Large Population and Less Agriculture

“I think having land and not ruining it is the most beautiful art that anybody could ever want to own.”

— Andy Warhol

Agriculture is all about getting in touch with mother earth around us after all it is a source of food for us. However, the agriculture is degrading day by day and the requirement of the population is increasing.

Why agriculture is important?

The agriculture plays a crucial role in providing food , shelter as well as employment to various sectors of economy.

It is merely the most important economic activity in world and main source of raw material for us. Today, processing, marketing, and distribution of crops and livestock products etc. are all acknowledged as part of current agriculture.

Types of Agriculture

Subsistence Farming

It is an ancient method of farming.It is performed in a specific area where the crops are usually produced for their personal needs and are not grown for the purpose of sale in market.

Commercial Agriculture

The commercial farming is basically down on a larger area. It’s main aim is to sell the produce and livestock in commercial market.This type of farming is done in urban areas

Shifting Agriculture

It is also known by the name of shifting cultivation.The farming is done for a temporary period of time and later abandoned.This type of farming is mostly done in hilly regions such as, Arunachal pradesh, Manipur etc.

Plantation Agriculture

It is also known by commercial farming.The crops are produced for at least one year and this type of farming usually increases soil erosion.

Mixed Cropping

In this type of farming, the farmers are growing different types of crops but more than once in the same land together.

Intensive Agriculture

Intensive farming is also known as Intensive agriculture in this high quantity of fertilisers, labour, pesticides are used on the land for farming.

If we look upon the present condition,the farmers are suffering the most in the pandemic.So health of the farmers must be a prior concern for the well being and for greater productivity of crops as well as development of agriculture.Therefore,the methods used for farming must be made more effective as stated above to enhance the productivity of agriculture.

 “Agriculture is the most healthful, most useful and most noble employment of man.”

― George Washington

Rating: 4.5 out of 5.

MOBILE PHONES-NOW and THEN

Back in the days of 90’s, when people got habitual of their wired telephones, there came a revolutionary invention- THE MOBILE PHONES. They served as a very useful servant to the humans as it helped them in many ways;

Photo by Adrianna Calvo on Pexels.com
  • Now, no longer there is a need to stand next to your telephones waiting for someone’s call as you can just take it wherever you want.
  • They are small and easy to handle, so you don’t have to make much space for it.
  • Their portability is their key feature

Over the years, as humans and mobiles have undergone a drastic evolution.

They are no longer just a medium of connecting with people but has now became an important part of our lives.

In almost every situation, the first thought that comes to our mind is our mobiles. Weather it is capturing our happy moments, guiding us in difficult situations or making us feel better in bad times through music-all jobs can be performed by a single mobile phone. Now, in every household, almost each family member owns a mobile. Now that the mobiles have got smarter, people have got completely dependent on it. In fact the social media, with the initial and basic feature of connecting with world has now become an addiction for many.

Over the years, the mobile that was developed as a servant has taken over the commands and became our masters. Now we can’t even think of our lives without a mobile. I agree that mobiles can help you get out of every tough situation in all possible ways but there are times when the same device lands you in trouble.

The diary having phone numbers of all our loved ones have now been replaced by the contact in mobiles, so you don’t have to memorize them but what if someday the data gets lost. They kids can enjoy gaming and scrolling over social sites in mobiles but the parks and grounds are now left empty and the rides are layered by dust. Earlier people use to wake up by the melodious chirping of birds and gaze of the sun but now, they wake up by the disturbing sound of their alarms.

Affect on Students during pandemic

During the tough times of Covid-19 the online teaching has become the new normal. To save the career of students the education platform shifted from classrooms to laptops and mobiles. Indeed mobiles were very useful in the pandemic to connect with people, help them, study online, etc. But it was really hard for students to learn online as it required them to sit in front of their phones for more than 5 hours daily. It has caused various harmful effects on them such as:

  • Constant headache
  • Itching in eyes
  • Watering of eyes
  • Anxiety
  • Vision loss

In the race to explore the digital world, we are somehow loosing our connections with the real physical world.

DEPRESSION:

Hello, hi, and namastey people how are you doing. I hope everyone one are fit and fine. Ok so before starting my content I would like to question everyone, Is it enough being fit n fine physically or should we be fit mentally also? Of course mental health is most important right because mental health is the root of physical health. If a person is mentally unfit then how we can rest assured that he / she might be physically fit.

So as you all saw my today’s topic is depression.

What is Depression?

                 Depression is a mood disorder that involves a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It is completely different from mood fluctuation that people regularly experience as a part of life.

But what causes Depression?

             It might be caused due to stress related to work

             It might be caused due to low self esteem

             It might be caused due to lack of money

             It might be caused due to family problems

             It might be caused due to health related problems

             It might be caused due to problems in family or love life

             It might be caused due to failed career

             It might be caused due to mental torture or harassing

So basically depression can be caused by any of the problems. But is depression really harmful for a person? The answer is YES, because depression is a kind of slow poison which can kill a person in 2 ways. Firstly it will kill a person mentally and then it will kill a person physically.

Depression is something in which a person feels him/her self completely lost in this big world. They feel like there is no one who can understand them. And this feeling can disappear a person completely. But I know a strong person who not only fighter with her depression but also leading her life with a  positive vibe and energy.

Let me tell you all ,the true story of a strong girl whose name is Meenu. She was born in a middle class family which consist of mother, father, grandmother, grandfather, aunt, and uncle the day when meenu was born every family member was really very happy but one person was not at all happy on meenu’s arrival and that person was meenu’s mother she was a wild lady. Poor little baby was given in force to her grand parents .Meenu’s grandparents, without any hesitation, started raising their grandchild with love and affection. This cutie pie was always longing for her mother’s love but whenever meenu goes to her mother, she was always beaten brutally. One day ,her mother even tried to kill meenu but luckily meenu got rescued by her aunt and grand mother. Meenu’s mother was not only harsh to meenu but was also wild to her in-laws due to this she got separated from meenu and her grandparents. At the age of 9 itself. Meenu faced lots of traumatic moments of her life. Meenu got depressed very badly she started living with a fear of getting beaten again by her mother. She always had only one question, Why do her mother hates her so much? What was her fault ? Was it only because she was born from her womb. She was her own child ,but still her mom didn’t value her. Meenu started hating her mother. It took several months for meenu to come out of that traumatic event. Days started passing, Meenu was raised happily by her grandparents. She completed her 9th grade and stepped into her 10th grade. She taught life will be much easier with her loved ones. But poor child didn’t knew that life will bring many challenges. When she finally started receiving her father’s love after ages, at that point her father suddenly passed away .It caused meenu a heartbreak .Where children’s play and enjoy life, at that age meenu started taking small – small responsibilities of her grandparents even though she was badly depressed she chose to keep her feelings and emotions aside and started living for her grandparents. She choose to act as a happy soul in order to make her grandparents happy .Meenu’s grandparents was her strength .Even they were getting old but still they managed to give meenu a good life ,even though her grandfather faced lots of financial crisis he did not made all that effect meenu’s life. Meenu was just an innocent child who started compromising her dreams and desires only because she didn’t wanted her grandparents to be tensed because of her. She completed her schooling, stepped into her college life. As she knew that her grandparents were facing financial crisis, She started taking tutoring classes  so that at least she could manage her own expenses .Where once her dream was to become a child councelor, that dream got changed with just completing her graduation and find a random job, so that she could take care of her grandparents. At one corner of her heart she had a beautiful dream of having a beautiful picture with her grandparents while receiving her graduation certificate but life was always against her dreams ,It was always unfair. Before her dream would come true ,she lost her grandfather and this incident broke meenu completely. Meenu’s life journey was already very awful and depressed from starting point of her life itself. She just thought of a happy life but her fate did not agreed with her happy life. She completely lost herself and was about to quit everything, but then she saw her grandmother’s tears and kept her own emotions aside and started giving her grandma the reason to live life peacefully. She just consoled her grandma by saying just one sentence “LIFE ALWAYS BRING CHALLENGES ONLY TO THEM WHO ARE CAPABLE OF FIGHTING AND DEALING WITH IT ’’

MORAL: Even though you are depressed and thinks that life is unfair with you, just get up take a deep breath and say to your heart that life cannot be stopped because of some bad events, you are born for a reason, live for the people who values you, who depends on you, who lives for you. Just go with a flow of life.

So people don’t get upset when you find your self alone. You can share your problems or bothering with your friends and family . If you think that there is no one to listen to you, you can frankly share your problems with me 🙂

I hope you all liked my todays work ,

Do like and share your views through comments 🙂

Importance of Atmanirbhar Bharat

A nation’s strength ultimately consists in what it can do on its own, and not in what it can borrow from others.” – Indira Gandhi.

Self-Reliance, one thing which is common in all developed nations and a thing that a developing nation wants to achieve. One of those developing nations which are striving to make themselves self-reliant is India. The battle to become self-reliant is not new but started back from the independence itself. At that time, India was the largest economy in South Asia, the self-reliance in the state heavy industries and strategic sectors in the post-independence decades put India before most of the developing world.

However, in the 1970s and 1980s, India did not modernize these industries to move up the technological ladder. Little was done to modernize light industries. The industrial ecosystem was held hostage to the license-permit-quota system that hampered innovation. As a result, self-reliance gave way to corruption and dependence on imports. A major turn came in 1991 after economic liberalization in India was initiated in 1991 by Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao and his then-Finance Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh.

1) Atmanirbhar Bharat and the idea behind it

At a time when the world was plagued by the deadly pandemic, PM Narendra Modi launched a campaign which was meant to convert this crisis into an opportunity and strengthen India’s fight by becoming Aatmanirbhar or self-reliant.

-> There are five pillars of Atmanirbhar Bharat which focus on:

  • Economy
  • Infrastructure
  • System
  • Vibrant Demography and
  • Demand

-> The Five phases of Atmanirbhar Bharat are:

  • Phase-I: Businesses including MSMEs
  • Phase-II: Poor, including migrants and farmers
  • Phase-III: Agriculture
  • Phase-IV: New Horizons of Growth
  • Phase-V: Government Reforms and Enablers

PM Modi emphasized the fact that it is time to voice our local products and make them global. A special economic package was created as part of this campaign. Established by the government, which will benefit various segments including the craft industry, micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), workers, the middle class and industry. The economic package announced by the Prime Minister, along with various packages launched during the lockdown period, amounts to around 20 lakh crore rupees ($ 283.73 billion), which was roughly 10 percent of India’s GDP. It was expected to support and empower different parts of the country and give new impetus to the development of the country in 2020.

In order to express the determination of an independent India, land, labor, liquidity and laws were included in this package. Minister of Finance & Corporate Affairs, Ms. Nirmala Sitharaman, made all the announcements related to several sectors on different days, divided into five tranches, and provided detailed information on the steps the government is taking.

2) Division of package for different sectors in Atmanirbhar Bharat

  • First tranche – Rs 5,94,550 crore

The first aid installment announced by Nirmala Sitharaman focuses on empowering the backbone of the Indian economy: MSMEs, which employ around 11 billion people and have a GDP share of around 29 percent. This included unsecured loans of Rs.3 billion and a capital injection of Rs. 50,000 billion for MSMEs through the funds

  • Second tranche – Rs 3,10,000 crore

Nirmala Sitharaman’s second installment of measures was targeted at migrant workers and street vendors. The minister introduced ‘one nation one ration card’ card so migrant workers can buy ration from any ration depot in the country. Around 50 lakh street vendors will have access to a special credit facility of Rs 5,000 crore within an initial working capital of Rs 10,000. Around 2 lakh crore rupees will be delivered to farmers via kisan credit cards, while 2.5 crore farmers, including fishermen and animal husbandry farmers will be able to attain institutional loans at a preferential rate.

  • Third tranche – Rs 1,50,000 crore

The third tranche worth Rs 1.5 lakh crore aims at agriculture and related sectors, including dairy, livestock and fisheries, as the government proclaimed measures to toughen the broad agricultural sector.

  • Fourth and fifth tranches – Rs 48,100 crore

The fourth installment of the Rs 20 Lakh Crore package included reforms for sectors such as coal, minerals, defense production, airspace management, airports, MRO, UT distributors, space and nuclear energy.

3) Sectors to benefit from Atmanirbhar bharat.

I. MICRO, SMALL, AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises have played a vital role in Indian economy. It has contributed one third to the GDP of India and also provided employment to large sections of society. The sector is source of livelihood to 110 million people. With the current phase of Atmanirbhar Bharat these MSME’s has become more significant to India’s financial and economic sector. Acknowledging the importance of this sector it would contribute to 50 million jobs and half of India’s GDP in the coming five years.

Benefits of MSME’s under Atmanirbhar Bharat:

  • Collateral free loans- The commencement of collateral free automatic loans will assist the existing borrowers and this will also give the fuel restart to the business operation.

Some of the key highlights of this benefits are-

-> According to bank policies, the current borrowers should have the standard ratings and turnover of rs.100 crore.

-> Four years of loan tenure and 12 months on principle payment.

-> No additional collateral is required.

  • Equity Infusion- Government is going to setup a fund for funds of 10,000 crore to overcome this situation of pandemic. FOF will be operated through a Mother fund and few Daughter fund. Through these funds the MSME’s can expand their size and capabilities. This will also encourage MSME’s to get listed on the board of stock exchange.
  • Debt for stressed MSME’s- To support MSME’s the central government will provide Rs. 20,000crore as subordinate debts. The infusion of fresh capital into the business will reduce the burden on MSME’s and will benefit two lakh MSME’s.

II. Agriculture and Fisheries

Agriculture is the most important sector of Indian economy. It contributes to 18% of GDP and provide employment to 50% of countries workforce. Government towards improving this sector has released two major initiatives Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana (PM-KISAN) and Agriculture Infrastructure Fund this will help to improve the financial and agriculture status of farmer.

Benefits of agriculture under Atmanirbhar Bharat:

  • Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi Yojana (PM-KISAN)- Under this scheme financial benefit of Rs 6,000/- is provided to beneficiary farmers and is payable in three equals that is 4 monthly installments of Rs 2,000/-. However, under this scheme an amount of more than 17,000 crore has been transferred to 8.5 crore beneficiary farmers.
  • Agriculture Infrastructure Fund- The objective of this scheme is to drive investment across the agricultural chain. This scheme will allow farmers to store their produce till they get better price and affordable post-harvest infrastructure. Farmers and other stakeholders will have access to financing 3% interest and credits from governments and this will help them to enhance their product value.

III. Coal Mining Reforms

India being the fourth- largest producer of coal in the world. In the vision to build Atmanirbhar Bharat a reform to promote commercial coal mining in India has been announced. Opening up of these sectors will expand world class production capacity and provide top product services with global supply chain.

Benefits of Coal mining under Atmanirbhar Bharat:

  • Forty-one coal mines are opened for auction and there are no end restrictions on the coal production for these mining. Bidders will not require any previous experience in coal mining they just have to put up sufficient amount of money. Mining plan approval will be provided in 30 days rather than 90 days. Coal mining will be determined through a National Coal Index for different grades of coal.
  • These 41 mines are likely to produce 225 million tones annually and Rs. 33,000 capital expenditure to get these mining going. Additionally, state government will generate more than 20,000 crore per year in royalties from these mining. This will generate direct and in direct jobs for more than 3 lakh employers and is expected to generate fund of Rs. 112 crores for the District Minerals Foundation Fund.

IV. Non-Banking finance (NBFCs), Housing finance companies (HFCs), Microfinance institutions

For the Non-banking finance companies (NBFCs), Housing finance companies (HFCs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs) Ministry of finance has announced following measures:

  • Special liquidity scheme worth Rs. 30,000 crores
  • Partial credit guarantee scheme worth Rs. 45,000 crores

Benefits of these schemes under Atmanirbhar Bharat:

  •  Main objective of Special liquidity scheme is to provide liquidity support to MSMEs that are impacted due to this pandemic. Under this scheme investments will be made both in primary and secondary transactions in investment papers of NBFCs, HFCs, MFIs. These securities will be fully guaranteed by government. This scheme will ensure operational continuity and promote leading MSME sector.
  • Partial credit guarantee scheme is for NBFCs, HFCs, MFIs, having low credit rating and provide liquidity to leading MSMEs and individual and first 20% loan will be given by the government. This also helps the MSMEs to avoid distress sale of their assets for meeting immediate funds.

Conclusion

This campaign can reach its epitome if supported well by the government. Keeping in mind the increasing incursions by China and India’s dependence on it, the success of the campaign is now more in need than ever. If the government is solemn about instigating this economic philosophy, it must clearly list the areas that need improvement to make Indian manufacturing competitive. Only then will entailed policies get outlined and implemented to bring about the change.

ALCOHOL

Humans have been drinking alcohol for thousands of years. Alcohol is both a chemical and a psychoactive drug. In chemistry, an alcohol exists when a hydroxyl group, a pair of oxygen and hydrogen atoms, replaces the hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. Alcohols bind with other atoms to create secondary alcohols. These secondary alcohols are the three types of alcohol that humans use every day: methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol.

Different Types of Alcoholic Drinks By Alcohol Content

There are many different kinds of alcoholic drinks, and some of them contain more alcohol than others.  The types of alcoholic drinks  with higher concentrations of alcohol are able to cause drunkenness and alcohol poising more quickly and in smaller doses.

Whiskey : Whiskey is a spirit made from  fermented grain. The ABV of whiskey ranges from 40% to 50%.
Rum : Rum, a distilled drink made from fermented sugarcane or molasses, has a typical alcohol concentration of 40% ABV. Some rum is “overproof,” meaning that it has alcohol concentration of at least 57.5% ABV. Most overproof rum exceeds this minimum, usually reaching 75.5% ABV, which is equivalent to 151 proof.
Tequila : Tequila is a type of liquor. The main ingredient of tequila is the Mexican agave plant. The alcohol concentration of tequila is typically about 40% ABV.
Vodka : Vodka, a liquor usually made from fermented grains and potatoes, has a standard alcohol concentration of 40% ABV in the United States.

Pros and cons of moderate alcohol use : Moderate alcohol consumption may provide some health benefits, such as:

  • Reducing your risk of developing and dying of heart disease
  • Possibly reducing your risk of ischemic stroke (when the arteries to your brain become narrowed or blocked, causing severely reduced blood flow)
  • Possibly reducing your risk of diabetes

However, eating a healthy diet and being physically active have much greater health benefits and have been more extensively studied.Keep in mind that even moderate alcohol use isn’t risk-free. For example, even light drinkers (those who have no more than one drink a day) have a tiny, but real, increased risk of some cancers, such as esophageal cancer. And drinking and driving is never a good idea.

Risks of heavy alcohol use : While moderate alcohol use may offer some health benefits, heavy drinking — including binge drinking — has no health benefits.Heavy or high-risk drinking is defined as more than three drinks on any day or more than seven drinks a week for women and for men older than age 65, and more than four drinks on any day or more than 14 drinks a week for men age 65 and younger.

Binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks within two hours for women and five or more drinks within two hours for men.Excessive drinking can increase your risk of serious health problems, including:

  • Certain cancers, including breast cancer and cancers of the mouth, throat, esophagus and liver
  • Pancreatitis
  • Sudden death if you already have cardiovascular disease
  • Heart muscle damage (alcoholic cardiomyopathy) leading to heart failure
  • Stroke
  • High blood pressure
  • Liver disease
  • Suicide
  • Accidental serious injury or death
  • Brain damage and other problems in an unborn child
  • Alcohol withdrawal syndrome

If you don’t drink alcohol, don’t start because of potential health benefits. However, if you drink a light to moderate amount and you’re healthy, you can probably continue as long as you drink responsibly. Be sure to check with your doctor about what’s right for your health and safety.

Unbelievable Travel and Tourism Success Stories :

People sometimes refer to me as an explorer, but I am not. Those who follow maps are adventurers, those who wrote the maps were the explorers.

some Inspiring Traveler Tales From Around the World :

A JOURNEY TO RIVAL THE ODYSSEY :

Karl Bushby is attempting to be the first person to completely walk an unbroken path around the world. He began his quest, known as the Goliath Expedition , in 1998 at the tip of South America and is still on the move. He hopes to reach his home in England soon, and as of 2020 he was encountering some visa obstacles, but is still committed to finishing his walking adventure. At journey’s end, he’ll have walked over 36,000 miles, through icy seas, mountains, and deserts , across four continents and two dozen countries.

FORBIDDEN TRAVELS TO A FORBIDDEN CITY :

“Ever since I was five years old, a tiny precocious child of Paris, I wished to move out of the narrow limits in which, like all children of my age, I was then kept. I craved to go beyond the garden gate, to follow the road that passed it by, and to set out for the Unknown.

Famous French explorer Alexandra David-Neel made history in the early 1900s by walking, disguised as a male beggar, across China and Tibet and into the forbidden and fabled city of Lhasa. She then wrote over 30 books about Eastern religion, philosophy, and her travels, until her death at age 101. It is said that her teachings influenced beat writers Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg. She is surely one of the greatest female adventurers of the 20th century, and her travel stories also rank as some of the best travel books of our time. Check out her entire collection of stories and be inspired—we particularly love her journey to Lhasa.

DANCING, BADLY :

The dancing gives me an opportunity to see places I’d never get to otherwise. I love to travel. The people and experiences have taught me a great deal.

In 2003, Matt Harding quit his day job to embark on a journey that would lead him to more than 39 countries in seven continents. Best known for a dance that looks very similar to running in place while snapping, Matt and his dance eventually attracted the attention of Stride Gum. The company then then paid Matt to travel, dance and record videos.

Matt has danced with locals in Mulindi, Rwanda; in a narrow canyon in Petra, Jordan; on a lush hillside overlooking Machu Picchu in Peru; and in a crowded street in Tokyo, Japan, all on his sponsor’s dime. Although he no longer actively updates his website, the videos live on, as does his collection of short travel stories on social media and elsewhere, and make for an entertaining and inspiring journey around the world.

Now it’s turn for some Indian travelling stories :

Exploring Rajasthan’s Ranakpur Temple

Between the intricate carvings, jungle views and visiting monkeys, Chaumukha Mandir, the Jain Temple at Ranakpur, will transport you to another world.

Built in the 15th century, this enormous complex has 1,400 pillars, each one hand-carved with its own unique patterns, icons and elements from nature – no two pillars are alike.

Wander around the different chambers and marvel at the craftsmanship that took around 65 years to complete.  Don’t forget to stop for a photo of the lush jungle through the temple windows, or to get a glimpse of the families of monkeys that leap between the columns and domes.

Guides aren’t allowed in the temple, so make sure to grab an audio guide before you head in so that you can make the most of your experience and learn a bit more about the Jain religion if you’re not families with its traditions and beliefs.

Kolkata & The Sunderbans

If you are talking to an Indian and mention the Kolkata, the first response is generally a wistful sigh and an explanation about the amazing street food available there.  When you are in a country that is known globally for having delicious food, this says quite a lot!  However, there is more to Kolkata than food.    The city was once the capital of British India and Kolkata is dotted with beautiful colonial buildings that remind visitors of a bygone era.   It is also the location of India’s biggest Durga Puja festival which transforms the city into a giant open air museum.  Adorable blue and yellow taxis whirl around the city like cartoon cars and iconic blue buses ply the streets and a wide variety of bars and restaurants line the streets.

Kolkata is a much-loved destination by expats in India because of the delicious food, beautiful architecture and calm city streets.  Yet, it gets even better!  Kolkata is also the entry point of the famous Sunderbans, a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its incredible biodiversity.   Known as one of the largest mangrove forests in the world, the Sunderbans are home to Bengal tigers, crocodiles, wild boars, deer and a wide array of birds.   While the Sunderbans are located in both Bangladesh and India, the easiest (and cheapest) place to organize trips is from Kolkata itself.

You can opt for an overnight boat trip operated by the West Bengal Tourism Development Corporation.  However, we highly recommend staying in an eco-village located near the park which gives you the chance to help support the local community.  (Our favorite “village” employs women from the local village.  Most of the jobs available in the Sunderbans are very dangerous and this is a safe way for them to make a living and support their families.)

Kolkata is easily accessible from most major cities in India with direct flights from Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore.  For onward travel, flights to Port Blair in the Andamans are inexpensive and relatively frequent.  Otherwise, you can grab a train to Darjeeling or even travel overland to Dhaka, Bangladesh!

Ladakh

The region of Ladakh is jaw-droppingly beautiful and the warm Ladakh (similar to Tibetan) culture is welcoming to female travelers. Head to Leh, join up with a tour and make your way to the hotspots of Nubra Valley and Pangong Lake for a Ladakh trip that you are unlikely to forget!  Getting to Ladakh can either be very tricky or pretty straightforward.  Direct flights operate from Delhi or you can take a gruelling 2-day bus trip from Manali.

Patna Tourism

Prospering along the southern banks of river Ganges and set in the backdrop of a glorious historical past, Patna boasts of a dominating presence in history and enjoys the distinction of being one of the oldest cities in the world. In addition to being one of the major and most popular tourist destinations in India, this capital city of Bihar also holds significant religious and spiritual importance as it is a gateway to pilgrimage sites of Hindus, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists.

Originally called as Pataliputra, Patna is currently a hot-bed for the culminating political fortunes. One of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world, it is the quintessential North Indian town  – West of the city lies the area called Bankipur, while towards the southwest is the new area with wide roads and swanky buildings. The cultural heritage of Bihar is reflected in the many monuments housed in Patna, the most famous ones being Patna Sahib Gurudwara, Patna Planetarium, the Highcourt, Golghar, Secretariat Building and Padri ki Haveli among numerous other attractions. Typical of an Indian city, the riverside city of Patna is also known for some palatable dishes – litti chokha being the king of all! 

You never know what you’ll learn about yourself when you challenge yourself and experience the unexpected as you look to find your unknown.

My Fav Quotes—

Quotes are simple words that make sense which in turn motivate us. I am sure we all have our favorite quotes. Some people would want to wake up to quotes in order to make their day better and positive. Some others make sure they remember their favorite quotes whenever they are demotivated. I am here to share with you some of my favorite quotes and how they never fail to motivate me.

Life is not a problem to be solved, but a reality to be experienced

We get lots of problems in life but we should not label it as a problematic life. If you ask me, I would say that there is nothing to solve. We must go through all ups and downs to get the experience and maturity to deal with the problems so that you get trained enough to face anything that life brings you. We don’t have to solve it, we just have to face it and figure out a way to deal with it, find a way to bring back the happiness that we wanted. It is all about perspective and if we change our perspectives towards our life and problems, we will be the king/queen of our lives by taking control of it.

There are so many beautiful reasons to be happy

This one right here is literally true but all we think about is the problems and hardships that we have. If we can spend lots of time thinking about bad moments and problems to make ourselves sad, then we can spend time thinking about beautiful times and cherishable memories. We are not realizing the importance of this. This should be an important part of the day where we sit and think about reasons to be happy and motivate ourselves with positivity. I hope you all practice this everyday.

The best way to avoid disappointment is to not expect anything from anyone

Expecting things is human nature but we can win over that if we master the act of self love. If you love yourself enough there will be nothing to expect from others. Expectations bring us nothing but disappointment. We tend to expect more from our loved ones forgetting the fact that sometimes we may not get what we expect and that is going to affect us on a different level. Best way to avoid that is to love yourself and keep in mind not to expect anything from others.

You will never understand the damage you did to someone until the same thing is done to you

Understanding this quote will teach you many things and stops you from getting into unwanted problems, especially in relationships. Anything you say or do, before doing it, take some time to put yourself in the other person’s place. You can avoid many unwanted conflicts. Not only that but it will make you grow as a person. You can see yourself becoming more mature.

Learning to ignore things is one of the greatest paths to inner peace

Someone who can ignore other people’s opinions scares me the most. That is one great quality one can have. That is not useful for others but it will help us reach a different level of inner peace. You will see yourselves stop worrying about unwanted things and you will start focusing on yourself more. So stop focusing on useless opinions and start focusing on yourself and your inner peace more.

Hope you follow these basic things in life and make your everyday life better 🙂

Agriculture

History:

The history of agriculture record the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.

Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and includes a diverse range of taxa.

At least eleven separate region of the old and new world were involved as independent centre of origin.

Types of agriculture:

  1. Subsistence agriculture
  2. Kinds of subsistence agriculture
  3. Industrialized agriculture.

TOP AGRICULTURE COURSE IN INDIA

b.sc in agriculture.

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b.sc in animals husbandry

b.sc in horticulture

b.sc in forestry.

Development:

Agriculture communities development approximately 10,000yrs ago when human began to domesticate plants, animals.

by establishing domesticity, families and larger group were able to build communities and transition from a nomadic hunter gather lifestyle dependent on foragaing and hunting for survival.

Density:

Agriculture density measure the no. Of farmers specially on each unit of farmland.

This means people who work the earth on specific plots of land that are used for this.

services:

Detailed information on the government policies, scheme, agriculture loans, market price, animals husbandry, fisheries, horticulture, loans &credit, sericulture etc. Also available.

Small Steps, Substantial Results

If you have ever studied finance, you would surely embrace the power of compounding. How money if compounded over several years can turn into an attractive sum. But, have you ever thought this rule of compounding is applicable not in finance but personal life as well? I read a book called “Atomic Habits” by James Clear. The principle of atomic habit will give a different perspective of doing things. Atomic means small, Habit means something which is inculcated in your daily routine that you cannot live your day without doing them. Some of the basic habits inoculated in everyone are like brushing the teeth, taking bath, sleeping on time. Similar to these, we can incorporate new habits in ourselves which will show amplified benefits after multiple years, just like how compounding works. This can be anything like reading the newspaper daily, practicing guitar for 10 minutes, doing a workout for 30 minutes. Anything small, but remarkable.

Why 1% matters

  • If we get 1% better each day, we will get 37 times better by the end
  • The habits don’t show results quickly. Therefore we give up because we don’t see any results coming but you need to understand the 8th wonder of the world. According to Albert Einstein, compounding is the eighth wonder of the world. 
  • Atomic Habits + Consistency = Life Changed

Screw Goals and Focus on System

Another idea the book highlights is focusing on the system and forget the goals. A similar idea has been put by Jeff Haden in his book The Motivation Myth. This is a very contrasting view as from childhood, we have been asked to focus solely on goals. However, the major driver of success is not the goal but something else. Before we find out that, let’s see what are the major problems with the goals.

  1. Winners and Losers have the same Goals. So it can’t be the goals that differentiate the people.
  2. Achieving a goal is only a momentary change.
  3. Goal restricts our happiness. We tend to think that we will be happy only once we reach the goal and thus agreeing to compromise with the present journey.
  4. Goals are at odds of long term success

So, if not goals, what is it that we should be focusing on. It’s the daily system or framework of the path towards the goal. In simple words, instead of focusing on output, focus on inputs. What will be the output is not in our control, but we surely can give our best by focusing only on inputs. The things we have in our hands. So, find a goal, research about the journey, then fall in love with the journey, forgetting about the goal and results. The purpose of setting goals is to win the game, the purpose of the system is to continue playing the game. If we focus on playing, the score just takes care of itself.

How to build Atomic Habits

Here are two of few tips given by James clear.

  1. Cue -> Make it obvious. Design your environment in such a way that you have fewer steps between you and your good behaviors and more steps between you and your bad behaviors.
  2. Craving -> Make it attractive. Do something which makes you enjoy that work.

Conclusion

So this was a reflection of one of the ideas of the best-selling book, “Atomic Habits”. If you have some time to invest, you should definitely read this book once. It will give a new perspective of getting things done and living life happily.

Ratan Tata

Ratan Naval Tata was born on December 28, 1937, in Bombay (now Mumbai), an Indian businessman who became chairman (1991 – 2012 and 2016 – 17) of the Tata Group, a Mumbai-based conglomerate.

Ratan Tata was the Chairman of Tata Sons, the holding company of the Tata group, from 1991 until his retirement on December 28, 2012. He was also chairman of the major Tata companies, including Tata Motors, Tata Steel, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Power, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Chemicals, Indian Hotels, and Tata Teleservices. Becoming the Chairman of the Tata Group in 1991 in his 21, he brought international recognition for the Tata Group.

Now retired from the corporate sphere, he retains the chairmanship of the Tata Trusts. The trusts hold around 66 percent of the equity capital of Tata Sons Limited, the holding company of the Tata Group.

Ratan Tata

A member of a prominent family of Indian industrialists and philanthropists. He holds a Bachelors’s degree in Architecture from Cornell University, USA, and has pursued an Advanced Management Program from the Harvard Business School, USA.

Under his leadership, the revenues of the Tata Group grew more than 40 times. The profits abounded by over 50 times. The company that made only $5.7 billion in 1991 made around $103 billion in 2016.

Ratan thinks that ‘Philanthropy’ can be seen in different perspectives, earlier ‘philanthropy’ was to develop institutions, charitable hospitals, etc. whereas, now it’s more about nation-building.

Tata is a supporter of education, medicine, and rural development, and is considered a leading philanthropist in India. More than 65% of his shares are invested in charitable trusts.

Tata Education and Development Trust, a philanthropic affiliate of the Tata Group, endowed a $28 million Tata Scholarship Fund that will allow Cornell University to provide financial aid to undergraduate students from India.

In 2010, Tata Group companies and Tata charities donated $50 million for the construction of an executive center at Harvard Business School. The hall was named Tata Hall.

In 2014, the Tata Group gave ₹950 million to IIT, Bombay, the largest donation received in its history, and formed the Tata Center for Technology and Design to develop design and engineering principles suited to the needs of people and communities with limited resources.

This year, he pledged ₹1,500 crores to fight the Covid-19 pandemic.

Ratan Tata set a perfect example of generosity and leadership during the 26/11 Mumbai attacks. Unarmed, he stood all alone outside the Taj hotel and supervised the activities to help the victims. He showcased his humane gesture by personally visiting the families of all the 80 employees who were killed or injured.

He is a member of the Indian Prime Minister’s Council on Trade and Industry. He is the president of the Court of the Indian Institute of Science and chairman of the Council of Management of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.

The Government of India honored Mr. Tata with its second-highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan, in 2008 and Padma Bhushan (2000). He has also received honorary doctorates from several universities in India and overseas.

SELF-CONFIDENCE

Self-confidence is a person’s belief or trust in their own ability. It means you accept and trust yourself and have a sense of control in your life. Self-confidence can be defined as the belief and assurance you feel towards yourself. It is not something you are taught in school, as confidence has to come from inside. In a way, it’s freedom from doubting about every step you take in life. Self-confidence is one of the most important routes you have to take in your path to success. It makes a person independent, eager, optimistic, loving and positive. We see people in school, workplaces and public sectors who have achieved success be more initiative, more active, and more confident with their decisions, making them stand out from the crowd.

But when it comes to a person who cannot trust themselves or believe in themselves, success is a hard gain for them. They become more vulnerable to criticism and failure. They also find it super hard to get back on their feet and carry on. Everyone who has self-confidence gets to enjoy various perks that come along with that state of mind. The way to gain self-confidence is completely personal and an internal decision. Just like self-love, self-confidence takes time to acquire. But once you start believing in yourself, no one can stop you from conquering all the heights in your life and career. A self-confident man also knows how to be heard with dignity, when there is a difference of opinion. All this takes practice, but the most important thing is the belief that you can be better.

5 tips to build confidence and self-esteem - UPES Blog

HOW TO BOOST YOUR SELF-CONFIDENCE?

Do something you’re good at ; Everyone has talent , Recognize that and try to build on those things which help to boost your self-confidence.

Talk to yourself ; you’re never going to feel confident if you have negative thoughts in your mind telling you that you’re no good.

Build positive relationships ; if you find certain people tend to bring you down, try to spend less time with them, or tell them how you feel about their words or actions. Try to build relationships with people who are positive and who appreciate you.

Give yourself a challenge ; we all feel nervous or afraid to do things at times. But people with healthy self-esteem do not let these feelings stop them trying new things or taking on challenges.

Look at what you’ve already achieved ; It’s easy to lose confidence if you believe you haven’t achieved anything. Make a list of all the things you’re proud of in your life, whether it’s getting a good mark on an exam or learning some new stuff. Keep the list close by and add to it whenever you do something you’re proud of. When you’re low in confidence, pull out the list and use it to remind yourself of all the awesome stuff you’ve done.

Get a hobby ; Try to find something that you’re really passionate about. It could be photography, sport, dancing, singing or anything else! When you’ve worked out your passion, commit yourself to giving it a go.

Why & How To Stop Overthinking?

Worry is something that each and every person does but what happens when someone worries to much due to a trivial matter and why does that happen? Well, you tend to worry too much when you are over thinking or in simpler terms just thinking too much about a silly matter.

For example, if you are an overthinker, your friend not picking up your call could give rise to theories as vast as the seas and your mind may trigger you to remember any conflicts between the two of you in the past. An immediate action of an overthinker could be calling up multiple times and then texting the person asking if he/she is okay.

This seems too complicated, right? You worry too much about something that might not even be an issue. Overthinking destructs your sleep pattern making you toss and turn at night until it is already early hours in the morning when sleeping in isn’t an option you can choose. This leads to bad mood and low energy which dampens the entire day. And what is even worse is when you meet the person or face the situation you were overthinking about and understand that you lost a good sleep and a happy day because of absolutely nothing!

Why should you stop overthinking?

Overthinking increases the pain felt by the individual due to the stimuli (situation or person). Pondering over the issue makes you feel helpless and destructs your emotional stability making your hurt again and again. It is a poison that can traumatize you.

It does not help the individual to identify solutions for the issue rather it blocks out all the possible solutions and instead one is made to feel incapable.

The positivity within the person is replaced by negative energy due to anxiety, fear, anger, sorrow etc felt due to overthinking.

Overthinking successfully hides the goodness in the situation and highlights all the problems and conflicts due to the stimuli.

It successfully nurtures the insecurities and makes the person accustomed to the feeling of worthlessness.

It fills the person with thoughts about how the individual is not under control of the situation and this feeling stops the person from being prepared for the situation.

How to stop overthinking?

A distraction by doing something you enjoy is the most simple yet best way to stop overthinking. Grab some paint brushes and paint or get to cooking something tasty. Put on a music and vibe or water your plants. Talk to your friends or read a book. Do anything that can make you feel at ease.

Turn to yoga and practice meditation. This can help you be calm and keep your mind peaceful at stressful situation. A few yoga poses helps release certain hormones which triggers your mind to be cool.

Just think about your future as you envision and imagine how trivial this matter would be then. Laugh a bit on how your future self would find your current actions silly.

Take a book and write somethings you did the past week and try to find your happy moments. Reimagine the moments and rejoice in them.

Stop thinking about the problem and instead start channeling your thoughts to find the solutions for the issue.

Confront the issue! Don’t sit back and think about it. If you feel something is wrong, go to the person and apologize or else get the situation to be better.

Now, you might think that you are an overthinker after realizing that you have been in a similar situation but what you need to know is that everyone overthinks at some point of time and that is completely different from someone who cannot stop their thoughts. So overthinking should be stopped because it is self destructing but on the other hand, it is not too fatal and can be stopped with determination.

COFFEE, AROUND THE WORLD .

Who doesn’t love a strong cup of coffee in the morning ? The aroma and taste instantly wakes you up . But the uniqueness of coffee lies in the fact that every country has a different way of relishing it , some serve it hot some serve it cold , but they all taste Divine!!!!.

GREECE :

GREEK FRAPPÈ – In Greece , people enjoy an iced coffee made with instant coffee, sugar , water and milk . The Greek Frappè was created by Dimitris Vakondios ,in 1957 who was a nescafè representative . The funny thing is this invention was completely on accident . Dimitris was attending an international fair to promote a chocolate beverage for children that could be instantly made into a shaker . He couldn’t find any hot water to make his instant coffee , so he used cold water and the shaker instead, and Voila, our greek frappè was invented.

TURKEY :

TÜRK KAHVESI – Turkish coffee , is a unique blend of coffee prepared using finely grounded coffee beans , without filtering. This coffee first appeared in The ottoman empire , where it was previously prohibited for the people to drink , because it was believed that strong coffee was equivalent to a drug , as mentioned in the Quran . But due to its increasing popularity , the prohibition was removed . It is traditionally brewed in a pot called cezve. Turkish coffee is not only a beverage that is consumed daily , but it is also an important part of ceremonies in Turkey . Apart from being delicious , this coffee has several health benefits as well .

VIETNAM

CA PHE SUA DA – Vietnamese iced coffe is made with medium to coarse ground Vietnamese coffee , with a small metal drip called phin ca phe . The uniqueness of this coffee is that it is often consumed with condensed milk . There is also a Vietnamese egg coffee which is very popular which is made with brewed coffee , chicken egg yolk and condensed milk. The usage of condensed milk took place as there were limitations on the availability of fresh milk , as the dairy farming industry was yet to develop fully and properly . And condensed milk became a popular alternative .

IRELAND :

IRISH COFFEE – Irish coffee , redefines coffee consumption in a way , as it is a cocktail which consists of coffee , Irish whiskey , sugar and is topped with ice cream. It was invented by a man named Joseph Sheridan in around the year 1942.

STORY OF MY LIFE IN LOCKDOWN

On the evening of 24 March 2020, the Government of India under Prime Minister Narendra Modi ordered a nationwide lockdown for 21 days. This lockdown period has made me little bit of tense and crazy because lockdown was imposed at the time when I was preparing for my next exam and my exam is delayed. The crazy thing about this lockdown is that my three paper was conducted, and for remaining two papers I have to do revision for those two subject again and again but after two months my exam was conducted by Government. The main advantage was I scored very good marks in those two subjects which was conducted after the lockdown.

I had free time in lockdown so I passed the lockdown time by watching TV, Web Series, exercise etc. My favorite TV serial is ‘TMKOC’, I think this is the favorite TV serial of all Indians. My whole family together watched this show at the time of lockdown to pass there time. The one thing that pandemic situation realized us that Family is the most important thing in our life. I also watched the highlight of cricket matches on TV for entertainment and my favorite web series ‘The Stranger Things’ in lockdown. I used to play terrace Cricket in lockdown with my brothers at the evening. This is the story of my lockdown 2020.

The Biggest Scam of Financial Markets

In October 2020, scam 1992 was released as a major success, which highlighted the story of Harshad Mehta. This is the story where the ambitions of a man shook the entire financial markets of India. So what is scam 1992 all about? Is it possible for one man to commit such a big fraud alone? Let’s solve the mystery in this article?

Harshad Mehta

So let’s start with the background of Harshad Mehta. His full name is Harshad Shantilal Mehta. Born in Rajkot on 29th July 1954, Harshad was an ambitious child. His father was in small-time textile business. In his career, he initially started as a salesman at New India Assurance Company Limited. While doing this job, his love for stock markets brewed up. He kept changing jobs several times, by serving series of responsibilities at the brokerage firms. Slowly, he kept growing and by 1990, he became so famous that media started calling him “Amitabh Bachchan on Stock Market”
After doing the job for many years, he once decided to leave the job and become an entrepreneur. This was when he started his company “Grow More” with his brother. He actively started trading in 1986.

Scam of 1992

The scam of 1992 was first reported by Sucheta Dalal in the second quarter of 1992. This was unprecedented and “scam” became a buzzword back then.
At that time, brokers were not allowed to borrow funds from the banks. This is because that money could be used for manipulating stock markets and make gains. However, Harshad under the table colluded with the banks, showed them an opportunity to make a bonanza by investing in stock markets. This is how he, illegally started diverting the government’s banks’ funds to the stock market.
With this amount, he was able to control the market at his fingers and could make desirable gains for his company and clients.
Banks also gave some funds to traders’ accounts, so that they could use the trading opportunity and make gains for the banks. However, Harshad used that amount to manipulate the prices. However point to be noted is, this is not something Harshad was doing alone. Other brokers in the financial markets who had the power were also doing the same. RBI was aware of this, however, it didn’t do anything because of the structural problems in the markets back then.

Greed of Harshad Mehta

The growth Harshad Mehta was seeing in his career was infallible. He became so ambitious, that he didn’t even realize when he crossed the line. His aspirations grew, he became greedy and wanted to become the richest man in India. This greed made his ambitions do things that were irreversible and which would make his career fall for nothing. He took 500Rs crore money from one of the employees of SBI and didn’t issue requisite documents against it. He used that money, but unfortunately due to the closure of the stock market, at that time, he could not repay it. When this matter came under notice, an amount was missing from the books and Sucheta Dalal on investigations found about this and reported on it.
He took money from another bank to repay the amount of Rs 500 crores and then from the third bank to repay to the second bank. He kept doing this until CBI found about this and his career came to an end.

Conclusion

There are different views on this scam and this case could never be unwrapped properly. There were also political allegations made against then prime minister. Many experts still believe that Harshad just used loopholes in the system to his advantage. This is unethical but not illegal. Moreover, Harshad was not alone who was exploiting the loopholes. What are your thoughts on this?

Mental health

“Mental health is not a destination, but a process. It’s about how you drive, not where you’re
going.”
Mental health refers to cognitive, behavioral, and emotional well-being. It is all about how
people think, feel, and behave.Mental health is an integral and essential component of health.
The WHO constitution states: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-
being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” An important implication of this
definition is that mental health is more than just the absence of mental disorders or
disabilities.It is an integral part of health; indeed, there is no health without mental health.
Mental health can affect daily living, relationships, and physical health.The COVID-19 pandemic
and the resulting economic recession have negatively affected many people’s mental health
and created new barriers for people already suffering from mental illness and substance use
disorders.It is common for everyone to experience increased levels of distress and anxiety,
particularly as a result of social isolation. Physicians and other frontline health care
professionals are particularly vulnerable to negative mental health effects as they strive to
balance the duty of caring for patients with concerns about their own well-being and that of
their family and friends. It is normal to feel fearful and anxious during tough times like this.We
must Treat ourselves with kindness and respect, and avoid self-criticism. This is the best time
for making time for our hobbies and favorite projects. We can do many things like daily
crossword puzzle, plant a garden, take dance lessons, learn to play an instrument or become
fluent in another language.Taking care of ourselves physically can improve our mental health.
We must eat nutritious meals, avoid smoking and vaping, drink plenty of water, exercise, which
helps decrease depression and anxiety and improve moods, get enough sleep. Researchers
believe that lack of sleep contributes to a high rate of depression in college students. Some
other ways by which people can overcome stress and anxiety are, volunteer your time and
energy to help someone else. You’ll feel good about doing something tangible to help someone
in need — and it’s a great way to meet new people.Try meditating, Mindfulness and/or prayer.
Relaxation exercises and prayer can improve your state of mind and outlook on life. In fact,
research shows that meditation may help you feel calm and enhance the effects of
therapy.Decide what you want to achieve academically, professionally and personally, and
write down the steps you need to realize your goals. Aim high, but be realistic and don’t over-
schedule. You’ll enjoy a tremendous sense of accomplishment and self-worth as you progress
toward your goal. As rightly said by Michelle Obama –
“Sadly, too often, the stigma around mental health prevents people who need help from
seeking it. But that simply doesn’t make any sense. Whether an illness affects your heart, your
arm or your brain, it’s still an illness, and there shouldn’t be any distinction…we should make it
clear that getting help isn’t a sign of weakness — it’s a sign of strength — and we should ensure that people can get the treatment they need.” In short we can say that mental health is as
important as physical health and we must take good care of both.

No Girl – No Mother – No Life.

by Yogiraj Sadaphal

In India, Gender Discrimination has existed for a long time. Even now, there are some sections of Indian Society who regard the girl child as a burden. Girls are generally constrained to the boundaries of the house and given very few or no opportunities to study and grow in life, whereas boys are given a number of advantages. Cases of Female Infanticide continue to be documented, which is a great shame. According to the 2011 census, India has just 918 females for every 1000 boys.

Only Equality helps Nation to Grow.

It is impossible to overlook the fact that the progress of our country is intimately connected to the advancement of women. This is why, in order to improve women’s lives, crime against women should be eliminated and stricter laws enacted. The government should create a strong framework to prevent members of all socioeconomic classes from degrading women in any way. Only better legislation can aid in the advancement of women’s rights in our country. It is important to remember that the future of our country depends on educating and protecting the girl child.

What Girls Can Do?

Despite the fact that girls outshine boys in many fields, parents still prefer a boy child. Girls have proven to be superior to boys in every field. They have also been to space as a result of their hard work and dedication. They are more capable, obedient, hardworking, and accountable for their families and lives. Girls, on the other hand, are more devoted and loving toward their parents. Above all, they put up their best effort in all of their projects.

Here are some of India’s finest achievements by women.

• Pratibha Patil – First Women President

• Kiran Bedi – First women IPS officer of India.

• Kalpana Chawla – First women of India to reach space.

• Anna Chandy – First female judge.

• Fatima Beevi – First female judge of Supreme Court.

• Gita Gopinath – First Indian women appointed as Chief Economist at IMF.

• Avani Chaturvedi – First Indian women fighter pilot to fly solo.

• Mithali Raj – First women to score double 100 in test cricket.

• Arunima Sinha – First Indian female amputee to climb Mountains Everest.

As you can see from the examples above, today’s girls are surpassing their male colleagues in every subject, including science, technology, games, astronautics, adventure, and politics. In our society, daughters hold the same value as sons. They should not be deprived of their freedom and liberties.

The Indian Government has taken the following steps to protect Girl child.

The government has made numerous efforts and launched numerous campaigns to rescue girl child. Save the girl child (Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao) is the government’s most current program to aggressively encourage people to save the girl child. Aside from that, a variety of NGOs, enterprises, corporate groupings, and human rights commissions organize campaigns to save girl children.

Crime against women is a major hindrance to the country’s development and growth. The government, on the other hand, takes this issue seriously and has banned sex determination ultrasound, amniocentesis, and scan testing in hospitals and labs in order to prevent female feticide.

It is necessary to change the patriarchal Indian society’s traditional mindset, which regards girls as liabilities. It must be shown that girls are not inferior to boys in any way. They have the potential to excel in several areas of life if given the proper opportunities to develop their talent and skills.

Education for all

Free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of fourteen is a constitutional commitment in India. The Indian Parliament had passed the Right to Education Act in 2009 when education became a basic right for all children aged 6-14.

Efforts by the Central Government and the Government have led to an increase in enrollment but the goal of whole school education in the real sense is still a far cry. Unless the efficiency of the lower level of education is improved higher education levels cannot be expected to gain quantum enrollment.

The site presents details of the latest initiatives undertaken in the Indian Education sector including the emergence of an education policy from 1966 to 2020. Full details are available on all Centrally-funded programs, such as DPEP, SSA, RMSA, Samagra Shiksha, and other such programs. The site also presents a review of the School Education Quality Index (SEQI), Performance Grading Index (PGI) & Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).

In addition to the number of children, the site also provides comprehensive statistics for all levels of education including the Unified District Information System for Education (U-DISE) & All Survey India on Higher Education (AISHE). A separate section on regional planning focuses on planning plans under Samagra Shiksha and presents a critical review of the architectural plan under Sagra Shiksha Abhiyan launched in 2018 by the Government of India. Exposure to People 6-11, 11-13 years, etc. At regional and government level and the Report of the Expert Committee on Population Projections set-up by the Ministry of Health & Social Welfare. With the EXCEL Sheet Templet, one can project a region or even block the number of children per year.

5 Ways to Eat Less Processed Food

Processed food is any food item that has been canned, cooked, frozen, pasteurized, or packaged.

Reducing your intake of these highly processed foods is one of the most effective ways to improve your health and enhance the quality of your diet. You can enjoy many processed foods, including canned vegetables, frozen fruits, and pasteurized dairy products, as part of a healthy diet. However, some highly processed items are loaded with salt, sugar, additives, and preservatives, which can harm your health.

1.Refined grains for whole grains:

One of the simplest ways to reduce your intake of processed foods is to start trading them for healthier whole foods. In particular, you can swap refined grains like white pasta, rice, bread, and tortillas for whole grain alternatives, such as brown rice and whole grain pasta, bread, and tortillas.

              Whole grains are higher in important nutrients like fiber, but they’ve also been shown to protect against conditions like heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

2.Keep healthy snacks handy:

keeping your kitchen stocked with plenty of portable, nutritious snacks can make it much easier to make healthy choices on the go.

  • Some of my favorite healthy snacks include fresh fruit, mixed nuts and veggies with hummus.
  • boiled eggs, turkey roll-ups, homemade kale chips, and overnight oats are a few great treats that you can whip up quickly and keep on hand for later.

3. consume more water:

Every day you lose water through your breath, perspiration, urine and bowel movements. For your body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water.

The U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine determined that an adequate daily fluid intake is:

  • About 15.5 cups (3.7 liters) of fluids a day for men
  • About 11.5 cups (2.7 liters) of fluids a day for women

These recommendations cover fluids from water, other beverages and food. About 20% of daily fluid intake usually comes from food and the rest from drinks.

     Sugary beverages like soda, sweet tea, fruit juice are high in sugar and calories but low in essential nutrients. Gradually trading these drinks for water throughout the day is a great way to cut back on your intake of processed foods and improve your overall diet quality. Alternatively, you can try infusing water with fresh fruit or herbs for an added burst of flavor.

4. consume more vegetables:

vegetables are highly nutritious and great sources of fiber, which keeps you feeling full between meals to help decrease your appetite and curb cravings.

      When you’re preparing meals at home, include at least one serving of vegetables to increase your intake of healthy, unprocessed foods. This can be as easy as adding spinach to your scrambled eggs, sautéing broccoli for a simple side dish, or tossing carrots or cauliflower into soups or casseroles.

5. Try some food substitutes:

There are countless healthy substitutes for many processed products. Here are a few of my favorites:

  • top your salads with nuts or seeds instead of croutons.
  • Trade your sugary breakfast cereal for a bowl of oatmeal with fresh fruit.
  • Whip up a homemade vinaigrette with olive oil and vinegar to drizzle over salads in place of processed dressings.
  • Make trail mix using nuts, seeds, and dried fruit for a healthy alternative to store-bought varieties.

QUESTION YOURSELF?.

Yes or No

Hi All,

Ask the following questions to Yourself, In Order to Know About You.

1. Am I OK? Both physically and mentally?
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

2. Am I HAPPY?
YES OR NO (Why I am happy and why not I am happy , try to know the reason behind it?

3. Am I LIVING with PEACE OF MIND?
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

4. Am I SATISFIED with MY LIFE?
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

5. Am I SMILING from MY SOUL?
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

6. Am I SLEEPING PEACEFULLY?
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

7. Am I ENJOYING MY PRESENT MOMENTS?
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

8. Am I Thinking TOO MUCH (thinking too much about unwanted matters)
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

9. Am I DOING FAIR things?
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

10. Am I BEING ME?
YES OR NO (yes/no, try to know the reason behind it?)

Whether, it’s yes or no, know your reason, that’s important. Kindly, often ask these Questions to your own self. It it important to know about yourself.

Today spend some time to know about yourself.

All the best.

Have a lovely day!!!

Self Improvement / personal development

Are you also looking for self Improvement tips ? Well you’re not alone .

Everyone tries their best to get ahead in life with the best version of themselves. But how many are successful in doing so, well not many people. It is essential to have a good relationship with your inner self; only then we can achieve overall growth.

In this article, we talk about proven self-improvement ideas to change your life. The reason it is advised to have a clear vision of your goals, and if you stay connected to yourself, you are more likely to succeed.

Ever since we were young, we were told to excel in academics, focus on getting good grades and ace our exams. In schools and colleges, the learning has always been more directed towards academic courses but what about aspects like self-improvement and personal development that play an equally important role in people’s lives?

Self Improvement Skills You Should Start Using Today:

Improve your sleep patterns

Today, many sleep disorders like insomnia are having negative implications for people’s health. Insomnia, in turn, is associated with many life-threatening diseases such as cancer, chronic pain, hypertension, arthritis, fibromyalgia, and depression. Sleep is also very important for resetting your body and brain functions. There are many animals that go into hibernation in order to reset their bodies. For example, Grizzly bears and polar bears go for six months in hibernation; or snails can hibernate for as many as three years! Clearly, sleep is important for every living being as much as it is for humans. Maybe we should learn a little bit from nature.

Be Grateful-

Being grateful makes you understand the importance of what you have. The people around you, the place you are at, is what everyone should be thankful for. Only then will we appreciate the little things in life when we start giving them the deserved value. It will help you lift your spirit and also allow you to learn gratitude.

“Start your every day with a positive thought and a grateful heart”

As a personal development tip, one should learn to be grateful for everyone around them. Begin your day with gratitude, and you will start to see the difference between the attitude towards your life.

Love yourself-

This is the main key to self-development. We have heard it many times, but to apply this in our lives is very important. When we learn to love ourselves, we gain more than just confidence. It gives us the ability to love others as well, embrace the changes life throws at us.

“Love yourself first and everything else falls into line . You really have to love yourself to get anything done in this world”

Never depend on others solely for your happiness; it can end up in heartache. But if you have a good relationship with yourself, you will respect yourself. Also, this will give you the courage to move out of your comfort zone.Complimenting yourself each day will help you and try to make it a practice because why wait for others to do it. As if you learn to love and respect yourself, then this is how you teach others to treat you.

Follow your passion

Often people complain about not doing what they are best at. But they are not successful or happy, are they? This is why one must learn to follow the passion in their life, be it as a professional or as an additional activity. But one must always spend time following their passion. This fills your heart with contentment, and it is important to be happy for self-improvement.

Passion is energy . Feel the power that comes from focusing on what excites you”

One must feel the kind of energy that comes from within when they are doing something they are passionate about. This is all about learning to do something with love as it gives you a purpose.

Being self-dependent

This way, you can help yourself get back together even when you fall. It’s much easier to pick yourself back up if you are not waiting on someone else to help you. It is essential to learn to become self-dependent. It not only gives you a sense of confidence but also builds self-reliance, which is good in ways to improve yourself every day.

Expect more from yourself than from others”

Our entire lives can not be relied on by other people, and it should be changed as we grow up. This is a necessary change for everyone as it gives you a chance to learn more about yourself.

Practice self care

What is self care ? Self-care encourages you to maintain a healthy relationship with yourself so that you can transmit the good feelings to others. You cannot give to others what you don’t have yourself. While some may misconstrue self-care as selfish, it’s far from that. When you pay adequate attention to your well-being, you’re not considering your needs alone. You’re reinvigorating yourself so that you can be the best version of yourself for the people around you. Everyone around you also benefits from the renewed energy and joy you exhibit.

“Self care is how you take your power back”

Rrapping up :

We hope these self-improvement tips will drive you to a change that leads to a happy life. Remember, no matter what people say, you know what’s best for you. These tips are only to help you improve yourself in case you are looking for some. We do not encourage you to self-sabotage or degrade yourself; each person is unique in its way.

How to prepare short notes for GATE Exam

Preparing notes is one of the important aspects of any students way of preparing for the GATE exam. It is very crucial to make notes so that you can revise the subjects in the last days of revision in the most efficient way. The notes must be precise and should be written in such a way so that you can revise the GATE Syllabus as soon as possible so that anything is not missed. Well, there is no method to make notes that one should follow, everyone has their own way to make notes but it is important so that it is helpful for you to understand at the time of revision and cover the full syllabus of GATE as much as it can. So if you are preparing for the exam then it’s very important to know how to prepare notes for GATE as the questions mostly rely on important concepts and formulae from the syllabus. So please go through this article to know how short notes as per the GATE exam pattern can help in your preparation.

How to make Notes for GATE:

A. Read the subject thoroughly:

  • Always read the subject fully so that you can understand what to know if you start to prepare notes before reading the subject then for the first few chapters you will make more notes than the other important chapters in the end.
  • The notes should always be precise hence to make precise study the subject and get the concepts.

B. Do, not Copy from textbooks:

  • Sometimes when students start making notes they generally copy the material from the textbook or article online. This must be avoided, because when we start making notes like that then when the notes are completed they become very bulky and not revisable in the end. Always prepare short notes and the material must be precise.

C. Use Highlights:

  • Always use some highlighting or coloured pens to make your notes helps you in revising quickly. Divide your concepts into the defined colours and use them to highlight your notes so you exactly know what you are revising.

D. If Possible make Digital notes:

  • Now-a-days people are preferring notes on an online/digital form like on Notes or google docs. This allows revising your notes anywhere and anytime on your phone, tablet or laptops.
  • Since the exam is going to be in an online form for GATE so it also prepares to concentrate on a screen for long as some students feel a little difficult to do so.

E. Be Disciplined:

  • Only notes preparation is not effective until we revise them. Hence it is very important to know that you need to revise the notes with a lot of discipline and also prepare them with discipline.

F. Don’t copy Be Original:

  • Make your notes by yourself. Sometimes we are influenced by others and in copying them we lose our originality. Make your notes yourself so that it is original in itself. The strategy should be made by yourself only.

Conclusion

There are still other innovative methods used by students to make short notes. Few students even jot down the points on the books itself in the margin area. Some students go to an extent of taking screenshots of the concepts and underlying the important lines in the screenshot itself. Hence, making good notes is vital for your preparation.

Odisha’s Enormous Contribution To Indian Hockey

Odisha is one of the developing states of India nowadays. Its mineral resources, fairs and festivals, eccentric handlooms, classical dance, temple architecture, blue hills, rock caves, religions, and people have consistently drawn the attention of tourists, travelers, industrialists, and historians all over the world. In this list, a new word is entered named ‘Hockey. Now Odisha represents Indian Hockey internationally. Odisha is a key hub of producing great players in Indian Hockey. This is only possible due to the nonstop effort of Shri.Naveen Patnaik the renowned and scholarly Chief Minister of India.

Winners

This Tokyo Olympics is the memorable Olympics in the history of India. Our players are showing their tremendous skill that made every Indian feel proud. Both our Men’s and Women’s Hockey team played their best game in this mega event. Odisha’s contribution to Indian Hockey played a vital role in that India won Bronze Medal in Hockey. To achieve this prestigious medal, India took 41 years. Naveen Patnaik is also a big lover of Hockey as he played Hockey six decades ago at Doon school as a goalkeeper while he was a student. His interest turns to back support of Indian Hockey by investing money and resources in this national sport.

Our Tigress

Odisha is a sponsor of the Indian Hockey team since 2018. Odisha signed for this sponsorship for a five years long period. While a big company like Sahara has withdrawn its sponsorship, Odisha is the only state of India that never left the hands of Indian Hockey teams. Odisha is also investing Rs.120 Cores for five years and has invested money for building infrastructure, logistical support, and all the expenses for both the teams-for training, education, and nurturing talent. While cricket is creating a massive impact on our Indians, and we always support our Indian cricket compared to hockey, Naveen Patnaik sees the glorious future in hockey, which makes him stand alone from others. Odisha’s sports minister has to conform about the increased budget around Rs.265 Crore to Rs.360 Crore this year for Hockey India.

kalinga stadium

Hockey is one of the favorite sport in Odisha. Sundargarh is the mother of Hockey in Odisha. Coincidently the two vice-captains of both men’s and women’s teams in the Tokyo Olympics are from Sundargarh district. The state is famous for producing the greatest player like Dilip Tirkey, Ignace Tirkey, Lazarus Barla, and Sunita Lakra. Hockey is common in most of the tribal areas in Odisha, where children learn to talk with hockey sticks. It is like a festival when the state team wins a medal in any competition. Poor children or adults who can not afford hockey sticks found an alternate solution by bending a Kendu branch or a bamboo shoot. The Odisha government planned and developed synthetic turf pitches for playing hockey. Also worked for posting good coaches for skills and technique, support every player and their family, which helps our players to represent our Indian Hockey on the international platform. In 2021, Odisha will spend Rs.190 Crore to build astroturf pitches in 17 blocks of Sundargarh district. The state-appointed many sports teachers in schools for primary-level screening.

Odisha sets an example by hosting the big games in the past five years, including the World Cup in 2018, the Champions Trophy in 2014, and the Hockey World League Final in 2017. Every national and international game hosted by Odisha is the best example that displays Odisha’s systematic handling of those gigantic events with ease.

Biggest stadium In Country

Naveen Patnaik spending Rs.110 Crore to build the world’s biggest hockey stadium in the country with over 20,000 sitting capacity by 2023, named Birsa Munda International Hockey Stadium located at Rourkela, Sundargarh district. The 2023 Men’s Hockey World Cup is scheduled to be held in the stadium. Kalinga Stadium Bhubaneswar is another high-class stadium largely built with international standards to provide the best training to players. Mr.Patnaik also receives the eminent FIH President award for his contribution towards sports promotion, especially Hockey.The sports capital of India is always ready to host the event smoothly.

Naveen patnaik

For the betterment of hockey, the Odisha government has team-up with Tata trust and Tata Steel to open high-performance centers across Odisha. The famous proverb “A friend in need is a friend indeed” suits Odisha and Mr.Naveen Patnaik for a rise in the popularity of Indian Hockey.

THE MULTIPURPOSE TREE- A GOD’S GIFT

Bananas, Banana Trees, Banana Plantation

All of us have some purpose in our lives. This can apply to all the living species in this universe. The bees are present to produce honey, the flowers are present to produce nectar and pollen, and the cows are present to produce milk and plants to produce food. It is generally seen in plants that more than one part of them has a purpose. But there is a specific tree in which all its parts are useful and none of them is wasted. This is a tree with several purposes and indeed it is a gift from god. Already some of you would have found it out! It is the banana tree.

Mostly the fruits, vegetables and flowers of a plant are useful. But all the parts in the banana tree have more than one specific purpose. Also, these do not serve a purpose for humankind, but also to a lot of animals. This article mainly highlights the medicinal benefits of each part of the banana tree.

Speciality of banana tree

As we know the portion which is above the ground and which houses the leaves, flowers, fruits etc. is known as the stem. However, in the case of the banana tree, the true stem is found underground and the green part which we see is a ‘pseudo stem’ meaning false stem; the true stem is a rhizome. Even this part is also consumable. If one has decided to cut a banana tree, he can cut it till the pseudostem and a new tree start to grow from the original stem. This depends upon the condition and strength of the root to regenerate one.

Banana fruit

The fruit is the tastiest and delicious part of the tree. An interesting fact which some might know is that the banana tree can produce fruit only once in its lifetime. They say that the banana tree is dead after fruiting because it starts to degrade after fruiting. So the tree is cut down up to the false stem after fruiting.

There are different sizes and colours of bananas which are based on the fruit obtained from the banana tree. Some of the banana varieties known are:-

  • Red banana
  • Nendran
  • Mountain
  • Rasthali
  • Robusta

There is a banana known as the blue java banana which looks blue in colour and tastes like ice cream!!

  • Bananas are a good source of potassium, an ion which takes part in most of the body’s metabolic processes
  • Bananas can aid in weight loss
  • Bananas can make us full (healthy food)
  • Bananas are rich in antioxidants
  • Bananas are rich in fibre essential for proper stool

And there are even more health benefits. It is recommended to eat at least one banana a day.

Banana vegetable

Shrub, Banana, Banana Plant, Fruit

The vegetable cannot be consumed raw as compared to its fruit. This is a bit hard in nature when compared to the fruit. This is mainly used in cooking to make curries, chips etc.

  • The raw bananas are rich in magnesium, a micronutrient essential for the body
  • They can help in regulation of blood sugar levels
  • They are a healthy source of starch
  • They aid in digestion due to high content of fibre
  • They can prevent constipation and other digestive problems

Banana flower

Banana, Banana Tree, Bunch Of Bananas

The flower is said to have an umami profile of taste. Hence this is least preferred by children. Also at the same, this part has the highest medicinal benefits.

  • They are immunity boosters; they prevent infections and add resistance to the body
  • Promote the kidney function in the filtration of the blood
  • They help in regulating diabetes
  • They can reduce anxiety and relax the mind
  • They help in reducing the blood cholesterol and blood pressure levels

Banana leaf

Banana, Leaf, Green, Tropical, Plant

This is the point that separates the banana tree from the rest. The leaves of these trees are also used, apart from the fact that animals eat them. This part of the tree is non-edible for humans. The leaves of the tree have been traditionally used as plates. the following are the reasons for this purpose:-

  • There is a thin coating of wax in the leaves which get melted when hot food is placed, this process results in a release of good aroma and also enhances the flavour
  • These waxes are totally consumable and they contain polyphenols which is required for the immunity to fight off diseases
  • The antimicrobial property of the leaf is exposed when hot food is served, so these properties infuse into the food
  • The leaves are easy to use and are cheap

There is one dish called ‘kizhi parotta’ where the parotta is wrapped in a banana leaf and is steamed. All the flavours of the leaf enter into the food, enhancing its taste.

Banana pseudostem

The false stem is also edible and has a lot of medicinal benefits. It can be cooked to make a lot of dishes or can be consumed raw as juice.

  • Rich in fibre and helps in digestion
  • ‘Kidney-friendly’, in fact it is recommended for kidney stone patients to drink the juice. It aids the kidney in the filtration process
  • Helps in weight loss
  • Rich in potassium and vitamin B, boosts the production of haemoglobin
  • Boosts the production of insulin hence helping in controlling diabetes

Banana root

Even the root of the tree is useful. It can be used to make ropes and sacks. The following are its medicinal purposes.

  • The root can cure tooth pain
  • They are rich in dopamine and can assist the mind in taking decisions
  • They can cure stomach problems

On the whole, the entire banana tree is useful and none of them gets wasted. from the medical point of view, this tree is equivalent to medicine. There is no doubt in calling this tree the ‘GIFT OF GOD’

How to Deal with Mental Health in Pandemic?

Although we are advancing day by day. We just focus on keeping forward and gaining success but with all these fast signs of progress, we are forgetting ourselves and our love one’s mental health. In this swift and fast-moving world, mental stress and depression are becoming common among youths and adults living in different parts of the world. But only a fraction of these people seeks advice and proper medical treatment. Sometimes the fear of social shame and sometimes not excepting the truth, do not lead the people to take proper advice from the experts.

 In the alone United States of America, about 70 per cent of youths dealing with any type of mental disorder are not taking any treatment or therapy from mental health advocacy. While about 10 million adults and 2 million youths living in America are exposed to serious mental health disorder and only a few sections of these has recognised and are taking the treatment. Although it is not always required that a person suffering from mental health trouble needs a psychiatrist but many disorders can be treated by just communicating and expressing themselves. It is a high time to overcome and resolve all the mental disorders

Ways to Deal with Health of Mind

Mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, addiction, and many more are ruining thousands of lives as people who can’t deal with this mental health disorder they see committing suicide as the easiest escape from the various problems of life. Many teenage youngsters, adults and even prominent personalities including actors, politicians, and businessmen and sports personalities are ending their lives instead of ending their problems.

Many problems can be solved if people start taking treatment and communicating with trusted people. Not all disorders and mental problems require a psychiatrist but some small anxiety and problems can be resolved by making small changes in life and expressing oneself. Some of the ways to deal with mental health disorders are as follows:

  • Talk to someone you trust the most. Sometimes communicating with our love ones can help to resolve various mental health disorders.
  • Self-care too is important. Start giving value to yourself. Do things which makes you happy and follow your hobbies. Don’t ever think that you are inferior and no one loves you as everyone is unique and precious.
  • Make small changes in lifestyles. Proper sleeping and eating right balanced diet plays a very important role in keeping mind healthy and give mental satisfaction as well.
  • Don’t indulge in harmful habits like drinking alcohol and taking drugs. As sometimes people indulge in such bad habits to avoid the problem but they don’t know that they are creating bigger trouble for themselves.
  • Do exercise, go for morning walks and start recognising the beauty of nature. Soak yourself in sunlight and find joy in everything that surrounds you.
  • Get socialise, go for parties, meet friends and do whatever makes you happy.
  • Help others. By helping others we feel satisfied and this help to reduce stress.
  • Don’t let troubles and problems ruin yourself. As every problem has a solution and nothing is impossible in this world.
  • Take help from the psychiatrist when the situation is out of control and you are not able to cope up with it.

Know more about Mental Health Advocacy and Advocates

As from the long-time, this issue is always been a subject of social stigma and no one wants to discuss their mental health issues as they feel that society will not accept them. But today many organisation and health caretakers are taking a step to make this world a safer place for mental health survivors.

WHO has recognised the need to detect social stigma attached to mental health by making a module called mental health advocacy in its policy. It’s a new concept in which people dealing with health of mind comes forward and share their experiences to makes others start excepting the reality.

The mental health advocacy works to make people believe that this is also as important as physical health. These worriers who work tirelessly to remove the stigma attached to mental health issues are called mental health advocates. These advocates make people believe that they are not alone and people who are suffering from these issues too are humans just like us. 

Advice from Health Advocacy

The Mental Hygiene Legal Service- This mental health advocacy is a New York state agency working to help people dealing with the issues. The Mental Hygiene Legal Service was started in 1964 as a mental health information provider but later on, it starts working as the mental health advocacy and become the voice of people dealing with mental health issues.

They are starting many new missions to over the stigma attached to mental health and to make people recognise their disorder with feeling shame. Currently, the Mental Hygiene Legal Service is working towards the disorders in sex offenders.

Conclusion

All humans are very precious and a person must love oneself and give value to themselves. The feeling of inferiority should not come in people as this feeling give birth health issues. The issue of health always remains as a matter of social shame and stigma, as people feel that society will not accept them with their mental illness.

But slowly this perspective is changing and many people are coming forward for not just treating themselves but also for helping others dealing with these issues. These advocates are becoming the voice of survivors of mental issues.

As time changes so do the humans too, thus people are changing and they start seeing the world from a new perspective in which they are started considering mental health as also an important part of life. Thus, now in this modern world, we can say that people with health issues are also humans and it is their right to take treatment for their problem without feeling shame.

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By Megha Sharma

Posted in Internship

Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), is the condition of having dry eyes.

Dry eye disease is a common condition that occurs when your tears aren’t able to provide adequate lubrication for your eyes. Tears can be inadequate and unstable for many reasons. For example, dry eyes may occur if you don’t produce enough tears or if you produce poor-quality tears. This tear instability leads to inflammation and damage of the eye’s surface.

Dry eyes feel uncomfortable. If you have dry eyes, your eyes may sting or burn. You may experience dry eyes in certain situations, such as on an airplane, in an air-conditioned room, while riding a bike or after looking at a computer screen for a few hours.

Treatments for dry eyes may make you more comfortable. These treatments can include lifestyle changes and eyedrops. You’ll likely need to take these measures indefinitely to control the symptoms of dry eyes.

Degrees of Dry Eye Syndrome

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms, which usually affect both eyes, may include:

  • A stinging, burning or scratchy sensation in your eyes.
  • Stringy mucus in or around your eyes.
  • Sensitivity to light.
  • Eye redness.
  • A sensation of having something in your eyes.
  • Difficulty wearing contact lenses.
  • Difficulty with nighttime driving.
  • Watery eyes, which is the body’s response to the irritation of dry eyes.
  • Blurred vision or eye fatigue.
The tear ducts

Causes

Decreased tear production

Dry eyes can occur when you’re unable to produce enough water (aqueous fluid). The medical term for this condition is keratoconjunctivitis sicca (ker-uh-toe-kun-junk-tih-VY-tis SIK-uh). Common causes of decreased tear production include:

  • Aging
  • Certain medical conditions including Sjogren’s syndrome, allergic eye disease, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, graft vs. host disease, sarcoidosis, thyroid disorders or vitamin A deficiency
  • Certain medications, including antihistamines, decongestants, hormone replacement therapy, antidepressants, and drugs for high blood pressure, acne, birth control and Parkinson’s disease
  • Corneal nerve desensitivity caused by contact lens use, nerve damage or that caused by laser eye surgery, though symptoms of dry eyes related to this procedure are usually temporary

Increased tear evaporation

The oil film produced by small glands on the edge of your eyelids (meibomian glands) might become clogged. Blocked meibomian glands are more common in people with rosacea or other skin disorders.

Common causes of increased tear evaporation include:

  • Posterior blepharitis (meibomian gland dysfunction)
  • Blinking less often, which tends to occur with certain conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease; or when you’re concentrating during certain activities, such as while reading, driving or working at a computer
  • Eyelid problems, such as the lids turning outward (ectropion) and the lids turning inward (entropion)
  • Eye allergies
  • Preservatives in topical eyedrops
  • Wind, smoke or dry air
  • Vitamin A deficiency

Risk factors

Factors that make it more likely that you’ll experience dry eyes include:

  • Being older than 50. Tear production tends to diminish as you get older. Dry eyes are more common in people over 50.
  • Being a woman. A lack of tears is more common in women, especially if they experience hormonal changes due to pregnancy, using birth control pills or menopause.
  • Eating a diet that is low in vitamin A, which is found in liver, carrots and broccoli, or low in omega-3 fatty acids, which are found in fish, walnuts and vegetable oils.
  • Wearing contact lenses or having a history of refractive surgery.
Eye drops – a common treatment for DES

Complications

People who have dry eyes may experience these complications:

  • Eye infections. Your tears protect the surface of your eyes from infection. Without adequate tears, you may have an increased risk of eye infection.
  • Damage to the surface of your eyes. If left untreated, severe dry eyes may lead to eye inflammation, abrasion of the corneal surface, corneal ulcers and vision loss.
  • Decreased quality of life. Dry eyes can make it difficult to perform everyday activities, such as reading.

Prevention

If you experience dry eyes, pay attention to the situations that are most likely to cause your symptoms. Then find ways to avoid those situations in order to prevent your dry eyes symptoms. For instance:

  • Avoid air blowing in your eyes. Don’t direct hair dryers, car heaters, air conditioners or fans toward your eyes.
  • Add moisture to the air. In winter, a humidifier can add moisture to dry indoor air.
  • Consider wearing wraparound sunglasses or other protective eyewear. Safety shields can be added to the tops and sides of eyeglasses to block wind and dry air. Ask about shields where you buy your eyeglasses.
  • Take eye breaks during long tasks. If you’re reading or doing another task that requires visual concentration, take periodic eye breaks. Close your eyes for a few minutes. Or blink repeatedly for a few seconds to help spread your tears evenly over your eyes.
  • Be aware of your environment. The air at high altitudes, in desert areas and in airplanes can be extremely dry. When spending time in such an environment, it may be helpful to frequently close your eyes for a few minutes at a time to minimize evaporation of your tears.
  • Position your computer screen below eye level. If your computer screen is above eye level, you’ll open your eyes wider to view the screen. Position your computer screen below eye level so that you won’t open your eyes as wide. This may help slow the evaporation of your tears between eye blinks.
  • Stop smoking and avoid smoke. If you smoke, ask your doctor for help devising a quit-smoking strategy that’s most likely to work for you. If you don’t smoke, stay away from people who do. Smoke can worsen dry eyes symptoms.
  • Use artificial tears regularly. If you have chronic dry eyes, use eyedrops even when your eyes feel fine to keep them well lubricated.

SOURCES

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dry-eyes

Honey bees

INTRODUCTION:

The eastern honey bee, referred to scientifically as apis mellifera, plays a small but sweet role in the vast, global tapestry of been species. There are over 20,000 known types of bee, spanning every continent have existed for over 80million yrs.

Types:

  1. Apis, honey:

The genus- into which all honey bees call is beautiful diverse bee species, with at least 44known sub varieties.

2. The Western honey bees:

Apis mellifera-literally meaning honey-baring best is the most widely distributed and domesticated bee species in the world.

3. Apis mellifera mellifera:

The dark or German honey bee species. The name isa bit of a mouthful, so let’s call them apis.

4. Apis mellifera liguistica :

Apis mellifera liguistica us the most common sure variety of apis mellifera, making it buy and the most popular variety of domesticated bee in the world.

5. Apis mellifera carnica:

The carneolan or grey honey bees species. Apis mellifera carnica originated in eastern Europe, between Australia, hungry, Bulgaria and bosnia and Serbia.

6. Apis mellifera Caucasica:

Native to the caucasus region, whose mountain range divides south eastern Europe from Asia, the honey bee is a large variety.

7. Apis mellifera lberiensis:

This is probably the most unusual variety of Western honey bees and my personal favorite.

VEGANISM AND IT’S IMPORTANCE

What is Veganism?

Veganism is perhaps the best manners by which you can uphold basic entitlements, secure the planet, work on your wellbeing, and live without moral tradeoffs. An ever-increasing number of individuals are going veggie lover consistently, and on the off chance that you do focus on this way of life, you likely will not discover it as hard to follow as you might suspect.

While a few groups accept that veganism is unfortunate, unnatural, or outlandish, these thoughts are essentially bogus. Indeed, going veggie lover can really make you better and work on your relationship with the normal world and your body’s requirements. Besides, in the event that you believe it’s outlandish, perhaps you should give yourself more credit.

“Veganism is a philosophy that is against the mercilessness, abuse, and enduring of creatures. As a way of life, it is rejecting the utilization of creatures, regardless of whether in food, dress, amusement, or items tried on creatures.”

Why Veganism is important?

Mankind is draining the planet’s limited assets at a quick rate, the climate is going through uncommon, pointless and capricious changes, and individuals experience the ill effects of heap sicknesses connected to their eating regimens. You can’t fix all that by accepting veganism, yet you can be one piece of the arrangement.

Individuals will in general follow those they appreciate. In the event that you conclude that veganism is for you, your companions, relatives, and partners may follow after accordingly because of your model. In addition, when you quit eating meat, dairy, and eggs you are utilizing your wallet to take up arms. Organizations that sell meat and creature results just do as such in light of the fact that it makes them cash. At the point when their benefits begin to evaporate, they will think about alternate methods of working together.

Why go vegan?

  • Put Your Health First

It’s not difficult to snatch a supper at a drive-thru eatery — a hamburger and French fries or a meat taco — or to toss a couple of chicken bosoms in the stove when you return home from work. In any case, how are those propensities doing your wellbeing?

Vegetables and Fruit Heart Shaped

The facts really confirm that creature tissue and side-effects feed our bodies, yet they can likewise add to illness and different issues, which are talked about beneath. In the event that you ask any nutritionist what individuals should zero in on in their eating regimens, the person will say “foods grown from the ground.” That’s in every case highest in the brain of any expert who makes dietary suggestions. No nutritionist would say “steak and seared chicken,” for a valid justification — those are considerably more prone to shape part of an unfortunate eating regimen. In case you’re battling to get thinner or drag out your life expectancy, veganism might be the best initial step on your way.

  • Save the Environment

Processing plant cultivating contributes vigorously to natural issues from one side of the planet to the other. Contemplate the quantity of creatures that are butchered each day to fill grocery stores with stock. Those creatures must be taken care of, watered, and housed before they are annihilated. Deforestation across the world is driven by the avarices for more pastureland and creature feed, though taking care of the world with plant-based food sources would require just a negligible portion of that land.

Creatures in the horticulture business add to the pollution of the water table through fecal spillover. They devour huge loads of water and grain, which should be cultivated utilizing yet more water. Pesticides are added to creature feed crops, and the actual creatures are infused with unfortunate chemicals. It’s an endless loop that debases our environment.

We’re not simply discussing salmonella and E. coli here, however those are unquestionably hazardous. Foodborne disease can likewise result from the defilement of meat: dung, bug eggs, and different things you presumably don’t need in your mouth — not to mention your gut.

  •  Conserve Natural Resources

We also have to think about the natural resources that factory farming and crop raising deplete. Factory farms have to be powered, so they consume fossil fuels, and in general the more finite resources we use, the less will be left over for our children.

The crucial point here is the long production chain of factory farming — you need to put resources into growing the food for the animals, then growing the animals themselves, and then “processing” (just a pretty word for slaughtering) the animals. By contrast, the plant-based food chain is much shorter and requires fewer natural resources.

  • Creatures Die in Efforts to Prevent Predation

What many individuals don’t understand is that veganism adds to saving lives other than those of cows or chickens. These animals have regular hunters, and ranchers utilize savage techniques to trap and kill those hunters. As could be, it’s tied in with safeguarding the wellspring of their pay. Coyotes, wolves, and different hunters stall out in traps constantly. So do animals who don’t go after cultivated creatures, for example, birds who accidentally fly into these snares.

  • Diminish the Risk of Foodborne Illness

Identified with this are ailments that are not actually foodborne, however result from the escalated processing plant cultivating rehearses that are expected to transform creatures into human food. You might have known about bird influenza and pig influenza — they are called that since they in all likelihood began in chicken industrial facilities and hoard ranches. Microbes circling in industrial facility cultivating are one of the best and most squeezing dangers that humankind faces.

  • Further develop Digestion and Build More Lean Muscle

Processing is a confounded theme. It’s additionally tricky for some individuals. An ever-increasing number of purchasers are standing up against ulcerative colitis and IBS, two stomach related problems that have their underlying foundations in irritation of the stomach related parcel.

Plant-based eating regimens are wealthy in fiber, which helps processing. Furthermore, all that rich sustenance will help you assemble slender muscle and break up fat. Many individuals expect that they’ll battle to acquire muscle subsequent to going to veganism, however the inverse is frequently obvious. However long you keep on working out and devour adequate calories, you can prepare just as — or far better than — you could before veganism.

–        Improve Your Concentration

Similarly, you might discover that you can concentrate for longer periods of time after you take up veganism. You might also find that you get better performance reviews from your boss as a result. It’s amazing what eliminating meat and animal by-products from your diet can do for you.

  • You Might Live Longer

Specialists haven’t yet concurred about whether veganism prompts life span, yet there are a couple of new wellsprings of data to recommend that veggie lovers live more. One investigation recommends that, paying little heed to carb admission, individuals who eat plant-based eating regimens have diminished death rates. Curiously, the investigation likewise proposes that plant-based food turns out to be much more significant when lessening utilization of carbs — so in case you are doing keto or paleo diets and eating creatures, you might be all the more altogether shortening your future.

What next?

Veganism is an extraordinary method to save aware animals from hurt as well as to work on your life. Try not to sit around idly. Begin to make the change now.

Indeed, you may battle to discover great cafés right away, and discover a few difficulties in your shopping for food, however you’ll improve at it the more you’re vegetarian. It resembles any way of life change. It may not feel like it fits from the outset, however you steadily warm to it. Or then again perhaps like many, you rapidly understand that you’ve at long last settled on the most ideal decision and it feels totally right and regular all along.

COMFORT ZONE- FRIEND OR ENEMY

The comfort zone is a psychological state in which one feels familiar, safe, calm and secure.

– Roy T. Benett

“A comfort zone is a beautiful place but nothing ever grows here.”

Comfort zone as a friend ~

If something makes us feel safer, it could be our friend. This statement supports comfort zone to be our closest friend. And yes, it is our friend let’s see how.

• Drawing an experience

If you perform a task multiple times, you become master of it, so is the case of comfort zone. You are expert at it. You are experienced and well known to how things will work out , it is your arena where you know where are loopholes and how to make cover ups. Working in your comfort zone gives you experience.

• Confidence building

You become self assured with things around you, and that makes you more confidence. They feeling of being familiar, to the situations avoid all kind of nervousness and risk.

• Minimizing risk

Being in your comfort zone decreases chances of risk. We like to be in our ‘restricted zone’ because it is easier for us. Hence, chances of failure reduces. Less failure, more your performance will be maintained. Also it provides an equilibrium as well as stability in our field.

• Learn about yourself

Working with your comfort zone , you are aware of your strengths and how to use it. It also gives you platform where you are calm and comfortable knowing about yourself.

Comfort zone as an enemy ~

“Life begins at the end of comfort zone.”

• Death of curiosity

“Curiosity is the fuel of adventure, injury and learning.

Curiosity is what makes us human , ‘the eagerness to know’. Without being curious we cannot learn and discover. In every field questioning is more important than answers, good questions comes from great minds. Being in your comfort zone and not having eagerness demise all your opportunities to discover.

• No risk, no rewards

Insecurity loves to feed on your habit of not trying.

Whenever we try something new, there is always risk of failure , but if we not try we’ll never be able to know about our extends. For winning an unknown battlefield, we should have courage to take risk and to come out as a winner. (Reminder : if you lose, you still have learned). Coming out from your comfort zone will bring you to a position where miracles happen in form of learning something new i.e; rewards.

• Boundaries raised before growth

” To the degree we are not living our dreams, our comfort zone has more control of us than we have ourselves. ” ~ Peter McWilliams

Comfort zone limits our growth, if we don’t grow we will be in the same position in which we were 10 years back and also going to be in the same position in next 10 years. It’s like being stagnant which provides no place for flexibility and rising. If something scares you the most, don’t hesitate to give it a try. It’s is good to be in uncomfortable situations because it is finding our way out of such difficulties that we learn valuable lessons.

• No new skills

“It’s not about getting out of our comfort zone, to reach out our goals. It’s about widening our comfort zone so far that our goals fits comfortably inside. ” ~ Richie Nortan

Learning new skills, let us know more about ourselves. Every new skill we learn help us live our life better and also leave space for growth, stretching your comfort zone, opens door for all new opportunities and victories. Skill helps in throughout growth of a personality. If something is holding you back , you need to push up to learn.

By Esha Singh Sisodiya

Live beyond your comfort zone 🙂

SELF AWARENESS

Self-awareness involves being aware of different aspects of the self including traits, behaviours, and feelings. Essentially, it is a psychological state in which oneself becomes the focus of attention. Self-awareness is one of the first components of the self concept  to emerge. While self-awareness is something that is central to who you are, it is not something that you are acutely focused on at every moment of every day. Instead, self-awareness becomes woven into the fabric of who you are and emerges at different points depending on the situation and your personality.

People are not born completely self-aware. Yet research has also found that infants do have a rudimentary sense of self-awareness. Infants possess the awareness that they are a separate being from others, which is evidenced by behaviours such as the rooting reflex in which an infant searches for a nipple when something brushes against his or her face. Researchers have also found that even newborns are able to differentiate between self- and non-self touch.

Self-Awareness Development

Researchers have proposed that an area of the brain known as the anterior cingulate cortex located in the frontal lobe region plays an important role in developing self-awareness. Studies have also used brain imaging to show that this region becomes activated in adults who are self-aware.

The Lewis and Brooks-Gunn experiment suggests that self-awareness begins to emerge in children around the age of 18 months, an age that coincides with the rapid growth of spindle cells in the anterior Cingular cortex. However, one study found that a patient retained self-awareness even with extensive damage to areas of the brain including the insula and the anterior Cingular cortex. This suggests that these areas of the brain are not required for most aspects of self-awareness and that awareness may instead arise from interactions distributed among brain networks.

Types of Self-Awareness

Psychologists often break self-awareness down into two different types, either public or private.

Public Self-Awareness : This type emerges when people are aware of how they appear to others. Public self-awareness often emerges in situations when people are at the center of attention, such as when giving a presentation or talking to a group of friends. This type of self-awareness often compels people to adhere to social . When we are aware that we are being watched and evaluated, we often try to behave in ways that are socially acceptable and desirable. Public self-awareness can also lead to evaluation anxiety  in which people become distressed, anxious, or worried about how they are perceived by others.

Private Self-Awareness

This type happens when people become aware of some aspects of themselves, but only in a private way. For example, seeing your face in the mirror is a type of private self-awareness. Feeling your stomach lurch when you realise you forgot to study for an important test or feeling your heart flutter when you see someone you are attracted to are also examples of private self-awareness.

Self-Consciousness

Sometimes, people can become overly self-aware and veer into what is known as self-consciousness.5 Have you ever felt like everyone was watching you, judging your actions, and waiting to see what you will do next? This heightened state of self-awareness can leave you feeling awkward and nervous in some instances. In a lot of cases, these feelings of self-consciousness are only temporary and arise in situations when we are “in the spotlight.” For some people, however, excessive self-consciousness can reflect a chronic condition such as social anxiety disorder.

People who are privately self-conscious have a higher level of private self-awareness, which can be both a good and bad thing. These people tend to be more aware of their feelings and beliefs, and are therefore more likely to stick to their personal values. However, they are also more likely to suffer from negative health consequences such as increased stress and anxiety.

People who are publicly self-conscious have a higher level of public self-awareness. They tend to think more about how other people view them and are often concerned that other people might be judging them based on their looks or their actions. As a result, these individuals tend to stick to group norms and try to avoid situations in which they might look bad or feel embarrassed.

5 ways to improve self-awareness:

  1. Mindfulness and meditation
    Practicing mindfulness or meditation helps you to focus on the present moment and pay attention to your thoughts and feelings, without getting wrappd up in them. You are guided to let your thoughts drift by without needing to react or do anything, which helps you become more aware of your internal state. For more details on mindfulness click on the last blog Mindfulness to restore calm.
  2. Movement
    Whether you do yoga, Pilates, running, walking, or whatever form of movement that works for you, notice what your body is telling you. During movement you become more aware of your body and all the feelings that manifest in it and you become more aware of your mind and the thoughts within it, which increases your self-acceptance and self-awareness.
  3. Reflection and journaling
    A journaling practice allows you to be an objective observer of your thoughts which can help bring clarity to what you want and value. Make time to write down what has gone well today, or reflect on what has been a challenge, what has got in your way and what could you change or improve? Notice what may have triggered you today. It is equally as important to understand both sides for yourself.
  4. Ask for feedback from people you trust or loved ones
    One of the best ways to build self-awareness is to understand others’ perspectives of you and what impact you have on others. The simplest way is to ask for honest feedback. We rarely do this for fear of criticism, but if you don’t ask you will never know what others think. But don’t just rely on feedback from one person, gather a range of insights and evaluate what you want to do with that information.
  5. Work with a coach!
    You can achieve a certain amount on your own, but it’s hard and sometimes you need someone to hold a mirror up to you. Self-awareness takes time and is a lifelong journey and by working with a qualified coach it can be a truly transformational process.

Effects of Population on Geography of India

We can’t imagine a world without humans. Who will use earth’s resources and the environment? Human beings develop the economy and society. The people invent resources and use them for their needs. Their growth and characteristic give the background for understanding all aspects of the environment. Human beings are consumers of earth’s resources. It is important to keep track of all the people living, and their increase in number.

Size of India’s Population

The current population of India is 1,394,901,748 according to United Nations data. All these people are unevenly distributed across 3.28 million square kilometers of our geographical area. This is due to the varying population density of India. Population density is the total number of people per unit area. Population density is totally dependent on the geographical location and factors. India is one of the most populated country in the world.

Population Change

The number and density of population is constantly changing. It is generally determined by the growth per annum. Population growth can be determined in terms of percentage change per year. India’s population is consequently increasing steadily. Important aspect of the population growth is – births, deaths, and migration.

Birth rate – It is the number of births per thousand persons in a year.

Death rate – It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

Migration – It is the movement of people across regions and territories.

Birth rate is always increasing than death rate. High birth rate and declining death rate led to a large difference between birth rates and death rates.

Migration can be internal or international. Internal migration does not lead to population change, but it does affect the population density in the migrated areas. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.

Characteristics of Population Change

Age Composition

It refers to the number of people in different age groups. The percentage of a population found within the children of different age groups, determines the social and economic structure of the nation. Population of a nation generally categorised into three broad categories:

  • Children – below 15 years
  • Working-age – 15- 59 years
  • Aged (Senior) – 59 years and above

Sex Ratio

It is the number of females per 1000 males in the population. India’s sex ratio helps in understanding the equality of males and females in the society, which consequently gives an idea of the nation’s culture.

Literacy rate

Literacy rate determines the social and economic structure of the country. Noteworthy, there has been a steady increase in literacy level in India. According to the census the literacy rate in the country is 74.04%.

Occupational Structure

The percentage of population that is involved in economic activities leads to economic growth of the country. Distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is know as occupational structure. This is an important element of the population of India. Also, our occupational structure has three broad categories –

  • Primary occupation – agriculture, fishing, mining, animal husbandry, forestry etc.
  • Secondary occupation – manufacturing, building, construction work etc.
  • Tertiary occupation – communication, transportation, administration etc.
Photo by Anna Shvets on Pexels.com

The study reveals that the country’s population growth is imposing an increasing burden on the country’s limited and continually degrading natural resource base.  The natural resources are under increasing strain, even though the majority of people survive at subsistence level. Population pressure on arable land contributes to the land degradation. The increasing population numbers and growing affluence have already resulted in rapid growth of energy production and consumption in India. The environmental effects like ground water and surface water contamination; air pollution and global warming are of growing concern owing to increasing consumption levels. Population is a dynamic phenomenon.

INDIGENOUS PEOPLE

Who are indigenous people ?

Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first people, aboriginal people, native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a place which has been colonised and settled by another ethnic group.

The term indigenous was first, in its modern context, used by Europeans, who used it to differentiate the indigenous peoples of the Americas from black people who were brought to the Americas as slaves from Africa. It may have first been used in this context by Sir Thomas Browne in 1646, who stated “and although in many parts thereof there be at present swarms of Negroes serving under the Spaniard, yet were they all transported from Africa, since the discovery of Columbus; and are not indigenous or proper natives of America.”

● United Nations observes the International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples on 9th August every year.

● The day is being observed to protect the rights of the world’s indigenous population and recognise the achievements and contributions that indigenous people make to improve world issues such as environmental protection.

● The theme for 2021 is ‘Leaving no one behind: Indigenous peoples and the call for a new social contract.

● The day was recognised by the General Assembly of the United Nations in December 1994.

● The date marks the day of the inaugural session of the Working Group on Indigenous Populations at the United Nations in 1982.

They have distinct social, economic or political systems. They have a distinct language, culture and beliefs. They are marginalised and discriminated against by the state. They maintain and develop their ancestral environments and systems as distinct peoples.

The term ‘indigenous peoples’ refers to culturally distinct groups affected by colonization. As a reference to a group of people, the term indigenous first came into use by Europeans who used it to differentiate the indigenous peoples of the Americas from enslaved Africans.

Struggles of being the ‘Weird One’

If there was a ratio analysis between a normal mundane and the ‘Weird one’, what would it be? Some would say it is half of the other or some would find being weird as abnormal, so naturally the count for the abnormal or the ‘weird one’ would be more. Because everyone in this world is weird in their way. Being weird is not being abnormal. It is being the most random version of yourself. To you, it would be something you do in your everyday life, whether it is biting the end of a pencil or singing and using your hairbrush as a mic. It is the perspective of the other that makes you weird. The other person would look at your pencil and would probably not use it thinking ‘what a weird person would do something like this, or someone would walk in your room while you are singing with your hairbrush and judge you by calling you a ‘weirdo’. That’s when you realize I am the weird one.

The struggles of being the weird one is nothing but a simple complexity of your own doing. Being weird is the new normal. It is good to be a different person; a unique idea that makes you stand out in the crowd. But that’s when the word ‘weird’ gets you thinking. Not being weird is a task that you hold every day. It is difficult for the weird one to not get judged. People judge and criticize those but do not think that they too have the struggles of being the weird one.

Everyone has their own battle that they have to face, their own obstacles they have to overcome. In such times being weird is the only sane way out. Whether it is using your signature dance moves which only you can do or if it is reading the spoiler of the book before reading it entirely. That is the hit you get by considering weirdness. Sometimes or for some people most of the time being the weird one is a compliment. It is what makes them different from other human beings or even aliens for that matter. The most interesting fact about being weird is that it is original. It comes from within a human, it is not made up to live up to anybody’s expectations. It is yours and yours to keep. Every individual has their weird abilities and they have full copyright to let them be theirs.

So to all the weird ones out there, be whatever you want to be. Be the weird neighbor who listens to old classical music. Be the one who moonwalks but not in reverse. Be the one who wears unmatched outfits to their office. Be the weird one because the struggles of being a weirdo are not much as they seem. They are just mere distractions to not being yourself. The struggles of being the weird one are not just struggles, they are trophies of being the best version of yourself.

WHERE IS YOUR WILL TO BE WEIRD?

-JIM MORRISON

Public management

Public managers carry out the managerial operations of public organizations. In practice, public management is meant to improve the quality and efficiency of services delivered by public organizations. Managers interpret the public policy to implement public services in ways that are expected to achieve the most desirable outcomes for the interests they serve.

Public managers can operate in two different areas: the internal and external management of public organizations.

Internally, public managers must understand how to manage risk and change within their respective organizations. This demands that they stay informed of societal conditions that may impact their organizations’ ability to function optimally. By acknowledging those risks, managers can act accordingly, taking preemptive measures to diminish identified risks and prepare their staff to adapt to the instability those adverse conditions may have on the organization.
Externally, public management entails leading efforts to collaborate with private groups to support the adoption of public policy. In this capacity, public managers work with private citizens and other public organizations to keep public programs running smoothly. To do this, managers perform tasks such as coordinating public human resources to assist with specific projects or helping certain communities secure the necessary financing to implement public programs.

Types of Public Administration Theory

Public Administration Theory recently has been divided into three branches. The three branches are, Classical Public Administration Theory, New Public Management Theory and Postmodern Public Administration Theory. Each of these three branches study Public Administration from a different perspective. These types of theories are some of the ways which an administrator can understand and exercise their duties as a public administrator.

Classical Public Administration Theory

Classical Public Administration is often associated with Woodrow and Max Weber . In the United States, Woodrow Wilson is known as ‘The Father of Public Administration’ , have written “The Study of Administration” in 1887, in which he argued that a bureaucracy should be run like a business. Wilson promoted ideas like merit-based promotions, professionalization, and a non-political system. Sympathy can lead to downfall in an administration, means there should be pragmatism in bureaucracy.

New Public Management Theory

New Public Management a set of administrative practices, a consulting fad, and a body of theory that interprets recent developments in public administration. Many scholars argue persuasively that scholars should pay more attention to New Public management as a theory than as a fad. New public management is part and parcel of the massive intrusion of freemarket values into public space, which threatens to drive out political values altogether. In this sense, new public management is the radical opposite of the notion of migrating political values into “private” space in the interest of further democratizing society. However, new public management theory fails to addresses political questions in a meaningful way. This theory looks at public administration from its roots of capitalism, and goes on through the perspective of global capitalism. Intentional or not, new public management has served the interests of elites, particularly corporate elites, has degraded the ability of governments to address the public interest, and has served as a vehicle for elevating the apolitical governance of free trade and other supranational organizations, which have fully embraced the political philosophy of economic rationalism and new managerialism.

Career Outlook for Public Administration and Public Management

Because the fields of public management and public administration are closely linked, many universities roll public management coursework into their Master of Public Administration programs. Public management concepts taught in such programs (e.g. public human resource management or financial management in government) are often built into the curriculum for public administration. This gives graduates the opportunity to develop the practical knowledge they need to excel at management or administrative positions in government or nonprofit organizations. Upon graduation, educated public administrators may join the ranks of political scientists, public administrators, city managers, and similar professionals who impact public policy in modern societies.

In practice, there is no conflict pitting public administration vs. public management; rather, it’s about the partnership of public administration and public management. The success of the public policy depends on the effective application of both disciplines by public organizations and dedicated professionals. A Master of Public Administration program usually offers coursework in both public administration and public management, empowering students to develop the multifaceted public leadership expertise valued by forward-thinking employers in the public sector.

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES-PART 2- CLASSIFICATION OF IMMUNITY & INNATE IMMUNITY

The previous article gave a brief introduction to immunity, the internal force protecting us from several hazards. This article will be on the classification of immunity.

This is the classification chart for immunity. Immunity can be briefly classified as two, innate immunity and the acquired immunity. Innate immunity also known as natural immunity and native immunity is the one that has been bestowed to us. This type of immunity is present from birth till death. The following are the other names of innate immunity:-

  • Natural immunity
  • Native immunity
  • Non-specific immunity

Innate immunity is the resistance to infections which an individual possesses due to their genetics. Also, there are other factors that can decide native immunity.

Species- the native immunity which is present within everyone is species-specific. The meaning is that humans have resistance to a specific set of infections and the plants have resistance to another specific set of infections. This is the reason for which humans do not get affected by plant diseases and vice versa.

Race- race refers to the group of people from several parts of the world. People in one part of the world may be resistant to a particular disease when compared to others. This can also depend on the environmental conditions and other factors in which people reside. A suitable example for this is a study that shows that the Negroid species (of African origin) in the US are more resistant to tuberculosis when compared to the Caucasian species (European origin).

Individual- people having a similar genetic constitution may have the same resistance/non-resistance to infections. A study shows that twins have the same level of resistance and non-resistance to several diseases.

The innate immunity is long-lasting, non-specific, and has a good memory. The term memory will be explained while introducing the immune cells. Innate immunity forms the first line of defence in our body. This immunity primarily focuses on providing a barrier to the body and destroying the microbes and pathogens, irrespective of their type. Hence the innate immunity is known as non-specific immunity. There are specified cells that perform this activity and the process is known as phagocytosis. More details will be provided in the next article.

The innate immunity can be comprised of four namely. These can be known as the barriers of innate immunity:-

  • Physical
  • Physiological
  • Cellular
  • Cytokine

The physical type includes the mechanical barriers mostly present in the openings of the body (eye, nose, mouth, ears, genitals, and skin) which prevent the entry of microbes through several mechanisms.

The physiologic type includes the secretions of which help in kicking out the pathogens. These include sweat, highly acidic stomach acid, saliva, sebaceous glands, earwax, and mucus, and so on. These secretions mostly trap the pathogens and prevent them from reaching inside.

The cellular type includes some arrangements made to prevent microbe entry. For example, the wall of the blood vessels is tightly attached with each other ensuring that there is no gap hence preventing the entry of microbes.

The last type includes cytokines. The cytokines are a broad group of signaling proteins that take an important part in immunity. These molecules help in regulating the immune response.

The next article deals with the 6 mechanisms of innate immunity. Till that

HAPPY READING!!

Book Review: A Thousand Splendid Suns

“One could not count the moons

that shimmer on her roofs,

or the thousand splendid suns

that hide behind her walls.”

Khaled Hosseini, A Thousand Splendid Suns
See the source image

Brief Overview:

A Thousand Splendid Suns is a fiction novel by Afghan-American novelist Khaled Hosseini. The novel is set in the backdrop of the Afghanistan turbulence 1960 onward. Capturing martial elements from Soviet union to the authoritarian Taliban, the author has weaved a portentous tale of two women, Mariam and Laila. Separated by decades of age, these women are conjoined by an exceptional bond which later blossoms into a beautiful friendship.

The novel follows Mariam, an illegitimate child of a rich Herat merchant, who though loves her but is equally ashamed of her. Following her mother’s death, Mariam goes on to live with her father, his three legitimate wives and nine children, all of whom are unknown to Mariam.

Here the novel draws attention to the class disparities. Mariam, being an illegitimate child through their housekeeper is made to slave in her father’s household , bereft of education or love, by his wives while his legitimate children lead glamorous lives. Wishing to rid themselves of Mariam who is now about 15, her father’s wives arrange a marriage for her to Rasheed,a Pashtun shoemaker from Kabul who who is about two decades older than her.

At first Rasheed appears as an indifferent yet a person of clement disposition, helping Mariam settle in the new city. The persona soon, however crumbles as Rasheed begins forcing Mariam to fulfill her so called obligations towards him. Following Mariam’s miscarriage, Rasheed turns out to be a hypocritical, bitter man pressuring and muscling Mariam every step of the way.

About a decade later in the novel does Laila’s story begin. The daughter of a teacher, Laila is loved immensely by her father, while her mother constantly mourns the death of her two elder brothers, who were killed seven years ago, fighting alongside Ahmad Shah Massoud. The author has drawn a sharp parallel between the two women. Laila is portrayed as the face of an emerging Afghanistan for women, pursuing education and strong willed, Laila falls in love with her best friend Tariq, who loses his leg to the ongoing Afghan turbulence. In a drastic spur of events Laila loses her parents and is separated from Tariq. Desperate for a shelter and to protect a secret she’s nurturing, Laila marries Rasheed. What follows is a tale of everlasting friendship, heart wrenching sorrow and the purest form of love.

Book Review:

A Thousand Splendid suns is a book so finely written that it makes your heart ache. The bond between Laila and Mariam is as beautiful as a full bloomed rose, the color of blood. The story, particularly of Mariam is written with such a palpable feeling of sorrow and hopelessness that it feels extremely personal.On the other hand, Laila’s coming of age has been described as an experience full of aspirations and hope. Laila and Tariq’s chemistry is an exceptional blend of sweet and fiery.

There are a myriad of symbols and metaphors used in the book that make the entire thing full of allusions.

The author has unraveled themes of women, femininity, marriage and war in the book as an astounding whole.

The cultural aspects of Afghanistan have been richly used and amazingly described which amalgamate to give this book a perfect finish.

The book also divests into several explicit issues such as racism, sexual content, religious ideals etc.

This book is a suitable read for people above 13 years of age.

All in all, this book is bound to be a a roller coaster ride of emotions for the reader. It is an absolute must read and sure to make your eyes spill tears of distress.

Solitude- A Joyful Pill

A warm breeze brushing your cheeks when you are sitting idly on a swing on your lawn, the sun rays glazing up your skin while the wind just caressing your hair. Doesn’t it sound delightful? The time you are giving to yourself keeping aside those hectic and materialistic things and just wondering about the galaxies far greater than any of this.

Solitude is my best friend which nurtures me and rejuvenates energy to thrive in the fast-moving world. It gives me an opportunity to introspect and help me find who I am. A time in a day or week where I am free to ponder on anything, I don’t have to force myself to stress about my future, my relationships and I could be myself having to worry about no one. I feel connected to every fragment of my body and I can talk to my soul.

Away from the hustle-bustle of eager beavers and loving myself without worrying about judgements is Solitude for me. Solitude makes me see across the shiny and gigantic buildings to catch a glimpse of rainbows and blissful skies, I could smell the earth and dance with flying leaves. The joy of watching the sun rise from east filling the starry sky with golden beams or enjoying it setting down leaving crimson waves on the horizon.

Solitude is not loneliness, it is an important vitamin to boost my soul and heal me without hefty gadgets. It is like walking on an empty road where you travel alone and it will take you home to yourself, at a place where your soul can breathe.

Time management

TIME management is the process of organizing and planning how to divide your time between specific activities. Good time management enables you to work smarter -not Harper so that you get more done in less time, even when time is right and pressure ate high.

5 elementst of time management:

be intentional:keep a to do list.

be priorities: rank your tasks.

be fosced: manage distraction

be structure: time block your work

be self-esteem aware: track your time.

5 tips to better your time management:

set reminder for all your tasks. The key to time management success is to know your deadlines and set reminder.

create a daily planner.

give each task a time limits.

block out distraction

establish routine.

imporatants of time management:

one of the biggest advantage of time management is that it allows of time management is that it allows us to more efficient by being in control of how we spend our time. We can focus better on important tasks, and better leads to better efficient.

methods of time management:

next you can identify bad habits and then you can learn the tools to change these habits. Here are a few tips and technique you can apply to get more done and feel more productive:planning, prioritizing and performing.

Example of time management tools:

calendar, note-taking software , time tracker, specialized time management apps and so on.

key to time management:

remember what’s really important to you and prepare your inwardly to meet whatever the day brings.

Social media

Social media is a computer-based technology that facilitates the sharing of ideas, thoughts, and information through the building of virtual networks and communities. By design, social media is Internet-based and gives users quick electronic communication of content. Content includes personal information, documents, videos, and photos. Users engage with social media via a computer, tablet, or smartphone via web-based software or applications.

While social media is ubiquitous in America and Europe, Asian countries like Indonesia lead the list of social media usage.1 More than 3.8 billion people use social media.2Social media is a computer-based technology that facilitates the sharing of ideas, thoughts, and information through the building of virtual networks and communities.

The largest social media networks include Facebook, Instagram, Social media typically features user-generated content and personalized profiles. By 2023, the number of social media users in the United States is forecast to increase to approximately 257 million.

Types of Social Media

Social media may take the form of a variety of tech-enabled activities. These activities include photo sharing, blogging, social gaming, social networks, video sharing, business networks, virtual worlds, reviews, and much more. Even governments and politicians utilize social media to engage with constituents and voters.

For individuals, social media is used to keep in touch with friends and extended family. Some people will use various social media applications to network career opportunities, find people across the globe with like-minded interests, and share their thoughts, feelings, insights, and emotions. Those who engage in these activities are part of a virtual social network. For businesses, social media is an indispensable tool. Companies use the platform to find and engage with customers, drive sales through advertising and promotion, gauge consumer trends, and offering customer service or support.

Examples of Social Media

Facebook is the largest social media platform in the world, with a clear advantage over other social media, though it has similar audience to others like Twitter and Instagram. The figures for the most popular social media websites as of January 2021 are as follows:Facebook (2.74 billion users)

YouTube (2.29 billion users)

WhatsApp (2 billion users)

Facebook Messenger (1.3 billion users)

Instagram (1.22 billion users)

Whatsapp (1.21 billion users)TikTok (689 million users)

TikTok (689 million users)

Benefits of Social Media

Social media has changed the way that we all interact with each other online. It’s given us the ability to discover what’s happening in the world in real-time, to connect with each other and stay in touch with long-distance friends, and in order to have access to endless amounts of information at your fingertips. In many senses, social media has helped many individuals find common ground with others online, making the world seem more approachable.

Disadvantages of Social Media

Despite having such unique advantages, social media is considered to be one of the most harmful elements of society. If the use of social media is not monitored, it can lead to grave consequences. It is harmful because it invades your privacy like never before. The oversharing happening on social media makes children a target for predators and hackers. It also leads to cyberbullying which affects any person significantly.

Thus, the sharing on social media especially by children must be monitored at all times. Next up is the addition of social media which is quite common amongst the youth. This addiction hampers with the academic performance of a student as they waste their time on social media instead of studying. Social media also creates communal rifts. Fake news is spread with the use of it, which poisons the mind of peace-loving citizens.

In short, surely social media has both advantages and disadvantages. But, it all depends on the user at the end. The youth must particularly create a balance between their academic performances, physical activities, and social media. Excess use of anything is harmful and the same thing applies to social media. Therefore, we must strive to live a satisfying life with the right balance.

AUTOMATION-A BOON OR BANE

AUTOMATION

       Automation is defined as the technique that makes a product or process by automatically using technology. It reduces the human input in the process. Automation has brought wide changes in the world. Starting from morning to evening, our works are automated in one way or another. For example, purified water by purifiers, food cooked in Microwave oven, washing clothes in the washing machine, automated vacuum cleaner, robots for work field, etc. We can say that most things are automated in the work field. Automation has been used in several fields including manufacturing, transport, defense, operations, and Information Technology. Automation plays a major role in IT optimization and digital transformation. Consequently, the automated systems have become more sophisticated. In the 21st century, we are mostly dependent on automation. Although it has several advantages, eventually it possesses some disadvantages. So, let’s discuss whether automation is a bane or boon?

AUTOMATION- BOON

        From the simplest to complex things, Automation has integrated with every part of our lives. With the help of automation, every work has been easily completed and it saves a lot of time.

Automation in the home: Using the combination of hardware and software components, home appliances are made. Starting from the purifier, washing machine, refrigerator, microwave oven, vacuum cleaner, etc…. most of the home appliances are automated which saves more time and energy.

Network Automation: By using software, the configuration, management, and operations of computer networks are automated. Network automation has become significant to manage the complexities of modern dynamic networks. It helps to reduce human errors in network management and operations.

Automation in the office: More organizations are using automation in the workplace to improve productivity and lower costs. The office automation system consists of both hardware and software solutions to transfer the data between systems without human interventions. Office automation brings broad changes of benefits to include improved accuracy, cost and time reduction,  storing and managing the data in an efficient manner, facility management, and several administrative works.

Security automation: The use of technologies to integrate security processes, applications, and infrastructure with reduced human assistance is known as security automation. Fast threat detection can reduce the impact of data loss.

Help to Disables: With the advancement in technology, automation helped disabled people to overcome their disabilities and by providing proper care independence, they can work like normal people.

AUTOMATION – BANE

Increases unemployment rates: Low-skill workers can be replaced. But nowadays, even the highly skilled workers are replaced by automated machines. Recent advancements in robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) reduced human works in the working environment.

Health issues: Most of the children in this 21st century are addicted to the video game. They prefer online and computer games rather than outdoor games. It makes people lazy and weak. This may be the cause for many health issues like eye problems, back pain, etc.

Machines are sensitive: Automation to some extent can be good but when more control is given to them, it may lead to some disasters Machines can never act like humans and they will be programmed without knowing the sensitivity of the issue.

Hackers:  Technology can be hacked by hackers. Sometimes, it may lead to wide disaster to a country by other countries. Our private details can be stolen by some hackers and they may demand several things to compromise them.

Loss of human interaction: Dealing with computers and machines can reduce the interactions between people.

        Overall, Automation is very essential for the growth and development of a country. Automation ensures the utilization of resources in various fields include healthcare, sports, energy, and technology. Without automation, we will spend more time finishing the task and thus delivery will be done very late. The economic imbalance will be increased. In short term, automation will cause unemployment and may bring some disadvantages. But in the long term effect, Automation will be needed for the better development of the nation.

When things don’t go as planned!

“Most things don’t go as we planned it to be, but it’s within our hands to make the best out of all the situations that we face!” It’s the most common dilemma when you are a 12th-grade student and start dreaming of a particular kind of future for yourself, but then you end up in a strange and unfamiliar place. But that may turn out to be better than what you had planned earlier, or, maybe not, you never know until it happens!

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Life isn’t always sugar and cupcakes!

Speaking from my own experience, I was purely a NEET aspirant, dreamt of being a doctor from a very young age, but ended up in the field of engineering, in which neither I had any interest nor did I possess such good skills. I was completely unfamiliar with the setting and felt like an alien here. I remember feeling so strange yet somehow welcoming.

In the beginning, I thought I would regret joining this field, because it’s the era of technology and clever people, and I felt so inferior because firstly, I had zero knowledge of coding, and, secondly I was pretty weak at math. Also, it was hard to understand all the basics, without any foundation.

But over the period of one year, not just the field of computer science but also people who I fondly call my good friends now grew over me! They became my strength, lifted me up when I thought about quitting. They encouraged me to great lengths. “Finding good friends is hard but finding true friends is rare like a diamond!” At least I was lucky in that department!

What would you do when things go out of hand?

  • When you accept the situation and fight for, rather than against it, you can see the change in yourself. When you embrace your flaws and work towards them, is the time when you actually grow as a person! So rather than running away, Why not stick around and fight for it? You may find that the end result is much better than what to had earlier planned.
  • Do not regret any of your choices, you only get one life to live, so why live in regret? When you can go with the flow and see what life has in store for you!
  • Give your best, in the end, it’s your happiness that matters the most. Who would have thought I, who loved biology with all my heart would end up in computer science engineering and actually fall for it too? Never restrict yourself, explore what you can have and maybe it grows on you too!
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YOU are in charge of your life!

Always remember it’s these backlashes that make you stronger, braver and boosts your confidence. Just like antibodies, as it stands upright with full arm force, if the disease-causing pathogen that once caused havoc in your body dares to enter again, it’s the antibodies who will be the first to strike this time! Why? because it is prepared for what’s to happen next! and it wins!

So failures, small backlashes are all but a part of life, and know that, everything that happens is for a reason, that is to prepare you for the worst because the next time you will be expecting it and it will be you, who will be the first to strike!

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 1- INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNITY

There are about 1 trillion microbial species which constitutes about only 0.0001% of the entire species. One trillion itself is a huge number and they constitute the number of identified species only. Most of the microbes are packed inside the glaciers and is said that global warming which melts the glaciers can release them! The microbes can be broadly classified into 6:-

  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa
  • Virus
  • Algae
some shapes and forms of the microbes

An important thing is that even though there are these many species of microbes, we do not get infected by them so often. To understand this it is trivial to know about the infection. Infection is defined as the invasion of the host’s body tissues by disease-causing microorganisms followed by their multiplication, colonization, reaction with the host, and release of toxic product metabolites. Infection is a complex process in which the harmful organisms enter into the host, finds a suitable and weak target place, establishes themselves well, multiples themselves, react with body cells, and release bad substances. The series of these events constitutes the prevalence of several diseases. The word ‘target site’ is very important since the microbe cannot establish themselves in any place in the human body. A clear-cut idea of this concept will be given in the next article.

Infection by a microbe can be best understood through relationships. A relationship is always exhibited between two organisms. There are three different kinds of relationships namely parasitism, commensalism, and symbiosis.

Commensalism– the relationship in which one of the organisms is benefitted and the other is neutral (neither harmed nor benefitted)

Symbiosis/mutualism– the relationship in which both the organisms help out with each other so that both are benefited

Parasitism– the relationship in which one organism is benefitted and the other is harmed. In this scenario, the harmed one is known as the host and the one causing the harm is the parasite.


Credit- differencebetween.net

The reason for which that all microbes don’t cause disease might be that some of them are cannot cause infection meaning that they are not parasitic. Under those circumstances, there are about 1500+ kinds of microorganisms that particularly target and infect human beings. If so, then we would have got around 1500+ diseases and that is not the case. So there is some inner force that protects/guards us against these microbes. This protective force present in our body is known as immunity.

Immunity is defined as the response generated by the local mammalian in response to the infection caused by the pathogenic microbes and their products (toxins).

As mentioned earlier, the microbe has to enter into the body in order to establish itself. In fact, this is the hardest part for the microorganisms and most of them fail to cross this stage. It is this immunity that prevents most of the microbes to enter the body and cause infections. The immunity identifies and destroys these microbes and prevents their infections.

The first step is known as recognition which is an important characteristic of the immune system. It is the ability that the immune system destroys the objects which are foreign or not present in the body (non-self) and do not affect the body cells (self). An error occurs in this and as a result, the immune system is unable to differentiate both and starts to destroy their own body cells. This condition is known as autoimmunity.

A brief introduction to immunity has been provided, the next article discusses the classification of immunity.

HAPPY LEARNING!!

Spirituality in India

The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which “aims to recover the original shape of man”, oriented at “the image of God as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world. The term was used within early Christianity to refer to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit and broadened during the Late Middle Ages to include mental aspects of life. In modern times, the term both spread to other religious traditions and broadened to refer to a wider range of experiences, including a range of esoteric traditions and religious traditions. Modern usages tend to refer to a subjective experience of a sacred dimension and the “deepest values and meanings by which people live”, often in a context separate from organized religious institutions.

In the present age, we see that the whole of humanity is in disharmony owing to religious differences. This means that the present-day religious theologies and practices have outlived their spiritual efficacy to bring about peace and spiritual evolvement to humanity. It is for India to take up a leadership role in the spiritual renewal of humanity. Although it may be unconvincing to many, the reality is that India is the mother of spirituality, the inheritor of an ancient most spiritual culture.

As the global community becomes increasingly capitalistic, the quest for spirituality grows in urgency.  India, its people, its infrastructure, and indeed its very soil, encourage and breed Spiritualism, allowing religions to thrive, flourish and prosper.

India boasts the presence of every major religion in the world, as well many of their off-shoots and facets, all being supported, nourished, and living in comparative harmony. Many of these religions were conceived in India, and others have come to India seeking a haven from persecution after being created in their lands. The age-old environment has always supported such freedom of belief.

Spirituality and mystical charm have always drawn people from all over the world to India. As the world becomes increasingly capitalistic and materialist, the quest and urgency for spirituality grow more and more. The traditional Indian way of life has helped in the evolution and growth of Spiritualism. Numerous cultures and religions have thrived and flourished together for ages and resulted in the unique Indian way of life.

At different points in the history of our civilization, numerous spiritual leaders and saints have delivered the message of peace, brotherhood and co-existence that is so very well rooted in our culture. Arts like Yoga and Ayurveda coupled with religion have played an important role in the evolution and existence of spirituality in India.

Thus, Indian spirituality is all about showing respect to all living beings-animals trees, rocks and even water and lead a positive and healthy life. It is believed that the supreme Creator has put each one of us in this world for a purpose and that purpose is to be compassionate, caring and loving to one another. As mentioned earlier, the great Indian spiritual personalities and gurus have played an important role in spreading the message of love, care and the need for positive living all over the world. The presence of God as the supreme power, the concept of “Omnipresence of the Omnipotent” therefore finds a divine dimension amidst the concept of Indian philosophy. Indian philosophy suggests that all that exists in this universe is the ultimate manifestation of God. The words of Krishna further support this. As Krishna says:

“I am the original fragrance of earth and the heat of the fire. I am the life of all that lives and I am the penance of all seekers. I am the consciousness of all who have developed their consciousness. I am the splendor of all which is fine.”

This is the part where Indian philosophy ultimately offers a definite contour to the term “Spirituality”. This is when finally the emergence of that Ultimate Consciousness of the Greatest Knowledge happens which leads one towards felicity and towards that eternal bliss. This is the very halo of spiritualism in Indian philosophy, which finally binds the religiosity and the phantasmal elements with that sheer thread of tenet and feelings. Indian philosophy is therefore a religious tradition. The pride of the Indian philosophy again lies in that magical blend of the concept of reality or in that absolute reality with that of the existence of personal God which ultimately leads to a meaningful life. This immense fusion further crafts Indian philosophy as the most tolerant religion.

I would like to end these thoughts with a quote from the Gita: “Work done with anxiety about results is far inferior to work done without such anxiety, in the calm of self-surrender. Seek refuge in the knowledge of Brahma. They who work selfishly for results are miserable.”

Why Decision Making & Problem Solving is Afraid of the Truth

Many bad decisions can be remedied, however, the more people the decision impacts, the more difficult it will be to remedy the situation. When making a decision, determine how your choice will impact your life and as well as the lives of others, and respond accordingly.Problem Solving is the capacity and the ability to evaluate information and to accurately predict future outcomes. The ability to seek out logical solutions to complex problems. The ability to calmly and systematically solve problems without making things worse.

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Every problem can be solved, you just have to learn how to solve it. There is a process to problem solving, but you also need skills, knowledge and information in order to be a good problem solver. Problem solving skills are the most important skills to have. They are the most widely used skills in every human’s life. The majority of our lives are spent solving problems. Most problems are easy to solve and take very little time, while other problems could take hours, days, weeks, months and even years to solve. But if you don’t start, you will never finish, and the problem will never go away. So if you don’t learn how to solve problems, then you will always have problems. Never underestimate the importance of learning. The benefits from learning are endless.

Important to solve a problem and make decision Don’t Afraid

The ability to solve problems and make decisions gives a person confidence. If you’re always struggling with what you should do and how and when you should do it, you’re languishing in a state of uncertainty.

Although it is important to solve a problem, it is far more important to avoid potential problems altogether, if at all possible. When you can make decisions to avert a situation right away, you can save yourself from going down a path of no return. That goal is achieved by having the ability to make concise decisions and avoid problems altogether. Developing that skill will save you tons of problems in your life.

Why is it important to solve a problem and make a decision?

If you’re faced with a problem and it’s impeding you and you feel uncomfortable because of it, then solving it means reducing the things that makes it a problem, which then makes the environment comfortable again.

If you like being uncomfortable, or the threshold of comfort hasn’t been crossed, you don’t really have to solve it, I suppose, and it’s “not that big” of a problem, but it can become one if left unattended and it gets worse.

Making a decision is a process of your brain where you try to incorporate all of the information you’ve acquired over the years and try to implement the best scenario option. So, technically, you’re not making decisions, you’re just following along the path best theorized based on your information. You just did science. Science is very important in solving problems because we’re able to recognize something as a problem using science.

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Let’s begin with a quick experiment. You’ll soon find that we, as educators and researchers, have a fondness for experiments. We encourage you to try these simple exercises whenever they appear. You’ll learn more quickly the general principles we’re trying to convey. More important, you’ll learn about yourself and how you make decisions. Armed with that knowledge, you can better choose whether to replace your habitual approach to decision-making.

Imagine you have in front of you two coins. Both are biased: coin #1 has a 55 percent probability of turning up heads; coin #2, a 45 percent probability of yielding heads. The coin you select will be flipped only once. If the head appears, you get $10,000 tax-free. If the tail turns up, you get nothing.

Coin #1: 55% chance of heads Coin #2: 45% chance of heads

Playing the odds, you choose coin #1. It’s flipped… and lands tails up. You get no money. Curious to see what would have happened with the second coin, you flip it. It lands heads up.

“Always remember that those with very important paths to fulfill will always be forced by life into the fear of the very things that their true paths consist of, in order to prevent the destiny from ever happening. Or perhaps, in order to strengthen the courage of the heart, because courage is to look into a direction, make a choice and to actually do that which you are afraid of, and what is destiny if it is not fulfilled by a heart full of courage and brawn.

The four categories of decision making:

1] Making routine choices and judgments. When you go shopping in a supermarket or a department store, you typically pick from the products before you. Those items, perhaps a jug of milk or a jar of jam, are what they are. You have no ability to improve them. Control is low. Moreover, you make the choice that suits you best—it doesn’t matter what anyone else is buying. Performance is absolute. The same goes for most personal investment decisions. You may be able to decide which company’s shares to buy, but you can’t improve their performance after you buy them. You want high returns but aren’t trying to do better than others. The goal is to do well, not to finish first in a competition.

2] Influencing outcomes. Many decisions involve more than selecting among options we cannot improve or making judgments about things we cannot influence. In so much of life, we use our energy and talents to make things happen. Imagine that the task at hand is to determine how long we will need to complete a project. That’s a judgment we can control; indeed, it’s up to us to get the project done. Here, positive thinking matters. By believing we can do well, perhaps even holding a level of confidence that is by some definitions a bit excessive, we can often improve performance. Optimism isn’t useful in picking stocks whose performance we cannot change, but in the second field, where we have the ability to influence outcomes, it can be very important.

3] Placing competitive bets. The third category introduces a competitive dimension. Success is no longer a matter of absolute performance but depends on how well you do relative to others. The best decisions must anticipate the moves of rivals. That’s the essence of strategic thinking, which Princeton professor Avinash Dixit and Yale professor Barry Nalebuff define as “the art of outdoing an adversary, knowing that the adversary is trying to do the same to you.” Investments in stocks are typically first-field decisions, but if you’re taking part in a contest where the investor with the highest return takes the prize, you’re in the third field. Now you need to make decisions with an eye to what your rivals will do, anticipating their likely moves so that you can have the best chance of winning.

4] Making strategic decisions. In this fourth category of decision making, we can actively influence outcomes and success means doing better than rivals. Here we find the essence of strategic management. Business executives aren’t like shoppers picking a product or investors choosing a stock, simply making a choice that leads to one outcome or another. By the way they lead and communicate, and through their ability to inspire and encourage, executives can influence outcomes. That’s the definition of “management.” Moreover, they are in charge of organizations that compete vigorously with others; doing better than rivals is vital. That’s where strategy comes in.

Transgender Community In India : Past

Transgender is a term used to describe the people whose gender identity and expression does not match the sex determined at birth. A transgender woman lives as a woman today, but was thought to be male when she was born. A transgender man lives as a man today, but was thought to be female when he was born.

Historically, transgenders were based in Hinduism and they performed solely for Hindus but they were not all Hindu themselves.  Many of them were were Muslims and a few were Christians too.  In fact, some transgenders followed the beliefs and practices of both Hinduism and Islam.  Just as they were not limited by binary views of gender, some were not limited by a single religious tradition.

They were expected to perform dances, songs, and blessings at both births and weddings of Hindus.  To many Hindus, a transgender’s blessings of a baby would confer fertility, prosperity, and long life on the child.  One to two days after a marriage ceremony—transgenders would perform to bless the couple for fertility. They could also curse a family if they were disrespectful or refused to pay for the blessings.  Many Hindus and the transgenders themselves, took these blessings and curses very seriously.

While transgenders were often invited to perform these rituals, they would also attend births and marriages unannounced claiming their right to attend as their sacred religious duty.  Fearful of receiving a curse from transgenders, Hindu families often welcomed them in and paid them for their services even when uninvited.  However, sometimes Hindu families refused them entry or refused to pay, even went as far as calling the police.  Still the cultural authority of the hijra was so powerful that the police would often do nothing to remove them.  Transgenders were treated with both respect and fear.

Under the Mughal rule, transgenders were called Khawjasaras which was a designation of respect and dignity. Transgenders were employed as security officials in charge of female quarters. This role was assigned to transgenders in imitation of their historic role in holy cities where they served as facilitators between men and women performing prayers and pilgrimage. In most parts of the Muslim world, transgenders commanded respect and were considered holy and special in the eyes of God.

They served as courtiers and councils, giving advice to princes and princesses. They were familiar with court etiquettes and knew the secret workings of Mughal households. They were domestic insiders. Having the controls of intelligence officers and the prestige of royal confidantes, transgenders enjoyed special powers and privileges unavailable even to the most powerful wazirs (ministers) of the kingdom. They were educated in statecraft and nuances of religion. This treatment and elevation in the Mughal courts provided a great incentive for non-Muslim transgenders to accept Islam.

The spirituality of transgenders was considered as authentic as that of men and women. The Prophet of Islam treated transgenders with respect, prohibited their ill-treatment and had good things to say about spiritually-inclined transgenders. Believing that transgenders are dearer to God, some Muslim rulers appointed them as intercessors in royal palaces.

In the beginning of the British period in Indian subcontinent, hijra used to accept protections and benefits by some Indian states through entry into the hijra community. Furthermore, the benefits incorporated the provision of land, rights of food and smaller amount of money from agricultural households in exact area were ultimately removed through British legislation because the land was not inherited through blood relations.

Through the onset of colonial rule from the 18th century onwards, the situation changed drastically. Accounts of early European travelers showed that they were repulsed by the sight of Hijras and could not comprehend why they were given so much respect in the royal courts and other institutions.

In the second half of the 19th century, the British colonial administration vigorously sought to criminalize the hijra community and to deny them the civil rights. This was on the basis of Christian beliefs on gender. Ethnocentrism is very much visible in this context. Hijras were considered to be separate caste or tribe in different parts of India by the colonial administration. The Criminal Tribes Act of 1871, instructed colonial authorities to arrest all hijra who were concerned in kidnapping, castrating children and dressed like women to dance in public places. The punishment for such activities was up to two years imprisonment and a fine or both. This pre-partition history influences the vulnerable circumstances of hijra in this contemporary India.

“The International Event – OLYMPICS”

The word “olympics” itself is an emotion. The international sports festival which held in every 4 years in about 206 countries of the world. It is the worlds foremost athletic competition among the most promising & commendable citizens of the respective 206 countries. Olympics gives the opportunity to the citizens to showcase their aptitude and ability in every sport despite of any sense of discrimination among them. Olympics gives a friendly nature, a sense of peace and prosperity among the countries. It’s an international level sport which gives justice to each and every citizen to showcase their talent and their earnest nature in the name of their country, showcasing your country on an international level is something beyond reproach, it’s indescribable.

“Olympics Logo”

THE 5 RINGS OF OLYMPICS.

The five rings represent the five continents of the world that participate in “the fruitful rivalries” Of the Olympics games. The colors – blue, yellow, black, green and red – stand out against the white background which shows the sense of unity and togetherness of every colour under the white background despite of measuring the wavelength, tone and frequency in all the 5 colours, which represents that each and every citizen of every country can represent their nation without any sense of discrimination under the same sky.The six colors can be combined in any number of ways to reproduce the flag of every country without exception. It gives the opportunity to the citizens to showcase themselves in the name of their respective nations in different sports without any kind of inequity and bias among them.


IMPORTANCE OF OLYMPICS IN THE MODERN WORLD

As with the changing times, the youth of the world has become more generous and they have the sense of being vocal about their thoughts and their abilities which gives an ever-growing impression in the world. With the modern world, the youth has all the elements to showcase their respective interest in different fields. Since olympics gives an opportunity to the youth to represent their desire and talent in their respective best sport they are in, it gives a learning atmosphere for the youth to inspire and learn through a sport. Representing your culture, your country on a global level gives an indescribable emotion from which the youth seeks the importance of culture, its meaning.
Young athletes exhibiting their respective countries in 100’s of different sports in an international level competition and earns medals through their hard work, desire and generosity. It’s an unimaginable moment for the athlete who wins on a global level among 206 countries, Olympics truly gives so many of opportunities to the citizens, to earn through their hard work and desire without getting judged or discriminated in any form.


HISTORY OF OLYMPICS”

The Olympic Games, which originated in ancient Greece, 3,000 years ago, were revived in the late 19th century and have become the world’s prominent sporting competition. From the 8th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D., the Games were held every four years in Olympia, located in the western Peloponnese peninsula, in honor of the god Zeus. The first modern Olympics took place in 1896 in Athens, and featured 280 participants from 12 nations, competing in 43 events. Since 1994, the Summer and Winter Olympic Games have been held separately and have alternated every two years. The 2020 Summer Olympics, delayed one year because of the COVID-19 pandemic, will be held from July 23 to August 8, 2021 in Tokyo, Japan.

INDIA IN OLYMPICS

India has been participating in Olympics since 1900. Being the most diversified and culturally active country, it has been the most commendable and honoured country in the platform of Olympics as well. No doubt, India in the race of Olympics is not so graceful as compared to other countries, but India being the 2nd most populated country gives cultural competition to many other countries, it has gained prosperity in each and every sector, but in Olympics, India has a little disgraceful exhibition among the several countries.

WHERE INDIA LACKS?

  • Excess importance to cricket

We, as a country, are obsessed with a singular sport and that is cricket. It is only during major events like Olympics when other sports are given a part of the limelight and fan cheering. For the rest of the year, we stay ignorant of who’s who of other sports. They are promoted less, there are fewer sponsors for the other sports, there are even less fans hooting and cheering them to do better and then we go about complaining and trolling athletes when we do not get enough medals.

  • Lack of encouragement

The foremost factor right from the very beginning, youth in India are discouraged from pursuing a career in sports. Our parents are obsessed with the likes of medical and engineering. And for girls, the scenario is even worse with list of drawbacks and hindrances they have to face before they could persuade their parents to allow them to play. Most of them are forced to quit sports in order to do something that would give them better job security. Our success as an academically-oriented people proves that we are excellent at pursuing something that pays well, so does India’s obsession with cricket.

  • Poor administration

There is no proper governing of Administrative issues is the prime concern with Indian sports. Non-Involvement of ex-sportsman in administrative staff is also a major reason why India lacks in this sector. Our economy has been prospering and allotment of funds to different fields of development has been improvising with each year’s budget. However, there is still relatively very less allotment of funds for sports given the sheer number of youths who are willing to take up sports seriously. Enough of IITs and IIMs, when will we get a dedicated sports university?

IMPROVEMENTS TO BE DONE

  • Khelo India Youth Games

Khelo India Youth Games, held annually in January or February, are the national level multidisciplinary grassroot games in India held for two categories, namely under-17 years school students and under-21 college students. Every year best 1000 kids will be given an annual scholarship of 5 lakh for 8 years to prepare them for the international sporting events. This is a great initiative by the Govt of India.

  • Collective efforts

India being a developing country cannot invest a major part of it’s economy for sports. India has a huge number of industrialist and business men who can easily take up responsibilities to encourage these talented athletes and collectively make the necessary arrangements. Instead of giving them crores of rupees as rewards after winning, we should focus on giving them basic amenities for developing them as a good sports person.

  • Too much criticism

There is a lot of criticism about the performance of Indian athletes over the years. This decreases their morale. The point is, if you can’t support them, don’t, but please don’t criticize them. You don’t know their stories, their food facility, coaching, support, Money, still they made it to Olympics to compete with the ones who were trained, supported and recognized well by their respective country or govt or organization.

  • Impartial 

We might have a lot of Dhonis but it’s difficult to find more Mary Koms and Sania Nehwals owing to the gender discrimination that has paved its way into sports. Sports and women are the two opposite ends of a pole. The society does not encourage girls to be an active part of sports, moreover they are considered to be delicate creatures and their potential in sports is questioned. This should be stopped. There should be special policies to encourage the participation of women in sports.

  • Transparency in the system

Selection process of players and board members needs more transparency. Sports-governing body heads should be an ex-sportsman. This will create job opportunities for sportsmen as well. Players should be only judged upon their performance and not any other factors.

-Sukhmani Panesar

THE INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE

British ruled over India for almost 200 years. India witnessed an array of events before attaining independence in the year 1947. The freedom struggle not only liberated us but also proved to be a significant step in the making of the nation. The Indian freedom struggle was beautified by the sweat and blood of various freedom fighters.

East India Company started dominating India in the 18th and 19th centuries. East India Company entered into India as a trading company but gradually it started influencing the political affairs of India as the East India Company got itself involved in the politics. It marked the beginning of the British Raj in India.

First War of Independence

The First War of Independence is also known as the Revolt of 1857 or Sepoy Mutiny. It all started in Barrackpore when sepoys were asked to bite the cover of the cartridges from their rifles to remove it. They realized that the cover was greased with beef and pork. One person who stood out of the crowd during the revolt of 1857 was Mangal Pandey who shot his sergeant. Later on, when he was arrested and hanged, the soldiers boycotted the new rifles and marched towards Delhi. They declared the then Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, the true emperor of India.

The Domino Effect of the Movement

  • Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi, fought against the British because they didn’t allow her to proclaim her adopted son, Damodar Rao as the heir of the kingdom and wanted to seize the state of Jhansi. The Britishers refused to accept him as the heir under the Doctrine of Lapse which stated that an adopted son could not be declared as the heir to the throne.
  • Tantia Tope helped Rani Lakshmi Bai to run away to Gwalior where she died while fighting and Tantia Tope was also hanged eventually.
  • Kuwar Singh led the revolt in Bihar and died eventually.
  • Begum Hazrat Mahal also led the revolt but ran away to Nepal later on.

Effects of Revolt of 1857

  • The rule of the East India Company ended in India and India was put under the direct rule of the British crown.
  • Indian National Congress was formed by A.O. Hume in and Womesh Chandra Banerjee was declared the first president of INC.
  • The biggest province of British India, Bengal, was portioned by Lord Curzon in 1905. It was done to apply the formula of divide and rule and create a rift between Hindus and Muslims.

A lot of other freedom fighters started participating in the freedom struggle – Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Ajit Singh, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, to name a few. All of them played a vital role in the freedom struggle. Swami Dayanand Saraswasti formed the Arya Samaj.

Moderates and Extremists – There were moderates and extremists. Moderates wanted nominal British rule. They wanted the British people to understand the plight of the Indian mass and consider Indian people and work in favor of the local people. The Extremists on the other hand wanted complete independence. They demanded ‘Purna Swaraj’ and opted for methods such as the boycott of foreign goods. Their approach was more radical.

Moderates comprised of people like Dadabai Naorojia and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra were together known as ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’ and they were the extremists.

Formation of the Muslim League – Muslims demanded a separate platform and hence, Muslim League was formed in 1906 at Dacca.

The Lucknow Pact – Congress and the Muslim League signed the Lucknow Pact in December 1916 to work together for Indian Independence.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

British introduced the Rowlatt Act that curbed the basic fundamental rights of the Indian people and allowed the police to use their strengths devilishly. On April 13, 1919, thousands of people gathered in the Jalliawalan Bagh at Amritsar. It was a peaceful gathering to oppose this law.

British troops and General Dyer marched to the park. General Dyer commanded the troops to open fire on thousands of innocent people gathered at the park that included women and children too. There was no way for them to escape and many of them jumped into the well.

This whole incident made the Indian citizens furious and gave birth to the Non-cooperation movement, also called the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Non-Cooperation Movement, 1920

 Non-Cooperation Movement was introduced in 1920. During this movement, the foreign cloth was burnt and honorary titles given by the British were surrendered. Several students left government colleges and schools and lawyers also stopped their practices. People boycotted elections.

In February 1922, at Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, twenty-two policemen were killed when the enraged peasants burned off a police station. The non-cooperation movement was called off after the Chauri Chaura Incident.

Simon Commission

In 1927, a commission was sent to India by the British Government in England to bring about some political reforms. It was headed by John Simon and all the members of the commission were British. It had no Indian representative. This enraged the Indian Citizens and created a widespread revolt. The commission was met with the slogans like “Simon, Go back” on their arrival.

HSRA

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was founded in 1928 at Ferozshah Kotla in Delhi. It was founded by Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekar Azad, Sukhdev, and other people who wanted to end British rule.

On 17 December 1928, Bhagat Singh, Azad, and Rajguru killed the police officer who was responsible for the lathi charge that resulted in the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.

On 8 April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central  Legislative Assembly. The bomb was harmless because they did not intend to hurt anyone but “to make the deaf hear”.

Their slogan ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ became very famous. Unfortunately, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru were hanged to death on 23rd March 1931.

Dandi March

To break the Salt Law, Gandhiji started a salt march of 375 Km from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi.

It was utterly wrong to tax salt since it is the most basic and essential ingredient of our food. This march took 26 days and Gandhiji broke the salt law at the end of this march by collecting and boiling the salt found on the seashore of Dandi.

Gandhi Irwin Pact of March 1931

An agreement was made between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin. The terms of the agreement included the release of political prisoners except for those who were involved in violent acts, permission to collect and manufacture salt and return the confiscated lands and properties.

Government of India Act, 1935

In August 1935, The Government of India Act was passed for the establishment of an all-Indian federation where it was allowed to make relatively independent decisions while remaining within a federation.

The government was allowed to conduct elections for the provisional legislatures and these elections were held in 11 provinces. Congress won the elections of 7 out of 11 provinces.

Bose and INA – Subas Chandra Bose, played a major in the Indian freedom struggle. He raised the Azad Hind Fauj, also popular by the name of the Indian National Army. This army aimed to free India from colonial rule. He also tried to get the support of Adolf Hitler but died under mysterious circumstances.

The Quit India Movement

In 1942, The Quit India Movement was launched at the Bombay session of the All India National Congress. Gandhiji asked people to ‘Do or Die’ to end the British Raj in India. He said, “We shall either free India or die in the attempt. We shall not live to see the perpetuation f our slavery”.

The British responded repressively and all the prominent leaders were arrested.  But the rebellion brought the British rule to an end.

Towards Independence

Photo by Studio Art Smile on Pexels.com

Muslim League was adamant about wanting a separate nation from the Hindus as they feared that Muslims might go unrepresented. Hence, they announced 16th August 1947 as ‘Direct Action Day’. This resulted in riots. Thousands of people were killed in these riots. The partition caused violence and many people were forced to leave their homes and run for their lives.

Partition took place and a new nation was born – Pakistan. We got independence. Our nation was finally free and the British rule had ended.

This historic event will always remain bittersweet for us. Yes, we got freedom and that is why this struggle was important. A lot of sacrifices were made. People suffered, people left their homes and some even watched their close ones leaving them behind. We celebrate Independence Day on 15th August every year. We fly kites and celebrate the freedom we are entitled to today. We also remember those sacrifices and feel proud.

Sources

https://www.britannica.com/topic/East-India-Company

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Rebellion_of_1857

https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/ncert-notes-doctrine-of-lapse/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucknow_Pact

https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/revision-points-moderates/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gandhi%E2%80%93Irwin_Pact