organisation for Women.

In the 1960s and 1970s, Lerner published scholarly books and articles that helped establish women’s history as a recognized field of study. Her 1969article “The Lady and the Mill Girl: Changes in the Status of Women in the Age of Jackson”, published in the journal American studies, was an early and influential example of class analysis in women’s history. She was among the first to bring a consciously feminist notion to the study of history. In 1979, Lerner chaired The Women’s History Institute,

a fifteen-day conference at sarah college. It was attended by leaders of national organizations for women and girls

IMPORTANT WORKS

1. Black Women in White America,documentary

2. The Female Experience

3. Creation of patriarchy

4. Fireweed: A political autobiography

5. Creation of feminist consciousness

She died on January 2 2013 in Wisconsin at the age of 92.

LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY



-Aastha Joshi

The last 50 years have seen rapid growth in population, urbanization and human Consumption resulting in usage of most of the earth’s resources to an extreme level. A recent report by WWF states that the population size of mammals, reptiles, fishes, birds and amphibians have decreased by 68 percent on a average from 1970 to 2016, which makes us astonished about the biodiversity we have lost. The report pinpoint’s this biodiversity loss to a variety of factors, but mainly land-use change,particularly the conversion of habitats, like forests, grasslands and mangroves, into agricultural systems. Animals like sharks and seahorses are significantly affected by the illegal wildlife trade, and pangolins are critically endangered because of it. It has been found that the sixth mass extinction of wildlife on Earth is accelerating. More than 500 species of land animals are on the brink of extinction and are likely to be lost within 20 years. The species that are endangered will go extinct whereas the species that are readily available will fall into endangered category. Without such harsh actions of humans on the environment this loss of biodiversity would have taken thousands of years. The living planet report 2020 shows that population sizes in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced the highest decline, at 94%, while globally, freshwater species have been disproportionately impacted, declining 84% of average. Humans have been openly criticised for using up the earths resources and not giving them time to replenish. Since the industrial revolution, human activities have increasingly destroyed and degraded forests, grasslands, wetlands and other important ecosystems. local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are disappearing. The best example to it is crows and pigeons, early generations have seen the being on their rooftops but now days we can hardly find some around us. Several wildlife conservation techniques have now been adapted by the mankind to tackle this loss of biodiversity and maintain an ecological balance. Many wildlife centuries and biosphere reserves have been made to provide a natural habitat to these endangered species as the loss of natural habitat has been reported one of the major reasons for the loss of these species. The alarming ratios of decrease in the species has made the people around globe a little more concerned. Several projects have been initiated by the counties and also at the global level to converse these species and stop them from getting extinct. Harsh treatment to animals have strongly been prohibited, also hunting has now came in the negative light and strict actions are taken upon people practicing it without the permission of government. All on the world Biosphere reserves have been created to promote the well being of these animals and providing them a secured environment as well as a habitat that is originally meant for them. Humans have created a ruckus all over the earth disturbing the balance around and lifestyle of the species. If optimal measures are not taken at the right time these acts of humans can have a disastrous impact on them itself.

Evil of Corruption

Corruption is the abuse of public or private office for personal or political gain, and it is linked to fraud, tax evasion and money laundering.

Corruption in India is an issue which affects the economy of central, state and local government agencies in many ways. Corruption is blamed for stunting the economy of India. A study conducted by Transparency International in 2005 recorded that more than 62% of Indians had at some point or another paid a bribe to a public official to get a job done. In 2008, another report showed that about 50% of Indians ha first hand experience of paying bribes or using contacts to get services performed by public offices, however, in 2020 their Corruption Perceptions Index ranked the country 86th place out of 180, reflecting steady decline in perception of corruption among people.

The largest contributors to corruption are entitlement programs and social spending schemes enacted by the Indian Government. For Example include the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employments Guarantee Act and the National Rural Health Mission. Other areas of corruption include India’s trucking industry which focused to pay billions of rupees in bribes annually to numerous regulatory and police stops on interstate highways.

Causes

The causes of corruption in India include excessive regulations, complicated tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly of government controlled institutions on certain goods and services delivery, and the lack of transparent laws and processes. There are significant variations in the level of corruption and in the government’s efforts to reduce corruption across India.

Black Money

Black money refers to money that is not fully or legitimately the property of the owner. A government white paper on black money in India suggest two possible sources of black money in India, the first includes activities not permitted by the law, such as crime, drug trade, terrorism and corruption, all of which are illegal in India and secondly, wealth that may have been generated through lawful activity but accumulated by failure to declare income and pay taxes. Some of this black money ends up in illicit, such as deposits in tax haven countries.

Domestic black money

India companies are have been reported to misuse public trusts for money laundering. India has no centralized repository like the registrar of companies for corporate’s of information on public trusts.

  • Gold purchases-In Gujarat, Delhi and many other major cities, sales of gold increased on 9 November, with an increased 20% to 30% premium surging the price as much as Rs.45,000 from the ruling price of Rs.31,900 per 10 grams.
  • Donations-Authorities of Sri Jalakanteshwarar temple at Vellore discovered cash worth Rs. 4.4 million from the temple.
  • Multiple bank transactions-There have also been reports of people circumventing the restrictions imposed on exchange transactions and attempting to convert black money into white by making multiple transactions at different bank branches. People were also getting rid of large amounts of banned currency by sending people in groups to exchange their money at banks. In response, the government announced that it would start making customers with indelible link. This was in addition to other measures proposed to ensure that the exchange transactions are carried out only once, by each person. On 17 November, the government reduced the exchange amount Rs.2,000 to discourage attempts to convert black money into legitimate money
  • Municipal and local tax payments-As the use of the demonetized notes had been allowed by the government for the payment of municipal and local body taxes, leading to people using the demonetized rs.500 and Rs.1000 notes to pay large amounts on outstanding and advance taxes. As a result, revenue collections of the local civic bodies jumped. the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation reported collecting about Rs.1.6 billion in cash payments of outstanding and advance taxes within 4 days.

Efforts on corruption

However, just as elsewhere in the word, the negative effects of corruption are the same, it reduces foreign direct and domestic investments, increases in-quality and poverty, raises the number of freeloaders in the economy, distorts and exploits public investments and reduce public revenues.

Survival Guide For Distance Learning Education

Computers have provided students and teachers with a plethora of new opportunities in recent years. Technology has progressed beyond books and chalkboards. Every day, more computers are being introduced into schools. With the world becoming more computerized, it is more important than ever to teach people how to use technology. Learning for kids is not only more fascinating, but also more enjoyable, thanks to the modern technologies that teachers employ. The Internet has made a huge difference in schooling. We can now take lessons online from hundreds of miles away while yet feeling like we are in the classroom thanks to the Internet.

Learning can be a difficult task for anyone who wishes to broaden their horizons. Learning has entered a new era with the help of online schools, which is quickly expanding. Secondary education is now available online for individuals who wish to earn their degree. For some pupils, this may not be the best schooling, but for others, it is ideal. To maximize the benefits of online college, a student in an online school must learn to apply his or her educational abilities and tools.

Goal-Setting and Goal-Achievement

Creating an action plan is the first step in doing anything significant. This action plan will assist any student in achieving his or her objectives. This strategy is just a set of objectives. Short-term and long-term attainable goals should be established in order to demonstrate the student’s progress. The long-term goal would be considered the action plan’s final result. Although a student may have numerous long-term goals, it is critical that each long-term goal has its own plan. Short-term goals should serve as stepping stones toward the achievement of the major long-term goal. Short-term goals should also be attainable in order to help the student gain confidence and demonstrate progress. Setting and achieving goals will be extremely vital throughout one’s online learning journey.

Retrieval technique

Retrieval technique entails bringing knowledge from memory to mind. Students do this when they take practice tests or quizzes, but it can also happen in other ways. Students can, for example, jot down what they remember on a blank sheet of paper or even sketch ideas. The important thing is that they should recall the knowledge from memory. So, while duplicating one’s notes would be ineffective, attempting to summarize one’s notes from memory would be extremely valuable. Students do not need to recall everything and can use their notes or course materials to fill up any gaps following retrieval.

Using Time Efficiently

Time is a valuable commodity. Each kid has an own learning style. It is critical to understand each student’s personality and learning style in order to maximize each student’s abilities. Participating in Discussion Questions and speaking with one another allows each student to evaluate who is the greatest at learning in each type. People with the personality styles of organizer, adventurer, giver, and thinker fall into this category.

Elaboration

Elaboration entails posing “how” and “why” questions regarding a certain issue and then attempting to find answers. Students understand and learn more when they try to describe and explain how and why things work. Students can also apply the themes to their own life, or compare and contrast two topics to see how they are similar and different. This method can be assigned to a single student or a group of pupils. Students can use elaboration in online discussion boards or virtual groups via video chat in a distance environment.

LOVE, ACTUALLY

What do millennials want?

The answer seems to be love. But the task of a millennial finding love is fraught with ambiguity

By “What do millennials want?” is a lament that has echoed for the past decade. “Millennials” is a word to indicate the generation that grew up with the Internet, with the luxury of access to information, but a dearth of attention to consume it, the generation that is called too sensitive (you’re telling me I can’tcall them mannequins? Womanaquinns sounds weird!), yet too entitled. It’s the one flouting conventions of pairing off into couples, having babies at the time deemed appropriate by dadima, and (thankfully) acknowledging that sexuality is not binary, but a spectrum. For a group of people that actively defy classification — what do millennials want?

At the risk of sounding cliched (a phrase that is always followed by a resounding cliche), we all want the same thing as the generations before us — love. It’s an easy cliche to indulge in because love is such a catch-all term. It means a myriad of things to different people and, for that same reason, sometimes ends up meaning nothing to everyone.

The task of being a millennial finding ‘love’ in 21st century India is one fraught with ambiguity. If anything, it is the defining quality of this generation. It manifests itself in everything — our films teach us that ‘gusse se nahi, pyaar se darr lagta hai’ (we don’t fear anger, but love) and our news channels teach us that if we hold hands in public we might have to spend the night in jail. Families police our childhoods into reductive gender roles, telling us not to talk to strangers, but have no qualms shoving us into the arms of strangers when they think our age is right. The revelations of the #MeToo movement have shaken the foundations of what gender behaviours will look like in the future. Embodying the millennial paradox, we trawl the Internet looking for love in dating and marriage sites, and yet only a minority of us marry outside our castes and social circles. Millennial Indians have to straddle the line between ghosting and gotras and in it we have to find the definition of love as it might feel right to us.

And here’s a little secret — no generation ever knows what they want till they have it or have just lost it. Everything will be clearer in retrospect, when think tanks classify the generation that detests classification, but till then we have our beloved ambiguity, we have trial-and-error, we have an expanded vocabulary of what love might mean, an evolving world that’s (slowly) accommodating the spectrum of love and sexuality.

When the opportunity to write this column came along I wondered if there was the need for a heterosexual woman’s point of view. My experiences will only be able to reflect the view of an upper caste, upper class, urban, privileged woman. How would I be able to encompass the vastness of the experience of love? Maybe not knowing is why I might make a decent millennial columnist? While I promise that subsequent columns will have humiliating (and possibly hilarious) anecdotes from my personal love life, I hope that you will know that my inbox and heart is always open, to share in your ambiguity about love — for now, that’s what this millennial wants.

CHANGING DYNAMICS OF EMERGING ACADEMICS

Emerging academics

There are so many academic studies introduced in this emerging world. The value for these new studies is great and respectful. Some new academic studies include Artificial intelligence, Machine learning, Deep learning, Cloud computing, and so on. Though the demand for studying these is less among students earlier, it attracts students who are interested in that field. The moment people realize about emerging technologies chooses to study in these fields.

New Technologies
New Technologies

Blooming Fields

Since these studies involve the development in science and the world, software industries are interested to show their talent among their competitors. So, this increases the search for talented students to work with them. Therefore it creates large employment opportunities in these fields. So, we can mark these as a blooming fields.

Awareness among students and parents

Also, due to the pandemic situation right now, the internet discovered many students interested in these fields. Many inventions and discoveries have been made by students to help this world. Thereby it enhances the academic and leadership potential of the students. This shows people’s awareness about the new academic fields.

In India, many new courses and streams have been introduced in colleges and schools to develop the standard in education. Also, awareness about these courses is being made among students by government and industry peoples. 

Online class
Online Class

Due to the pandemic situation, students attend online classes which also made students think about the necessity of new technologies and the demand for these technologies. Since new streams are introduced in colleges, some parents who understood the real demand are interested to join their children to enlighten their knowledge.

 Hereby, we can conclude that the dynamics for emerging academics are changing in developing countries.

CEO OF GOOGLE – SUNDAR PICHAI

Google is an American company that is famous for providing information and many other services through the Internet all over the world.

Currently the owner (CEO) of Google is an Indian named Sundar Pichai who is an Indian-American business executive. He is Alphabet Inc. And its subsidiary is the CEO of Google. He is 49 years old and he was elected CEO of Google in 2015. Pichai Sundararajan was born on 12 July 1972 in Madras. He was originally an Indian citizen but was later granted US citizenship after being hired by Google.Now for many years Pichai lives in America with his family but his parents live in India only. His parents are very proud of his success.

His education

Pichai completed his schooling at Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, a Central Board of Secondary Education school in Ashok Nagar, Chennai and completed class XII from Vana Vani School, IIT Madras. Pichai had obtained a degree in Metallurgical Engineering from IIT Kharangpur CB Tech. After which he went to Stanford University for his further studies.After receiving his MS from Stanford University, he had an MBA from the University of Pennsylvania where he was named a Siebel Scholar and Palmer Scholar, respectively. Pichai was very interested in studies from the beginning.

And the result of that interest is in front of the entire nation today. Due to the interest in his studies, he has achieved this success today and his name is in the whole country.At an early age Pichai displayed an interest in technology and an exceptional memory, particularly for telephone numbers. In December 2017, Pichai was a speaker at the World Internet Conference in China, where he said that “Google” does a lot to help Chinese companies. There are many small and medium-sized businesses in China that take advantage of Google.Getting the products in many other countries outside China. Pichai was reportedly aggressively pursued for employment by microblogging service Twitter in 2021, and in 2014 he was seen as a potential CEO of Microsoft, but in both cases he was older than Google to stay with. Financial packages were given. He has received many awards throughout his life. Then after that Sundar Pichai became the owner of Google

His success

Pichai was named one of Time magazine’s 100 Most Influential People in 2016 and 2020. At the same time ensuring its continued growth is a huge responsibility.When asked what he does to get results in meetings, he said that he tries to involve people in the conversation so that everyone can participate. If the meetings are not virtual, he actually goes around the table one by one, and asks people to clearly state their position, to make sure the introverts in the meeting have opinions, perspectives, and attitudes. The stands are brought to the front.

His life

Pichai joined Google in 2004, where he led product management and innovation efforts for a group of Google’s client software products, including Google Chrome. In addition, he oversaw the development of other applications such as Gmail and Google Maps. In 2010, Pichai also announced the open-sourcing of the new video codec VP8 by Google and introduced a new video format, Web M. Chromebook was released in 2012.In 2013, Pichai added Android to the list of Google products he had visited.

His mother, Lakshmi, was a stenographer, and his father, Regunath Pichai, was an electrical engineer in the British conglomerate GEC. Pichai is married to Anjali Pichai, an Indian chemical engineer currently working as a business operations manager at Intuit, a software company, and they have two children.His daughter also works in Google. His recreational interests include cricket and football. Google’s owner Pichai is an American citizen but he says that he has a lot of love for India and India will always be close to his heart. Pichai is heavily inspired by the culture of India.Because he was born in Madras, he did not know how to speak Hindi, he speaks Tamil and English very well, he had learned some words of Hindi during his college days, due to which he was very interested in Hindi language but while living in America He prefers to speak English only.

Keeping up with the To-do Lists

Be Honest. Not everyone runs on lists. However, if you’re struggling to make sense of your goals, a list could save you time, energy, and the need to come up with excuses for when the thing that needs to happen, well, it doesn’t.

List-making is pretty personal. Some people border on obsessive about them. Others prefer less to-doing and fro-ing. They’d rather wing it, writing important telephone numbers on the backs of their hands or sticking Post-its to their leg, “Memento”-style.

For one thing, the act of writing out a list forces us to set concrete goals (To-do: “Take out the trash.”). This can be way more effective than thinking about vague objectives.

By creating organized to-do lists, you can prioritize the things you need to do, keep track of what still needs to be finished, and feel productive and prepared in all areas of your life.

Creating To-do list

So, here are some tips which I personally find useful.

  • Decide what medium works best for you – If your smartphone is in your hand all day every day, use the Notes application to create your to-do list. If you hate staring at a phone or computer screen, grab a pen or pencil and write your list by hand. A to-do list will not be helpful if you dread making it or using it, so choose whatever medium you prefer most. Although it does not guarantee you’ll be ticking it all off.

  • List all of the tasks that you need to accomplish – Writing absolutely everything down, you will be getting it off your mind and onto paper. It will ensure you don’t forget anything, and hopefully, it will also help your mind feel less crammed. The running list of every single task you have on your radar will be referred to as your primary list.

  • Keep it simple – There’s nothing more intimidating than a mile-long to-do list. The longer a to-do list becomes, the harder it can be to motivate yourself. But it’s human tendency to back-off at the sight of anything that seems too heavy. Simply put, Looks are important. So, chop it up if you need to but keep it sweet and simple. Create an illusion for yourself forcing you to believe it very easy and do able.

  • Meet the MIT’s ( Most important tasks) – Prioritize everything. This is the key rule and also the reason why we make a primary list. Remember, so we don’t forget anything and not jumble up the order we need the tasks to be done. Because we’ve a deadline to follow and we all know what happens when we miss one by accident.

  • Stay specific and don’t stress – We love lofty goals here. We’d love to have all our task done at once, it provides you relief, “I’m done for this week, Freedom here I come “. Nice scenario but seldom does it occur. Every list has a few tasks on it that we’ve been meaning to do for days, weeks, or maybe even years but haven’t yet. For, this we have one of the two reasons, first ” I’ll do it later, I have to do this first.” Or “What is this, I swear I’ll do it someday”. So either it’s not on your priority list or you don’t think it’s important enough to execute.

  • Be flexible to have a new start everyday – Leave your self with some wiggle room. This will provide you with the space to think, to reboot, to remain on track. Make a new list every day so the same old items don’t clog up the agenda. If something lives on the to-do list for too long, it does not get to-done, and that is to-disappointing.
Doing all the things to do

Self-discipline is a good thing: It’s a key part of maintaining balance, success, and health. But so are pleasure, relaxation, relationships, and hobbies. However, punishing yourself will lead exactly nowhere. Make sure that, among all the scheduling and listing, you block out some time for yourself, whether in the form of exercise, mindfulness, or sitting around in your pajamas.

Your to-do list should be contributing to your happiness, not dominating your life. Don’t beat yourself up if you don’t complete all of your tasks. Getting up and trying again tomorrow is the real achievement.

Hope you find this helpful!!

SOURCES

https://greatist.com/happiness/make-a-to-do-list-get-shit-done#The-final-item:-Be-kind-to-yourself

https://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-To-Do-List

Why the disintegration of Soviet Union was surprising?

Pictorial representation of USSR disintegration

Before we start on the topic here is a fun fact the Soviet Union covered the one-sixth portion of the whole world.

The Soviet Union, a group of 15 republican factions, broke up overnight and it was such a big break that even today after 30 years its tremors are being felt.

How the Soviet Union, which influenced the history, economy, ideology and technology of the 20th century, was torn apart in one night. Born of the Communist Revolution of Russia in 1917, people of at least 100 nationalities lived in the Soviet Union and they owned one-sixth of the earth. An empire that defeated Hitler, waged a cold war with America and took part in a nuclear race. Also played a role in the Vietnam and Cuban revolutions.

The empire that sent the first satellite into space and also the first man. His name was Yuri Gagarin. The Soviet Union also remained at the forefront of sports, dance, cinema, literature, art and science. Archie Brown, professor at Oxford University and an expert on Soviet policies, says, ‘The speed with which the Soviet Union broke up in a single night was astonishing to everyone.’

Many other experts, including Brown, consider many reasons responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union. That disintegration, which happened on a Christmas night in 1991.

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin

1. Dictatorship and Centralized Governance:

The Soviet Union was formed in 1917. When the Bolshevik Revolution took place and the Russian Empire was abolished by ousting Tsar Nicholas II from power. In 1922, under the leadership of Lenin, far-flung states were merged into Russia and the USSR was officially established, headed by Vladimir Lenin. It was obvious that it would not be easy to control such a complex and diverse country.

The Soviet Union tried to become a democracy by breaking away from the Tsar’s dictatorship. But eventually dictatorship was established, with Stalin being the most prominent dictator. Later on, a kind of parliament was formed, which was called Supreme Soviet, but all the decisions were taken by the Communist Party. From choosing the head of the country, every decision was taken by a small committee of the party, which was called the Politburo.

From the time of Stalin, the party’s control over politics, economy and common life went on. Opponents were sent to Gulag. Gulag, where people were tortured. Lakhs of people died in Gulag.

2. ‘Hellish’ Bureaucracy:

Dictatorship and centralized rule also led to an extensive bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, whose control extended to every corner of society. That is, you have to go through the process of paper, stamp and identification for everything. Oxford professor Archie Brown says, this bureaucracy made the Soviet Union a difficult country.

Karl Marx

3. Failing Economy:

The economy of the Soviet Union was inspired by the principles of Karl Marx, who considered the resources of production, distribution and exchange to be the property of society. The economy ran on the basis of five year plans. Most of the population of the Soviet Union was employed in industry and agriculture.

But despite this, the Soviet Union lagged behind America in the economy. And in the 1980s, the GDP of the Soviet Union fell to half that of the United States.

4. Best Education:

Education initiation in the Soviet Union was excellent and millions of people were educated. Gradually, the restrictions on external connections were reduced and people began to know about the world. Gradually it happened that social groups of better educated people started being formed which became influential. He became an advocate of Gorbachoff’s economic reforms, which were announced in the nineties.

Gorbachoff’s Reforms:

According to Brown, although the reasons for the disintegration of the Soviet Union were many, the most important reason was Gorbachev himself. His coming to power was a big deal in itself. He came to power to change the Soviet system, that is, he was about to dig his own grave. When he became the General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1985, he began a reform program because of a poor economy and an inefficient political structure.

He started two policies named perestroika (reducing government control) and glasnost. Gorbachoff felt that this would benefit the private sector. Innovation will increase and later on foreign investment will also be in the Soviet Union. He gave the workers the right to strike so that they could demand better wages and working conditions.

Under Glasnost, there was an attempt to adopt openness and transparency. The ban on books by authors such as Solzhenitsyn and George Orwell was lifted. Political prisoners were released and newspapers were encouraged to criticize the government’s policies.

Elections were attempted for the first time and the Communist Party was involved in it:

As a result, people queued up to buy more ration. Prices started rising and people started getting upset with Gorbachoff’s rule. Gorbachev resigned on the night of 25 December of the same year, and the next day the document was signed, separating all parts of the Soviet Union.

Archie Brown says, ‘It did not happen that the economic and political crisis led to liberalization and democracy started.’ According to him it was all the opposite. Due to liberalization and democratization, the system reached a period of crisis and the Soviet Union broke up. They say that if Gorbachoff’s economic reforms had not taken place, then perhaps the Soviet Union would still exist today.

IS SUCCESS EVERYTHING?

Is it necessary to success fully to get succeed? Not necessary. It is said that even after getting successful, success is the realization of being happy is more important than success. It is saying that winning or losing doesn’t matter, it is more important that you have attempted and then you lose. What do you mean by success? Everyone has a different definition of success, which is, if you are healthy and wealthy you are successful. The actual meaning of success is something you decide for yourself. Success could be the thing you love to do, it could mean career progression also. Success is to do whatever you wanna do which makes you happy. It is true that the more success we receive, the more we tend to expect and the definition of success rises. Which leads to hard work.
As we are living in the society, the mindset of people works accordingly to the society, what society will think? will they judge? ‘if we earn less’. We are focused on what society thinks so in that fear we tend to work hard so that, we can fulfill the expectations they have created for us.
Success is the only thing that doesn’t get without failure. For a lot of people, success seems to be an easy spot. But without embracing, perseverance and learning from the failure, and taking something positive from many people, those who have experienced. Sometimes people get lucky, but success comes in a very short period but with no struggle is short-lived. If success is so easy to grasp, then till now everyone should be wealthy enough.

Failure can be sometimes embarrassing to your ego, but failure doesn’t mean to be sad and quit things up, to be a successful person, one has to face many failures which teach us air flaws and our mistakes which will make us better people and will also cultivate the courage. While being successful there will be a lot of outcomes, some less to learning. This will change us, that is why this is important than outcomes.
Everyone should truly believe that everyone will be and are successful. Success isn’t just essential but it is vital. It should not be increased or decreased for anyone, do whatever makes you happy.

Indian Education System

Indian Education System

Rukmini Banerjee, the incharge of Pratham which is an organization striving to improve the quality of education in India. Pratham publishes an annual survey for the same known as ‘Annual Status of Education Report’ popularly known as ASER. For their 2018 report ASER surveyed a total of 546,527 children across 596 districts in rural India. For this survey the ASER staff gives children reading and basic calculations as test. And if you aren’t familiar with rural India, the results may seem shocking. About 50.3 per cent children studying in 5th standard were unable to read a paragraph from 2nd standard textbook. Only 4.4 per cent of students aged between 7 to 16 years are recorded not going to school which implies that children are merely going to school and not actually learning.

The problems of the Indian education system maybe classified as

  1. Design of the system
  2. Governance

Design of the system (Low learning)

Economists Karthik Murlidharan and Abhijeet Singh conducted tests with children from government schools in Delhi and came up with results reciprocating those of ASER. For example their survey showed that only two students in 6th standard had the learning level of an average 6th standard student. Other students of the 6th standard had learning levels that of an average 5th, 4th and even that of 1st standard student. According to researchers majority of the students are lagging behind the curriculum.

Any education system shall work to fulfil two major purposes i.e., Skill development and Filtering students for higher studies. Whereas the Indian education system works more like a factory system which has set really high standards to produce students which would further perform well at various Indian competitive examinations. Our education system does not focus much on the skill development of the students. It is basically a ‘one size fits all’ kind of a system where students are supposed to pass out of school or college even when they haven’t learnt properly. This pressure leads to cheating, bribing and other such malpractices observed during the major examinations. This system isn’t limited to schools. The same situation prevails in many universities as well. This is the major reason why many surveys say majority of Indian graduates are unemployable.

Governance

A government school teacher Sangita Kashyap came to lime light in the year 2014 as she set a record of being absent for 23 years from her job. But she isn’t an exception. Survey conducted by Karthik Murlidharan shows that 23.6 per cent of teachers were absent during unannounced visits, and it is estimated to salary cost of about 1.5 billion dollars per year to the Indian government. Due to this absenteeism Delhi government installed CCTV cameras in all classrooms of government schools. But teachers aren’t the only one’s responsible, system actually makes the situation worse.

A analysis conducted by Azim Premji foundation showed that about 18 per cent of teachers were absent from classes but only 2.5 per cent were actually skipping their duty. About 9 per cent were on paid leave whereas 7 per cent were busy with official duties. According to the Right To Education (RTE) Act 220 days of study is mandatory at school but on the contrary, in 2015-16, just 42 days were spent on teaching during the academic year. This means teachers spent about 81 per cent of their time on administrative duties. Many teachers recently lost their lives to election duties in Uttar Pradesh due to the large scale negligence of Covid protocols.

Solutions

There are two major problems i.e., low learning despite going to school and further lessening of the learning potential due to administrative duties performed by teachers.

Several learning programmes in the country are working innovatively to solve the first issue. The Indian government too recognizes the issue to some extent, as a result it recently withdrawed its ‘no fail policy’ till class 8.

For the second issue, efforts should be made to reduce the admin duty time of teachers. This may be done using technology and hiring staff specifically for administrative tasks like poll duty.

Solving all such issues, one at a time, lead us to a education system that the Indian youth deserves.

Pegasus – A malicious software

Pegasus, a malicious software, has been developed in 2010 by the Israel firm, the NSO(Niv Carmi, Omri Lavie, and Shalev Hulio-company’s founders) group. It was initially discovered for iOS devices later it extended to the Android devices.

Birth of Pegasus:

2016 – Hackers send malicious link to the targeted persons(smartphones,laptops) via text messages and email. This process was given a name called “spear fishing”.

2019 – Pegasus got updated where a single missed call on WhatsApp can infiltrate a device and even delete the record of this missed call which makes it difficult for the user to know what had happened to their device.

Also in the same year, WhatsApp Pegasus exploited a bug in its code to infect more than 1,400 iPhones and Android phones. These include journalists, government officials and human rights activists. But soon WhatsApp done away with the bug.

2021 – The Pegasus Project,an international investigative journalism effort, proved that various governments used the software to spy on opposition politicians, government officials, activists, journalists and many other.

Working of Pegasus:

=> Once the Pegasus got installed in a device, the entire control of device is in hacker’s hands. It gives access to hacker to gather data and forwards to the third party without the consent of the user.

=> It can read messages, emails, take screenshots, access contacts and know browser history.

=> Through hijacking, hacker gets access to microphone and camera turning it into a real-time surveillance device through capturing all activities in the phone’s vicinity.

=> Pegasus sends back the private data of the user to the hacker including contact list, calendar events, passwords, text messages and live voice calls from popular messaging apps thus accentuating the chances of user being blackmailed.

=> It is a software that can compromise a phone without the user having to click on a single link called “Zero-link-attack“.

=> Business executives, activists politicians, heads of state, many Royal Family members of Arab, journalists were found to be on the targeted list.

How to detect:

Mobile Verification Tool: A tool to check whether your phone has been targeted to attack or not and works with both iOS devices and Android. It has been developed by researchers at Amnesty International.

Measures taken to mitigate cyber crimes:

International Telecommunication Union: It is a specialized agency within the United Nations which plays an significant role in development and standardization of telecommunication and cyber security issues.

Budapest convention: An international convention which seeks to address Internet and computer crime by improving investigative techniques and increasing cooperation among nations. India is not a signatory to this convention.

Conclusion:

The government need to take certain measures to restrict the usage only for authorized agencies and purposes. Unrestricted usage will become power to hackers and a pain to the society. To reap the benefits of this software, proper implementation is necessary.

Tips of Hair Care

Spending too much on expensive shampoos, but not getting the desired results that you see in TV ads? It is mostly possible and very common, because we see overly exaggerated results on TV, since these ads are designed to attract customers. But, reality speaks a different story. Follow these easy and simple beauty tips for hair to give that luster and shine, and flaunt your hair like the models do…

TIPS AND TRICKS

1. Cleanliness is important

The most important reason for hair fall is dandruff and itchy scalp. Therefore, maintain good cleanliness for beautiful and healthy hair.

2. Avoid hot water

Skip hot water showers, because hot water will make your hair dry and brittle as it strips protective oils from your hair. Thus, prefer a temperature which is just a bit warmer than your body temperature.

3. For that shiny soft hair

Prepare a mixture of 1 cup of your daily conditioner and 2-3 tablespoons of honey. Apply this mixture evenly on your wet hair. Leave it for 30 minutes and wash it off thoroughly. This mixture will close down your hair’s cuticle and give your hair that amazing shine.

4. For bouncy hair

Apply a one to one mixture of warm water and apple cider vinegar to your hair. Rinse it thoroughly after 5 minutes to get rid of the apple cider smell.

5. For strong hair

Use almond oil to treat dry and damaged hair. It is a very simple procedure, pour some almond oil in a bowl and heat it for 40 seconds. Then evenly distribute on your hair. Leave it for 30 minutes and then rinse normally with shampoo and conditioner using cold water.

6. Moisturize your hair

Pour a little beer in your wet hair. Distribute evenly and massage your scalp with your fingers for 20 minutes. Then rinse it thoroughly to get rid of the beer smell. Do this procedure once a week for salon smooth hair. It is recommended that people with sinus and cold should avoid using this treatment.

7. Let your hair air-dry

Allow your hair to dry by itself instead of using a blow-dryer or hot rollers. Using this artificial mode of drying technique will make your hair more brittle and dry. If you have no time to let your hair air dry, then use blow-dryer sparingly and make sure you use a warm setting instead of a hot setting.

8. Good diet

Drink lots of water and eat a healthy diet of raw fruits and vegetables. The most effective home treatment for hair care is a healthy diet. You are what you eat, and what you put into your body will be reflected on the outside.

Sources:

https://www.femina.in/beauty/hair/homemade-hair-care-tips-109902.html

https://www.lorealparisusa.com/beauty-magazine/hair-care/all-hair-types/best-hair-care-tips.aspx

Sati Pratha

Hinduism, being the oldest religion, has many rituals in it. Sati, burning a woman alive with her husband’s dead body, is the most influential and controversial ritual. Many other religions had similar ill practices in the past such as witch-hunting (women were hanged to death for being suspicious of witches), and female genital mutilation. It was declared illegal in 1829 but even today we see women committing it, which might be voluntarily or forcefully.

If it was a voluntary act, then it was considered to be the greatest form of devotion of a wife toward her husband. As time passed sati became a forced practice.

Origin Of Sati Pratha

We have read about sati pratha and how it was abolished in our history books but do you know how it was originated in the first place.

As per mythology, Sati was the name of the wife of lord shiva. Sati was the daughter of Daksha who was the son of Brahma. Her father never respected shiva and often despised him. So to protest against the hatred that her father held for her husband she burnt herself. While she was burning she prayed to be reborn as shiva’s wife again. Thus this did happen and her new incarnation was called Parvati.

There is no mention of sati pratha in any ancient Indian scriptures like  The Valmiki Ramayana and Vedas. In Mahabharata, Madhuri the second wife of Pandu, burned herself to death after her husband died. She considered herself responsible for his death as she could not save her husband from the poison. Her sacrifice was not the result of any sati pratha but sheer love toward her husband.

If you look in Ramayana and Mahabharata you can see many women who lost their husbands did not perform sati. In Ramayana, Sita had to undergo fire to prove her chastity. But there is no correlation cause sati happens when the husband dies but Ram or Shiva never dies in those stories.

There is a resemblance between sati and jauhar (another form of sati performed by Rajput women). Jauhar was a mass suicide performed by women to avoid capture by Muslim invaders. Sati on other hand is performed by a widow.

Spread of Sati Pratha

This tradition has been followed since ancient times in India. Sati was considered as a dignified sacrifice, a way to clean the sins of the spouse and his family but some considered it as a private matter of spouses who follow his/her loved one into death, and with time it became public. Initially, the practice of sati was confined to the rural families of Kshetriya cast and only later spread to the lower caste becoming widely practiced among all social classes. The window of royal families prefers dying rather than being captivated by the soldiers who defeated their king in the war.

Abolition of Sati

Many Hindu scholars and poets have condemned the sati tradition. The first ones who tried to put a stop to this inhuman tradition were the Muslim rulers of India, namely the Mughals and Nizams. But the attempt was unsuccessful as they were criticized by many people. However, in the 19th century, during British rule in India, Sati was abolished by the governor of India at that time, William Bentick.

Improve Your Personal Development Skills – Tips to help you!

Nowadays, merely having a qualification isn’t enough in the job market. To land that dream job, it’s vital that you have specific skills, especially soft skills, for example, being able to communicate well or to work in a team.

Generally speaking, you don’t acquire these skills at university, but you do acquire them in daily working life. But how? Let’s take a look at some useful methods, tips, and examples.

What are skills?

Skill – an ability to perform a specific task or activity to a high level of proficiency

It’s possible to acquire and hone skills to perfection (or near‑perfection) through practice and dedication. Learning and mastering a skill involves far more than just a theoretical understanding of facts or concepts.

Personal development skills can be traits or qualities you already have or ones you can gain through education and training. Individuals will value different personal development skills depending on their goals, but here are some examples of skills people commonly practice to facilitate personal growth.

  • Communication
  • Interpersonal
  • Organization
  • Problem-solving
  • Self-confidence
  • Adaptability
  • Integrity
  • Work ethic
  • Leadership

Communication

Communication includes your ability to speak, write and listen. With these skills, you can understand what others are saying and feeling and also convey your own ideas and feelings. Good communicators can speak clearly and confidently, using a tone that is positive and appropriate for the situation.

Interpersonal

Also called people skills or social skills, interpersonal skills are the verbal and nonverbal behaviors and reactions to interactions with other people. They affect your ability to build relationships and make impressions on others in social situations.

Organization

Organization skills include the tidiness of your physical and digital spaces as well as your ability to plan, schedule and prioritize. Good organization can help save time, prevent miscommunications and improve efficiency.

Problem-solving

Problem-solving is your ability to handle challenging or surprising situations. Good problem-solvers can stay calm when they encounter obstacles and assess all their options to find the best solution.

Self-confidence

Self-confidence is the belief in your abilities, actions and decisions. If you have confidence in yourself, you might be more likely to pursue ambitious goals, try new things and believe you can succeed.

Adaptability

Adaptability is your ability to adjust quickly and easily to new things. People who handle change well often get along with a variety of personalities and thrive in any environment. They can also remain calm in surprising situations.

Integrity

People tend to trust those who are honest and stand by their values. Integrity means doing what is right and telling the truth, even if doing so presents challenges. Having integrity can lead to a good reputation and opportunities for advancement.

Work ethic

Work ethic includes not only hard work but also reliability, responsibility, quality, determination and discipline. People with good work ethic tend to be productive and have a positive attitude.

Leadership

Leadership is the ability to guide people. Good leaders can motivate others and help them reach a shared goal. They build confidence and improve morale.

Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom.

Viktor Frankl

THE ART OF LOVING THYSELF .

In this fast pacing world with ever increasing competition , the struggle to be at the top , and everybody’s desire to become ‘successful’ , we are slowly becoming so very self critical and judgemental towards ourselves . We are so desperate to be the very best that we are blindly running in this rat race and not realising that we all have our own paths that we need to follow . We are slowing loathing ourselves for everything that we are not , instead of loving ourselves for all that we are . This constant comparison that we do with others is just not the healthy way of becoming a better version of ourselves . Here are a few points to remember before you start comparing and critiquing yourself:-

Photo by Mike Chai on Pexels.com

EACH ONE OF US IS UNIQUE- We all have different sets of talents and things that we are good at , be it dancing , singing , writing , photography , or being academically gifted. We just need to find out what we are good at and what we like instead of comparing ourselves . You might have the qualities of becoming a great teacher and you might be unaware of it , or have an inclination towards cars or computers . Your likes and dislikes makes you more unique and more YOU , so embrace it and find your uniqueness. This will help you find your own path in life and automatically halt the comparisons .

DIVINE TIMING – We often want instant results and are impatient . Seeing our friends getting their dream jobs or succeeding makes us feel bad about ourself because we seem to be exactly where we were, despite the hardwork and dedication . This can be frustrating , but you will succeed when its your time to.This statement seems pretty phoney, but its not ,there is room for everyone to succeed , we just need. to be patient and continue to persevere. Our time will come .

WE ALL ARE ON DIFFERENT BOATS- Its true , we are all on different boats , with different sets of obstacles and challenges , so its not practical to compare each other . Every human is dealing with problems that differ from ours. We must understand this and realise that just like there is no comparing between the sun and moon , we humans can’t be compared either.

ITS IMPORTANT TO FAIL SOMETIMES – After failing a test or a job interview we tend to feel a deep sense of disappointment and tend to levitate towards self doubt and fall in the labyrinth of comparing ourselves . But it’s imperative to know that its okay to fail sometimes and its actually good . Failure is a good teacher and helps us understand the areas we need to work on . So next time you fail at something , try to learn from it instead of hating yourself.

ISIS -THE EGYPTIAN GODDESS

Egyptian goddess


-Aastha Joshi


Isis is an Egyptian goddess who lacked her own dedicated temples but grew as one of the most important deities of ancient Egypt. Her cult subsequently spread throughout the Roman Empire, and Isis was worshipped from England to Afghanistan. She is still revered by pagans today. she was most often represented as a beautiful woman wearing a sheath dress and either the hieroglyphic sign of the throne or a solar disk and cow’s horns on her head. she was a principal deity in rites connected with the dead; as magical healer, she cured the sick and brought the deceased to life; and as mother, she was a role model for all women. Occasionally she was represented as a scorpion, a bird, a sow, or a cow. she is mentioned many times in the Pyramid Text, in which she offers assistance to the dead king. The priests of Heliopolis, followers of the son god re, developed the myth of Isis. This told that Isis was the daughter of the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut and the sister of the deities Osiris, Seth, and Nephthys. Married to Osiris, king of Egypt, Isis was a good queen who supported her husband and taught the women of Egypt how to weave, bake, and brew beer. But Seth was jealous, and he hatched a plot to kill his brother. Seth trapped Osiris in a decorated wooden chest, which he coated in lead and threw into the Nile. With his brother vanished, Seth became king of Egypt. But Isis could not forget her husband, and she searched everywhere for him until she eventually discovered Osiris, still trapped in his chest. She brought his body back to Egypt, where Seth discovered the chest and hacked his brother into pieces, which he scattered far and wide. Transforming into a bird, and helped by her sister, Nephthys, Isis was able to discover and reunite the parts of her dead husband’s body-only his penis was missing. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son, Horus. Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son,Horus, Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Isis hid with Horus in the marshes of the Nile delta until her son was fully grown and could avenge his father and claim his throne. She defended the child against attacks from snakes and scorpions. But because Isis was also Seth’s sister, she wavered during the eventual battle between Horus and Seth. In one episode Isis took pity on Seth and was in consequence beheaded by Horus. Eventually she and Horus were reconciled, and Horus was able to take the throne of Egypt. Isis was the perfect traditional Egyptian wife and mother-content to stay in the background while things went well, but able to use her wits to guard her husband and son should the need arise. The shelter she afforded her child gave her the character of a goddess of protection. Several narratives tell of her magical process, far stronger than the powers of Osiris and Re. Isis became associated with various other goddesses, including Bastet, Nut, and Hathor, and thus her nature and her powers became increasingly diverse. Isis became known, like other fierce goddesses in the Egyptian pantheon, as the “Eye of Re” and was equated with the Dog Star, Sothis. The first major temple dedicated to Isis was built by the Late Period king Nectanebo II at Behbeit el-Hagar, in the central Nile delta. Other important temples, including the island temple of Philae, were built during Greco-Roman times when Isis was dominant among Egyptian goddesses. Several temples were dedicated to her in Alexandria, where she became the patroness of seafarers. From Alexandria her cult spread to Greece and Rome. Images of Isis nursing the baby Horus may have influenced the early Christian artists who depicted the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. In many spells in the Pyramid Texts, Isis and Nephthys help the deceased king reach the afterlife. In the Coffin Texts from the Middle Kingdom, Isis appears still more frequently, though in these texts Osiris is credited with reviving the dead more often than she is. New Kingdom sources such as the Book of the Dead describe Isis as protecting deceased souls as they face the dangers in the Duat. They also describe Isis as a member of the divine councils that judge souls’ moral righteousness before admitting them into the afterlife, and she appears in vignettes standing beside Osiris as he presides over this tribunal. Late funerary texts prominently featured her mourning for Osiris, and one such text, one of the Books of Breathing, was said to have been written by her for Osiris’s benefit. [117] In Nubian funerary religion, Isis was regarded as more significant than her husband, because she was the active partner while he only passivelyreceived the offerings she made to sustain him in the afterlife. Isis continues to appear in modern esoteric and pagan belief systems. The concept of a single goddess incarnating all feminine divine powers, partly inspired by Apuleius, became a widespread theme in literature of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Influential groups and figures in esotericism, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in the late nineteenth century and Dion Fortune in the 1930s, adopted this all-encompassing goddess into their belief systems and called her Isis. This conception of Isis influenced the Great Goddess found in many forms of contemporary witchcraft. Today, reconstructions of ancient Egyptian religion, such as Kemetic Orthodoxy or the Church of the Eternal Source, include Isis among the deities they revere.

Computer literacy is an essential.. find out why?

Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently.
Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs
and other applications that are associated with computers. The precise definition of “computer
literacy” can vary from group to group. However, “computer literate” often connotes little more
that the ability to use several specific applications (such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft
Internet Explorer) for certain very well-defined simple tasks.

The great thing about computer knowledge, though, is that learning begets learning. Once you
figure out how one part works, it gets easier to dive into other parts and figure out how things
work.
And the benefits of having some basic computer knowledge under your belt extend way beyond
just the tech industry, especially in the 21st century. And here’s why:

They Make You a Better Problem-Solver

Problem-solving skills are universal and can be applied to virtually every part of your life, and
work, regardless of industry. From identifying an issue and breaking it down into parts to problems.

They Future-Proof Your Career

Virtually every career and industry is becoming more tech-reliant. From agriculture to education,
all are integrating tech into their day-to-day operations. It’s clear – those who have tech skills and
are comfortable working with technology will have a much easier time adapting to changing
expectations.

They Make You a Better Collaborator

Connecting with others from diverse backgrounds increases the ability to understand multiple
perspectives. Learning from and with others all over the world is possible with digital tools like
Twitter and Skype, to name a few. Students can work beyond their classroom walls to find
answers to real problems. By engaging in this type of collaboration, individuals are even more
prepared to participate successfully in our global economy.

They Make You a Well-Rounded Individual

Having a well-rounded set of skills and knowledge will serve you well, both professionally and
personally. Being able to list basic tech skills on your resume will make you more attractive to
virtually every employer out there, regardless of industry. And as more and more people become
involved in the tech industry, having at least a passing knowledge of what it’s all about can come
in handy when networking personally or professionally.

They Make You a Better Leader

Companies are now reliant on technology and as a manager or CEO, it’s important to be able to work effectively with either a department that handles web development or with an outside
agency that handles the same. And if you don’t know the first thing about the jobs those
departments or agencies do, it makes it a lot harder to work with them in a way that’s both
efficient and productive.

The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.

Stephen Hawking

Mathematics- Ancient Mathematics History

Mathematics, the science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring and describing the shapes of objects. It deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculations, and its development has involved an increasing degree of idealization and abstraction of its subject matter. Since the 17th century, mathematics ha been an indispensable adjunct to the physical sciences and technology, and in more recent times it has assumed a similar role in the quantitative aspects of the life sciences.

In many cultures under the stimulus of the needs of practical pursuits, such as commerce and agriculture mathematics has developed far beyond basic counting. This growth has been greatest in societies complex enough to sustain these activities and to provide leisure for compensation and the opportunity to build on the achievements of earlier mathematics.

All mathematics systems (for example, Euclidean geometry) are combinations of sets of axioms and of theorems that can be logically deduced from the axioms. Inquiries into the logical and philosophical basis of mathematics reduce to questions of whether the axioms of a given system ensure its completeness and its consistency.

As a consequence of the exponential growth of science, most mathematics has developed since the 15th century, and it is a historical fact that, from the 15th century to the late 20th century, new developments in mathematics were largely concentrated in Europe and North America. For these reasons, the bulk of this article is devoted to European development since 1500. This does not mean, however, that development, that development elsewhere have been un-important. Indeed, to understand the history of mathematics in Europe, it is necessary to know its history at least in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, in ancient Greece, and in Islamic civilization from the 9th to the 15th century. The way in which these civilizations influenced one another and the important direct contributions Greece and Islam made to later developments.

India’s contributions to the development of contemporary mathematics were made through the considerable influence of Indian achievements on Islamic mathematics during its formative years. A separate article, South Asian Mathematics, focuses on the early history of mathematics in the Indian subcontinent and the development there of the modern decimal place-value numeral system. The article East Asian mathematics covers the mostly independent development of mathematics in China, Japan, Korea ad Vietnam. The substantive branches of mathematics are treated in several articles.

Ancient mathematical sources

It is important to be aware of the character of the sources for the study of the history of mathematics. The history of Mesopotamian and Egyptian mathematics is based on the extant original documents written by scribes. Although in the case of Egypt these documents are few, they are all of a type and leave little doubt that Egyptian mathematics was, on the whole, elementary and profoundly practical in its orientation. For Mesopotamian mathematics, on the other hand, there are a large number of clay tablets, which reveal mathematical achievements of a much higher order than those of the Egyptians. The tablets indicate that the Mesopotamian had a great deal of remarkable mathematical knowledge , although they offer no evidence that this knowledge was organized into a deductive system. Future research may reveal more about the early development of mathematics in Mesopotamian or about its influence on Greek mathematics.

In modern times the invention of printing has largely solved the problem of obtaining secure texts and has allowed historians of mathematics to concentrate their editorial efforts on the correspondence or the un-published works of mathematicians. However, the exponential growth of mathematics means that, for the period from 19th century on, historians are able to treat only the major figures in any detail. Mathematics like any other human activity has its own fashions, will look like a wave of the future.For this reason, the present article males no attempt to assess the most recent developments in the subjects.

FEMINISM AND WHY DO WE NEED IT

Along with worldwide appreciation feminists have also faced criticism not only from men but also women. There are some who believe themselves to be Feminism but are still not au Courant with the actual meaning of Feminism and practice pseudofeminism

Let’s begin by understanding what actually Feminism is, according to wikipedia “Feminism is a range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes.

It has been well quoted that Feminism is not about making women strong, women are already strong it’s about changing the way the world perceives that strength.

Feminism is about tackling the misogynistic mindset, the advocacy of women’s rights on the basis of the equality of the sexes . To make the world realise that no gender is superior and we should get over the deep rooted patriarchy. It’s about shutting down sexism. It is not about hating men but about keeping women equal to men. To accept the fact that a female is as capable as a male. And it is also about ditching tha fact that certain tasks are for a specific gender and the opposite gender is not worth performing them. Feminism is about accepting that women are free to make their own choices.

But why do Feminism face worldwide criticism?

• we have seen many Feminism moments worldwide aimed at equal opportunities for women. Feminism has associated with empowered, forceful and angry women, and the society finds it hard to accept words of forceful women.

• some fear that with Upliftment of women there will be imposed a great danger upon their culture and traditions. But it is wrong to change traditions which satisfy only a part and leaves the other in grief ?

• others who hate Feminism are those who presume feminism about considering women superior to men. A good lot of people who firmly believe in equal rights for both male and female but still don’t align with the word Feminism solely because they don’t accurately understand what feminism is.

It was stated by emma watson that “The more I have realized that fighting for women’s rights has too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I know for certain, it is that this has to stop. For the record, feminism, by definition, is the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes.”

So why exactly do we need feminism?

First of all we need feminism because a lot of men hate the idea of women getting equal opportunities as them in all fields. It is considered necessary for a man to be earning and be financially independent but the same is not necessary for women. The household chores are considered sole responsibility of the female of the house even though men also live in the same house. A male doing household chores is considered helping the female whereas for females it considered their duty.

Secondly ,We are all well aware that 1 in 3 women are sexually assaulted in India. Gang-rape, sexual assault, sexual harassment, child sexual abuse – these terms can be found daily in headlines. And even in these circumstances the patriarchal mindset becomes the bread winner by putting blame of the female for the assult faced by her. We are more concerned about our daughters getting sexuality harasses that thinking about can our son harass someone.

Next is because sexist jokes are the ones we find most funny without realising how deep patriarchal meaning they carry. A successful indipendent female is considered to be great deal, but why not same for men? Women are told what to wear what not to but why not men? Who gave men the authority to impose upon women what to wear what not to? Why do women that accept the oppressive misogyny appreciated and those who stand against it shamed?

Once there is full equality in political, economic and social life, there will be no need for the word ‘feminism’. It will simply become obsolete. As we are nowhere near this Utopia, this is why we sill need feminism.

10 Bollywood movies that redefined friendship

The feeling of having a best friend who totally gets you is irreplaceable. Everyone needs a partner in crime to talk and actually do stupid things with, one who cheers you up when you’re feeling low or one who you just have a total blast with when you hang out. We all have those special friends whom we are ready to do literally anything for.There are many ways in which friendship is portrayed in Bollywood. When it comes to movies, everyone is pretty familiar with the main genres. You’ve got your comedies, your dramas, your action films, horror movies, etc. These can then be broken down even further based on their themes. There are period dramas and romantic comedies, sci-fi action films… but one genre that is never mentioned is movies about friendship. While they are not as talked about as other genres but there are plenty of movies which have celebrated this special bond. So what does it take to classify a movie as being about friendship? Basically just a non-romantic relationship needs to be at the center of the film. Bollywood has shown friendship in many different ways till date. Few movies show the great sacrifices a person makes for his friendship while few depict the everyday scenarios that we find ourselves in with our friends. 

Best movies that have changed the definition of friendship in Bollywood:

1. 3 Idiots

3 Idiots

3 Idiots is a comedy – drama unlike any which you have seen so far. Whatever the problem in life is… just say to yourself ‘Aal Izz Well’.. This won’t solve your problems but it will give the courage to face it..” “Chase Excellence and success will follow”.. ” Life is not about getting marks, grades but chasing your dreams”.. These are the golden rules which 3 IDIOTS teaches you in a very light and entertaining way. This film showed us what a crucial influence does friendship have on a person’s life. In the movie Farhan Qureshi (R Madhavan) and Raju Rastogi (Sharman Joshi) play engineering students forced in the rat race of reaching to the top while dealing with their own personal problems. And one man named Ranchoddas “Rancho” Chanchad (Aamir Khan) completely changed their view on life. He helped Farhan gather courage to confront his father and explain the desire to pursue his career as a wildlife photographer instead of an engineer. A career he actually was interested in. He also helped Raju Rastogi defy his fears and gave him enough confident to face them head on. 

2. Sholay

Sholay

“Yeh dosti hum nahin todenge…. todenge dam magar tera saath na chhodenge…..”. These lines itself prove that this movie is all about friendship. Sholay is regarded as an all time classic and one of the most watched movies over the past century. The characters Jai (Amitabh Bachchan) and Veeru (Dharmendra Deol) are still given as examples of great friendship. The movie was a story about these two friends who are appointed by Thakur Baldev Singh (Sanjeev Kumar) the duty to protect a village which is frequently attacked by dacoits. The dacoits are however able to capture Veeru and Basanti (Hema Malini), his love interest. Jai being a true friend that he is scarifies himself just to rescue them. Nothing is bigger than sacrificing your own life for your friendship but that is exactly the kind of friend Jai was.

3. Kuch Kuch Hota Hai

Kuch Kuch Hota Hai

The movie which made friendships day and the friendship band popular again… Kuch Kuch Hota Hai will always have a place in our hearts. On paper it was just a coming of the age romantic drama but for everyone who has seen it, the movie means so much more than that. Kuch Kuch Hota Hai was also the directorial debut for the maestro Karan Johar. The movie spoke about friendship in a very beautiful manner. 
“Pyar dosti hai … agar woh meri sab se achchi dost nahin ban sakti, to main usse kabhi pyar kar hi nahi sakta … kyun ki dosti bina toh pyar hota hi nahin … simple, pyar dosti hai.” This line from Kuch Kuch Hota Hai gets it absolutely spot on. Friendship is indeed the root cause for any romantic relation. In this movie, we got to witness the amazing and fun filled friendship between Rahul Khanna (Shah Rukh Khan) and Anjali Sharma (Kajol) which eventually blossoms into true love.

4. Munnabhai M.B.B.S

Munnabhai M.B.B.S

Munnabhai M.B.B.S is one of the most unorthodox version of a friendship that we have witnessed in Bollywood movies until now. Never the friendship between a goon and his loyal mate was shown in such a light.  Given that his father had wished him to be a medical doctor, he creates the faux Sri Hari Prasad Sharma Charitable Hospital (named after his father) and pretends to live in accordance with this wish whenever his father (Sunil Dutt) and mother (Rohini Hattangadi) visit him in Mumbai. Directed by Rajkumar Hirani, Munna (Sanjay Dutt) is a goon who is determined to get a doctor’s agree after his dad finds out that he isn’t a doctor, a lie that he was living since years. Well for a goon this obviously is not something easy but to help him get through it all was his best buddy Circuit (Arshad Warsi), a guy who is always ready to fulfil any desire that Munna may have. Be it getting an admission in college or even show up with an actual body just because his friend said he wanted one. The term “Jadoo Ki Jhappi” also became very popular after the movie as according to the film a simple hug has magical powers to solve any problem that a person might be facing. This movie was a great example of how friends stick with each other no matter what.

5. Rock On!!

Rock On!!

Released a decade ago, Rock on was the first Rock Musical film that was made in India. This also marked the acting and singing debut of Farhan Akhtar. Rock On!! begins in Mumbai, with the rock band Magik, in 1998. Joseph (Joe) Mascarhenas (Arjun Rampal) is the lead guitarist who feels the necessity to prove his worth as a musician. Aditya Shroff (Farhan Akhtar) is the lead singer who rebelled against his well-to-do family to play music. Rob Nancy (Luke Kenny) who plays keyboards and Kedar Zaveri a.k.a. KD/”Killer Drummer” (Purab Kohli) comprise the remainder of the band. They manage to win a competition in which the winner gets to release their very own music album and the opportunity create a music video. However in the process of singing the contract, ego amongst those friends takes over and they have a fall out. 10 years later they decide to reunite the band for another show. Joe’s wife however holds a grudge against the band and forces him to take up a guitar playing job on cruise ship. In the end, when Joe discovers that Rob has a brain tumour and his last wish is to perform with magic once again, without any hesitation Joe comes through for his friend to fulfil his one last wish.

6. Rang De Basanti

Rang De Basanti

Rang De Basanti is a drama film which was written and directed by Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. The literal tittle of the film translates to “Paint me with the colours of spring.” It features an ensemble cast comprising Aamir Khan, Siddharth Narayan, Soha Ali Khan, Kunal Kapoor, R. Madhavan, Sharman Joshi, Atul Kulkarni and British actress Alice Patten in the lead roles. Although the film’s primary theme was based on patriotism, it gave an excellent example as to how deep of a bond do friends have and the extent they are willing to go to for their friends. The story is about a British documentary filmmaker who is determined to make a film on Indian freedom fighters based on diary entries by her grandfather, a former officer of the Indian Imperial Police. Upon arriving in India, she asks a group of five young men to act in her film although they weren’t interested in the idea for acting on a documentary on the country. They gradually begin to realize that their own lives are quite similar to the characters they portray in the documentary and that the state of affairs that once plagued the revolutionaries continues to torment their generation. So just like the documentary, these group of friends unite in a revolt against the leaders with the aim to get the truth out in the open which saw their friends sacrifice his life for the country due to the inefficiency of the government.

7. Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani

Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani

Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani is probably remembered for the sizzling chemistry between Ranbir Kapoor and Deepika Padukone but the film also showed how important friendships are in one’s life. Along with Ranbir Kapoor and Deepika Padukone which were seen for the second time together after Bachna Ae Haseeno, this film also starred Aditya Roy Kapur and Kalki Koechlin who were seen as Ranbir Kapoor’s close buddies. The three friends were shown as extremely close and were together since the days of their college. Even after when Kabir Thappar (Ranbir Kapoor) meets them again after a long gap at Aditi Mehra’s (Kalki Koelchin) wedding they are still close as ever. The movie gave a very beautiful message of valuing your friends. It went on to prove that despite having everything you need in life, if you don’t have friends your happiness is incomplete. We must learn to value our friends before it gets to late.

8. Dil Chahta Hai

Dil Chahta Hai

Look around and we bet your group definitely has one Akash, Sameer or Sidharth. Because these were not just characters but real people like us. Dil Chahta Hai is a movie that went on to change Bollywood friendships forever. Who would have thought that the story of three close friends and their messed up lives would connect so well with the generation and remain in everbody’s heart even 16 years later. Dil Chahta Hai can truly be regarded as the game changer for mainstream Hindi cinema. It proved that you don’t need a typical Hero and Heroine pairing for making a commercially successful Bollywood movie. The reason why Dil Chahta Hai has such a special place in all our hearts is because it is so relatable in every aspect. The chemistry between Aamir Khan, Saif Ali Khan and Akshaye Khanna in the movie gave us an accurate reflection of how we talk and behave when with friends. The amazing direction of the movie made it hard to believe that it was Farhan Akhtar’s first film. The trademark scene in which Aamir, Saif and Akshaye gaze at the sun as they are contemplating life and then moments later look at each other and burst out laughing pretty much sums up the film.


9. Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara

Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara

Zoya Akhtar’s Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara is a perfect salute to friendship. It is a journey of three friends who go on a road trip and face the highs and lows of life together. Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara saw Hrithik Roshan (a successful investment banker), Abhay Deol (a wealthy businessman) and Farhan Akhtar (a writer from a modest background) as friends who are not bothered about each other’s family backgrounds. In fact, not only do they have different backgrounds but also contrasting personalities. While Farhan is an extrovert and fun loving, Hrithik is serious and introvert. Despite these differences, they are best of friends who want to be with each other through their ups and downs. They fought with each other, played pranks on others, had their emotional moments, confided in each other, had immense faith in each other and the sport they chose, went on a road trip, stayed awake all night and had hell lot of fun. Hrithik, Farhan and Kabir were perfect as the characters. In the movie, the three friends during their road trip were shown underwater diving, sky diving and running from bulls at the the San Fermin festival which not only showed the love these three friends had for adventure, but also justified how they conquered their fear and learnt to live in the present.

10.Kal Ho Naa Ho

Kal Ho Naa Ho

Kal Ho Naa Ho was a movie that taught us to live life to the fullest. The story was about Naina Catherine Kapur (Preity Zinta), a pessimistic and uptight MBA student who lives in New York City with her widowed mother. With the burden of so many responsibilities and the duty to fulfil them, Naina somewhere forgets to enjoy her own life. And during this phase in her life she comes across a special friend in the form of Aman Mehra (Shah Rukh Khan), a person who wins her heart as with the help of his attitude he begins to solve the problems in Naina’s life and also teaches her to enjoy life again. As Aman learns about his cancer and the limited time that he has left, he tries to make two close friends Rohit Patel (Saif Ali Khan) and Naina fall in love as he does not want Naina to face the burden of his death. He sacrificed his love for her because he valued her too much.

LIVE A LIFE WITH LOVE

 KEY TO LIVE A LIFE HAPPILY 

Whether we are at home or outside , working or studying we always want someone besides us who is waiting for us . We crave for the presence of someone around us , we want a person in our life to whom we can share anything .Yes we have parents , siblings , friends and many more . But we want someone that we can claim , yes he/she is mine . 

We all want love in our life to whom we can share our day to day life , our sadness, happiness and everything .Parents are always there for us , they support us . But sometimes we can’t share something very private to them because they are not of our age. They will not understand us  . But they try there best . Same goes with our friends . They are always with us for supporting us and help us in difficult situations . 

But again what we crave for is presence of someone that we can rely on completely . Everyone needs love in there life . A partner for life . Many people find there love earlier than others and some people never find them . Some people stay heart broken forever 

CHOOSE THE RIGHT ONE 

Don’t always go for handsome ,good figure , rich person to be your love . Find the one who understands you better than anyone . Because that’s the reason you wanted someone in your life . Sometimes we loose ourselves in finding and adjusting for our perfect one . But than they are not meant for us . If we have to change ourselves for someone to accept is than they are not the right one. 

Choose the one who chooses you above all . Love yourself and let love give you power to uplift your life . Don’t waste your life on an immature person , to destroy your life completely.  

Mirabai Chanu: India’s Newest Olympic Medalist

On the 24th of July, 2021, history was made at the Tokyo International Forum. Saikhom Mirabai Chanu just won India her first medal in the ongoing 2020 Tokyo Olympics in the category of Weightlifting in Women’s 49 kg by claiming the silver medal and earning India it’s highest and second medal in weightlifting after Karnam Malleswari’s bronze medal in the 2000 Sydney Olympics.

Saikhom Mirabai Chanu was born on the 8th of August, 1994 at Nongpok Kakching. It is a village around 30 kms to the east of Imphal, the capital city of Manipur. She belongs to the Meitei, an ethnic group of people who are native of Manipur. Her family consists of her parents and five other siblings; three sisters and two brothers. Her father is a government employee contracted with the publics work department, while her mother sells samosas. Out of all their children, Mirabai was the only child who decided to pursue sports as a profession. Her athletic prowess came to light in her early childhood. According to her mother, a young Mirabai, then in class 6 had told her that she would one day play in the Khuman Lampak Stadium While Mirabai initially wanted to pursue archery, she was unable to do so due to her lack of height (Mirabai Chanu is 4”11). Her weightlifting prowess was known since her early childhood, as a twelve-year-old Mirabai had no difficulty in lifting and carrying weights which even her elder brother had difficulty in trying to pick up. This weightlifting prowess of her inspired her to take up the sport of weightlifting.

Mirabai Chanu with her family
Mirabai Chanu with her family

Mirabai’s first major win in her career as a weightlifter came in the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. She competed in the Women’s 48 kg category and won the silver medal. While Mirabai qualified for and competed in the 2016 Rio Olympics, she was unsuccessful in her endeavor. However, she made a stunning comeback from that defeat the next year in the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships in the Women’s 48 kg category. She won two medals: Gold and Silver. Mirabai won Gold by lifting 109 kg in Clean and Jerk and Silver by lifting 85 kg in Snatch. Her total lifting of lifting 194 kg in total created a record.

Mirabai winning Gold at the  2017 World Weightlifting Championships
Mirabai winning Gold at the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships

In the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games, Mirabai won the first medal with a Gold medal by lifting a total of 196 kg; 110 kg in Clean and Jerk and 85 kg in Snatch. This set a new record for the Commonwealth Games in her weight category. In the 2019 World Weightlifting Championship, Mirabai set a new national record in Women’s 49 kg by lifting a total of 201 kg (87 kg Snatch and 114 kg Clean and Jerk). On the 17th of April 2021, at the 2020 Asian Weightlifting Championship, she set a new world record for Clean and Jerk by lifting 119 kg. She won a bronze medal here. By June 2021, she was second in the rankings for Women’s 49 kg and was the only Indian weightlifter who qualified for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.

Mirabai's Gold medal at the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games
Mirabai’s Gold medal at the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games

On the 24th of July 2021, Mirabai won the Silver medal in the Women’s 49 kg category by lifting 202 kg and created history. She succeeded Karnam Malleswari as the second Indian woman weightlifter to win an Olympic medal. Mirabai holds the honor of winning the highest medal in the weightlifting category in the Olympics that India has ever won. She also set a new Olympic record in the Clean and Jerk category by lifting 115 kg.

Mirabai's historical Silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics
Mirabai’s historical Silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics

Mirabai has stated that her triumph at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics is a ‘dream come true’ for her.

The Yellow Wallpaper

‘The Yellow Wallpaper,’ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, begins with the narrator describing the yellow wallpaper as the worst paper she had ever seen. The narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” begins to write when she looks to be suffering from postpartum depression. The narrator appears to have discovered some advantages to writing about her despair. She frequently refers to writing as a form of expression “a sigh of release’ for her She’s referring to some sort of mental relaxation. She is attempting to dispute her husband’s insistence on a “rest cure:” “This necessitates her staying at home and resting all day. She fights her own feelings to some extent, but she recognizes their existence, at least at the start of the novel. She acknowledges the need of valuing her own views and feelings, as well as the need to express herself, up to a degree. In the beginning of the story, she maintains her imagination and, at least in her writing, provides some resistance to her husband’s beliefs. She begins to suppress her imaginative thoughts and beliefs in order to outwardly accept her husband’s scientific ideals. Her husband/doctor, on the other hand, bans her from expressing herself, indicating a lack of communication between them.

The mental health of the narrator is deteriorating. Her husband and doctor discourage her from writing because they believe it will exacerbate her mental instability, but she continues to secretly record her thoughts. Meanwhile, her thoughts and ideas continue to flood in unchecked, but she no longer has a healthy means of dealing with them. The narrator has reached a point where only a complete change in treatment will save her from mental collapse. Even in John’s absence, the narrator becomes progressively dejected and thus less willing to write as a result of John’s continual discouragement of writing and other forms of self-expression. Nonetheless, she feels driven to continue authoring this account when she can, and finds it liberating to express herself. Unfortunately, journaling serves as her only source of solace, as she is unable to express her thoughts—even about her own treatment—otherwise, and this case demonstrates that it is insufficient to maintain mental health.

“Nationalism, Colonialism and Indian English Literature” – P. P. Raveendran

P. P. Raveendran’s article “Nationalism, Colonialism and Indian English Literature” attempts to study how a nation is constructed by the writer through their works. The essayist describes nationalism as an ‘awakening of a nation to self-consciousness’. It differs from the colonial forms of domination and he states that English literature appeared as a subject in the curriculum of the colonies before it was institutionalized in its home country. The emergence of Indian English Literature was an Indian response to both nationalism and national movement. Some writers used English for writing because of the universal acceptance of this language; so that their works would reach more hands. Others wanted to prove their proficiency in English through their works. They indirectly state that they can stand before everyone even though once they are considered uncivilized.


P. P. Raveendran talks about the evolution of Indian English Literature by tracing its history. The first book written by an Indian in English was “Travels of Dean Mahomet”, a travel narrative by Sake Dean Mahomet published in English in 1793. He tries to compare the writings of early Indian writers with modern writings. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote “Rajmohan’s Wife” and published it within the year 1864. It is the primary Indian novel written in English. Rajaram, an Indian philosopher, and writer authored “Kanthapura” and “The Serpent and The Rope”, which are Indian in terms of their storytelling qualities. Kisari Mohan Ganguli translated “The Mahabharata” into English. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and translated his own works into English. He gives the examples and writing styles of some of the Indian English writers like R.K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, Kiran Desai, V.S. Naipaul, etc. He also compares Sarojini Naidu’s poem with Kamala Das’s poem and says that Naidu’s is highly ‘orientalized’.

KARGIL VIJAY DIWAS

On this date in1999 India took a command on high outpost on 26th of July. The Kargil war was fought against the Pakistani army who took advantage of melting ice and weather and took command of high outposts of India. Pakistani army denied that they are not involve in the war, claiming that it was caused by independent Kashmiri rebel forces and by getting document on the post that showed the involvement of Pakistan army. Pakistani army capture the Indian posts and then the kargil war resulted in loss of life and war was ended when the Indian regained control over the post and ejected Pakistani army out of territory.

Photo by Alok Uniyal on Pexels.com

Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated on 26th of July every year in the honour of kargil war’s heroes.

SOCIAL MEDIA: GIFT OR A THREAT?

In the era of the 21st century, digital advancement brought smartphones, laptops, Internet, into regular usage which is now become persistently an integral part of society and lives. People now have virtual friends, it is okay for them to not meet in the public world has become a puppet on social media. Earlier when this internet thing was still new to people, social Media networking apps came into notice, which has overturned the things which were previously functioned. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp are the example of social networking sites. These are started on the internet as an online community to connect people from various states and countries of diversified cultures having the same interests and to share ideas. This will lead to nation-building, which is a basic principle of political concept. More people will make connections and talk more will superiority to the strengthening of a relationship. When the internet was created, feasibly no one used to be convinced by the fact that the internet has some level of potential. But by time gone, it is proved that the internet has changed life in every sense. A social media network can be a boon for a particular community and can be a bane.

Let’s see how social media has made a major difference in our lives in today’s generation. BOON. 1. Social media sites help us keep in touch with the outside world, family, and friends in today’s world. In a pandemic, everyone has celebrated their birthday and many events via an online platform, which turned out to be the strongest humanity of all.
2. The initial purpose of social media is to connect with friends and family which is most likely the actual purpose but another good opportunity is to improve the skills, career, motivational videos/ideas by sharing them with everyone on social media. This is the best platform to evolve, as we get many negative comments and positive too, that’s the reason we understand our flaws and work upon ourselves, and we tend to learn more things about our talent. And this kind of thing is certainly not possible physically.
3. Due to pandemics people are on the job hunt, so this has become seamless via LinkedIn, Internshala to find an internship or a job with all the network and opportunities, and it also allows work from home. This internet has been a good help in the covid lockdown when the whole world was falling.
4. It has been a revolutionary change in the process of learning in the history of teaching. School faculties have made social network virtual classes for discussion and learning. It has now been over a year, and some sites help students to solve their doubts in a fraction of seconds.
Overall social media network is a boon in many such essential reasons and has a positive atmosphere.

BANE. 1.  The life of social media is quite different in reality. It makes us believe that we want to be better than usual, it has made people compare their lives with those projects/shows their life as perfect. This creates so much chaos in our lives, and sometimes it makes us doubt our self-esteem.
2. As of now, all sorts of students, many businessmen, employees have been working from home due to covid which has lead to backaches, headaches, stress, eye site-related issues.
3. As a matter of fact, privacy on social media networks are not thorough, there have been many cases related to hacking, information leaking through an online transaction on purpose. Instagram has been on leed nowadays, many accounts have been hacked, and are some serious issues with it.
4. Socialising is all about communicating online rather than face to face, which has affected communication skills and making a serious move on mental health. Social media has created life so addictive. Sometimes it is known as FOMO ( fear of missing out).
There has been an incident recently on Instagram. There was a group on Instagram called ‘bois locker room’ in that they used to send and comment on all the posts of girls and used to leak their personal information. It was later got investigated and that revealed, girl was the sender and boy was the receiver. Girls used to sent messages through a fake account.

Social media is an important tool that is put into the hands of ordinary people. Social media network is a boon or bane is the decision of a user, depends on it is used by one. It is a double-sided sword. However, the use of social media by children and teenagers should be guided before use so that they do not face any allegations and can not manipulate and has a high tendency to be a part of traps, which lead to cybercrime.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Biography: Early Life, Education, Career, Books, Awards & More

Our Missile Man

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was an Indian scientist and politician who played a leading role in the development of India’s missile and nuclear weapons programs. Come, through this article, Dr. A.P.J. Let us study about Abdul Kalam’s early life, career, education, awards, etc.

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s involvement in nuclear energy in India earned him the title “Missile Man of India”. Due to his contribution, the Government of India honored him with the highest civilian award.

Let us tell you that the Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Prakash Javadekar on 9 February 2020 in New Delhi, Dr. APJ. The first look of Abdul Kalam’s biopic was released. The title of the movie is A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: The Missile Man (APJ Abdul Kalam: The Missile Man).

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931. His birth anniversary is celebrated as World Students Day. He was the President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was honored with several prestigious awards including the “Bharat Ratna”, India’s highest civilian honor in 1997. He was born in Dhanushkodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering.

Name: Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam)
Nationality: Indian
Occupation: Engineer, Scientist, Writer, Professor, Politician
Born: 15-Oct-1931
Place of Birth: Dhanushkodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: 27 July 2015, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
Famous As: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was the President from 2002 to 2007

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was elected President in the year 2002 against Lakshmi Sehgal. Before becoming the President of India, he worked as an aerospace engineer with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO).

He was nicknamed the ‘Missile Man of India’ for his important role in the country’s space programme, launch vehicle and ballistic missile technology development. In addition, in 1998, he also contributed significantly to India’s Pokhran-II nuclear tests.

Do you know that Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam started his career as a scientist in which Aeronautical Development Establishment of Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO)? He also served as a project director of India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) at ISRO.

In the 1990s, he served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister before becoming the President of India in 2002. Come now, through this article, Dr. A.P.J. Let us study in detail about Abdul Kalam.

Family history and early life:

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 in Rameswaram in a Tamil Muslim family. His father’s name was Jainulabdeen, who was a sailor. His mother’s name was Aseemma and she was a housewife. These were a total of five siblings, three elder brothers and one elder sister.

His eldest sister named Asim Zohra and three elder brothers, namely Qasim Mohammad, Mustafa Kamal, Mohd Muthu Meera Lebai Marikayar. He was close to his family and always helped them, although he remained a bachelor all his life.

Abdul Kalam’s ancestors were wealthy merchants and landowners with many properties and large tracts of land. They traded groceries between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri Lanka, and ferrying pilgrims from the mainland to Pamban Island. So, his family came to be known as “Mara Kalam Iyakkivar” (wooden boatman) and later as “Marakier”.

But by the 1920s, his family’s businesses failed and by the time Abdul Kalam was born, he was struggling with poverty. To help the family, Kalam started selling newspapers at an early age.

During his school days, he was normal in studies, but was always ready and ready to learn new things. He wanted to learn things and used to concentrate on his studies for hours. His main interest was in mathematics.

He completed his matriculation from Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu and later joined St. Joseph’s College and graduated in Physics in 1954. In 1955 he moved to Madras from where he studied Aerospace at the Institute of Technology. His dream of taking engineering education was to become a fighter pilot, but he secured ninth position in the examination, while the IAF had declared only eight results. So he could not succeed in that.

Education and career:

After completing his graduation in the year 1960, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defense Research and Development Organization as a scientist.

He also worked with renowned scientist Vikram Sarabhai as part of the committee of INCOSPAR (National Committee of India). He started his career by designing a small hovercraft in DRDO. Early in his career, he designed a small helicopter for the Indian Army. From 1963 to 1964, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam visited Defense Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Wallops Flight Efficiency on the East Coast of Virginia and NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

He started working independently on an expandable rocket project at DRDO in 1965. He was not very satisfied with his work in DRDO and was happy when he got transfer orders to ISRO in 1969. There he served as the Project Director of SLV-III. In July 1980, his team was successful in placing the Rohini satellite near Earth’s orbit. It is India’s first indigenously designed and built satellite launch vehicle.

Abdul Kalam received the approval of the government in 1969 and expanded the program to include more engineers. In the 1970s, he made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) so that India could launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite into Sun-Synchronous orbit, the PSLV project was successful and on 20 September On 1993, it was launched for the first time.

Dr Kalam’s efforts in the development of projects of SLV-3 and Polar SLV from the year 1970 to 1990 proved to be quite successful. Dr Kalam directed Project Valiant and Project Devil which aimed to develop ballistic missiles using the technology of the SLV programme, which was also successful.

An Indian Defense Ministry managed by DRDO along with other government organizations launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) in the early 1980s. Abdul Kalam was asked to lead the project and hence he returned to DRDO as the Chief Executive Officer of IGMDP. Due to his instructions, it was successful to make other missiles like Agni missile, Prithvi.

Under the leadership of Abdul Kalam, the project of IGMDP proved successful by producing missiles like the first Prithvi missile in 1988 and then Agni missile in 1989. Due to his contribution, he is known as the “Missile Man of India”. He served as Secretary, Defense Research and Development Organization from July 1992 to December 1999, and was also the Chief Scientific Advisor to the Prime Minister.

Dr. Kalam played an important technical and political role in the Pokhran II nuclear test during this period and the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee declared India a full-fledged nuclear state.

Did you know that in 1998, Abdul Kalam ji along with cardiologist Dr. Soma Raju developed a low cost coronary stent? Which was later named as “Kalam-Raju Stent”. Apart from this, both these people also designed tablet PC for health care in rural areas which was named “Kalam-Raju Tablet”.

Term as President of India (2002 to 2007):

  • On 10 June 2002, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government elected Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s name was proposed to the Leader of the Opposition, Congress President Sonia Gandhi.
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam served as the President of India from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007. He was the first single and scientist to live in Rashtrapati Bhavan.
  • Do you know that he got around 922,884 votes in the presidential election and won the election by defeating Laxmi Sehgal of the opposition?
  • KR Narayanan was followed by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam became the 11th President of India.
  • He was the third President of India to receive the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award. Prior to this, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was conferred this honor in the year 1954 and Dr. Zakir Hussain in the year 1963.
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was also known as People’s President.
  • According to him, the most difficult decision taken by him as President was to sign the bill of Office of Profit.
  • During his five-year tenure, he remained committed to his vision of transforming India into a developed nation.
  • However, he was also criticized as a President for his inaction to decide the fate of the mercy petitions of 20 out of 21 people, including Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted for the December 2001 Parliament attacks had gone.
  • He decided not to contest the presidential election again in 2007 and stepped down as President on 25 July 2007.

The demise of great personality:

On 27 July 2015, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was delivering a lecture at IIM Shillong, where he suffered a heart attack and his condition became critical, therefore, he was shifted to Bethany Hospital, where he later died of a cardiac arrest. His last words to Shrijan Pal Singh were “Funny guy! Are you doing well?”

On 30 July 2015, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s last rites took place near his ancestral village Rameshwaram. Did you know that around 350,000 people attended Kalam’s funeral rites, including the Prime Minister of India, the Governor of Tamil Nadu and the Chief Ministers of Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh?

Awards and Achievements:

  • In 1981, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India.
    In 1990, was awarded the Padma Vibhushan.
  • In 1997, was awarded the highest civilian award like Bharat Ratna.
  • In 1998, was awarded the Veer Savarkar Award.
    In 2000, Alvaras Research Centre, Chennai presented him with Ramanujan Award.
  • In 2007, Britain was awarded the King Charles II Medal by the Royal Society.
  • In 2008, he was awarded the Doctor of Engineering (Honoris Causa) degree from Nanyang Technical University, Singapore.
  • In 2009, awarded the Hoover Medal by the ASME Foundation of America
  • In 2010, the University of Waterloo honored Dr. Kalam with a Doctor of Engineering.
  • In 2011, he became an honorary member of the IEEE.
  • In 2013, he was awarded the Von Braun Prize by the National Space Society.
  • In 2014, he was awarded the Doctor of Science degree by the University of Edinburgh, UK.
  • Dr. Kalam was the recipient of honorary doctorates from about 40 universities.
  • In 2015, the United Nations recognized Dr. Kalam’s birthday as “World Students’ Day”.

Let’s understand Anger and Frustration during Lockdown in Pandemic

The pandemic situation is very real whether we accept it or not. And it’s not just about the virus, it’s about us as well. When the pandemic began we were all hopeful that it would end and we’d leave everything behind in 2020. Or at least, I thought so. Let me know by commenting if you had some different assumptions.

“LIFE IS 10% WHAT HAPPENS TO YOU AND 90% HOW YOU REACT TO IT.”

-Charles Swindoll.
The frustration

It is quite evident, that our reaction and counter-action are no where near enough satisfactory to what it should have been. We can’t deny the effect of situation. It has been quite detrimental for all of us. Some more and some less, but without exception.

The pandemic situation resulted in – “LOCKDOWN”. And one of the by products of lockdown is – ANGER. Anger in turn gives birth to frustration and depression. Often, leading to serious mental issue. This is neither unexpected nor unrealistic.

We had situations where we felt like we have no control over life and death. Not that we ever had but our illusion was broken in a forceful manner, but it’s beyond our imagination where we didn’t even have the chance to say goodbye to out loved ones.

But life is not black and white. You see what you wish to see. So, let’s list some common reasons.

AVOID OVERTHINKING AND TAKING TOO MUCH STRESS

First and foremost, increased frustration and irritability can be a common reaction to stress. With the current pandemic, many aspects of our daily lives are more stressful than usual. For example, grocery lines may be slower, work tasks may require quick adaptation and time may be increasingly devoted to new roles or obligations brought about by social distancing measures, such as child care or homeschooling.

At the same time, many of us likely have decreased access to activities that help us cope with stress in healthy and familiar ways.

For example, if activities such as going to the gym, going out to dinner with friends or shopping with family aren’t accessible in their traditional ways, you may feel less able to rely on your typical outlets for stress. This may lead to coping with stress in other ways, such as lashing out at others.

There may be good intentions behind some of our frustration toward our loved ones. Often when we care for others and their well-being, we find ourselves frustrated if they engage in activities we perceive as unsafe. For example, if a loved one is taking social distancing measures less seriously than we’d like, we may feel angry and upset toward them because we care about their well-being.

Stress is the root of evil

TAKE CONTROL AND STOP COMPARING WITH OTHERES

“We like it when things are in our control,” according to the human behavioral studies. Take a moment to pause, notice how you’re thinking and feeling, and acknowledge that feelings of frustration are a normal reaction to increased stress.

A lot of the sadness comes from what we’re missing. Zoom happy hours don’t compare to last year’s ladies’ weekend. A staycation with your family members is a lot less exciting than the beach vacation you took last summer. But thinking about what you’re missing prevents you from seeing what’s good in your life. So try to you just look at what happened today, it might help us in coping with the situation.

Take control of your situation

TAKE A BREAK AND FIND SILVER LININGS

The coronavirus has upended a lot of our routines. We’ve had to get used to sanitizing and mask-wearing, working remotely and finding new ways to stay in touch with loved ones. Figuring out all those new habits is exhausting. But try your best and instill them as habits so you won’t feel it mentally taxing.

Try to find positive in the negative. Yes, you might have to look really hard, but focusing on the positive can help you move forward each day. Maybe working from home means you don’t have to deal with traffic. Or you’re spending more time with family. Or you’re simply grateful for your good health.

Pandemic life is hard, and you’ll have good days and bad days. But if you’re feeling really down, it might be a good idea to seek timely help. Lots of people are feeling the same stress, sadness and frustration right now. It can help to reach out to friends to talk about it.

Our feelings during this period are so up and down. Writing about them can help us detach to see the big picture. If hitting the gym or grabbing coffee with a friend were your go-to coping mechanisms, try thinking outside the box to find new ways to cope with stress. The key is to focus on trying new things, instead of dwelling on old coping strategies that are no longer working.

“INSTEAD OF THINKING OF IT AS A LOSS, THNK OF IT AS A CHANCE TO EVOLVE.”

SOURCES

clevelandclinic.org

https://wexnermedical.osu.edu/blog/why-so-angry-covid

FAKES AND FORGERIES

The world has witnessed a series of history’s greatest deceptions in the fields of art , science , fake identities , law , and fake money that has led the world into thinking , is anything REAL? Here are a few of these deceptions that has me in complete shock and disbelief.

ANOTHER SHAKESPEARE? – William Henry Ireland was born in 1775 . His father Samuel , was a dealer in rare books and also a great lover of William Shakespeare. William Henry went to Shakespeare’s birthplace in 1794 and met with a local poet there , who allegedly had a fund of doubtable anecdotes concerning Shakespeare . Back in London , Henry went to work for a solicitor who had parchments and used them to forge a mortgage agreement between William Shakespeare and John Heminge – an actor. He copied Shakespeare’s signatures and fooled the college of heralds into thinking this was authentic. This document was hence authenticated. He also faked wealth documents , and love poems written to Anne Hathaway . Henry’s father mounted an exhibitions of these ” finds” and London society came to see them . But scholars had their fair share of doubt about these, and by December his game was up . Quite a story , huh?

MICHELANGELO AND THE FAKE ANTIQUE- The famous Italian painter, sculptor , architect and poet once carved a life sized sleeping cupid . One of his friend notoriously suggested that if he buried this statue and then send it to Rome as an antique , he could make a lot more money than selling it in Florence. Michelangelo allegedly did exactly what he was told to do , some sources claimed to say that he buried the statue in Rome itself. Nonetheless , the statue was bought by the cardinal of San Giorgio, and he soon discovered that it was not an antique.

BENITO MUSSOLINI’S DIARIES – After Mussolini’s death , an Italian woman named Amalia Panvini and her mother , in 1957 produced around 30 volumes of what the duo claimed to be Benito Mussolini’s diaries . This even fooled Mussolini’s own son as he thought them to be his father’s diaries, along with an expert.

RATAN TATA : A TRUE GEM OF INDIA

Ratan Tata, full name Ratan Naval Tata,(born December 28, 1937, Bombay[now Mumbai], India) ,Indian businessman who served as chairman of the Tata Group, a Mumbai based conglomerate ( 1991-2012 and 201617).
He was educated at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, where he earned a B.S. (1962) in  architecture before returning to work in India. He was born into a prominent family of Indian industrialists and philanthropists (Tata family).
He gained experience in a number of Tata Group. companies before being named director in charge of one of them, the National Radio and Electronics Co., in 1971
.A decade later, he became chairman of Tata Industries, and in 1991, he succeeded his uncle, J.R.D.Tata, as chairman of the Tata Group. Tata aggressively sought to expand the conglomerate after taking over a CEO, and he increasingly focused on globalising its businesses. In 2000, the group paid $431.3 million for London based Tetley Tea, and in2004, it paid $102 million for Daewoo Motors’ truck manufacturing operations.
 Tata Steel completed the largest corporate takeover by an Indian company in 2007 when it paid $11.3billion for the giant Anglo Dutch steel manufacturer Corus Group. Tata oversaw Tata Motors’ purchase of the prestigious British car brands Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford Motor Company in 2008. The $2.3 billion transaction was the largest ever acquisition by an Indian automaker.
The Tata Nano, a tiny rear engine ,pod shaped vehicle with a starting price of around 100,000 Indian rupees, or about $2,000, was introduced the following year. Despite being only slightly more than 10 feet (3 metres) long and about5 feet(1.5 metres) wide, the much touted “People’s Car” could seat up to five adults and, in Tata’s words, would provide a “safe, affordable, all weather form of transport” to millions of middle- and lower-income consumers both in India and abroad.
Tata stepped down as chairman of the Tata Group in December 2012. Following the ouster of his successor, Cyrus Mistry he briefly served as interim chairman beginning in October 2016.Natarajan Chandrasekhar  was appointed as the chairman of the Tata Company in January 2017, and Tata returned to retirement.
Among many other honours bestowed upon him during his career, Tata received the Padma Bhushan, one of India’s most distinguished civilian awards, in 2000.
“I came close to getting married four times and each time I backed off in fear or for one reason or another,” Ratan Tata said in 2011.Ratan Tata recently revealed that he had a crush on a girl while working in Los Angeles. Because one of his family members was ill, he had to return to India, but the girl’s parents refused to allow her to accompany Tata.
Before you go do you know
Ratan Tata has a pilot’s licence and is a trained pilot. He is the first civilian to fly an F-16 fighter

Child marriage ; A case study

Child marriage is a major sociological problem that has persisted for centuries in India. The early marriage of children, particularly of the girl child, is not an uncommon practice in over many countries. In India the latest assessment is that 44% are married before the age of 18 years because of religious traditions, social practices, economic factors and blind beliefs. It is considered as a violation of child and human rights and it affects the child physically, psychologically and emotionally. Marriage is considered ‘safe’ to protect the girl from unwanted sexual advances. Child marriages also limited girls’ access to education and increased their health risks. Early pregnancy and childbirth would impact on the overall health and development of girls.

A case study was carried out in 10 villages of Rajasthan about the practice of child marriage. Villages near urban centers showed more progress in terms of economic status of the villagers, literacy levels and in particular the level of awareness regarding illegality of child marriage. Child marriage was also lower in these villages. But the rural villagers are different. Joint family system is a common feature of rural society. The traditional value system upholds traditional norms.

Twelve couples were identified and interviewed for the study. The study found low literacy levels among the respondents. One- third of the respondents at the state level were illiterate and only 8% were graduates, while one-fourth had educational skills up to the primary level. The low level of literacy and high prevalence of child marriage could be seen as a vicious circle. An early marriage limits the opportunities for education and self-development, whereas lack of education results in a stubborn mindset and ignorance of the ill effects of child marriage.

A typical feature of the child marriage practice in Rajasthan is that after the marriage ceremony the bride is not usually sent to her in-law’s house immediately. She will be sent usually when the girl is considered mature enough to handle the household chores, which is generally considered to be after she attains puberty. Also over 50% of the respondents admitted that the practice of child marriage was followed in their families. Moreover, the parent-child relationship is such that a child rarely questions the authority of the parents in taking decisions about his or her life. More than 50% of the respondents in Rajasthan who have undergone child marriage stated that they were forced to marry. A large proportion of respondents who had themselves undergone marriage as children were against the idea of child marriage. But there are some among them who supported the idea.

In Rajasthan, most of the male respondents agreed with the legal age as the right age for a male to marry, but some felt that early marriage was advisable. About one-fourth of the male population who themselves were married early held this view. Interestingly, all female respondents believed that males should marry only after they were 21 years. About three-fourths of the male respondents believed that girls should marry after reaching the legal age. The study also shows that poverty and safety of the girl child are also the causes for the continuation of the practice of child marriage.

The practice of child marriage in the study areas is characterized by the fact that both the bride and the groom are underage, sometimes as young as five or six years old. This aspect of early marriages is unlike that in some other parts of India and the world where a huge age difference exists between the two, with the girl usually being the child. Existing laws and awareness campaigns taken up periodically against the practice of child marriage have failed to diminish the fervor of the communities even in the 21st century.

GILGAMESH

-Aastha Joshi

Gilgamesh was a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late 2nd millennium BC. He was likely a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, who was posthumously deified. His rule probably would have taken place sometime in the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period. Though he became a major figure in Sumerian legend during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Tales of Gilgamesh’s legendary exploits are narrated in five surviving Sumerian poems. The earliest of these is likely “Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld”, in which Gilgamesh comes to the aid of the goddess Inanna and drives away the creatures infesting her huluppu tree. She gives him two unknown objects, a mikku and a pikku, which he loses. After Enkidu’s death, his shade tells Gilgamesh about the bleak conditions in the Underworld. The poem “Gilgamesh and Agga” describes Gilgamesh’s revolt against his overlord King Agga. Other Sumerian poems relate Gilgamesh’s defeat of the giant Huwawa and the Bull of Heaven, while a fifth, poorly preserved poem relates the account of his death and funeral. In later Babylonian times, these stories were woven into a connected narrative. The standard Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh was composed by a scribe named Sin-lēqi-unninni, probably during the Middle Babylonian Period based on much older source material. In the epic, Gilgamesh is a demigod of superhuman strength who befriends the wild man Enkidu. Together, they embark on many journeys, most famously defeating Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven, who is sent to attack them by Ishtar after Gilgamesh rejects her offer for him to become her consort. After Enkidu dies of a disease sent as punishment from the gods, Gilgamesh becomes afraid of his own death, and visits the sage Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Great Flood, hoping to find immortality. Gilgamesh repeatedly fails the trials set before him and returns home to Uruk, realizing that immortality is beyond his reach. Most classical historians agree the Epic ofGilgamesh exerted substantial influence on both the Iliad and the Odyssey. two epic poems written in ancient Greek during the 8th century BC. The story of Gilgamesh’s birth is described in an anecdote from On the Nature of Animals by the Greek writer Aelian. Aelian relates that Gilgamesh’s grandfather kept his mother under guard to prevent her from becoming pregnant, because an oracle had told him that his grandson would overthrow him. She became pregnant and the guards threw the child off a tower, but an eagle rescued him mid-fall and delivered him safely to an orchard, where the gardener raised him. The Epic of Gilgamesh was rediscovered in the Library of Ashurbanipal in 1849. After being translated in the early 1870s, it caused widespread controversy due to similarities between portions of it and the Hebrew Bible. Gilgamesh remained mostly obscure until the mid-20th century, but, since the late 20th century, he has become an increasingly prominent figure in modern culture. Stephanie. Dalley, a scholar of the ancient Near East, states that “precise dates cannot be given for the lifetime of Gilgamesh, but they are generally agreed to lie between 2800 and 2500 BC” By the Old Babylonian Period stories of Gilgamesh’s legendary exploits had been woven into one or several long epics. The Epic of Gilgamesh, the most complete account of Gilgamesh’s adventures, was composed in Akkadian during the Middle Babylonian Period by a scribe named Sin-leqi-unninni The most complete surviving version of the Epic of Gilgamesh is recorded on a set of twelve clay tablets dating to the seventh century BC, found in the Library of Ashurbanipal in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. The epic survives only in a fragmentary form, with many pieces of it missing or damaged. Some scholars and translators choose to supplement the missing parts of the epic with material from the earlier Sumerian poems or from other versions of the Epic of Gilgamesh found at other sites throughout the Near East An inscription possibly belonging to a contemporary official under Gilgamesh was discovered in the archaic texts at Ur; his name reads: “Gilgameš is the one whom Utu has selected”. Aside from this the Tummal Inscription, a thirty four-line historiographic text written during the reign of Ishbi-Erra also mentions him. The inscription credits Gilgamesh with building the walls of Uruk. Gilgamesh is also connected to King Enmebaragesi of Kish, a known historical figure who may have lived near Gilgamesh’s lifetime. Furthermore,he is listed as one of the kings of Uruk by the Sumerian King List Fragments of an epic text found in Mê-Turan relate that at the end of his life Gilgamesh was buried under the river bed. The people of Uruk diverted the flow of the Euphrates passing Uruk for the purpose of burying the dead king within the river bed. In the epic, Gilgamesh is introduced as “two thirds divine and one third mortal.” At the beginning of the poem, Gilgamesh is described as a brutal, oppressive ruler. This is usually interpreted to mean either that he compels all his subjects to engage in forced laboror that he sexually oppresses all his subjects. As punishment for Gilgamesh’s cruelty, the god Anu creates the wild man Enkidu. After being tamed by a prostitute named Shamhat, Enkidu travels to Uruk to confront Gilgamesh. In the second tablet, the two men wrestle and, although Gilgamesh wins the match in the end, he is so impressed by his opponent’s strength and tenacity that they become close friends. In the earlier Sumerian tAlthough stories about Gilgamesh were wildly popular throughout ancient Mesopotamia,. authentic representations of him in ancient art are uncommon Popular works often identify depictions of a hero with long hair, containing four or six curls, as representations of Gilgamesh, but this identification is known to be incorrect. A few genuine ancient Mesopotamian representations of Gilgamesh do exist, however. These representations are mostly found on clay plaques and cylinder seals. Generally, it is only possible to identify a figure shown in art as Gilgamesh if the artistic work in question clearly depicts a scene from the Epic of Gilgamesh itself One set of representations of Gilgamesh is found in scenes of two heroes fighting a demonic giant, certainly Humbaba. Another set is found in scenes showing a similar pair of heroes confronting a giant, winged bull, certainly the Bull of Heaven.exts, Enkidu is Gilgamesh’s servant, but, in the Epic of Gilgamesh, they are companions of equal standing. Starting in the late twentieth century, the Epic of Gilgamesh began to be read again in Iraq. Saddam Hussein, the former president of Iraq had a lifelong fascination with Gilgamesh Hussein’s first. novel Zabibah and the King (2000) is an allegory for the Gulf War set in ancient Assyria that blends elements of the Epic of Gilgamesh and the One Thousand and One Nights Like Gilgamesh, the king at the beginning of the novel is a brutal tyrant who misuses his power and oppresses his people,but, through the aid of a commoner woman named Zabibah, he grows into a more just ruler When the United States pressured Hussein to step down in February 2003, Hussein gave a speech to a group of his generals posing the idea in a positive light by comparing himself to the epic hero. In 2000, a modern statue of Gilgamesh by the Assyrian sculptor Lewis Batros was unveiled at the University of Sydney in Australia.

English education in India


English education in India has largely depended on the teaching of literature. In recent years, there has been a shift of emphasis from teaching literature to language. The relationship between literature and English language teaching has been rather a difficult marriage throughout all these years. While English language teaching adopted a structural approach in many situations, literature was taught as a separate subject. Nevertheless, current approaches have endeavored to re-examine the value of literature and have begun to uphold its worth again. These approaches assert the value of literature teaching from several aspects, primarily, literature as an agent for language development and improvement. Literature is a verbal art that leads readers to appreciate the beauty of language.

Literature is used in English Language teaching to broaden students’ horizons by giving them a knowledge of the classics of literature, to improve student’s general cultural awareness, to stimulate students’ creative and literary imagination, and to develop their appreciation of literature. Literary texts offer a rich source of linguistic input and can help learners practice the four language skills – listening, speaking, reading, and writing – and exemplifying grammatical structures and presenting new vocabulary. The Literary texts provide opportunities for multi-social classroom experiences and can appeal to learners with different learning styles. Literature is beginning to be viewed as an appropriate vehicle for language learning and development since the focus is now on authentic language and authentic situations.

Tips to boost your immune system

In the current pandemic, “How to strengthen the immune system?” “What are immunity-boosting foods?” “How to improve immunity?” “Foods that help you boost your immune system?” are some of the most searched queries. There are many ways to boost your immunity naturally or by supplements. Here are some immunity boosters you should include in your daily diet. 

1. Eating the right food

Eating a healthy and well-balanced diet is one of the most important things to boost your immunity. Try to include whole foods, fruits in your diet, and avoid taking a large amount of salt, sugar, or processed foods.

Nutrients are an essential part of building a healthy immune system. A good healthy diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables and lean protein is a good source of most of these nutrients. Supplements can be included as per the advice of your doctor to fill any nutritional gap.

Vitamin A: It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as a natural defence against illness and infection.

Source: Sweet potatoes, pumpkin, carrots, and squash.

Vitamin C:  It is an antioxidant that fights against free radicals in the body.

Source: Citrus fruits (like orange, lemon), leafy green vegetables, strawberries, carrots, bell peppers and many more fruits and vegetables.

Vitamin D:  Vitamin D protects you from a number of health problems and it keeps your teeth, bones, and muscles healthy. The body creates vitamin D from sunlight on the skin when outdoors, but you may need a supplement to fulfil the requirement.

Source:  Sun

Vitamin E: Antioxidant that fights infections in the body.

Source: Spinach, almonds, peanuts, broccoli, and hazelnuts.

Folate (folic acid): It helps the body form healthy red blood cells. Folic acid deficiency can lead to a weakened immune system. Folate reduces the risk of unusual birth defects such as spina bifida in unborn babies.

Source: Beans, peas, leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and brussels sprouts.

Iron: Iron forms an important part of haemoglobin that absorbs oxygen and carries it in the blood to take it to the rest of the body. 

Source: Beans, nuts, fortified breakfast cereals, soybean flour, and dried fruit. 

Zinc: It helps to control inflammation in the body.

Source: Beans.

2. Exercise

Engaging your body with regular exercise daily or 3-4 days a week can strengthen your immune system. Other than this, it also helps you sleep better and reduces your stress levels.

3. Get Quality Sleep

When you sleep, your body produces proteins called cytokines, which fight against infection and inflammation. So, not getting enough sleep will impact the immune system. If throughout the day your body is feeling fatigued then probably you aren’t getting enough sleep.

4. Manage stress

There is a wide body of research that links stress levels with immune function.

When we’re stressed, the immune system doesn’t function as well. That’s because stress causes the body to release hormones, such as adrenaline, dopamine, norepinephrine, and cortisol, which can decrease the body’s ability to make lymphocytes — the white blood cells that help fight off harmful viruses or bacteria. 

Some activities that help alleviate stress include meditation, yoga, and grounding techniques like mindful breathing.

5. Drink plenty of water

To function properly, your immune system relies heavily on the nutrients in your bloodstream, which mostly consists of water. Without water, the cells and tissues of your immune system don’t receive the nutrients they need. Your immune system also relies on water to flush out germs and waste materials.

Conclusion:

You can make several lifestyle and dietary changes today to strengthen your immune system. These include reducing your sugar intake, staying hydrated, working out regularly, getting adequate sleep, and managing your stress levels.

Sources:

https://www.insider.com/how-to-boost-immune-system

https://www.insider.com/how-to-boost-immune-system-quickly

Are you a leader?

Have you ever had the honor and privilege to work with truly inspirational leaders?

A good leader

If you have, you know they all have similar characteristics that always seek to inspire and motivate people to become the best version of themselves. For many people, it’s easy to bark out orders, boss people around, and create an environment of fear to get things done, but these leaders are different; they have a great energy about them that inspires the best in you. They lead by example, show appreciation for their teams, and don’t allow their position of authority to make them feel that they are better than anyone else.

Leadership
Leadership

You can become one too

Becoming a great leader requires work; it’s not an overnight thing. You will have some very challenging days, and sometimes, you may even have doubts about your ability to lead. Don’t be too hard on yourself; it’s a natural part of the process. Never lose hope, hold onto your faith and continue your leadership development because every incremental improvement brings you one step closer to becoming truly an inspirational leader. 

An Example real-life leader

Do you know APJ Abdul Kalam never used to watch TV, but when India was playing an important cricket match & India was about to lose, he said “Is the captain still playing? Then don’t worry he can make the match ours to win.” And guess what? MS Dhoni made India win that match.

Boss vs Leader
Boss vs Leader

Eleven characteristics of truly inspiring leaders:

1.They have great positive energy.

2.They truly value everyone on their team

3.They listen.

4.They communicate effectively.

5.They have a clear vision of the future.

6.They are passionate.

7.They are very trustworthy.

8.They practice humility and empathy.

9.They are authentic.

10.They have sense of purpose.

11.They have a great sense of humor.

Child Marriage

Child marriage is a marriage or comparative association, formal or casual, between a kid and a grown-up or another kid under a particular age, normally age eighteen.[1] by far most of kid relationships are between a young lady and a man, and are established in sex imbalance.

Child marriage disregards the privileges of kids and has broad and long haul ramifications for kid ladies and kid grooms. For young ladies, notwithstanding psychological wellness issues and an absence of admittance to schooling and profession opportunities, this incorporates unfavorable well being impacts because of early pregnancy (counting teen pregnancy) and childbirth. There is little examination on young men in kid relationships, however consequences for young men incorporate being poorly ready for specific duties, for example, accommodating the family, early parenthood, and an absence of admittance to training and vocation opportunities. Child marriage is identified with kid pledge, and it incorporates common living together and court-supported early relationships after teen pregnancy.Causes of kid relationships incorporate neediness, lady of the hour value, settlement, social practices, strict and prevalent difficulties, local traditions, dread of the kid staying unmarried into adulthood, ignorance, and saw failure of ladies to work for money. Research demonstrates that far reaching sex instruction can assist with forestalling kid marriage.

Child marriage has enduring outcomes on young ladies, from their well being (mental and physical), training and social advancement perspectives. These results last past adolescence. One of the most well-known reasons for death for young ladies matured 15 to 19 in non-industrial nations was pregnancy and childbirth. In Niger, which is assessed as having the most noteworthy pace of youngster marriage on the planet, around 3 of every 4 young ladies wed before their eighteenth birthday celebration.

Child Labour : a growing concern

There is a big difference in children helping their parents with chores around the house and children working day to night on roads, train stations just to earn food for their family. The latter destroys the child’s childhood, deprives them of their dignity, potential and harms them mentally and physically.

Child labour has always been a major concern for multiple underdeveloped nations and recently because of the pandemic and economic crisis, the number seems to be increasing. According to one of the UNICEF records, rougly 160 million children were subjected to child labour at the beginning of 2020 with 9 million additional children at risk due to impact of COVID-19.

Negative effects of child labour

Children are driven into work due to various reasons and poverty outstands them all. The consequences are hazardous since it risks the child’s health both mentally and physically and extreme harm can even lead to death. And most importantly it cuts ties with educational facilities, health care and fundamental rights, thus harming their future.

The worst kind of child labour encompasses forced labour, trafficking, debt bondage, forced prostitution, pornography, compulsory recruitment in armed conflicts and other illicit activities. Hazardous activities like working in mines or construction sites can increase risks of lung cancer, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, silicosis and several autoimmune diseases.

The difficulty of tasks and bad working conditions lead to premature aging, depression, malnutrition, drug addiction etc. These children from poor and disadvantageous backgrounds and many who are abducted from their families or trafficked because of war have no one to protect them.

Overview of child labour around the world

  • In South East Asia and Pacific, girls are sold to provide prostitution or work as domestic labourers and many are sold to work in textile factories to cover up their family debt.
  • In Africa, parents sell their children mostly for livestock. These children are either left to work in mines and construction sites or sold to become domestic workers.
  • In North America and Latin America, the majority of children are forced in prostitution or are exploited by drug traffickers.

{ credits: https://www.humanium.org/en/child-labour/ }

Procrastination

Procrastination is the act of delaying or putting off tasks until the last minute, or past their deadline. Some researches define procrastination as a “form of self-regulation failure characterized by the irrational delay of tasks despite potentially negative consequences. No matter how well-organized and committed your are, chances are that you have found yourself frittering away hours on trivial pursuits (watching television, updating your Facebook status, shopping online) when you should have been spending that time on work or school-related projects. Whether you’re putting off finishing a project for work, avoiding homework assignments, or ignoring household chores, procrastination can have a major impact on your job, your grades and your life.

In most cases, procrastination is not a sign of a serious problem. It’s a common tendency that most people give in to at some point or another.

Causes

Remember that time that you thought you had a week left to finish a project that was really due the next day? How about the time you decided not to clean up your apartment because you “didn’t feel like doing it right now?’

We often assume that projects won’t take as long to finish as they really will, which can lead to a false sense of security when we believe that we have plenty of time to complete these tasks. One of the biggest factors contributing to procrastinating is the notion that we have to feel inspired or motivated to work on a tasks at a particular moment. The reality is that if you wait until you’re in the right frame of mind to do certain tasks (especially undesirable ones), you will probably find that the right time simply never comes along and the tasks never gets completed.

The following are the few factors that cause procrastination

Academics

Researchers suggest that procrastination can be particularly pronounced among students. A 2001 meta analysis published in the Psychological Bulletin found that a whopping 80% to 95% of college students procrastinated on the regular basis, particular when it came to completing assignments and course-work.

  • Overestimate how much time they have left to perform tasks
  • Overestimate how motivated they will be in the future
  • Underestimate how long certain activities will take to complete
  • Mistakenly assume that they need to be in the right frame of mind to work on a project

Depression

Procrastination can also be result of depression. Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, ad a lack of energy can make it difficult to start the simple tasks. Depression can also lead to self-doubt. When you can’t figure out how to tackle a project or feel insecure about your abilities, you might find it easier to put it off and working on other tasks.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Procrastination is also pretty common in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. One reason is that OCD is often linked with mal-adaptive, unhealthy perfectionism, which causes fears about making new mistakes, doubts about whether you are doing something correctly, and worry over other’s expectation ofyou.

People with OCD also often have a propensity toward in-decision, causing them to procrastinate rather than make a decision.

ADHD

Many adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with procrastination. When you’re so distracted by outside stimuli, as well as internal thoughts, it can be hard to get started on a task, especially if that task is difficult or not interesting in you.

Negative impact on procrastination

It is only in cases where procrastination becomes chronic and begins to have a serious impact on a person’s daily life that it becomes a more serious issue. In such instances, it’s not just a matter of having poor time management skills, it’s a major part of their lifestyle. Perhaps they pay their bills late, don’t start work on big projects until the night before the deadline, delay gift shopping until the day before a birthday, and even file their income tax returns late. Unfortunately, this procrastination can have a serious impact on a number of life areas, including a person’s mental health and social, professional and financial well-being.

  • Higher level of stress and illness
  • Increased burden placed on social relationships
  • Resentment from friends, family, co-workers and fellow student
  • Consequences of delinquent bills and income tax returns

Tips for procrastination

Fortunately, there are a number of different things you can do the fight procrastination and start getting things done on time.

  • Make a to-do list: To help to keep you on track, ,consider placing a due date next to each item.
  • Take baby steps: Break down the items on your list into small, manageable steps so that your tasks don’t seem so overwhelming.
  • Recognize the warming signs: Pay attention to any thoughts of procrastination and do your best to resist the urge. If you begin to think about procrastinating, force yourself to spend a few minutes working on your tasks.
  • Eliminate distraction: Ask yourself what pulls your attention away the most-whether Instagram, Facebook updates, or the local news-and turn off those sources of distraction.
  • Pat yourself on the back: When you finish an item on your to-do list on time, congratulate yourself and reward yourself by indulging in something you find fun.

ACTIVE LISTENING: WHY IT MATTERS AND 8 TIPS FOR SUCCESS

The feeling that we are not being tuned in to is quite possibly the most baffling emotions possible. A great many people don’t tune in to understand but just to answer, but they fail to realise that they can reply well only if they clearly understand what is being discussed. A good listener never fails to enthrall others. Active listening involves giving full attention to the person you are communicating to.

And it is well said by Bernard Baruch that “Most of the successful people I’ve known are the ones who do more listening than talking.”

We can describe active listening as undivided attention alludes to the speaker that keeps you drew in with your discussion accomplice in a positive way. It is the way toward listening mindfully while another person talks, summarizing and reflecting back the thing is said, and retaining judgment and exhortation. Being an active listener helps in perceiving other’s viewpoints and sentiments and causes us appreciate them. This not only aides in preventing clashes as well as encourages a culture of regard.

So, how does being an active listener affect your carrier? Active listening has a great role to play in your success. With regards to your accomplishment in schooling and the work environment, it will require undivided attention. This is on the grounds that it takes regard for both the large view and little subtleties to learn. At the point when you effectively tune in, your manager can see the distinction in your reactions and work that follows. Maybe the primary spot in your vocation where undivided attention assumes a huge part is in the meeting cycle. By giving close consideration and visually connecting with the questioner, you can exhibit that you are keen on the position, can help issue settle, and can function admirably in a group.

Let`s take an example at the point when you acquaint yourself with a renewed individual, you presumably have encountered asking them their name. At that point, while they are disclosing to you their name, you’re contemplating saying your name straightaway. You haven’t actually tuned in to their name, and now, you’re humiliated to ask once more. This is the issue such countless individuals face in correspondence. Our brains can undoubtedly meander into our own heads and envision what’s returning straightaway or fall into the past. That is the reason undivided attention is so significant. It’s the best way to remain genuinely present in correspondence. To remain genuinely present in our present circumstance, a great many people need to rehearse this as both an update and an expertise. The vast majority get trapped in aloof tuning in rather than undivided attention. This implies they aren’t actually tuning in. While they may not interfere with, they are not giving criticism or posing inquiries to truly comprehend the speaker. With regards to building a fruitful vocation, it doesn’t occur in segregation. This implies that you’ll need to dominate the specialty of active listening.

Apart from active listening there are others soft skills you need to incorporate in yourself in order to be successful. Success is just a mindset and can have different meanings for everyone. But here are some tips that can help.

1)Set an aim for yourself – to achieve anything in life first you need to be clear about what exactly you want. Set aims for yourself and then focus on accomplishing them. It includes the advancement of an activity plan intended to rouse and direct an individual or gathering toward an objective. First of all focus on your short term goals which eventually lead you to your long term goal. Once you are done with one aim start working on others. Just remember only sky is the limit nothing else.

2)Think positively – Positive thinking, or a hopeful mentality, is the act of zeroing in on the positive qualities in some random circumstance. It can immensely affect your physical and psychological well-being. It just methods you approach the great and the terrible in existence with the assumption that things will work out positively. when you think of achieving something you instruct your mind to work on it. If you think about it in a negative way , you are making way for your own failure.

3)Work hard but don’t forget to work smart – Achievement involves trying sincerely as well as working keenly to accomplish your ideal objectives quicker. You should be able to spot the difference between when you should be working hard and when you need to put in some smart work. Working smart incorporates outfitting yourself with information and data in regards to your ideal region of progress. It incorporates finding out about how others have succeeded instead of attempting to rehash an already solved problem. Discover which alternate ways, tips and deceives exist in finishing an errand acceptably.

4) Start observing – Being observant involves being cautious, mindful, sharp looked at and alarm to watch and screen patterns, being cutting-edge on issues and recognizing openings. Start paying attention to minute details. Focus on what is happening in your regions of interest. Observing assists with improving your relationship building abilities and communicate well with others. Being attentive likewise incorporates peering inside yourself or deep down to know and comprehend minutes when you get glimmers of motivation.

5) Don’t procrastinate – procrastination is a really common practice. It basically refers to a situation when you start wasting your time in some futile task rather than the one you are supposed to be doing. It eventually leads to a lot of stress because then you have to complete a bulk of tasks at the last moment. In such a situation you are not able to function to your full abilities. So don’t leave work pending for the last moment and try to finish it as soon as possible.

6)Seek feedback – often you fail to realize your own mistakes and where do you lack. Feedbacks from others can be of great aid in such situations. It helps you realize where do you need to focus more and what new strategies you need to form to achieve your goals. learn about your mistakes and work on them . Take frequent feedbacks from people who you think can help you improve.

7) Patience– patience is something you must have in order to aim for something. Immediate success is rare . Numerous individuals are dependent on needing accomplishment at this very moment, not even tomorrow. When we plant a seed it first need to develop strong roots underground in order to support a large tree. Similar is the case when we work on achieving our aims . be patient and let your base be strong. There are no alternate ways to progress, it requires some investment, energy, penance, energetic longing to succeed and a solid will to win.

8) Don’t give up and believe in yourself – most provocative people in the world are the ones who won’t settle for average and have triumphed through adversity. We are most inspired by people who have experienced difficulty and never, ever give up. Following your fantasies can be both unnerving and energizing. Always have faith in yourself ,if you can think of it you can surely achieve it .

4 Pillars of Object-Oriented Programming

What is OOPS ?

It is a programming paradigm based on a concept of objects and classes. It allows the programmer to work with real life entities like inheritance, polymorphism, hiding, etc. Some popular object-oriented programming languages are Java, C++, Python, PHP, etc.

Before diving into the concept of OOPS, you should be familiar with object and classes.

Object – These are the real world entities having a specific identity, specific characteristics and behavior you find in your everyday life.

Classes – It is the blueprint that represents a set of objects that share common characteristics and behavior.

Object’ is an instance of ‘class’. For example, ‘bird’ is a class but ‘eagle’ is an object.

The four pillars of object-oriented programming are – 

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

Let’s take a look at these concepts – 

Abstraction

It is the method of hiding the implementation details and showing only the functionality to the user.

For example, when we are driving a car to the grocery store ignoring the details of how the engine, braking systems works. We think car as an object with its own unique behavior. We are only interested in how to propel the car forward and reach the destination. The user need not be concerned about how a particular feature is implemented. From the outside, the car is a single entity. But from inside, you see that the car consists of several systems – brakes, sound system, steering wheel, and so on. 

Encapsulation

It is an object-oriented programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data and keeps both safe from outside interference. In other words, encapsulation is a programming technique that binds the class members (variables and methods) together and prevents them from being accessed by other classes. Therefore, it is also called data mining.

For example, a capsule encapsulates several ingredients of the medicine. The mixture of medicines are variables and methods then the capsule will act as a class and the whole process is called encapsulation as shown in the figure given below.

Inheritance

Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. It is important because it supports the concept of hierarchical classification.

For example, the Cat extends the Mammal class, which extends the Animal class. So cat would directly inherit all the functions from Animal and Mammal class. 

It represents an IS-A type of relationship. From the above example, we can say that cat is a mammal, which is a mammal. So anything that applied to animals also applies to a cat. This will make more sense when you will be writing complicated code and using inheritance for the reusability of code.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism (from Greek, meaning “many forms”) is a feature that allows one interface to be used for a general class of action. A specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. In simple words, it means one function behaves in different forms.

For example, a dog’s sense of smell is polymorphic. If a dog smells cat, it will bark and run after it, if the dog smells its food, it salivates and run to its bowl.

Reference Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming

7 Bollywood Comedians We Grew Up Watching And Miss In The Age Of Stand-Up

Comedy in Bollywood movies in the ‘80s, ‘90s, and the mid-2000s was gold. And so were the comedians who delivered some great light-hearted comedy. In the digital era, where stand-up comedians are ruling the roost, we take a look back at the long-forgotten comedy actors in Bollywood. From Johnny Walker to Rajpal Yadav, here’s a list of comedians we miss watching. 

1. Johnny Lever

Johnny was not only our favourite but Bollywood’s most popular comedian for decades. In his 40-year-long career, he’s featured in more than 200 films. Little did we know that Johnny was the OG stand-up comedian who started his journey by performing comedy acts in musical shows. He was later discovered by Sunil Dutt, who got him his first movie Dard Ka Rishta in 1982. The actor was last seen in Cooli No.1 starring Varun Dhawan.

2. Laxmikant Berde

Salman Khan and Laxmikant Berde’s Jodi was an absolute hit in the ‘90s. But did you know that the comedian who was a constant in every Sooraj Barjatya film, was actually a superstar in Marathi cinema? He was popularly known as the ‘Comedy King’ of Marathi cinema. He made his Bollywood debut with Maine Pyar Kiya in 1989 and featured in a couple of other popular Hindi films including Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!, Mere Sapno Ki Rani, Aarzoo, Saajan, Beta, 100 Days and Anari. His sudden demise in 2004 came as a shock to everyone.

3. Raju Srivastav

Our very dear Gajodhar bhaiya needs no introduction. Much like Laxmikant, Raju also started his Bollywood journey with Maine Pyar Kiya. However, he never got much recognition in Bollywood and rose to fame with The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, an Indian reality stand-up comedy series. Raju is popular for doing some great mimicry.

4. Rajpal Yadav 

The last we saw Rajpal in Coolie No.1 starring Varun Dhawan. There was a time when he delivered some of the most iconic comical roles in the mid-2000s like Lal Hanuman in Bhool Bhulaiyaa, Bandya in Chup Chup Ke, and Chota Don in Bhagam Bhag. His other notable films include Hungama, Mujhse Shaadi Karogi, Partner, and Dhol. How we wish we get to see him more.

5. Johnny Walker

Anand, Hrishikesh Mukherjee

Remember Isa bhai from Anand? Johnny is another iconic comedian from the bygone era who never failed to crack us up with his distinct voice. Oh, did we mention his signature pencil-thin moustache? Johnny was last seen playing the character of Joseph in Chachi 420. He passed away in 2003, we hope someone with a similar style emerged on the scene.

6. Keshto Mukherjee

Remember the drunk comedian in almost every ‘70s and ‘80s film? The man with a bottle of alcohol who made funny faces just to make us laugh? Keshto made his look legendary and one-of-a-kind, and was perhaps one of the best comedians Indian cinema has ever seen.

7. Mehmood

And we saved the best for the last. Mehmood aka Master Pillai from Padosan is Indian cinema’s best comedian ever. He’s not only featured in more than 300 films but also won several Filmfare Awards for Best Comedian. 

Five Things To See In Albania

Officially known as the Republic of Albania, Albania is a Balkan country located in southeastern Europe. Albania has a very diverse landscape. On one side, the country has the snowy peaks of the Albanian Alps while on the other, the country has the numerous tropical and sunny beaches of the Mediterranean Sea. This variance in the topography has not only lead to a variance in climate, but given rise to a lot of tourists spots.

Compared to its neighbors, Albania is relatively cheaper to visit, while offering similar views and experiences. Albania’s currency is the Albanian Lek and the conversion rate between them is 1 Indian Rupee equaling to 1.39 Albanian Lek. The months from March to June are the best time to visit Albania. Albania has a very rich history owing to it being inhabited by various civilizations over the centuries. This, along with its diverse landscape makes Albania a good tourist location. Whether for its history, natural beauty, or leisure, Albania offers them all.

Here are five places you must check out in Albania!

BUNK’ART

BUNK’ART

BUNK’ART is a series of museums of renovated former bunkers located in and about Tirana, the capital city of Albania. They were built by the former dictator of Albania, Enver Hoxha. It currently serves as a five floor art and history museum and displays the lifestyle in Albania during the 45 years it was under communism.

Mount Dajti

Mount Dajti

Located on the edge of Tirana, Mount Dajti, a designated national park is a paradise for nature lovers. It is filled with forests of different trees like pine and oak. Apart from that, other geographical features seen here are waterfalls, caves, lakes, canyons and an ancient castle too! It is a dream for hikers. For the less adventurous, there is a beautiful cable car line with scenic view of the slopes of Mount Dajti and Tirana city.

Berat

Berat

Berat is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. The architecture of the buildings is rich due to various civilizations making the city their home and leaving their mark on it through the architecture. This has given the city the nickname of the ‘City With a Thousand Windows’. The Berat castle is the city’s main attraction.

Gjirokaster

Gjirokaster

Gjirokaster is another UNESCO World Heritage Site. The older part of the town has homes with roofs of flat stones. This has given it the nickname of the ‘City of Stone’. The town is overlooked by the Gjirokaster Fortress. The Gjirokaster National Folklore Festival is held here every five years. The latest edition of the festival (the eleventh season), originally scheduled for 2020 was rescheduled to 1st May-8th May, 2021 due to the ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic.

Schkoder

Schkoder
From Rozafa Castle

Schkoder is considered to be the cultural capital of Albania. It has various structures of historical importance like Rozafa Castle, the Shirgj Church, the Mesi Bridge, the Lead Mosque and the nearby ruins of Shurdhah island. The Lake of Schkoder, which happens to be the largest lake in South Europe, is also a tourist attraction for both visitors as well as locals; especially during the summer.

BEST BUDDY FOR LIFE: DOGS

 UNCONDITIONAL LOVE 

Dogs are the best companion when you are feeling low or when you are feeling tired . They make you happy with there silly habits and beautiful face . Dogs are loved by most . Every person in there life ones have thought of petting a dog . They are fluffy , chubby, hairy and small . But they also come in different size and shapes . 

They don’t see your money they just wanted love they just give love . Even if you just show love to a street dog it will follow you even if you don’t give him food . They are not selfish , they are selfless . They don’t care about your looks . They just want love and care .

STREET DOG 

You might have seen many dogs roaming in your area or around your area . They eat whatever you give them. But sometimes some people have evil thinking’s towards them . They beat them or throw stones on them . Some people even give them poison . 

There are several cases of rape towards dogs also . Human is the only creature in the planet earth who can communicate and talk . But what is the benefit of such gift when you are ruining a life of a small creature , by your power. We should care and love animals not destroy there life with our malfunctioning brain . 

COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

• Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.
• It emphasizes the ability to communicate the meaning of the message, instead of concentrating on grammatical perfection.
• Language learners learn practice the target language through the interaction with one another and the instructor, the study of “authentic texts” and through the use of the language both in class and outside of class.
• Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment, and to focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language.
• The goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language. This is in contrast to previous views in which grammatical competence was commonly given top priority
• It also focuses on the teacher being a facilitator, rather than an instructor.
• The approach is a non-methodical system that does not use a textbook series to teach the target language, but rather works on developing sound oral/verbal skills prior to reading and writing.
• The class activities under this method includes grammar drills, reading and writing activities, role-play, opinion sharing, group work and information gap.
• Errors are tolerated and treated as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills.
• Proper situations should be created by the teacher so as to promote communication in the classroom.
• The social contexts of the communicative situations are essential for giving meaning to the utterances.
• The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study. Hence, attention is given to teaching language for communication.
• Accuracy and Fluency activities play very important role in Communicative Competence.
• In CLT, languages are learned not only as skills but also as social behavior, by using tasks that learners would also do in the real world.
• Learning a language is interactive, co-operative, learner-centered and content-based, but the approach does not mean that learning a second language involves just ‘conversation‘.
• The ‘3 Ps’ teaching model are Presentation, Practice and Production.

How is feminine writing different from women’s writing?

History shows that many writings of women were centered around man. She wrote what society expected from her, not her experiences or true emotions. Writers like Jane Austen and Emily Bronte gave prior importance to the standards of society and reflected their own style of elitist patriarchal feminism in their works. Especially Austen reflected the idea that women is complete only when she is married. Many so called feminist writers exposed women’s lacks and they secured a place in women’s writing.

L’Ecriture Féminine is a French feminist theorist movement that literally translated means Feminist or feminine writing. This term was originally coined by Hélène Cixous, who wished to create a sort of language or new type of writing that allowed women to express themselves. Cixous and other practitioners of écriture féminine states that the very structures of Western language exclude women and can function only through the silencing of women and the repression of feminine sexual drives. Feminist writing is women writing about women by creating a female based language versus a male based language, which is what most people write in. Writing has been such a patriarchal field for so long and because of this, it is hard to write as a woman about woman issues in a world of men. Cixous predominantly links female oppression, specifically the denial of female sexual pleasure, with the lack of female writing. Her wish is to freely express female sexuality and to “overturn masculine discourse”, which are the features of Ecriture Féminine theory.

There are three main writers in the Ecriture Feminine world and they are Hélène Cixous, Monique Wittig and Luce Irigaray. They all have differing opinions about what Ecriture Feminine should be defined as, but they all mostly agree that, feminist or feminine writing is a writing done from a female point of view. Cixous and Irigaray both argue that if women can express their sexuality for themselves then they can create a new viewpoint. This new type of writing would focus entirely on women and have a completely new viewpoint of a woman or a woman only.

Cixous and Feminine writing


The history clearly shows that men are capable of writing the feminine and they can create woman’s writing by erasing or rejecting the boundaries of phallocentric ideas and the practiced confining which is assigned for women within the patriarchal structures. Many works produced by men are disjointed and disturbing in terms of narration and figurative language and has mirrored one man’s ideologies and experiences. They are all connected to the coded restrictions and limitations prescribed by centuries of patriarchy. By linking writing with having a penis, these authors insist that writing, or creativity in general, is a biological act, one that is rooted in the body, and specifically in the male body.
Cixous stated that women should surrender to their own bodies and to write with their bodies in order to produce real, strange, cyclical, non-linear texts of fiction and literature by introducing a concept called ecriture feminine. Ecriture feminine can never be codified. Critics opined that it is in a constant state of flux, ever-changing, ever-moving, bringing forth delights, disorganization and strangeness in ever changing ways. Cixous writes that “Nearly the entire history of writing is confounded with the history of reason […] it has been one with the phallocentric tradition” Woman has been ashamed due to repression by patriarchal ideology. Woman must “Write! Writing is for you, you are for you; your body is yours, take it”
Cixous believes women can most accurately tell their story by writing through their bodies. All through history women have been defined by and contained within their own bodies as a result of repressive male activity. Cixous suggests that women who have been defined by the male gaze has two options. The first option is that they can remain trapped inside themselves thereby perpetuating the passive role determined for them by the male. The second alternative women have, and the option Cixous supports, is that they can use their bodies as a tool. By using their bodies as a medium of communication, women are able to speak with the very thing that they have been confined within.
Cixous speaks positively and optimistically about women’s ability to reclaim their right to speak and write in a feminine style. She explains that the style must take on an unconventional form.
In her writing Cixous deviates from the accepted masculine style but she deliberately calls attention to the fact that she can not express her true thoughts as she feel them, by exposing the inadequacy of the current language. Since the immediate creation of a new language is not a feasible option, women are left with the option of only revealing the flaws that exist. Exposing these flaws is the only way women will be able to overcome the obstacles that are constructed by a patriarchal society. Sahe says “Language is the repressor of woman as it is governed by the governing masculine order”.
In The Laugh of the Medusa Cixous cries for a dismantlement of this structured alien discourse by saying woman must be together as woman and not allow the phallogocentric, male dominated world to prevent us, as woman, from being heard and recognized. Therefore she inscribes a form of writing for woman, with her own language, syntax and structure.

M.G. Vassanji as a Diasporic Writer

M.G. Vassanji is a diasporic Canadian writer who depicts the double migration of his South Asian Characters. Vassanji comes in the second category of diaspora who inhabit a liminal position that defines their experience of migrancy. The larger themes he deals with are community values, individual identity, history, effect of colonialism and multiculturalism. Vassanji’s novels are the most authentic and detailed elaboration on African life which was not dealt with in earlier novels. His novels are a vehicle of self-discovery which define African identity and make the Indians re-discover their cultural roots. Vassanji seems to suggest that when one exists in between several cultures, it is necessary for him to have a distinguishing identity, in this case an in-between sense of being.Vassanji highlights in his novels a new type of culture which forms when different communities interact. Vassanji’s works represent the convergence of cultures that characterizes both East Africa and Asia. The particular history of immigrant communities once or twice removed from Asia inspires his portrayal of conflicting relationships between individuals and the communities to which they belong. Vassanji’s works represent the convergence of cultures that characterizes both East Africa and Asia. The particular history of immigrant communities once or twice removed from Asia inspires his portrayal of conflicting relationships between individuals and the communities to which they belong.

Success is equally proportionate to Pain

Let’s begin by asking ourselves “what is success? Money? Power? Position? Maybe not necessarily. But, technically “Success is the state or condition of meeting a defined range of expectations.” It may be viewed as the opposite of failure. This is quite abstract to put into simplified emotions.

The criteria for success depend on context, and may be relative to a particular observer or belief system. What is considered as success from one person’s perspective can be considered as failure from a different point of view. In the end, it’s all about the parameters and the priorities which can be as distinct as it is possible.

No matter what the goal is big or small, classic or adventurous there is one thing in common “PAIN”.

“KEEP YOUR DREAMS IN PROPORTION TO THE PAIN YOU CAN TOLERATE.

No pain no gain

There is an irrefutable relationship between pain and success . Often, when we talk about motivation we leave out the concept of pain , why? because we feel the pain without any effort. Or, why would we need motivation for?

Still there are certain things we can remember or keep reminding ourselves of-

  • YOU WILL FEEL PAIN

No matter where you choose to go, alone or with company , “pain will never fail to accompany you”. It will guide you, motivate you, break you, and more often than not crush you . Well, it’s not all that bad if you can handle it , you’ll come out as a polished rock!! Sounds nice right.

Nothing about success comes easy, but every painful story has the potential to have a successful ending. You may as well accept suffering as a traveling companion, rather than resist it and create more struggle. Uncertainty and stress are inevitable. Both prompt you to make adjustments to mitigate their effects, mentoring you toward further success. A little stress can push you in a positive direction. You never know until you try.

Somethings are inevitable
  • YOU WILL WANT TO GIVE UP

As you wonder through your more directionless times, you will experience intense moments of feeling lost and hopeless. It is during these times you must hold tight to your vision and take back control of your thoughts. The quickest way to derail your dreams is to quit when things look bleak. Quitting, when you are on the front lines of these critical moments, keeps you living amongst the average. The successful persevere and rise.

Discipline the most crucial tool you can use to naviage through any difficulty that arises in your journey. It helps you to do things when you refuse to.

  • PEOPLE WILL DISCOURAGE YOU

There is a popular thought that you should keep your dreams close to your chest because if you share them you may pillage them to dream-stealers and naysayers. The human mind is programmed to believe the negative. Negative thoughts are extremely contagious and when you set out on the “Road Less Traveled”, you will have an audience full of small-minded people trying to scare you and discourage you from chasing your dreams. These are the people who want to instill so much fear in you that you shrink. You have to make yourself immune to these influences when you set out on your quest for success.

“Work quietly and let your success do the talking.”

Fight for your dreams

Reality is, people don’t tend to like other successful people. There is a jealousy that comes along with being different, standing out and humbly chasing your dreams. Small people hate those who have or do everything they lack. Dealing with jealousy can be difficult, especially if you want to maintain your relationships. Learn to let your haters make you greater.

  • YOU WILL HAVE SELF-DOUBT

Nine times out of ten, when you start a new venture you will go in and out of feeling utterly paralyzed. It’s because you doubt yourself. Sometimes you may doubt your knowledge, decisions you have already made and you may doubt your instincts. All of this doubt creates an internal conflict over what you need to do to move forward.

You doubt because you don’t want to make the wrong decisions and end up in an unrecoverable mistake. Keep in mind there are no unrecoverable mistakes, there are only new directions. You must push through your self-doubt and not allow it to partner up with delay. Doubt and delay, when paired, derail success.

On your journey, trust there is no such thing as wrong. The only wrong choice is not making one. You will likely always feel some level of self-doubt, but you can choose not to doubt your choice to stretch yourself and grow. Doubts are an inevitable part of succeeding. The important thing is that you act in spite of them.

Keep going

Don’t let go – because it’s worth the fight

With the right idea, attitude, and thoughts a struggle really is nothing but another essential component of your success. It all starts with you.

The vision is the prize, not the money or the end results. That is what you are really here for, isn’t it? To have an impact, to make a difference? You can only know your significance through the impact you have upon others. When you see that your success improves and positively influences the lives of others, it will all be worth it.

SOURCES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Success_(concept)

https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/274382

V. T. Bhattathiripad

V. T. Bhattathiripad was an Indian social reformer, dramatist and an Indian independence activist. He was best known for his contributions in the reformation of the casteism and conservatism that existed in the Namboothiri community. He wrote a number of books which include a play, Adukkalayail Ninnu Arangathekku. Indian independence movement was gaining popularity and Bhattathiripad participated in the Allahabad session of the Indian National Congress due to which he was expelled from his community. This prompted him to fight against casteism and he started campaigning for Brahmin widow remarriage, which was a taboo during those times.Bhattathiripad utilised his writing skills as a tool for social reforms and his writings contrasted the social changes that followed the Indian independence movement against the dormant state of Namboothiri community. The staging of his play, Adukkalayilninnu Arangathekku (From the Kitchen to the Stage), in 1929 was an important event in the social reform calendar of Kerala; the play highlighted the discriminatory rituals and practices prevalent in the Namboothiri community, especially the plight of Namboothiti women. The drama also marked a deviation in Malayalam theatre from historical plays to social dramas.We do not find any literary work having introduced such a basic change in the minds of people capable of bringing about a revolutionary impact.

Despite marriage reform being the central theme of the work, with swajathivivaham ( marriage within cast) and love marriage as the focal points, the drama subjected other important concerns of the time such as the re-alignment of inter-caste relationships, the approach towards the nationalist movement, the need of English education, the emancipation of Antarjanams etc. It clearly aimed at a refashioning of the community along with
modern ideals and a realignment of community relationships in the light of changing social equilibrium and ongoing criticism against the Nambiitiris on account of their orthodoxy. It is no wonder that VT, who considered social reform as his mission, upheld these issues in a situation when the Namboothiris, who ought to have led the society and the country, suppressed other communities by arresting their progress. The drama says that young men of namboodiri community, who dared to question the futility of Vedic education is presenting a live picture of the beast-like life to the women in their house. The drama in fact tore the hearts of the orthodox.

Contemporary reviews applauded the drama for the revolutionary changes. It brought about within the community and compared it with a bombshell. The reviews treat it as an ‘absolute farce’ dealing with worldly matters alone. The drama got appreciated for its character formation, stage arrangement, sarcasm and the skill in portraying the harem of an illam. This farce is capable of transforming the very foundations of the Nambootiri community.

It is generally treated as the first ‘social farce’ and as the pioneering venture in the progressive theatre movement in Kerala. It also came to be accepted as the first propagandist drama. In relation to both the theme and presentation, it utilized the methods of realism and was in fact an attempt at an in-depth analysis of the community through self-criticism. VT himself wrote that it aimed at burning down what was created by, and what had been imposed on,
the Nambootiris in the process of the formation of a communitarian divide in the society.

It also suffered many drawbacks if looked at from a literary point of view. It failed to stand the test of time because it was highly propaganda-oriented and hence came to have a low level of artistic value. As it focused on the contemporary and strictly communitarian issues, it could not last as a literary piece in the post-reform age. But all these defects do not detract the value of this play. The strength of the play lies in its revolutionary side and the changes that it was able to introduce in the community. Today, however, it has only historical value than as a piece of literature.

VT dedicated the work to the Antarjanams with a note “In the tender hands of the virgins”. It has been observed that the drama was created with the purpose of conversing with women. The main narrative revolves around the love affair of Madhavan and Thethi. Madhavan departs to Madras for studies and in the meanwhile Thethi’s marriage is fixed with an aged Nambootiri. Though Thethi’s father had great regard for Madhavan, the fear of committing the sin of Parivedanam discouraged him from giving his daughter in marriage to him. Madhavan completed his course of study and with the help of his friends decided to foil the marriage through a court injunction. Finally Thethi was married to Madhavan and in a meeting of the Nambzitiri Yuvajana Sangham, which is arranged to congratulate the couples, Madhavan tore out her ghosa to liberate her from seclusion.