Burhanpur, the historical city, southwestern Madhya Pradesh state, focal India. It lies only north of the Tapti River, around 35 miles (55 km) south of Khandwa.

Burhanpur was established in 1399 by Naṣīr Khan, the principal autonomous ruler of the Fārūqī line of Khandesh, and it was attached by the Mughal sovereign Akbar in 1601. The city, with its divider and monstrous doors, filled in as the Deccan base camp of the Mughals until Aurangzeb moved the money to Aurangabad in 1636. Burhanpur was for a long time the location of struggles between the Marathas and Mughals and was seized in 1803 by Major General Arthur Wellesley, later first duke of Wellington. It was reestablished to the Sindhias in 1805 and surrendered to the British in 1861.

Burhanpur fostered a broad exchange muslin, gold and silver brocade, and ribbon, which declined during the eighteenth century, however such ventures actually progress forward a limited scale. Presently a significant rail intersection, it is additionally a focal point of cotton material assembling and of exchange. Structures of notable interest incorporate the demolished fortification and castle Bādshāhī Qalʿah (c. 1400), the Mosque of the Lady (c. 1585), and the Jāmiʿ Masjid, or Great Mosque (1588). Close by focal points incorporate the notable Asirgarh post toward the upper east and the Yawal Wildlife Sanctuary toward the west.



In this pandemic, what is the thing that we miss the most? Afcourse, it’s getting out of our homes and socializing. Travel! Who doesn’t like traveling? Exploring new places, getting to know new people and their culture sounds pretty exciting to me! It’s fascinating to watch their lifestyle and understand it during the time of staying.


I, myself, have traveled a lot of places during my summer breaks and have learnt a great amount during those travel. Traveling isn’t just always about the fun elements, but also studies have shown that exploring new places can do wonders for both physical and mental health.



From working at home and working at the office to students focusing on their studies, can create a lot of tension and stress.

Doing workouts might be one of the best ways for stress release, but I’m sure most of us are either just too tired or lazy to do so! So what’s the best alternative? Just pull out your car or bike and go out for a long drive! Traveling need not mean going on international trips or vacations, but sometimes, going to your favorite place or spot can help a great deal too!


People talk about new starts and beginnings and everyone likes to be independent but honestly it’s easy to love others but harder to love yourself. You might be surprised when you travel to a new destination and find out what might be your insecurity is just a way of living of people there.

These days many of us have become so subconscious regarding all the diet and fitness. They calculate the amount of calorie intake and avoid oily foods, but I remember when I traveled to Punjab, India, and their people eating oily foods and never insecure about gaining weight and just enjoying their life, so apparently when you travel north, the temperature drops, and you need to have more calorie in order to have a normal body temperature and sustain. Traveling widens your horizons of possibilities of life.


What is better than traveling with your friends and family? It gives us so much joy and excitement. We forget all about our personal life and drama, and just live in the moment!

Your emotions are directly or indirectly linked with the people you are close with. So when you travel with them your mental state elevates and you feel a great amount of love and happiness. Emotions are a very powerful thing. Once under its influence, you do things that you normally would never dream of. Happiness is one such emotion, it can give you a great deal of self-confidence.


Every one of us likes to be in our comfort zone, and keep things under control, so when faced with some strange and peculiar situations, we tend to panic and lose control!

With traveling to new places, where you know nothing about the people or their culture, basically diving into an unfamiliar place will help you get resistance to panic and once you master your emotion and become confident, you also try to push yourself out of your comfort zone. So believe me when I say ‘Normal is Boring‘! Be creative and push your limits, it’s never too late to learn new things!

Why schools should not be reopened?


Some says they shouldn’t others says they should. Some states have already reopened in India this includes Punjab, Uttrakhand, Haryana, Madhya pradesh, Himachal pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Gujarat, and most of these states schools have been reopened for selective classes mostly senior classes grade 9 and above. In Himachal pradesh for example, schools have reopened for classes 10 to 12. But in most Indian states schools are still closed and they have been closed for more than 500 days now.

The Wuhan virus was declared a pandemic 17 months ago in March 2020. In March 2020 over 250 million primary school and middle school children have not stepped into their classrooms. This is a situation in India and all of these numbers are true. By these numbers they do not necessarily translate into a safety certificate for schools. They do not mean reopening schools are now safe.

Those arguing of reopening site instances of bars and shopping malls, even marriage halls, they’re all open. They’ve all opened why not schools they say. Well for one, schools are for children and children are not been vaccinated most of them are below 18 years of age. In India children are not qualified for Wuhan virus vaccination. So sending them to school unvaccinated which mean their lives exposing them to the virus. Will parents be ok with that? Won’t it be better to wait it out and make sure that their kids will be safe at school and right now they won’t be.

The pandemic has not gone away. There are cases arising in many countries and in India third wave is on the horizon.

One may say this from a privileged position as some children have access to digital learning i.e., they can afford to attend classes from home but many others can’t. Many students and teacher in India can’t afford a smartphone, a laptop or a computer. Many schools lack basic infrastructure required for conducting online classes. For example computers, the following is showing the statistical data of computer facilities present in different states of India:-

The above data shows Assam and Madhya pradesh with 13%, Bihar and West Bengal with 14 %, Tripura with 15% and Uttarpradesh with 18% of schools with computer facilities.

How are schools Managing to conduct classes in the middle of the pandemic?

Oxfam India carried out a survey in 2020 interviewing nearly 1200 parents and 500 teachers. They were all from the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar, jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and U.P.

–> 80% parents said that children have not received any education during the pandemic.

–> 4 out 5 students had not received new textbooks for the academic year.

–> Teachers fears that 30% of students might not return to schools when reopens

Therefore, there is not doubt that school closure is taking a toll on education, it is also threatening to undo the gains made in the education sector in general. The facilities deficit in government-funded schools does not help.

According to the educational Ministry,

–> At least a 113 Million students attends government schools in India.

–> 65% from 20 states are enrolled in them.

–> Only 30% of these schools have functional computers.

The Education Ministry data also says that in the run-up to the pandemic less than 12% of India’s government have internet facilities. Also only three states of India have internet facilities in majority of their school which are Kerala, Delhi, Gujarat.

It is not wrong to believe that schools should reopen that every child should be able to access learning. After all education is every child’s right and the pandemic should not be allowed to snatch away that right, so yes they should go back to school but there is a problem our children would not be safe not yet. We may convince ourselves that worth the risk but our trust with that pandemic shows us that nothing is worth risking the Wuhan virus.

The last one year has been a grand experiment, we have tried alternate day work from home, we have tried alternate seatings at restaurants, movie halls, alternate flight of escalated. We have tried all kinds of things but, we should leave children out of these grand experiment.

Mysterious Facts About Jagannath Temple

Iconic Temple

Odisha is a state of art and culture in the East India region. Among 30 districts in Odisha, Puri district is especially famous for Lord Jagannath all over the world. Jagannath is a blend of two Sanskrit words Jagat meaning universe and Nath meaning Lord. Jagannath temple is the pride of every Indian. This temple is a symbol of the greatest architecture of all time. Lord Jagannath’s Ratha Yatra is world-famous, it is held once a year. To see the Lord outside the temple large number of devotees are coming to watch this magnificent car festival. It’s a Hindu temple, expect them no one can enter this temple as per tradition. Originally Lord Jagannath was worshiped as Lord Neela Madhava by a tribal king named Viswabasu.In Hindu tradition, we know about Char Dham, among from all Puri Dham is a most excellent and divine place. In the 12 century, the Jagannath temple was constructed by king Anantavarman Chodaganga. The temple has its significance and is full of mystry.No one can tell the truth behind the mystery of Jagannath temple.

Let us know about some exciting stories of Jagannath Temple.

Climb To Neela chakra

We can see the temple top with the flying flag of different colors. Every day someone has to climb this 65 meters temple to change the flag. It is a daily ritual for many decades. This process will be done without any safety harness and with bare hands. History says if this ritual will be skipped one day in the calendar, the temple will be closed for 18 years.

Crimson Of Chaturdha Murti

The avatars are covered from 14 to 18 years, many hidden rituals performed by Daitas(Jagannaths Sevayats during his crimson) in a dark environment with no devotees and no cameras. New Murtis were replaced by those old wooden neem Murtis of Lord Jagannath, Balabhdra, Subhadra, and Sudarshana. It is automatically decaying in soil.

Opposite blow of air

Astonishingly, in the daytime, the light air blows from the land to the sea and the opposite happens in the evening. It only occurs in Jagannath temple Puri.

Never Wasted Mahaprasad

Every day around 2000 to 2,000,00 devotees are coming to Jagannath temple and feel blessed by eating Mahaprasad. But you will be surprised to know that the process of making Mahaprasad is a non-organized way.No one measures the amount of food they will cook for devotees. Supernaturally, the prepared food will never waste, not even a bite. 

Flag Against Wind

Jagannath temple’s flag at the top flew against the opposite direction of the wind as it is against science.No scientist can reveal the truth of this phenomenon. 

Magic Structcture of Neela chakra

The Neela Chakra is built with hard metal weighing about a tonne. We are amazed how our ancestors got up there without any machinery. The design is unique, that when you look at the Neela Chakra, its appearance is the same in every direction. Is it not a miracle? 

Soundless Temple

The sea sound was never audible within the temple premises. But when you step out from the temple, the sea sound comes again. This effect is rare and makes this phenomenon noticeable among scientists.

No Birds In the sky

We see the birds in the sky. The sky is the permanent address of birds. But unfortunately, no birds fly above the temple dome. No airplane can glide above the Neela Chakara.

Unusual Method Of Cooking

In Jagannath temple, their priest cooks all the food items. It is called Mahaprasad. They usually use seven pots for cooking. The process is like seven pots mounted one above the other. When the cooking is over, the topmost pot is cooked first. It is the magic of Lord Jagannath.

Ratha Yatra

In Rath Yatra, Lord Jagannath and his brother Lora Balbhadra and his sister Lora Subhadra came outside the temple to enjoy their vacation time by traveling to their motherland called Gundicha Mandir. Surprisingly these massive three Chariot built within sixty days with no engineers. Car painters are the architect of these 3 Chariots. Behind every design and architecture, there will be a great story. Nothing is without a purpose.

No Shadow

When some stand in front of sunlight, a shadow creates. But you never see a shadow of Shree Mandir at any time of the day and any direction also.

The scientist is still researching to know about the mystery behind the Jagannath temple.


Hi beautiful’ s.

Today I am going to share few ways which I am using to vent out my anger and stress.

1.Speak out: when you are angry, speak out directly or else speak to yourself. It will help you to calm down.

2.Just go to an open place: when you are feeling stressed, just go to an open place. Getting fresh air will make our mind cool and calm.

3.Drink water: Many of us may be following this method. So, just drink a glass of water, when you are angry or stressed.

4.Divert yourself: Diverting yourself from stressing situation will help you a lot. Do anything that will help you to relax.

5.Speak to your favorite person: sometimes speaking to your favorite person will help you to feel at ease.

6 Scribble: Take a paper and start scribbling,. Until you feel good keep scribbling. And I am pretty sure, it is the best way to feel better.

And I am following these ways to vent out my stress and anger.And it is helping me to handle myself. And I recommend you all to follow this.

Hope so, it will help you.

Have a positive day.

Keep smiling ❣️

The law of attraction

It is a philosophy that suggests that positive thoughts bring positivity and negative thoughts bring negativity to your life. It is basically a belief that when we tell the universe what we want in life, it delivers it to us. The positive energy from us attracts success in all aspects of our life like health, relationships, career, etc.

The theory was put forth by a book “The Secret”. But there is no scientific evidence for the claims. Many people in the world follow the law and claim that it is actually true.

How does this actually work?

It suggests that if we focus on positive things in our life it will attract it, likewise, if we focus on negative things, negative situations will be attracted towards us. So basically we must focus on what we want and not on what we don’t want.Another law suggests that if we ignore the negative thoughts, we give more space to positivity in our lives, which gets delivered in our day-to-day lives.

How can I implement this?

You can practice the law of attraction every second of your life by following a few things. Let me creates scenarios for better understanding.

One day, you are getting up from bed in a bad mood. You have lots of work on that day so you are a little frustrated with it. The first thing you can do there is, before doing anything, tell yourself that the day is going to be awesome and you will complete all your work by the end of the day. This simple thought will motivate you and make you feel positive right after you get up. People believe that a positive start to a day will give you the strength to survive the day no matter what comes in your way. Now, let us create another scenario.

You want to buy something, let’s say a bicycle. This law suggests that you should push yourself into thinking about how it will feel when you possess it and how you will enjoy it. Feel like you already own it. Focus your mind completely on it. Wake up to it. The universe will make ways for you to get it. But again, you also have to work to get it. Just simple thoughts cannot bring it to you. It is just a way of motivating you and making you believe that you can own it, everything I said now is about the positivity you are creating. This is one of the theories of the laws of attraction.

In another scenario, let’s say you are about to attend an interview and you are nervous about it. Instead of thinking “I hope I don’t mess this up”, you can think “I hope I do well in this interview”. This is basically an example of using positive affirmations. Again, this is one of the ways you can ignore negative thinking.

To conclude I would say, the law of attraction is not the only solution for all your life problems but it is definitely going to create a different perspective for you if you practice it daily. It is all about perspective and whatever we do is for our happiness so why not start it with a happy note?


What exactly is procrastination?

Procrastination is the action of unnecessarily and voluntarily delaying or postponing something despite knowing that there will be negative consequences for doing so.  It could be further stated as a habitual or intentional delay of starting or finishing a task despite knowing it might have negative consequences. It is a common human experience involving delay in everyday chores or even putting off salient tasks such as attending an appointment, submitting a job report or academic assignment, or broaching a stressful issue with a partner. Although typically perceived as a negative trait due to its hindering effect on one’s productivity often associated with depression, low self-esteem, guilt and inadequacy, it can also be considered a wise response to certain demands that could present risky or negative outcomes or require waiting for new information to arrive.

According to Joseph Ferrari, a professor of psychology at DePaul University in Chicago and author of “Still Procrastinating: The No Regret Guide to Getting It Done,” around 20% of U.S. adults are chronic procrastinators. No matter how well-organized and committed you are, chances are that you have found yourself frittering away hours on trivial pursuits (watching TV, updating your Facebook status, shopping online) when you should have been spending that time on work or school-related projects. Whether you’re putting off finishing a project for work, avoiding homework assignments, or ignoring household chores, procrastination can have a major impact on your job, your grades, and your life.

Photo by cottonbro on Pexels.com

How to overcome procrastination?

  • Make Written To-Do Lists

To-Do Lists are a tried-and-true way of getting your bearings and keeping yourself from getting overwhelmed. They also help you organize your thoughts and can prevent confusion. It’s ideal to make a new list at the end of each day to prepare for the next day. Keep in mind, however, this tip won’t help much if you over-plan or set actionable tasks that cannot be completed in less than half an hour. If a task takes longer than thirty minutes, break it up into smaller tasks.

  • Deal with Your Fear

Fear is one factor that contributes to procrastination. This can involve a fear of failure, a fear of making mistakes, or even a fear of success. If you are afraid of success because you secretly believe that you don’t deserve it, it is important to realize that your self-handicapping might be keeping you from achieving your goals. By addressing the fear that is keeping you from getting started, you can begin to overcome your procrastination habit.

  • Create an Ideal Environment

Distractions arise when your environment is imperfect for your work. If distractions are a real issue for you and organizing your tasks does not relieve the impulse to procrastinate, it is vital that you take a look around and find out what is blocking your productivity. Distractions can range from background noise to a stiff chair, from a cluttered desk to Facebook. Do what you need to do in order to remove or avoid these elements. Many of us are distracted by the Internet. (“I’ll watch just one more cat video.” Yeah, right.) Develop the discipline to work in a space without Internet connectivity or build idle Internet browsing into your schedule (see tip three).

  • Final Thoughts

Breaking the procrastination habit isn’t easy. After all, if it was simple there wouldn’t be an estimated 80% to 95% of students engaging in procrastination on a regular basis. The urge to put things off can be strong, especially when there are so many things around us to provide fun and entertaining distractions.

While procrastination might not be something you can avoid entirely, becoming cognizant of the reasons why you procrastinate and how to overcome those tendencies can help. By implementing these strategies, you might find that it is easier to put your nose to the grindstone and get started on those important tasks.


The term ‘drug’ has now been given another meaning. It was utilized initially to signifies ‘medication’. In any case, these days the term ‘drug’ signifies medication as well as deadly opiates that incorporate cocaine, heroin, earthy colored sugar, and numerous different particulars. This load of medications have their malicious consequences for the brain and body cells of the addicts. The youthful ages especially young people are the most exceedingly awful casualties of the wrongs of Drug Addiction.

The youngsters are vital for the improvement of one country. In any case, presently, we can hear that understudies harms discipline educator’s vehicle, infuse drug. The expanding pace of understudy menace and substance addiction among adolescents is undoubted of incredible concern. The reasons for issues came from different variables. The principal issue emerges from a young person’s parent. A parent is a fundamental person for their youngster, some of the time guardians didn’t think about their kids capacity, that is because the teens feel pressure and tension. Once in a while, a few guardians put elevated standards on their youngsters like gets the greatness in their investigation or become a successful person in their school. At a similar time, their parent also controls on their exercises. Thusly, young people feel trouble with their parent’s expectations and point to them. At the point when they can’t accomplish their companion’s level their confidence becomes low and they think they are not acknowledged in school’s general public. The arrangement is, they discover another local area that can acknowledge them. The general public explicitly faults the youngsters when they committing an error. This sort of pressing factor from society put youngsters under pressure. The social orders don’t know for what reason does teens respond that way. In addition, the general public doesn’t allow them an opportunity to change their conduct and feel they are the most exceedingly terrible individuals in the public eye. Grown-ups at some point act in a helpless way for instance smashed guardians or medication someone who is addicted guardians. They become the main source of what exactly has occur to teens.

Medications and Teenagers Drug use is an expanding issue among youngsters in the present secondary schools. Most medication use starts in the juvenile and young years. Why the explanation youngsters are drugs? There are numerous causes of teens have to contact with the drug. The family issue is one of the reasons for a young person’s chronic drug use, might be in a relative who is the medication victimizer, so the youngster will impact by a relative. Companions additionally is an explanation of contact with the drug. If a companion in the gathering of people uses drugs, the individual might be offered to attempt drugs, which is an immediate pressing factor. The circuitous pressing factor is the point at which somebody sees everybody around him utilizing medications and he may believe that there isn’t anything amiss with utilizing drugs. Regardless of whether an individual had no expectations of utilizing drugs one may do it just to be considered “cool” by his companions. Here is an individual illustration of medication use from a young person, “When I began utilizing, was distinctly on ends of the week, at parties. I utilized medications ‘casually’ and thusly thought I had no habit issue. I utilized medications like nicotine, pot, or LSD to be content or to have a great time. I required medications. I continued utilizing drugs, I utilized medications like cannabis to fit socially. I had issues in my day-to-day existence, inwardly, that drugs just appeared to settle. Medications aggravated my issues. I began grunting cocaine. I infused heroin into my veins. I nearly passed on. I was dependent.” Therefore the drug is exceptionally unsafe to everybody, particularly teens. Medication can annihilate a young person’s future or everything. The beat technique is parents should set aside some effort to give sufficient worry to their kids to keep away from them from drugs. The school should employ a talk to give a discussion to the youngster, let them think what about the medications annihilate our body and detriments of medication. The general public should help out police battle against the street pharmacist, without street pharmacists, there are no medications to manage purchasers.

The impacts of substance abuse can be diminished with the assistance of more avoidance programs. Teen addicts, however, all addicts should know about the outcomes their activities have on the world. They likewise need to realize they are in good company on this street to dependence. If more individuals throughout the planet assisted with the avoidance of substance misuse, these addicts could be diverted off the way to compulsion and onto the way to recuperation.

Substance maltreatment among teens has been an overall worry for a long time. Youngsters misuse drugs for some reason. A few reasons including to help themselves to have an improved outlook, lightening discouraged disposition, upgrade movement, stay alert while mingling, and companion pressure. Companion pressing factor and self-joy are the principal reasons youngsters misuse drugs. It is additionally genuinely demonstrated that youngsters who associate with different teens who do drugs are bound to likewise mishandle drugs. This is because teenagers accept they should do all that they can to find a place with their friends. Since young people are so worried about fitting in, they don’t stop to think about the impacts substance misuse has on them and every other person around them. Medications and liquor are important for the increment in STD transmission, assaults, murders, suicides, and even kid misuse. Be that as it may, with a little assistance, the impacts of substance misuse can be halted. All the more critically, substance misuse itself can be halted. Avoidance programs are set up from one side of the planet to the other. These addicts simply need assistance turning into a piece of these projects. Thus, they can dial down the way to enslavement and move towards the way to recuperation.

Personal Development

Personal development skills are qualities and abilities that help you grow both personally and professionally. In other words, they are skills that help you nurture your personal development. Understanding and improving these skills can help you maximize your potential. This process is also known as self-development or personal growth.

How to improve your personal development skills

You can enhance your personal development skills by taking classes, learning from the people around you, gaining new talents and improving upon existing ones. Follow these guidelines to develop yourself personally:

Overcome your fears: Fear can prevent you from growing and progressing. If you are afraid of public speaking, for instance, take a class or join a group that helps people become better public speakers. If you are afraid of taking risks, find a mentor who can help you make good decisions and build your confidence. Grow and learn by trying things you might not be comfortable doing. If you are shy, try starting a conversation or introducing yourself to new people at a reception or workshop.

Read: Reading can expand your knowledge and vocabulary and keep you informed. It can also stimulate your mind and can improve your critical thinking skills. Try setting a goal to read at least one educational or motivational article a day, or one book a month.

Learn something new: Learn a new skill or topic, whether you do it yourself or sign up for a class. You might, for instance, take courses to learn another language, a new software program or how to write creatively. Consider watching a webinar on professional development topics such as entrepreneurship or social media marketing.

Ask for feedback: Approach a family member, friend, colleague or manager, and ask them to give you feedback on a recent project or accomplishment. Use their positive comments as well as their constructive criticism to find ways to improve. Sometimes you need an outside, unbiased opinion to get a different perspective.

Observe others: Watch and learn from the people who inspire you. This could be someone you know, such as a supervisor, family member or public figure. Identify the qualities you admire in them, and try to replicate those in yourself.

Network: By interacting with many types of people, you can learn new ideas and understand how to communicate and work with different personality types. You can also meet people and develop relationships that might help you in the future. Network through industry organizations and shared interest groups, or attend conferences and events on topics that interest you.

Keep a journal: Writing in a journal every day or week can help you gain self-awareness and reflect on recent events, decisions and conversations. You might keep a hand-written, private journal, or you might choose to share your thoughts and experiences by blogging. Use it to set and assess goals and progress.

Meditate: Many people meditate to gain clarity and awareness and to reduce stress and anxiety. Meditation can help you focus on your self-development and goals in a healthy, positive and calm way. Even scheduling a break from work or quiet time to yourself can help you relax and focus.

Get a mentor: If you need help identifying ways to build your self-development skills, talk to a mentor. This individual could be a manager, professor, someone you admire or a professional personal growth mentor.


Kamal Haasan is an Indian entertainer second to none who is popular for his adaptability in acting. Kalathur Kannamma was his first film as a youngster craftsman which won him the President’s Gold Medal. From that point forward, he has acted in excess of 150 motion pictures, in Tamil, Telugu, Kannad, Malayalam and Hindi. He claims a creation organization, Rajkamal International. Kamal Haasan finishes 62 great years in Indian film today, the sizable piece of which has been made by his work as an entertainer, artist, artist, author, maker, make-up man, specialist, chief and presently, a legislator. Such has been his commitment that a worldwide channel highlighted him on the show, ‘Mega Icons’ and alluded to him as a polymath. With a vocation spreading over sixty years, the diverse character is affectionately called Ulaganayagan (Universal Hero) by his fans.

Kamal Haasan was brought into the world on November 7, 1954 in Paramakudi, Tamil Nadu, India in a Tamil family to D. Srinivasan, who was a legal advisor, and Rajalakshmi, who was a housewife. He wedded artist Vani Ganpathy in 1978 and separated from ten years after the fact. He was living in with entertainer Sarika and wedded her get-togethers couple’s first kid, Shruti K. Haasan was conceived. They have two girls, Shruti and Akshara Haasan. They later shut down their marriage in 2004. Since 2005, he was in a live-in relationship with Gautami Tadmalla, however the couple cut off their friendship in 2016.


K Balachander offered Kamal Haasan a reprieve in his film Apoorva Raagangal as a lead entertainer and from that point forward, he has never thought back. As an adaptable entertainer he plays performed assorted parts and demonstrated his acting abilities in public and worldwide film. His potential as an entertainer is apparent in the movies like 16 Vayadhinilae, Nayakan, Guna, Mahanadhi, Hey Ram, Sadma, Chachi 420 and Alavandaan, which are probably the best job. He is a prepared Bharatanatyam artist. A portion of his Bollywood super hits are Ek Duje Ke Liye, Sadma, Sannam teri Kasam, Giraftaar, Saagar, Raj Tilak and Chachi 420.


Kamal Haasan won the National Award thrice in the best actor’s category for the films Nayagan, Moondram Pirai and Indian. He has won 18 Filmfare Awards. He is the only actor whose six movies were sent to the Oscars as India’s official entry. He was honoured with the Padmashri in 1990 and Kalaimamani by the Government of Tamil Nadu. He was bestowed an honourary doctorate by Sathyabama University, Chennai in 2005. In 2007, he was honoured as the “Living Legend” in the film business by the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).

He was appointed as the Chairman of FICCI’s Media and Entertainment Business Conclave, which was organised by the entertainment division of FICCI in 2009. He received an award on behalf of Indian cinema from Chris Brown in 2013, as part of the New York Festivals International Film & TV Awards.


Haasan made his profit from Star Vijay TV, facilitating the principal period of Bigg Boss Tamil in 2017. The show before long went onto become perhaps the most stared at the TV series in Tamil Nadu and acquired positive surveys among crowd. Haasan additionally facilitated the second period of Bigg Boss Tamil 2 what began its broadcast on 17 June 2018 and Bigg Boss Tamil 3 what began its broadcast on 23 June 2019. As of now, He Completed Bigg Boss Tamil 4 what began to broadcast from October, 2020 in the midst of the Coronavirus lockdown, during the program on Sundays he prescribed books for the watchers to peruse.


He formed the centrist party Makkal Needhi Maiam (MNM), a regional political party in Tamil Nadu. He formally announced the party’s formation on 21 February 2018 in Madurai. The party’s flag displays six joined hands in a circle in alternate red and white colours with a white star at its centre in a black background. Haasan began his political journey from late President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam’s residence and his memorial at Rameswaram.[8] His party contested in 37 seats in 2019 Indian general election and lost. Makkal Needhi Maiam’s vote share in the 2019 Lok Sabha election was 3.72% (in the seats it contested).

He unsuccessfully contested the 2021 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election from Coimbatore South and lost to BJP Mahila Morcha President Vanathi Srinivasan.


Man with jacket standing with smiling, bespectacled younger man
Haasan with social activist M. B. Nirmal (right) in Chennai
Haasan is the first Tamil actor to convert his fan clubs into welfare organisations and is involved in social-service activities through the clubs under the name Kamal Narpani Iyakkam (Kamal Welfare Association). His fan clubs help organise blood- and eye-donation drives, and donate educational materials to students.

Haasan received the first Abraham Kovoor National Award for his humanist activities and secular life in 2004.[108] He was project ambassador for Hridayaragam 2010, which raised funds for an orphanage for HIV/AIDS-affected children.[109] In September 2010 Haasan launched a children’s cancer relief fund and gave roses to children with cancer at Sri Ramachandra University in Porur, Chennai. He has pledged his product-endorsement income to social causes. Haasan won ₹ 5 million on Neengalum Vellalam Oru Kodi in March 2013 and promised that his prize money would be used for Petral Thaan Pillaya, supporting children with HIV.

Haasan was nominated by the Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi for the Swachh Bharat Campaign. He chose to clean the Madambakkam lake in Chennai with the Environmentalist Foundation of India’s Arun Krishnamurthy on 7 November 2014.

Known for refusing any kind of brand endorsement, Haasan endorsed Pothys for the first time in 2015. His daughter, Shruti has previously endorsed Pothys. In the past, Haasan has stated that should he ever act in commercials, the revenue earned from them would be donated to HIV affected children.

Anand Mahindra

About Anand Mahindra

Mr. Anand Mahindra is Chairman of the US $19 billion Mahindra
Group which is today one of India’s top industrial houses. The
Mahindra Group is a socially and environmentally responsible global
federation of companies with a leading presence in major sectors of
the Indian economy. The Group is present across the spectrum
from Agri-business to Aerospace and is now entering new areas like
renewables. Graduated with Honours (Magna cum laude) from
Harvard College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1977. In 1981, he
secured an MBA degree from the Harvard Business School, Boston,
Massachusetts. He returned to India that year and joined Mahindra
Ugine Steel Company Ltd (MUSCO), which was, at that time, the
country’s foremost producer of specialty steels. In 1989, he was
appointed Deputy Managing Director and President of the company.
During his stint at MUSCO, he initiated the Mahindra Group’s
diversification into the new business areas of real estate
development and hospitality management.
Mr. Mahindra took over as Deputy Managing Director of the flagship
company Mahindra & Mahindra in 1991 at a time when the
turnover was US$ 177 million. He initiated a comprehensive
change programme in Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. to make the company an
efficient and aggressive competitor in the new liberalized
economic environment in India.

Mahindra as an Influencer

Mahindra is well known for his Twitter influence. His Twitter
handle @anandmahindra has over 6 million followers. He was
ranked third in the ‘WorldofCEOs.com’ 2013 ranking of the ‘Top
30 CEOs on Social Media’. He was listed among the “10 CEOs You need To Follow On Twitter” by Benzinga in 2016. Fortune Magazine has listed him among the World’s 50 Greatest Leaders in 2014
and as one of the top 25 most powerful business people in Asia for
the year 2011.

Other International Boards and Committees that he serves on :-

  1. World Bank Group’s Advisory Board for Doing Business
  2. The French Prime Minister’s Strategic Attractiveness Council
  3. US – India Strategic Partnership Forum
  4. Harvard Business School – Asia – Pacific Advisory Board
  5. Harvard University Asia Centre – Advisory Committee
  6. Harvard Business School – Board of Dean’s Advisors
  7. Formula E Sustainability Committee
  8. President’s International Council of The J. Paul Getty Trust
  9. Honorary Advisory Committee for the John H. McArthur Distinguished Fellowship
  10. International Advertising Association World Congress 2018 – Governing Council
  11. US – India Business Council

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd

Mahindra & Mahindra Limited is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing corporation headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It was established in 1945 as Muhammad & Mahindra and later renamed as Mahindra and Mahindra. It is one of the largest vehicle manufacturers by production in India and the largest manufacturer of tractors in the world. It is a part of the Mahindra Group, an Indian conglomerate. It was ranked 17th on a list of top companies in India by Fortune India 500 in 2018. Its major competitors in the Indian market include Maruti Suzuki and Tata Motors.

Operations of M&M

Under the “Mahindra” brand name, the company produces SUVs, Multiple Utility Vehicles, pickups, lightweight commercial vehicles, heavyweight commercial vehicles, two wheeled motorcycles and tractors. Mahindra maintains business relations with foreign companies like Renault SA, France. M&M has a global presence and its products are exported to several countries. Its automotive global subsidiaries include:

  • Mahindra Europe S.r.l. based in Italy.
  • Mahindra Automotive North America (MANA) in US.
  • Ssangyong in South Korea
  • Automobili Pininfarina in Italy
  • Mahindra South Africa and Mahindra (China) Tractor Co. Ltd.
  • Mahindra Australia
  • Mahindra Brazil & Mexico

Global Recognition

  • Featured in Barron’s List of Top 30 CEOs worldwide (2016)
  • Appointed Chevalier de l’Ordre national la Légion d’Honneur (Knight in the National Order of the Legion of Honour) by the President of the French Republic (March 2016)
  • First Indian recipient of the Harvard Medal by the Harvard Alumni Association given for extraordinary service to Harvard University (2014)
  • Sustainable Development Leadership Award from The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) (2014)
  • Knighted as ‘Grand Officer of the Order of the Star of Italy’, a civilian award of State, conferred by the President of Italy for achieving extraordinary results in the promotion of bilateral relations between Italy and India (2013)
  • Global Leadership Award by the US-India Business Council (2012)
  • Business Courage Award by Asia Business Leadership Forum (2012)
  • Best Transformational Leader Award by the Asian Centre for Corporate Governance & Sustainability (2012)
  • Featured in Asia’s 25 most powerful business people by Fortunemagazine (2011)
  • Lloyds Banking Group Business Leader of the Year Award at The Asian Awards (2011)

Indian Honours :

  • Disruptor Personality of the Year Award  by Bloomberg TV India (2016)
  • ‘Social Media Person of the Year’ by the Internet and Mobile Association of India (2016)
  • Conferred the degree of Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa) by the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, in recognition of outstanding contributions to the Indian automobile industry (2015)
  • Business Today CEO of the Year (2014)
  • ‘Special Recognition for Creating a True Global Indian MNC’ at India’s Best Market Analyst Award by Zee Business (2013)
  • Forbes India Leadership Awards ‘Entrepreneur for the Year’ (2013)
  • Business Leader of the Year by NDTV (2012)
  • Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year India award (2009)
  • Indian of the Year award by NDTV (2009)

The Chandrayaan-2 equipment of the Indian Space Research Organization identifies hydroxyl, or water molecules, on the Moon.

The IIRS captures data from the lunar surface’s electromagnetic spectrum, which is then utilised to determine mineral composition.

According to a new report published in Current Science, an instrument on the Indian Space Research Organisation’s Chandrayaan-2 has found the existence of hydroxyl (OH) and water molecules (H2O) on the Moon’s surface.

The data was acquired from the electromagnetic spectrum received from the lunar surface by the Imaging infrared spectrometer (IIRS), created by ISRO’s Space Applications Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad, and then utilised to detect mineral composition. The lander and rover on Chandrayaan-2, which was launched in 2019, were entirely destroyed in a sad crash, but the orbiter remained operational and is now being used by scientists to make ground-breaking findings from the lunar surface.

The instrument has a wavelength range of 0.8 to 5 micrometres, allowing it to discriminate between OH (hydroxyl) and H2O (water) molecules with greater precision. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper or M3 was also used by Chandrayaan-1 in 2008. Its wavelength, however, was limited to 0.4 to 3 micrometres. Scientists questioned the instrument’s accuracy at the time, claiming that it was difficult to discern OH from H2O in this situation.

The paper, co-authored by scientists from the IIRS in Dehradun, the SAC in Ahmedabad, the UR Rao Satellite Centre, and the ISRO headquarters in Bengaluru, reveals that the formation of hydroxyl or water molecules occurs as a result of a process known as space weathering, which occurs when solar winds blow over the lunar surface. Another factor could be the interaction of small meteorites with the surface, which could cause chemical changes.

The discovery is also important for future planetary exploration and resource utilisation, according to the research. “The appropriate interpretation of hydration features using spectrum analysis is vital because it gives important inputs into the geology and geophysics of the mantle (of the moon) in terms of mineralogy, chemical composition, rheology, and solar–wind interaction.”

Pride and Prejudice – Jane Austen

Pride and Prejudice is an 1813 romantic novel of manners written by Jane Austen. The novel follows the character development of Elizabeth Bennet, the dynamic protagonist of the book who learns about the repercussions of hasty judgments and comes to appreciate the difference between superficial goodness and actual goodness. Its humour lies in its honest depiction of manners, education, marriage, and money during the Regency era in England.

By Jane Austen

Story Line

Pride and Prejudice is set in rural England in the early 19th century, and it follows the Bennet family, which includes five very different sisters. Mrs. Bennet is anxious to see all her daughters married, especially as the modest family estate is to be inherited by William Collins when Mr. Bennet dies. At a ball, the wealthy and newly arrived Charles Bingley takes an immediate interest in the eldest Bennet daughter, the beautiful and shy Jane. The encounter between his friend Darcy and Elizabeth is less cordial. Although Austen shows them intrigued by each other, she reverses the convention of first impressions: pride of rank and fortune and prejudice against the social inferiority of Elizabeth’s family hold Darcy aloof, while Elizabeth is equally fired both by the pride of self-respect and by prejudice against Darcy’s snobbery.

Pride and Prejudice

The pompous Collins subsequently arrives, hoping to marry one of the Bennet sisters. Elizabeth, however, refuses his offer of marriage, and he instead becomes engaged to her friend Charlotte Lucas. During this time, Elizabeth encounters the charming George Wickham, a military officer. There is a mutual attraction between the two, and he informs her that Darcy has denied him his inheritance.

After Bingley abruptly departs for London, Elizabeth’s dislike of Darcy increases as she becomes convinced that he is discouraging Bingley’s relationship with Jane. Darcy, however, has grown increasingly fond of Elizabeth, admiring her intelligence and vitality. While visiting the now-married Charlotte, Elizabeth sees Darcy, who professes his love for her and proposes. A surprised Elizabeth refuses his offer, and, when Darcy demands an explanation, she accuses him of breaking up Jane and Bingley. Darcy subsequently writes Elizabeth a letter in which he explains that he separated the couple largely because he did not believe Jane returned Bingley’s affection. He also discloses that Wickham, after squandering his inheritance, tried to marry Darcy’s then 15-year-old sister in an attempt to gain possession of her fortune. With these revelations, Elizabeth begins to see Darcy in a new light.

Shortly thereafter the youngest Bennet sister, Lydia, elopes with Wickham. The news is met with great alarm by Elizabeth, since the scandalous affair—which is unlikely to end in marriage—could ruin the reputation of the other Bennet sisters. When she tells Darcy, he persuades Wickham to marry Lydia, offering him money. Despite Darcy’s attempt to keep his intervention a secret, Elizabeth learns of his actions. At the encouragement of Darcy, Bingley subsequently returns, and he and Jane become engaged. Finally, Darcy proposes again to Elizabeth, who this time accepts.





In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystal, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. Water or various other chemical may compose the droplets and crystal.

5Facts about the clouds:

  1. Clouds are whit because they reflect light from the sun. Gray cloud become so filled with water that they don’t reflect light.
  2. Green cloud often mean a tornado is coming
  3. Cirrus clouds are high in the sun.
  4. Altostratus clouds are low and gray or White
  5. Cirrostratus are high in the sky.

Types of clouds:

The foundation consists of 10 major cloud type.

in addition to Cirrus, Stratus, cumulus, and nimbus clouds, there are cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, altostratus, altocumulus, nimbostratus and cumulonimbus clouds.

The biggest clouds is:

CIRRUS clouds are the highest of All clouds and are composed entirely of ice crystals. Cirrus clouds are precipitating clouds, although the ice crystals evaporate high above the earth’s surface.

The rarest cloud:

most frequently, mammatus clouds are made up primarily of ice but in some cases they been known to be a mixture of ice and liquid. NOCTILUCENT clouds, are one of the rarest clouds formation there us.

Effect on the troposphere, climate, and climate change:

Tropospheric clouds exert numerous influence on earth Tropospheric and climate.

first and foremost, they are the source of precipitation, thereby greatly influencing the distribution and amount of precipitation. Because of their differential buoyancy relative to surrounding clouds free air clouds can be associated with vertical motion of the air.


Shinto is a religion of shrines, festivals, and rituals. Large, medium, and small Shinto shrines with their torii gates are found all across Japan. Shrines are considered to be the homes of kami and are located around scenic natural surroundings, near banks of rivers or at the foot of a mountain. Many of the sites of the older shrines were considered to be sacred spaces long before the erection of any structure. Japanese considered Shinto to be an optimistic and happy religion and can be found in everyday practices or lifestyle of people.

Photo by Stephan Streuders on Pexels.com

Children are christened at shrines and many couples have Shinto weddings. Shinto-related festivities take place during rice planting and harvesting cycles. Millions of Japanese visit Shinto shrines on New Year’s Day. Some shrines do a small business all around the year by selling good-luck charms for granting various prayers. A large number of Shinto shrines hold annual matsuri, or festivals, where people carry large portable shrines to transport the local kami all around shrine.

Photo by cottonbro on Pexels.com

Individuals or groups who visit shrines to worship complete three processes: purification, making an offering, and praying or making a request of the local kami. Before entering the shrine, the people use water to wash one’s hands or wash out one’s mouth to purify themselves. Then an offering is presented to the kami, followed by the prayer.

Photo by Ryutaro Tsukata on Pexels.com

Values common to most Japanese people today, originated from early religious practices including love for bathing and deep respect for nature.

To pay respects at a Shinto shrine, stand in front of the cashbox and the long ropes dangling from a gong. The shrine may contain offerings of food and sake that are placed in front of the kami. People toss a coin in the box, sound the gong a couple of times, bow deeply twice, clap hands twice, bow once deeply, once lightly and then back away politely and avoid turning their back to the shrine.

                      History is the future!


We have always been cramming the dates, years of the major events that have happened in the past or the main points of the revolution that happened. Those sure were the pain in the brain, the main reason of this beautiful subject being boring. What would have happened if we did put more emphasis on pondering over the ideas that triggered all those wars and revolutions?

It would have been better in my opinion that rather than making students cram the date of the attack on Bastille, the idea behind the attack was targeted, making students think whether it was the right way to do it? It would have better if the philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Maximilian Robespierre was earmarked, and the opinion was taken of each student on that, training their brain on HOW TO THINK rather than WHAT TO THINK.

How does it affect the future? You know the basic problem in India is we feed students; we do not make them search for the food. There must be a reason why we are a hub of cheap labour in the world but not of high skilled labour and leaders. The root cause of this is the blocked vision and the one-dimensional brain that is the result of constant feeding without thinking. A labourer won’t question your ideas, but a thinker would dare to question the thinking and could even change it and that’s where the creative thinking comes from, expanding your horizons, increasing your dimensions. You can see the world with the eyes of Albert Einstein or Max Weber by not merely reading their ideas but to think over it.

We all have read about Hitler, and we have crammed what he did. If we had been more possessive about his thinking itself, we must have known how one man can control the peoples’ mind. He was one of the powerful orator the world has ever seen, flowing peoples’ mind with hatred against one race and then controlling the stuff that their mind should feed through media, newspaper and other magazines, eliminating the THINKERS and the people he felt weren’t suitable by his standards or were opposing his draconian actions. In the end, the majority of the people left were his followers and the next thing we know was the start of WW2.

Now see your country’s leader, are there any similarities? If there are and there isn’t a big opposition against him, people must have learnt History from a wrong way, now tell me how cramming the date of Hitler’s birth would have helped us?

Let’s take another example, we all are aware of the India-China standoff that occurred recently. It wasn’t the first time China has done that. China’s shenanigans commenced from blunders that Pt Jawaharlal Nehru made in the 1950s which also were the great catalysts in India losing the 1962 war.

India happily ignored Chinese claims until the early 1950s. Maps released by Beijing in 1954 showed the north-eastern edge of Jammu and Kashmir (Aksai Chin region) as the territory of the Chinese, which triggered the alarm. Instead of vigorously addressing the issue with China and trusting the country, the Jawaharlal Nehru government decided to remain silent. The obvious way out was to sit across the table and solve the problem. A diplomatic solution was possible, this was the moment. The controversial borders were not delimited, only delimited. (Singh, 2019)

The sheer cowardice of Nehru has been haunting us ever since. One can’t change the historical mistakes but we sure can learn from them.

History should be treated as a subject that imparts important modern competencies like writing, critical thinking, reasoning and decision making. This makes the matter more relatable, beneficial, engaging and in the long term, helpful for the country.

Why Your Twenties Matter

You are just stepping into your 20’s and want to live life on your terms. You are in that zone where you don’t want to be told about what needs to be done. As they say, your 20’s are the “defining decade”, because they define who you’ll become personally and professionally.

Here are some things that you should do in your 20’s to make the most of them.

  • Figure out what you want to pursue

Take a break, try out new things, do internships, learn new skills. Discover what you want from your life and ask yourself where you see yourself five years down the line. Most of the time it doesn’t matter where you think you’ll be in five years, but it’s important to think about it because doing so can give you the idea you want to pursue.

  • Travel

You don’t know what the real world looks like. Now you don’t have family obligations so use this time to meet different people, live with them, and understand their thoughts and culture; learn how to survive independently.

  • Start taking care of your body

It is much easier to build a habit of taking care of your body in your 20’s than in later years. The study showed that most people who adopted five healthy habits in their 20’s – a lean body mass index, moderate alcohol consumption, no smoking, a healthy diet, and regular physical activity – stayed healthy well into middle age.

  • Start letting go of your ego

We must learn to control our egos. It can cause a lot of problems for us over time and create turmoil in our relationships.

  • Have standards not expectations

standard is a level of quality, something that is accepted as a norm and generally used as a basis for judgment. An expectation is a strong belief that something is going to happen in the future or a feeling that someone or something is going to achieve something. One is fact, the other fiction.

  • Learn to say ‘NO’

It’s hard to say no cause you don’t want to jeopardize your good relationship with the person you are saying “no” to. However, it is difficult to do so but you need to stop pleasing people and value your time and priorities. 

  • Distance yourself from negativity

Life is too short to let people make you feel like you aren’t worthy of what you want. Don’t waste your time with people trying to feel better about themselves by tearing you down. Create space for positive people who believe in your dream, encourages your ideas, and challenge you to bring out the best in you.

  • Volunteer in your community

Volunteering is a way to help you find new interests and strengths that will help you with new career opportunities. It helps you to change your perspective about things in your life and makes you feel grateful for all that you have. It reminds that you are a part of something bigger than yourself.

Your Twenties aren’t about them going as you planned. But how you adapt, change, and grow when they don’t.

Evolution of humankind

-Aastha Joshi

According to Darwin’s theory species have evolved due to minor variation in the individual members of species, which ways they are inherited by the offspring’s and so the variation end up on the emergence of a new specie. amongst the species that are extant, apes and monkeys are the closest resemblance to human beings.

1. PRIMATES-Monkeys, humans and apes belong to primates group. They have features which allow them to climb on trees with ease and use their forelimbs extensively. They are prehensile. Because of evolution they have got stereoscopic vision because of which they get a three dimensional picture of the surroundings.

Classifications of primates

a. Prosimii – They are more primitive. They include lemurs, lorises and tarsiers.Some zoologist also classify tree-shrews with prosimians. They are small squirrel like creatures who might represent transformation from insectivores to early primates. They are small in size but possess large eyes. Their eyes are located in ring like structure.

b. Anthropoidea – More advanced primates like money, apes and humans. They differ from the prosimii in the structure of bones in which their eyes are places. Their eyes are bowl like in shape, which allows them greater freedom of vision to see in various angles.

Hominoidea are furture classified into :1. PONGIDEA-Also classified as apes,gorillas, orangutans are a part of this group of species.

2. HOMINIDAE-Human beings and extant species of closest ancestors.

● APES-They are relatively larger in size than monkeys and have large cannon size teeth which are built strong.They are not adaptive to arboreal habitat and so exploit land resources equally as the resources from trees.

DRYOPITHECUS-Fossil evidences reveal that apes which lives in Africa were well adaptive to living in group such type of apes were referred as Dryopithecus

RAMAPITHECUS-15 million years ago the African-Arabian landmass collided with Asia bringing two continents together. This created conditions of expansion from Africa to Asia. A branch of dryopithecus separated and evolved into what we call ramapithecus. Their fossils

have been found in Siwalik hills and Rawalpindi areas.

The molecular biology has reveled that humans are decedents of African apes. Who first developed bipedalism and then in the second phase rapid expension of brain size was seen. On the basis of fossils hominids have been divided into two parts:

1. AUSTRALOPITHECUS-They were first evolved, what separated them from apes was their upright posture. Their fossils were originally discovered in south Africa by Raymond Dart. They are further classified into

AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFRICANUS-Their forehead is steeper and the skull was more round at the top. The were omnivorous

AUSTRALOPITHECUS ROBUSTON-They have flatter forehead and cheek teeth. In males they have a bony crest at the top of the skull. They were herbivorous.AUSTRALOPITHECUS BOISEI- Their fosssils were discovered in east Africa. Louis and Mary Leakey found its remains in Tanzania. These species were caked zinjanthropus now called Australopithecus boisei.

AUSTRALPITHECUS AFARENSIS- These were evolved much earlier then other forms of australpithecus and might be the ancestors of other species.

★ HOMO- The had an upright posture with changes in jaw and teeth leading to the increase in the size of brain. They are further subdivided into:

★ HOMO HABILIS- They are the oldest form of homo and were found near the lake Turkana in Kenya. Its brain size was 800 cc and they were tool makers.

★ HOMO ERUCTUS- Their fossils were found in east turkana Kenya, thy were almost like modern humans ,apart of upright posture they had larger brain size and well developed hands. They were much taller then Australopithecus and had abrain size of 1000 cc, while made tools with great skills

★ NEANDERTHALS- They were early homo sapiens and found in Germany first in 1856. In them brain size was further expanded wand stone tools became more efficient but their skull was thicker and less rounded unless modern humans

HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS-Richard Leakey argued that they had African origin. They had a brain size of 1350 c.c. and they had mobility in speech except high level social interaction and complex stone tools. A larger brain size combined with well developed hands that were free to use was a revolutionary change, they also had better social interaction. They skull of modern humans is of globular shape while the changes in neck help with speech for resonation of sounds as they were able to produce vast amounts of sounds which were unique. Language and communication with the ability to arrange theideas is what made them efficient and adaptive the most and this feature of helped them to transmit knowledge and information to the successive generations also the more advanced brain help them to store information.


Q-1 Trace the crucial stages in biocultural evolution of humankind.


According to Darwin’s theory species have evolved due to minor variation in the individual members of species, which ways they are inherited by the offspring’s and so the variation end up on the emergence of a new specie. amongst the species that are extant, apes and monkeys are the closest resemblance to human beings.1. PRIMATES-Monkeys, humans and apes belong to primates group. They have features which allow them to climb on trees with ease and use their forelimbs extensively. They are prehensile. Because of evolution they have got stereoscopic vision because of which they get a three dimensional picture of the surroundings.Classifications of primatesa. Prosimii – They are more primitive. They include lemurs, lorises and tarsiers.Some zoologist also classify tree-shrews with prosimians. They are small squirrel like creatures who might represent transformation from insectivores to early primates. They are small in size but possess large eyes. Their eyes are located in ring like structure.b. Anthropoidea – More advanced primates like money, apes and humans. They differ from the prosimii in the structure of bones in which their eyes are places. Their eyes are bowl like in shape, which allows them greater freedom of vision to see in various angles.

Bank Fraud and it’s Types.

by Yogiraj Sadaphal

Fraud is defined as any dishonest act or behavior that allows or intended for one individual to obtain an unfair advantage over another. Fraud leads the victim to lose money, either directly or indirectly. The Indian Penal Code does not precisely define or discuss fraud, however it does have sections dealing with cheating. The topics of concealment, forgery, counterfeiting, and violation of trust have been discussed, all of which lead to fraud.

Banking fraud accounts for a sizable portion of the white-collar crimes investigated by the authorities. Unlike typical thefts and robberies, the money stolen in these crimes is in the millions and crores of rupees. In many countries, bank fraud is defined as attempting to obtain property or money from a federally insured financial institution.

Types of Bank Fraud:-

1. Accounting fraud:-

Some firms have been known to use false bookkeeping to overestimate sales and income, inflate the value of the company’s assets, or report a profit when the company is operating at a loss in order to disguise major financial problems. In a final attempt to obstruct justice, these manipulated records are used to seek investment in the company’s bond or security issues, or to submit fake loan applications.

2. Demand Draft Fraud:-

Employees take a few DD leaves or DD books from the stock and write them in the same way as a regular DD. They understand the coding and punching of a demand draught since they are insiders. These forged demand draft are frequently made payable to a distant city and thus do not debit a bank account. At the payable branch, the drafts is cashed. By the time the money is gone, the fraud is only found when the bank’s main office undertakes the branch-by-branch reconciliation, which generally takes six months.

3. Check Fraud:-

Remotely created checks are checks that the payee creates and the client authorizes via the phone or the internet by supplying the relevant information, including the MICR code from a valid check. Unlike regular cheques, they do not bear the signatures of the clients. Instead, they have the legend “Authorized by Drawer” on them.

4. Loan Fraud:-

Accounting fraud can lead to loan fraud, however this type of fraud isn’t restricted to companies providing false information on loan applications. Loan fraud occurs when people provide fraudulent information in order to get a loan. Another sort of loan fraud is when a thief steals someone’s identity and applies for a loan in their name.

5. Card Skimming:-

Card skimming is a sort of bank fraud in which criminals utilize a small electronic device known as a skimmer to obtain card information. The skimmer is often inserted in a ATM machine. When you swipe your credit or debit card through a skimmer, the gadget gathers and retains vital information from the magnetic strip. Fraudsters copy this information to the magnetic strip of a blank card and use it to steal money from your bank account.

6. Phishing:-

You may have received an email stating that you are eligible for an interest-free loan, that you may get a loan without a credit check, and so forth. However, none of these emails are real. These emails are called phishing mails. The purpose of sending these emails is to steal bank account information. Many consumers assume these emails are authentic and supply their banking information, but they eventually lose their money.

7. Vishing:-

Vishing is also called voice phishing. In this scam, scammers act as representatives of a reputable organization and seek for personal banking information. They steal money from your bank account after gathering your personal financial details.

Government’s step to curb Bank Fraud.

1. The Fugitive Economic Offenders Act of 2018 was enacted to prevent economic offenders from avoiding Indian law by residing outside of Indian courts’ jurisdiction. The statute allows for the attachment of a fugitive economic offender’s property, confiscation of such property, and the denial of the offender’s right to defend any civil action.

2. PSBs have been advised to obtain certified copies of the passports of the directors and other authorized signatories of companies seeking loan facilities of more than Rs. 50 crore, to decide on publishing photographs of willful defaulters in accordance with RBI instructions and as per their Board-approved policy, and to strictly ensure rotational transfer of officials/employees.

3. The National Financial Reporting Authority was established by the government as an independent authority to enforce auditing requirements and ensure the quality of audits.

Art in paleolithic age

-Aastha Joshi

Upper paleolithic art was first discovered in the last quarter of 19 century. In 1879 Don Marcelino de sautuola found paintings on the roof of cave in Altamira. He examined the painting carefully and suggested that they were made by early stone age people. Panting were so brilliantly executed and the style of the paintings appeared to be very modern. The realistic manner in which painters depicted the animals in motion was considered beyond the capacity of Paleolithic people. Henri Breuil who did pioneering research on the upper paleolithic found nearly 200 paleolithic caves which contain paintings and engravings on the wall, apart from it another upper paleolithic cave has been situated at Lascaux in France.

Cave paintings were not the only source of art present at that particular point of time, objects like statuette, tools and clay figures, these objects depict animals and geometrical figures. The clay figure portray the human female body. While paintings were restricted to western Europe the other objects were widespread.

AURIGNACIAN CULTURE- They contained the evidences of first extensive evidence of upper paleolithic art. There were no paintings but beautifully carved ivory beads used for ornamentation, they made animal figures using bone and ivory and also made a flute like instrument from boneSOLUTREAN CULTURE- cave paintings emerged as a main form of art in them. Early painting were roughly outlined but later the lines become graceful and filled with details, the painting were also coloured with natural pigments, they were also expert in carving figures at the walls of the caves. This technique was called bas-relief where the figures are slightly raised on the surface of the wall.

MAGDALENIAN CULTURE-cave paintings were fully developed by this culture. V. Gordon Childe refer it as the most brilliant culture created by the hunter gatherers. 80% of upper paleolithic cave paintings were from these sites and they had a perfect technique of painting deep inside the caves. Lamps containing animal fat were used up for lighting the caves while the painters were working so it tells that painting demanded lots and lots of precision, skill and was a difficult job. There are scenes depicting human engaged in hunting.

Their were lots of debates on the art some felt that art is merely for arts sake were as some saw great in-depth meaning in the art and paintings,

these people attained advance level artistic sophistication which reveal their high level of thinking process.

Reinach had studied the paintings made by Australian aboriginal hunters I found that painting were ritual intended to improve chances of successful hunts, most of the animals painted were intended for hunts.

Breuil argued that upper paleolithic paintings were magicalin nature, by the term magic they meant ritual practices which intend to exert control over some objects.

Magical rituals marked the beginning of religious beliefs, the purpose of ritual was to give hunters greater control over animals which they hunted and so bison, deer and horses were predominant in their paintings

Andre Leroi-Gourhan- He tried placing animals,certain groups of animals are uniformly depicted in certain parts of caves. Bison and horse are invariably depicted deep inside the caves, while deer were always drawn near the entrance of caves. He classified a division of male and female nature. Some forces like horse, stag were representative of maleness while the female animals like ox and bison.

Count Begouen’s- his views on rituals were act of drawing itself and suggested two significant features of paintings, first is in many cases figures are drawn repeatedly on the spot in respective caves, second that majority of the paintings are located in the dark parts of the caves.

The rituals which reflect shared beliefs, gave rise to the cave paintings of the periods. Paintings were an important source of knowledge which help us to know significant facts about paleolithic age

Film review

-Aastha joshi
3 Idiots

3 idiots is a Hindi comedy-drama film directed by Rajkumar Hirani which was released on 25 December 2009, starring Amir khan as Rancchoddas Shyamaldas Chanchad, Sharman Joshi as Raju Rastogi, R Madhavan as Farhan Qureshi as their central actors. The central idea of the plot strikes the commonly raised issue amongst the youngsters that is consciously taking decision of ones own life, shaping the life that one wants to live and not a life of compulsion because of societal and parental issues. It appeals the audience and specially the youth to be non conformist and choose the path that can lead them toward success so that they can shape their own identity.

The story starts when 3 boys Rancchoddas Shyamaldas Chanchad, Raju Rastogi, Farhan Qureshi meet for the where first time at the city’s most renowned engineering college where the first year ragging was going on. Rancchoddas believed in practical learning of the things and not the illogical rote leaning of the concepts and running after excellence. He quite often pointed out onseveral flaws in the education system. While it was his turn of getting ragged by the seniors he was a basic concept of science that salt water is a good conductor of salt and applied it on the time of crises while he was being ragged my the seniors because of which he easily escaped the situation and eventually the three became very goody friends ,while the Farhan and Raju used to be extra anxious students burdened with family pressure to score well, Rancchoddas use to make them comfortable by asking them to say all is well whenever the feel stressed.

The three of them used to be under the loop of duel will the principle authority of the college Viru

Sahastrabuddhe (Boman Irani) who used to believe that life is a race and the ones who would not be able to perform will get defeated because there is only one place at the top, modelling students like chatur as the ideal state of a student. He even pressurise his own son with so much burden to peruse Engineering and not literature that he attempted suicide. While at the end he is convinced that letting a person do what he/she longs for will make them successful in future as Rancchoddas plays a major role in the successful delivery of his daughter at the time of excessive flood because of which reaching hospitals were impossible. Students like Rancchodass succeed in their lives because they arehight at both intelligence quotient and emotional quotient unlike chatur who opted the path of rote learning then practical learning of the concepts. Mean while he made Farhan realise that perusing wild life photography which gives him immense satisfaction will lead him to happy life then engineering so he must talk to his father about it. While it was witnessed in the movie that in the near future Rancchoddas emerged as the most leading and high profiled scientist as he did what he felt he is potent of where as both Raju and Farhan were also performing exceptionally well in their respected occupations. r

The movie very gracefully conveys its message without getting dull or loosing its humour at any point of time. Smalls punches of comedy adds a different taste to the movie making it more entertaining and eye catching for the audience. Scenes like the instance of ragging, creation of virus generator and speech given by chatur will burst the audience out loud in laughter. While it does not miss out on the emotional flavour to the movie, impressing the critics. It also beautifully portrays messages of humanity, selflessness and importance of friendship and love. Certain scenes from the movie specially the child birth scene does not fail to impress the audience. All three central actors Amir Khan, Sharman Joshi, R.Madhvan do justice to their roles doinga splendid and their acting is highly appreciable.

What is literature??

-Aastha Joshi

When a superior written material gets published into printed forms and is recognized by the people and artist it is called as literature. It gives people wider platform to showcase their thought and ideas which then people take into consideration. The person engaging into writing have so much power that in a few words they can express a whole lot of emotions and can even make a person immortal forever in their works. Literature even gives an opportunity to the writer to portray their subconscious of wild thoughts, fantasies or real life instances to entertain people, while the audience or the reader take them into consideration. It is a skill that takes a person into trans state where personal relives the literature relating himself/herself with the protagonist, and for some it’s a relief as its an escape for the harsh realities of life and give them a wider space of imagination and pleasure. It can consist of wide ranging material to read like prose,fiction, drama, poetry etc. while it can be both fiction and non fiction and have several genres according to the interest of the reader. If we talk about the history of literaturethe ancient Egyptian literature along with Sumerian literature is considered as the earliest form of literature. In the ancient Egypt the literature was used in from of didactive texts which tells us about the societal norms, rules and social orders of that time, hymns which were usually sung by the people in praise of their worship deities, popular folks and stories which were prevalent during those times were also noted into text for example Panchatantra. In the medieval period the manuscript literature was considered as an art of great precision and utmost importance. Hence literature is of a great importance in our lives as it not only enhances our spectrum of knowledge and imagination but also give us an opportunity to know the history and legendary people by giving us a glimpse of their lives, which inturn give us a new vision to view the world and get motivated by certain incidents keeping in mind the mistakes that me must not repeat that were already done in past.


What is History?

What is history? written by Edward Haller Carr is an amalgamation of various views of him about what history actually is and how is it suppose to be written.

It’s a classical contribution to the field of history and a treasure box for the lovers of history. Carr starts by discussing that history is all about facts and collection of as much facts as one can to strength the source of history. He says that some facts are like fish on the fish mongoose slab which are ready to be chosen and cooked. According to him facts are raw and only speaks when the historians cooks then to turn them into a dish. One fact is selected over other because its considered more importance and useful in the sight of historians. He said that use use facts to understand something larger so we have the historians in the present on one side ,making judgements about what facts are suppose to chosen. While we have other fact sources like dairies, treaties, document, letters butcertainly they are the source that tell us no more then what the author thought and so are one sided. He said about the classical liberal view of history that was extensively popular in the 19th century allows the historians to choose from the humongous market of facts would result in universal social harmony. He pointed out several probl9ems with this issue, the facts of past are only assessable through present. The ideas and word used then are also very applicable in the current scenario. To answer the issue of skepticism he said in his book that facts are collected and interpreted turning into a narrative. He says that the historians and continuously engaged in the process of collection of facts, interpreting them and again molding their facts and interpretation, it’s impossible to priorities one over other both have their equal share of importance and none of them can be neglected. He mentions in his book that past is only useful to us in the light of present and wecan’t fully understand the present with the reference of past, so the are interlinked. The process according to him is not an individual one because the person historians study were not located in isolation andvacuumed, they functioned in a social context with a proper environment and a physical surrounding and so it becomes important that we look towards and study the social forces,classes and the physical environment that existed so that we donot miss any important facts and information. He in his book said that the scientist no more spend time studying the nature but instead come up with results and hypothesis, test if it’s a fact and then reassess. Science is also driven by back and forth and also values the ideas and notions of present. He finds lots of objections questioning about history being a science, like its said that history deal with particular with unique events and dates but science deals in general but also argue that history is also general another argument was that history is unable to protect the future. Like science can predict only possibilities but history cannot be predicted prior. According to him search of causality is impossible without the reference to values behind the causality that lie directly or indirectly behind the incident. As we always learn and grow with history so to avoid total skepticism the facts and interpretations chosenand done by the historians should be organized with the idea of efficient progress. He says when we mean about historian object we mean two things,first that he has the capacity to raise above the limited versions of situation in the society and in the history. Secondly that he has the potential to project his vision into the future in such a way that they leave a more lasting and profound insight into the past that can be attained by the historians whose outlook is bound by their own immediate situation, and so historians must work in the direction of development. He has been criticized for having a different view about the history. The book in the beginning also reveals about the multiple professions of E.H Carr like philosopher, historian, journalist and biographer. This book would give the readers a deep insight about history and will make a aware about a very different perspective and ideology about the history, help them to makeup their own mind about the history. The book fully expresses that he has just not studied history but mastered in it efficiently. One cannot copy or create history by merely collection facts but by actuallycollecting various facts and putting them together to create a piece of history. The actual idea of history expressed is that we can certainly know more about the past then the past actually knows about us. Carr proposed the idea in the progress of history that each generation of historians assimilate the insight of previous generations, not replacing them but incorporating then to give a comprehensive and wide perspective The variety of ways in which he has portrayed his notions about history makes him one of the best historians of the last century. He moved forward to gave a systematic way of writing history so that it is approachable to wider section of people and incorporate various ideas within history. He is a leading historian for many who are studying history and his was of thinking influences young mind. This book is a must read specially for the students of historian and people perusing history in the near future. It would also keen the interested minds of history, so all those who are linked with history must read this book

Shinto characteristics

What makes shinto different from other religions? if wanna know then read on. But first you should know what is shinto. To learn what is shinto read my last blog.

There are five characteristic features of Shinto


The belief that everything has a life of its own. All the objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. The wind, rain, rivers, mountains, trees everything that is important for life are worshipped as kami. As Shinto developed, not only spirits living in nature but also ancestors’ spirits were enshrined as gods. After death, ancestors’ spirits were believed to become guardian gods, watching over and protecting their living descendants. The main theme in the Shinto religion is love for nature and all living beings. So a waterfall or a special rock might come to be regarded as a spirit (kami) of that place; so might abstract things like growth and fertility. Sacred objects, such as rocks or trees, can be recognized by the special ropes (shimenawa) and they have white paper strips attached to them.

Photo by Ryutaro Tsukata on Pexels.com

Shintoism is a polytheistic religion. Polytheism is the belief or worshipping more than one god. Shinto gods are basically spirits that are everywhere in nature and also in men, hence the assumption of many gods. The Japanese feared the natural forces and believed those forces came from the power of spirits living in various natural entities. In Shinto, the subjects of worship are not visible idols but spirits that are believed to have supernatural power. Both malevolent and benevolent spirits are called ‘Kami’ in singular and ‘Kamigami’ (神々) in plural. The arrival of Buddhism, however, brought with it stylistic carved figural icons, an art form that influenced images of gods in Shinto , and as Shinto-Buddhism started to merge together, many Shinto shrines and their deities were combined with Buddhist temples and figures. 


The central aspect of Shinto ritual is purification. Shinto ceremonies are designed to appeal to the kami for benevolent treatment and protection and consist of abstinence (imi), offerings, prayers and purification.

Purification has two forms ‘Misogi’ and ‘Harae’.

Misogi, the purification from contact with sullying elements such as disease and death. Misogi is said to have originated from the myth of ‘Izanagi no Mikoto’ who followed ‘Izanami no Mikoto’ to the ‘Yomi no Kuni’ only to find her in the state of decomposition. After returning to the world cleans himself in a stream. The purification of his left eye leads to the appearance of the solar divinity Amaterasu Omikami. The purification of his right eye leads to the appearance of the lunar divinity Tsukuyomi no Mikoto. The purification of his nose leads to the appearance of the storm divinity Susanoo no Mikoto.

Harae, the restoration of proper relationships after wrongdoings, through the offering of compensation. The second type of purification, harae, has been derived from the myth of Susanoo no Mikoto, after he rampaged through the palace of his sister Amaterasu. And then he is compelled to make recompose by offering up a great quantity of goods and having his beard cut and nails pulled off.

Photo by Liger Pham on Pexels.com

There is no outer influence of any kind in Shinto rituals and practices. Shinto has no founders, no official sacred scriptures and no fixed creeds but it has preserved its main beliefs and rituals throughout the ages. When the Japanese people and Japanese culture became aware of themselves, Shinto was already there.

When Buddhism entered Japan in 552 AD (officially) and Shinto kami were made equivalent to ‘Deva’ (Buddhist term for gods) and in the late 8th century kami were being considered as the incarnations of Buddha and bodhisattvas; bodhisattvas names were given to kami and Buddhist statues were placed even in the inner sanctuaries of the Shinto shrines. But there were always attempts to separate Buddhism from Shintoism. Several attempts were made to make Shintoism pure again far from any Buddhist influence so that there was no outer influence on Shintoism of any kind.


There are no absolute right or wrongs in Shintoism. Shinto has no moral absolutes and assesses the good or bad of an action or thought in the context in which it occurs: circumstances, intention, purpose, time, location, are all relevant in assessing whether an action is bad. Specifically Shinto ethics are not based on a set of commandments or laws that tell the faithful how to behave, but on following the will of the kami. Shinto ethics start from the basic idea that human beings are good, and that the world is good. Evil enters the world from outside, that is, it is brought by evil spirits. These affect human beings in a similar way to disease, and reduce their ability to resist temptation. When human beings act wrongly, they bring pollution and sin upon themselves, which obstructs the flow of life and blessing from the kami. Because Shinto coexists with Buddhism and Confucianism and their ethical values, it’s hard, and not very useful, to isolate the distinctly Shinto elements in Japanese ethics.

again not a historian but a student.



For the past century, Anthropology has come to be known as a study of an infinite curiosity about humans. Not only concerned with an interest in human beings and their developements, Anthropology is much more broad in concept of trying to understand the relationships between human beings and all possible questions about them. Anthropology is trying to understand all aspects of human beings through the broad discovery, study, interpretation and inference of past and present cultural characteristics. In appling the knowledge aquired, one can gain an understanding of individuals in society, regardless of the resulting conclusion being right or wrong.

The scope of anthropology is much more broad than that of other disciplines ofscience.…show more content…Motivated by the will to eliminate error and inaccurate theory, Anthropology seeks to find consistent data for analysis of human exsistence. By removing skeptic ideals, Anthropologists can form a widley accepted explanation of human developement through time.

There are different branches of Anthropology and each of them enhances our understanding of us by recourse to theory and practical application of the theory to the questions concerning our human existence.

History of anthropology

The modern discourse of anthropology crystallized in the 1860s, fired by advances in biology, philology, and prehistoric archaeology. In The Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin affirmed that all forms of life share a common ancestry. Fossils began to be reliably associated with particular geologic strata, and fossils of recent human ancestors were discovered, most famously the first Neanderthal specimen, unearthed in 1856. In 1871 Darwin published The Descent of Man, which argued that human beings shared a recent common ancestor with the great African apes. He identified the defining characteristic of the human species as their relatively large brain size and deduced that the evolutionary advantage of the human species was intelligence, which yielded language and technology.

Branches of anthropology

Anthropology is the study of evolution of culture and societal origins of humankind. The subject of Anthropology concerns itself with the study of all aspects of human existence.

Compared to other subjects like Economics and the Social Sciences, Anthropology covers a wide gamut of fields and sub-topics that range from cultural studies to evolution to organization of societies. Hence, there are different branches of Anthropology within the main grouping and we discuss some of them here. Among the branches of Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology refers to that field of study that concerns itself with studying the logic behind cultural norms. During the course of studying cultures, cultural anthropologists live with the cultures that they are studying and observe the norms and rituals that these cultures follow and research the underlying reasons for them. For instance, we in the US might find scarring of the bodies to be bizarre. However, there are tribes in Africa where this is the accepted norm and hence this branch of Anthropology brings us insights into different cultures around the world.

Importance of anthropology

If you ask people about the importance of Anthropology, you would different answers depending on whom you ask.

The fact that Anthropology is important as a discipline is universally recognized and acknowledged by experts in the field. As humans, we are inquisitive and curious by nature. We want to know where we came from, why we are the way we are. We turn to different explanations offered by different subjects like economics, biology and history. And, Anthropology is the one field that can provide comprehensive answers that tie in the different strands of thought from all these fields. Hence, Anthropology and its study are indeed important from the perspective of knowing more about us.

Anthropology has different branches and each of the branches provides for a certain aspect of the inquiry into our origins and evolution as a species. For instance, the study of language is the domain of linguistic anthropology. We all know that there are different languages spoken around the world and dialects among these languages as well. To know more about the linkages between these different languages and the differences that exist in the use of words is something that Anthropologists explain.

What is cultural anthropology ?

Cultural anthropologists study the similarities and differences among living societies and cultural groups. Through immersive fieldwork, living and working with the people one is studying, cultural anthropologists suspend their own sense of what is “normal” in order to understand other people’s perspectives. Beyond describing another way of life, anthropologists ask broader questions about humankind: Are human emotions universal or culturally specific? Does globalization make us all the same, or do people maintain cultural differences? For cultural anthropologists, no aspect of human life is outside their purview. They study art, religion, healing, natural disasters, and even pet cemeteries. While many anthropologists are at first intrigued by human diversity, they come to realize that people around the world share much in common.

While cultural anthropologists traditionally conduct fieldwork in faraway places, they are increasingly turning their gaze inward to observe their own societies or subgroups within them. For instance, in the 1980s, American anthropologist Philippe Bourgois sought to understand why pockets of extreme poverty persist amid the wealth and overall high quality of life in the United States. To answer this question, he lived with Puerto Rican crack dealers in East Harlem, New York. He contextualized their experiences both historically in terms of their Puerto Rican roots and migration to the U.S. and in the present as they experienced social marginalization and institutional racism. Rather than blame the crack dealers for their poor choices or blame our society for perpetuating inequality, he argued that both individual choices and social structures can trap people in the overlapping worlds of drugs and poverty (Bourgois 2003). For more about Bourgois, please see the interview with him in the learning resources, Anthropology in Our Moment in History .


Social anthropology can and should be part of the interdisciplinary study of human origins. Anthropological theory and ethnographic comparison can easily be brought into the frameworks of both primary research and intellectual debate on the subject. I would go further: the study of human origins can and should be a legitimate subdiscipline within social anthropology. I hope I have demonstrated that its inclusion among the sciences dealing with this issue is warranted and that its contribution could be considerable.From within social anthropology the contribution of the discipline might at first seem more speculative than that of some other disciplines, but social anthropology is a qualitative social science by nature. It need not be any more speculative than, say, archaeology or human genetics – disciplines in which plausibility and likelihood are often sufficient for the construction of hypotheses and even for longstanding and widely accepted theories. No modern scientist has ever seen the origin of tool-making, the development of language, a symbolic revolution or a migration which has led to the colonization of an empty continent. In this, social anthropology is on exactly the same footing as archaeology or human genetics. The only difference is that genetics and archaeology rely on ‘hard data’, which are almost invariably either material (in the case of archaeology) or quantitative, or at least involving careful sampling (in the case of genetics). After that, the rest (for archaeologists and geneticists) is pure inference and deduction.


In my last blog I talked about the creation myth of Japan, which is a part of Japanese mythology; their religion. Then let’s delve deeper into Shintoism, the indigenous religion of Japan.

What is shinto?

The word Shinto is made up of two Chinese characters ‘Shin’ and ‘to’. ‘Shin’ meaning ‘Kami’ (神) and ‘To’ meaning ‘Michi’ (道). Together it forms ‘Kami no Michi’ or ‘The way of Gods’. It is the indigenous faith of the Japanese people; the indigenous religion of Japan. The word ‘Shinto’ first appeared in the ‘Nihon Shoki’ (日本事紀) that came into existence in 720 A.D. It is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history.

Shinto came about as a religion in the 6th century CE. Worship of ‘Kami’ emerged. ‘Shinto Gods’ are called ‘Kami’ (神). Kami are sacred spirits which take the form of things and concepts important to life, such as wind, trees, rain, mountains, rivers and fertility. Each Kami has an efficient force called ‘Tama’, that is, object of religious activity. The Tama can either be positive and peaceful, that is, Nigimitama and negative and violent, that is, Ara-mitama. Tama resides in beings as ‘Tamashii’ and leaves at the time of death. Humans become kami after they die and are revered by their families as ‘Ancestral Kami’. The Sun Goddess ‘Amaterasu’ is considered Shinto’s most important kami.

In contrast to many other religions, there are no absolute right and wrongs; no distinction between good and bad. The main purpose of most Shinto rituals is to keep the evil spirits away by purification, prayers and offerings to the kami.

Shinto is involved in every aspect of Japanese culture: It touches ethics, politics, family life and social structures, artistic life and sporting life, as well as spiritual life.

And there was an interaction of Shinto with Buddhism and Confucianism.

Photo by DSD on Pexels.com

Shintoism and Buddhism

Buddhism was introduced into Japan in either 538 CE or 552 CE (traditional date) from the Korean kingdom of Baekje.

Shinto, especially, with its emphasis on the here and now and this life, left a significant gap regarding what happens after death and here Buddhism was able to complete the religious picture for most people. As a consequence, both religions co-existed, many people practiced both, and even temples of both faiths existed together on the same site. Many Buddhist deities and figures from Indian mythology were readily incorporated into Shinto. At the same time Shinto gods acquired Buddhist names, for example, the sun goddess Amaterasu was considered an avatar of Dainichi; and Hachiman, the god of war and culture, was the avatar of the Amida Buddha. 

As death is still considered to be impure so it is left to Buddhism. The afterlife, and belief, are not major concerns in Shinto; the emphasis is on fitting into this world instead of preparing for the next, and on ritual and observance rather than on faith. While weddings are often Shinto or Christian ceremonies, funerals (soshiki) are almost always Buddhist. The body is cleaned, dressed in white robes.

At the funeral the next day, mourners gather at a photograph of the person who has passed on to the next life and priest from any local temple recites sutras.

Photo by David Bartus on Pexels.com

Again pointing out to the fact that I am not a historian but just a student who wants to share her knowledge about the country she loves so much.



With the world rapidly developing and the internet and technological department , growing at a really fast rate , there are a lot of new skills each individuals should master so as to become a valuable asset , and be at par with the developing world . For us students it is almost indispensable to have these skill sets , here are a few that you must start mastering .

COMMUNICATION – As basic and primary as it sounds , don’t let it fool you to undermine the value of this skill . Mastering how to communicate effectively can take you ANYWHERE . The billionaire Warren Buffet himself advices young people to master this skill . If you have a brilliant idea , but fail to articulate it to other , you unfortunately fall under a lot of disadvantage , this is where knowing how to communicate will help.

PUBLIC SPEAKING – A lot of us dread this , i know i do . But this is a really important skill to master . If you are good at public speaking and grasping the attention of others , it will be helpful in communicating your ideas . Public speaking also boosts your level of self confidence and self esteem , as well as helps you get networking opportunities . So , getting past your fear of public speaking and mastering it will take you a long way .

BASIC INVESTING – Knowing how to manage your finance is obviously very important , but very few know how to do it . Budgeting and saving money is the first step , and investing money is the second. Investing is not as complicated as it might seem , but sure is something we should be doing .

DATA SCIENCE – Data science is by far the most valuable skill to know in the 21st century . Data scientists play a huge role in companies regarding decision making as they interpret data . It will be one of the most demanding jobs by 2022. So , if you are looking for any skills to master , start with this one , it will be worth giving a shot .

SPEED READING – Speed reading is a very practical and helpful skill to master . Knowing how to speed read will allow an individual to skim through reading materials and understand it faster. It will save you a lot of while reading research papers , books or even emails , and make your very time efficient . Not only this , but speed reading also improves memory , helps you focus more and also boost your confidence .

Creation Myth of Japan

Let’s get a bit studious. Today I’ll be telling you about the first thing that we learnt in our class about Japan ‘The creation myth of Japan’. The tale is a simple one according to the ancient text of Japan ‘Kojiki’ and ‘Nihon Shoki’, Japan was created by god Izanagi-no-Mikoto and goddess Izanami-no-Mikoto. The myth goes like this; ‘One day, god Izanagi-no-Mikoto and goddess Izamani-no-Mikoto were walking along the floating bridge up in the skies while looking down towards the ocean, wondering what lied beneath it.

Giving into their curiosity to learn about what lies in the ocean, god Izanagi-no-Mikoto thrust his staff into the waters. After pulling it out of the waters, he saw mud dripping from his staff and falling onto the ocean. The mud that was dripping hardened and grew and became the islands of Japan.

Then god Izanagi-no-Mikoto and goddess Izanami-no-Mikoto descended to these islands and began to explore them. They both went in different directions, and wherever they went while exploring they created or gave life to all kinds of plants, rivers, mountains, valleys and all of Japan’s flora and fauna. This is how Japan was formed.

Photo by James Wheeler on Pexels.com

Now let me tell you another tale about how major deities of Japanese mythology came into being. Goddess Izanami-no-Mikoto ended up in ‘yomi no kuni’ or ‘the land of the demons’ or you can say the netherworld. In shinto, netherworld is an unclean place, it is the land of the dead. God Izanagi-no-Mikoto followed her to the netherworld only to find her in a state of decomposition. This meant that she will not be able to return back to the other realm now, but god Izanagi-no-mikoto had to leave the netherworld and her behind.

After returning to the other realm Izanagi-no-Mikoto had to purify himself from the miasma of the netherworld. So he started to clean himself in the stream. While cleaning the purification of his left eye, gave existence to the sun goddess, Amaterasu Omikami; purification of his right eye gave existence to the moon god, Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto; and the purification of his nose gave existence to the god of wind, Susanoo-no-Mikoto.

Photo by Lana Lobayashi on Pexels.com

I am always very curious to learn about myths and legends, they always fascinate me. So you should know I myself am a learner, a student and not a historian. I shared with you what I have learnt, I am not that well versed in shinto as a religion, so this is just the story that I was told. If you interested in learning more about mythology, you should surely do your research.


Understanding the Fine Line between Seasonal Influenza and COVID-19.

Starting off as a simple virus emerging from Wuhan, China, COVID-19, or the Novel Coronavirus, has brought the entire world to a halt. Be it economic, judicial or educational prospects, there is no clear picture as to what the future holds for us. With the virus currently holding an overall tally of 40,636 deaths and 8,23, 479 positive cases worldwide (as of 31st March, 2020), the pandemic has now become a life-threatening global phenomenon forcing numerous countries to impose lockdowns.

However, in this time when social distancing and hand hygiene play key roles, one more important aspect must be considered- correct information. While we are getting to know about numerous cases, another problem prevalent in most countries is the high number of people flocking to hospitals for testing even when they show flu-like symptoms, like a cold or mild fever. While it is certainly true that there is only a stark contrast between seasonal influenza (flu) and COVID-19, it manages to pose a major problem: it has not only increased traffic in the hospitals but also diverted the attention of hospital staff from cases that require immediate attention.

Thus, here are a few indicators which might be helpful in differentiating between the common flu and the Novel Coronavirus.

1. Difference in Major Symptoms

A COVID-19 patient will typically suffer from a fever; however, it is not necessary that every individual with flu will have a fever, particularly older adults or those with a weak immune system. While nausea and diarrhea are symptoms for both diseases, they are more prevalent in kids suffering from flu.

If the patient shows signs of dry coughing and shortness of breath, that’s more of an inclination towards a case of COVID-19.

2. Difference in Incubation Period

While a COVID-19 patient takes an average of four days between the initiation of the infection and the onset of symptoms, the incubation period ranges between 2 and 14 days. On the other hand, a flu patient’s incubation period ranges between 1 and 4 days, averaging at 2 days.

3. Difference in Period of Contagion

One of the major threats related to COVID-19 is that it can be contagious even if the patient doesn’t show symptoms. On the other hand, flu can be contagious a day before the symptoms appear, and for nearly 5-7 consequent days thereafter.

4. Difference in Severity and Course

The seasonal influenza or common flu usually takes nearly 3-7 days to resolve, with just 1% of the patients ending up in the hospital. The deathly COVID-19, on the other hand, lands nearly 20% of the confirmed cases in the hospital in a critical condition.

5. Effect on the Immune System

Believed to have an animal origin, the COVID-19 is caused by a newly discovered coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, a novel virus. This signifies that the population doesn’t have pre-existing immunity to it, which makes it more difficult to prevent the disease from becoming fatal.

Seasonal flu, on the other side, is a disease which can recur, with the body developing antibodies each time. This reduces the extent to which the disease can affect the human body. However, for COVID-19, there is no current evidence to prove whether an individual can get it again post-recovery.

6. Difference in Mortality Rate

Based on information collected from different locations and using various population sizes, it has been gathered that 0.25-3% of the total population testing positive for COVID-19 succumbs to it. In the case of seasonal flu, the esteemed mortality rates are a mere 0.1% in comparison.

7. Difference in Rate of Transmission

With COVID-19 cases multiplying rapidly each day, the reproductive number (R0) for the disease appears to be higher than that of the seasonal flu, with the former being 2.2 and the latter, 1.28.


This is a clear indicator that a patient of COVID-19 is more likely to infect more people as compared to an individual suffering from flu.

8. Difference in Developed Vaccines and Medication

As a result of a novel coronavirus, COVID-19 is yet to have a valid vaccine or effective medication available for the general public. In the case of seasonal flu, however, the seasonal flu vaccine proves to be most effective. Antiviral medications also help to an enormous extent.

9. Difference in Target Population at Risk

While both flu and COVID-19 affect similar ranges of the population, especially those already suffering from asthma, chronic lung diseases, diabetes etc., the latter is found to have a more severe effect on the older population. Flu, however, is found to be more dangerous in the case of pregnant women and children under the age of 2 years.

10. Difference in Prevention Methods

Due to the nature of both diseases as well as their high rates of contagiousness, remaining in isolation is recommended, though more in the case of COVID-19. Also, COVID-19 highlights the need to maintain good hand hygiene (regular washing of hands with soap or alcohol-based sanitizer) and social distancing i.e. remaining at home if not in case of emergencies, maintaining a distance of 6 feet from another individual at all times and avoiding crowded places like malls and restaurants with heavy footfall.

In the case of flu, proper medication, rest and good nutrition are recommended to heal. Regular flu shots also play a key role in the prevention and faster cure of the disease.

Although remarkably similar in nature, both COVID-19 and Seasonal Influenza, on the deeper end, vary to a great extent. While COVID-19 has proved to be comparatively fatal and easily transmittable, flu is seen as a recurring phenomenon, largely treatable.

In these trying times, when most of the world is living under self-quarantine and isolation, we must remember that the first and foremost requirement is to bring the COVID-19 outbreak under control. Thus, upon showing any symptoms, we must consult a family doctor before crowding hospitals to get a seasonal flu treatment, which can be done from home!



A tribute to India’s golden boy, Neeraj Chopra, on behalf of the Navachetna Welfare Society

The star javelin thrower becomes the first Indian track and field athlete in history to win a gold medal for India. It’s safe to say that this man is a living embodiment of perseverance.

Despite suffering from an arm injury before qualifying for the Olympic games, he recorded a victory throw of 87.86m. This man has an arm of iron in the true sense.

Being 6 feet tall army boy Neeraj Chopra is such a down-to-earth and humble person.
After his historic winning, our star javelin thrower said that he could not believe that he won asserting that although being confident he was unsure of winning gold.
His first words to his father were “Gaad diya papa laath” meaning I left a mark papa.

Well, he left a mark on all our hearts, and on this Independence Day , we can all proudly sing “Saare Jahan Se acha Hindustan Hamara ” as Neeraj Chopra is the legacy of these words.

Independence Day is yet to arrive but the once called Golden Bird bagged the Gold a few days prior to celebrating its 75 independence Day. The Golden Man of India, Neeraj Chopra has become the face of the nation by his tremendous performance in Javelin Throw at Tokyo Olympics 2020, while the Olympics weren’t ordinary this time, so was not the performance. His more than exemplary throw of 87.58 meters not only got a gold to him, but to 1.4 billion people of the country and paved the way for several more to come. While all the players performed in their true spirits, the Army man Neeraj along with others showed how a patriotic person can show his love and respect towards nation in whatever and wherever they do.


       An entrepreneur is an individual who has the capacity and willingness to run a business by knowing the risks to make profits. The process of setting up a business is known as entrepreneurship. It needs a business model, capital coupled with vision, enterprise, and industry. It is an integral aspect of any community, society, and nation to succeed in an ever-changing competitive global marketplace. An entrepreneur must spot opportunities, manage risks, and face challenges. He/she needs to take accountability and responsibility for success or failure.


  • Is visionary
  • Is an investor(capital or fund)
  • Is a risk-taker
  • Is an Innovator
  • Is future-oriented
  • Is an enterprise creator.


  • CREATIVE THINKING: An entrepreneur must have creative thinking, motivation, conviction, and passion. He/she must be able to analyze the problems and bring proper solutions.
  • LEADERSHIP ABILITY: An entrepreneur should have leadership abilities. So that he splits the works into groups and can finish the work without any conflicts.
  • BUSINESS MANAGEMENT: He/she should possess business management skills. He should protect the organization’s secrets from competitors.
  • COMMUNICATION ABILITY: He/she should have the ability to build connections and networking. Good communication skills always bring a benefit to the entrepreneur. He/she should maintain good relations with customers, partners, and employees.
  • OPPORTUNITY GRABBER: An entrepreneur should be an opportunity grabber.
  • TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE: An entrepreneur should possess sufficient technical knowledge.


        Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and IP Rights (Intellectual Property Rights) can create sustained impact in the ecosystem. Entrepreneurs should bring innovative ideas to their ventures. Innovative offerings increase the efficiency and productivity of the workforce. It also helps to improve the brand values and increases the profit rate. Entrepreneurs need to be aware of IP rights and policies to benefit from innovative ideas. It helps to protect the business ventures from unjustified infringement claims from other entities.


       Entrepreneurship is essential for several reasons to include promoting social changes, increasing innovation, increasing employment rates. Entrepreneurs are frequently considered as nation’s assets since they help in the national income of the country. Great entrepreneurs can change the lifestyle on a local and national basis. The standard of living has been increased with the development of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs help in increasing the country’s export trade and thereby play an important role in the economic development of a country. New and improved products and services from entrepreneurs boost the national income of the country. In addition to this, it increases the employment rate in that country. Through the invention of new products, entrepreneurs help in improved quality of life and economic freedom. For example, smartphones are used worldwide by more than 5 billion people. Technological entrepreneurship can have a long-lasting impact on the world until the growth of smartphones. Entrepreneurship is innovation and hence helps in providing funds for research and development with several institutions. It also helps in balancing regional development by setting up industries in less developed areas. The growth of business in these areas leads to several developments include transport, health, education, entertainment, etc. Thus the role of entrepreneurs in today’s economy is indispensable.

Greatest Hindi Novels – You Must Read!

Literature has never failed to amaze us and to top it Hindi literature goes way beyond our imagination and there are many Hindi novels you must read. If you are bored of watching digital content in this lockdown and are planning to read books, and if you haven’t read Hindi literature, this is the time you should totally give it a try. Hindi language has all kinds of stories and has a very rich literary heritage. From the classic literature by Munshi Premchand to the heart-touching poems of Dr. Harivansh Rai Bachchan, many amazing Hindi novels touched the core of Indian culture and development. Here is a list of such amazing Hindi novels that will not fail to touch your hearts.

It is a difficult task to put together the best Hindi novels of all times, but somehow I manage to provide you the list of Best Hindi Novels by Indian Authors that everyone should read with our best of knowledge.

Godaan (Munshi Premchand)

Godaan is a beautifully described novel by Munshi Premchand that touches the subject of rural communities of India. It was published in 1936. It has been revered as one of the greatest Hindi novels of the Indian literature. The main theme of the novel was based on Indian peasantry. The theme includes: Socio-economic deprivation, Exploitation of rural people, Caste segregation, varied concept of dharma as held by different people. Impact of industrialization on the various sections of Indian community.vi condition of women in society child marriage and dowry. Godan is an epic of Indian peasant Hari and his wife Dhania who were cheated by the landlords money lenders priests and colonial bureaucrats. They formed a network of oppression robbed their land and converted them to landless Labourers. In the end the couple died with dignity.

Madhushala (Harivansh Rai Bachchan)

Madhushala is a beautifully written novel by Dr Harivansh Rai Bachchan. It is a series of poems that describe the complexity of life with comparisons to four Instruments which come almost in every verse: Madhu (wine), saaki (server), pyaala (cup) and madhushala (bar). It is applicable even in today’s life as we are experiencing religious discord. This book inspires brotherhood and harmony and gives hope to people who are trapped in religious disputes. A very famous and one other to the list of Hindi novels you must read.

Gunaho Ka Devta (Dharamvir Bharati)

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Gunaho Ka Devta is a love story that revolves around a student, Chander, who falls in love with Sudha, the daughter of his college professor Dr. Shukla. This story also talks about caste discrimination in our society. The beautiful description of love, angst and confusion makes the book amazing.There is a television adaptation of the novel titled Ek Tha Chander Ek Thi Sudha which aired on Life OK.

Chandrakanta (Devki Nandan Khatri)

चंद्रकान्ता - देवकीनन्दन खत्री Chandrakanta - Hindi book by - Devkinandan  Khatri

This book written by Devaki Nandan Khatri is a romantic fantasy that tells the story of two lovers from rival kingdoms. There is a TV serial based on this novel as well. The princess Chandrakanta of Vijaygarh and the prince Virendra Singh of Naugarh go through a series of obstacles to be together and fulfil their love lives. The writing style of the book takes you in the world of “aiyars” and “tilism”. This is one of the best Hindi novels you must read if you like love stories with various challenges.

Rashmirathi (Ramdhari Singh Dinkar)

रश्मिरथी by Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'

This book is written by the well known Hindi Novelist, Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’.

It lies in the top 10 in the list of best Hindi novels that one must-read. This book is about Kunti’s firstborn child, Karna and his life as he grows up to become a violent soldier although being raised in a very humble family. This book has various emotions including pride, courage, power, and honour. It is a beautifully written poem that explores various parts of Karna’s life.

Gaban (Mushi Premchand)

Gaban is also one of Munshi Premchand’s best Hindi novels. It is a typical middle-class love story with big desires and dreams. It is about a charming guy named Ramanath. He is not financially sound but he loves his wife too much and gifts her precious things which he cannot afford. Things hit the rock when he is bound with debts and the story gets interesting. Let’s see if he will make it through this crisis morally or will he commit any crime to cover his debts.

Maila Aanchal (Phanishwar Nath Renu)

मैला आंचल -फणीश्वरनाथ रेणु - भारतकोश, ज्ञान का हिन्दी महासागर

This book by Phanishwar Renu lies next in line with Munshi Premchand’s Godan. It is a very well-appreciated and touching story. It is set in the 90s during the Quit India Movement as the states experience a series of trails and rituals in the villages of North-East Bihar. It was the first novel by Phanishwar Nath Renu after which he gained popularity which gave rise to a series of other such books. It is quite often found in the Hindi curriculum of schools.

Volga Se Ganga (Rahul Sankrityayan)

Best Hindi Novels That Everyone Should Read : Volga Se Ganga

This book by Rahul Sankrityayan is a historical fiction that marks the entry of Aryans into the Volga from the steppes of Eurasia. A journey from the Volga to the Ganges contains 20 different short stories that are part fiction and explains the migration of Aryans to River Volga. The author’s influence from Marxist ideas is visible in his last three stories. If you like reading about history then you must add this book to your library.

Kamayani (Jaishankar Prasad)

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Kamayani is considered to be one of the greatest written Hindi literature by Jaishankar Prasad. It is an epic poem that perceives the effects of human emotions, thoughts, and actions with the help of relevant metaphors. It was quite popular in the eighteenth century. It takes reference from mythology to try and explain human behaviour concerning human emotions. Another gem to the list of hindi novels you must read.

Need Ka Nirman Phir (Harivansh Rai Bachchan)

नीड़ का निर्माण फिर - हरिवंशराय बच्चन Neer Ka Nirman Phir - Hindi book by -  Harivansh Rai Bachchan

Need Ka Nirman Phir is a beautifully written poem by Harivansh Rai Bachchan. It is about his life and how he overcomes the challenges in his life. The book is full of examples that depict hope. No one should give up because, after every night, the sun comes and brings light into lives. It also has a part where his wife died but he still hoping for a better tomorrow.

If you don’t like to read, you haven’t found the right book.

J.K. Rowling

Easy Reads: Summer Edition

Here is a list of breezy reads, that you can leaf through this summer.

a list of my masterposts | Dark aesthetic, Dark academia aesthetic, Girl  reading

“if you don’t like to read, you haven’t found the right book.”

—J.K Rowling, Author

Books high on the emotional quotient that are thrilling and fiery and make you bite your nails each step of the way are everyone’s favourite. But it might get really monotonous and wearying getting down from that roller coaster of emotions perpetually, especially if you aren’t exactly an avid reader.

Why Is Reading Important? The 11 Benefits Of Books - Best Practice in HR

Below is a thoughtfully curated list of 5 books that are soundly wholesome and light reads.

1. Wishful Thinking by Alexandra Bullen

Wishful Thinking (Wish, #2) by Alexandra Bullen

Wishful thinking is a young adult novel by author and playwright Alexandra Bullen. The story follows Hazel Snow, a young girl who had been adopted and passed from home to home as a baby. Driven by the wish to know her parents, Hazel goes all out in an effort to known her mother. With a lot of determination and three wish granting enchanted dresses, Hazel finds herself in the past. With a chance to know her mother and a sweeping romance, Hazel might just fulfil her wishes, or will she?

This book is a very sweet read and has a very lucid plot for a book that navigates past and present.

2. Everyone Worth Knowing by Lauren Weisberger

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Lauren Weisberger is the renowned author of the bestseller ‘The Devil Wears Prada’.  Everyone worth knowing is the story of a single woman living in NYC who gets a public relations job and subsequently gets sucked up in the city’s most affluent event management circuit. Life altering revelations and scandals mar the course of her job and love might just follow through.

Everyone worth knowing is a super fun read for people who love chick-lit.  It’s literally like watching a movie and perfect to curl up with on a lazy day.

3. Tommy Sullivan Is a Freak by Meg Cabot

Tommy Sullivan is a Freak eBook : Cabot, Meg: Amazon.in: Kindle Store

Meg Cabot’s Tommy Sullivan is a freak is set in a typical school setting wherein Katie Ellison just cannot tell the truth. Tangled in an absolute mess of lies, making out with a hot guy from drama club while dating her football boyfriend, dying to get out the truth of the night ‘Tommy Sullivan is a freak’ was written on the gymnasium wall that drove him out of town. Just when things couldn’t take a turn for worse, Tommy Sullivan is back in town and Katie fears that he might just be out for revenge.

4. Prom Nights from Hell

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 Prom Nights from Hell is a collection of five short, horror-romance stories by authors Kim Harrison, Stephanie Meyer, Meg Cabot, Michelle Jaffe and Lauren Myracle.

 It is an exciting collection of dark themed stories.

Circle of Pearls by Rosalind Laker

Circle of Pearls by Rosalind Laker

This Reader’s Digest Condensed Book selection is set in the 15th century and tells the ambrosial tale of romance between a Puritan lord Adam Warrender and a staunch Royalist Julia Pallister. It follows the English civil war, the Great plague, the Fire of London and the rebuilding of St. Paul’s by Sir Christopher Wren. It is a sweet historical fiction with riveting facts and details.


Unemployment is a term referring to individuals who are employable and actively seeking a job but are unable to find a job. Included in this group are those people in the workforce who are working but do not have an appropriate job. Usually measured by the unemployment rate, which is dividing the number of unemployed people by the total number of people in the workforce, unemployment serves as one of the indicators of a country’s economic status. The term “unemployment” is often misunderstood, it as it includes people who are waiting to return to a job after being discharged, yet it does not include individuals who have stopped looking for work in the past four weeks due to various reasons such as leaving work to pursue higher education, retirement, disability, and personal issues. Also people who are not actively seeking a job but do want to work are not classified as unemployed.

Interestingly, people who have not looked for a job in the past four weeks but have been actively seeking one in the last 12 months are put into a category called the “marginally attached to the labor force.” Within this category is another category called “discouraged workers,” which refers to people who have given up looking for a job. The categories mentioned above sometimes causes confusion and debate as to whether the unemployment rate fully represents the actual number of people who are unemployed. For a full understanding, one should juxtapose “unemployment” with the term “employment,” which the bureau of labor statistics (BLS) describes as individuals aged 16 and above who have recently put hours into work in the past week, paid or otherwise, because of self-employment.

Types of Unemployment

There are basically four types of unemployment: (1) demand deficient, (2) frictional, (3) structural, and (4) voluntary unemployment.

1. Demand deficient unemployment

Demand deficit unemployment is the biggest cause of unemployment that typically happens during a recession. When companies experience a reduction in the demand for their products or services, they respond by cutting back on their production, making it necessary to reduce their workforce within the organization. In effect, workers are laid off.

2. Frictional unemployment

Frictional employment refers to those workers who are in between jobs. An example is a worker who recently quit or was fired and is looking for a job in an economy that is not experiencing a recession. It is not an unhealthy thing because it is usually caused by workers trying to find a job that is most suitable to their skills.

3. Structural unemployment

 Structural umemployment happens when the skills set of a worker does not match the skills demanded by the jobs available, or alternatively when workers are available but are unable to reach the geographical location of the jobs.

An example is a teaching job that requires relocation to China, but the worker cannot secure a work visa due to certain visa restrictions. It can also happen when there is a technological change in the organization, such as workflow automation that displaces the need for human labor.

4. Voluntary unemployment

Voluntary unemployment happens when a worker decides to leave a job because it is no longer financially compelling. An example is a worker whose take-home pay is less than his or her cost of living.

Causes of Unemployment

Unemployment is caused by various reasons that come from both the demand side, or employer, and the supply side, or the worker. Demand-side reductions may be caused by high interest rates, global recession, and financial crisis. From the supply side, frictional unemployment and structural employment play a great role.


The impact of unemployment can be felt by both the workers and the national economy and can cause a ripple effect. Unemployment causes workers to suffer financial hardship that impacts families, relationships, and communities. When it happens, consumer spending, which is one of an economy’s key drivers of growth, goes down, leading to a recession or even a depression when left unaddressed. Unemployment results in reduced demand, consumption, and buying power, which in turn causes lower profits for businesses and leads to budget cuts and workforce reductions. It creates a cycle that goes on and on that is difficult to reverse without some type of intervention. Unemployment is a serious social and economic issue that results in a tremendous impact on everything but is often overlooked. A stronger system of assessing unemployment should be put in place in order to determine its causes and how to address it better.


The knee joint is one of the biggest and most important joints in the lower part of the body. The knee plays an important role in distributing the body weight throughout the body. It is worth studying about this joint.

The knee joint is the tibiofemoral synovial hinge joint. This seems a bit complex. This can be easily understood by splitting each term.

  • Tibio- tibia bone
  • Femoral- femur bone
  • Synovial- freely movable joint
  • Hinge- swinging motion

We can consider the knee joint as a castle with the patellar bone as a castle wall protecting it from the front, the femur from top, tibia and fibula from bottom and muscles aiding these bones. In general, the massive structures protect the joint from mechanical damage like banging the knee onto a hard surface etc…

                      the detailed structure of knee joint.
                   Credit:- OpenStax College Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013

The above diagram shows the complete parts of the knee joint. There are some terms that were not explained earlier. Bursa can be compared to a tin of oil or any other lubricant and structurally is like a sac containing fluid to reduce friction. Friction is      

A physical quantity develops when two things come in contact and the lubricant is the one that provides a medium between the two objects thus reducing friction.

Here are the anatomical terms and their meaning:-

  • Anterior-front
  • Posterior-back
  • Supra-upper
  • Infra-lower
  • Cruciate-cross shape
  • Pre-before

The fat pad is the one present beneath the knee bone and acts as a cushion for the joint. Ligaments are the primary elements of the knee joint which connect bone to bone.

There are two types of ligaments namely ACL and PCL. They connect the tibia to the femur as mentioned earlier through the term tibiofemoral. ACL is medial (present more close to centre) than PCL and PCL are lateral (present far from the centre).

NOTE:-Understanding these structures are very important as an imbalance in each structure can lead to a disorder.

The knee is the largest known joint in the human body which performs very complex functions. The various functions are:-

  1. It bears the weight load and prevents the lower legs to take in all the weight.
  2. Acts as a supportive agent to the body.
  3. Provides motion but is limited.
  4. Coordination of the movement of upper and lower legs
  5. Fat present in knee acts as thermal insulator
  6. Bursa reduces friction between the bones
  7. Synovial fluid acts as medium for bones to articulate with.

As mentioned earlier motion is a key aspect amongst the functions of the knee. The following table shows the various movements exhibited directly or indirectly using the knee.

Knee movements are of two types- primary and secondary.

FlexionDecreasing the angle
ExtensionIncreasing the angle
Medial rotationRotating towards centre
Lateral rotationRotating away from centre
AdductionMoving towards middle
AbductionMoving away from the middle
Anterio-posterior displacementFront and back movement

Flexion, extension, medial and lateral rotations constitute the primary movements. Adduction, abduction and anterio-posterior displacement constitute secondary movements. Hence all these movements can be offered by the knee. In addition to that knee joint also has sensory receptors and produce proprioreceptic information about the position of knee.

The ligaments contribute more towards the stability of the joint as compared to other elements.  The several structures inside the knee must perform perfectly so that the knee functions properly as a whole. The knee joint is hinge type and hence it is more vulnerable to injury (stretching beyond the limit leads to injury). In case of injury, the damaged cells start to heal when the stress is removed but there is a chance of losing their functions as there is a chance of them getting replaced with scars.

It is absolutely worth knowing about the structure and function of the knee joint and how they help to carry ourselves on.



The heading of the article has a correction to be made, It’s new RAJIV GANDHI AWARD


The Maharashtra government has reported another honour named after Rajiv Gandhi, days after the central government changed the name of the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award to Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Award.

minister of State for Information and Technology Satej Patil said the honour will be given to organizations and organizations for exceptional execution in the data innovation area, the birth commemoration of previous leader Rajiv Gandhi.

The BJP said it had no issue with the new honour except for tried to know why the Congress didn’t name the IT grant after Rajiv Gandhi regardless of being in power for 15 successive years.

BJP representative Madhav Bhandari said, “We have no resistance to the honor being given for the sake of Rajiv Gandhi. However, Congress ought to disclose with regards to why notwithstanding being in power for 15 successive years, it didn’t name the IT grant after Rajiv Gandhi?…

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The Maharashtra government has reported another honour named after Rajiv Gandhi, days after the central government changed the name of the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award to Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Award.

minister of State for Information and Technology Satej Patil said the honour will be given to organizations and organizations for exceptional execution in the data innovation area, the birth commemoration of previous leader Rajiv Gandhi.

The BJP said it had no issue with the new honour except for tried to know why the Congress didn’t name the IT grant after Rajiv Gandhi regardless of being in power for 15 successive years.

BJP representative Madhav Bhandari said, “We have no resistance to the honor being given for the sake of Rajiv Gandhi. However, Congress ought to disclose with regards to why notwithstanding being in power for 15 successive years, it didn’t name the IT grant after Rajiv Gandhi? They are wading into controversy; their governmental issues just revolve around the name of Gandhi-Vadra family.”

He added, “It appears to be the Congress didn’t know about the commitment of Rajiv Gandhi this load of years and presently they have unexpectedly understood that he made a major commitment to the IT area.”

Patil tweeted on Tuesday evening, “… The honor, which will be reported on August 20, will be an enduring recognition for Late Shri Rajiv ji for his spearheading work in the innovation area in India.” Patil rejected that there was any political rationale in naming the honor after Rajiv Gandhi. “The world thinks about Rajiv Gandhi’s commitment to the IT area. He introduced the IT period, which has helped change the substance of the country,” he said.

It was chosen to report the honor at a gathering of the IT office on July 7, Patil said, adding, “The document was put before the Chief Minister, who endorsed it two days prior and afterward I tweeted it late in the evening,” he said.

The public authority will converse with different associations like NASSCOM to finish the modalities of the honor, Patil said.

“It will be given to organizations or foundations which dominate in the field with novel thoughts and developments. The honor will be given out by Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray,” he said.

“This year, the honor will be reported on August 20, the choice technique will be finished and the honor will be given before October 30. From the following year, the appropriation of the honor will be given on August 20. Maharashtra IT Corporation Limited (MAHA-IT), the state government undertaking, has been selected the nodal organization to propose the honor,” Patil said.

Congress representative Atul Londhe said, “The IT upheaval introduced by Rajiv Gandhi lifted 24 crore individuals over the destitution line. It is the BJP which is wading into controversy by changing the name of Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award. We have not changed any name… We have no issue with an honor being named after Prime Minister Narendra Modi for his commitment to GST and demonetisation.”

Classification of Banks

Banks may be classified into the following categories:

  1. Central bank:

It is the apex bank which regulates the entire banking system and maintain monetary stability in the country. It is the banker to all other banks and to government.

2. Commercial bank:

These bank collect demand deposits.they allows withdraw of money through cheque etc.

3. Development Bank:

The bank are set up to support industry growth and development. They provide long term credit to industry and render support and advisory services.

4. Indigenous bankers:

Banking units which operate on traditional lines are called indigenous bankers. They are known as native bank & primitive bank etc

5. Scheduled bank:

Banks whose paip up capital and reserves are aa per RBI guidelines and which are included in the second schedule of the RBI act 1934 are scheduled bank

6. Non scheduled bank:

they are commercial bank which are not included in the second schedule bank of the act 1934.

7. Agriculture bank:

Banks which provide financial assistance to agriculture activities are called agriculture bank.

8. Regional rural bank:

they are bank operating in rural areas providing banking services to the rural population.

9. Co-operative bank:

they are bank operating on the basis of cooperative principles and registered under societies registration act.

10. Exchange bank:

they are bank who deal in foreign exchange and specialise in financing foreign trade.

11. Saving bank:

savings bank collect the saving of people. Their primary objective is to promote and collect saving from small deposits.

Social media

social media is a computer based technology that facilities the sharing of idea’s thought, and information through the building of virtual network and Communities.


There are currently 3.78billion social media users worldwide. Among UD adult,

84percent of those aged 18_19

81 percent of those aged 30_49

73 percent of those aged 60_64

45 percent of those aged 65 and above are active social media users.

#Advantages of social media:

. Brand awareness

.Brand reputation

.Cost effective

.Website traffic


.Customer interaction

.Targets audience

.Brand loyalty

#Disadvantage of social media:


.Ineffective use


Types of social media:

social media media may take the form of a variety of tech- enabled activities. These activities include photo sharing, blogging, social gaming, social network, video,sharing, business network, virtual world, review, and much more.

even government and politicians utilizes social media to engage with constituents and voters.

Example of social media:

while social media has its positive side, many point to the platform and call out negative featured, likening it’s overuse to an addiction.

some contest it contribute to inattentiveness, stress and jealousy.

1.Facebook ( 2.74billions users)

2. youtube (2.29billions users)

3. sino weibo (511million users)

4. Qq(617millions users)

5. Tiktok (689billions users)

6. What’s app(1.21billion users)

7. Instagram (1.22billions usres)

International Youth Day 2021

The first International Youth Day was observed on 12 August 2000. It was based on a recommendation made by the World Conference of Ministers responsible for youth in Lisbon to the UN General Assembly. The International Youth Day is celebrated through various awareness campaigns concerts and events to bring to notice the socio-economic and socio-political issues that the youth in every nation face.

International Youth Day 2021
International Youth Day 2021

International Youth’s day 2021 Theme:

Each year, the United Nations decides a theme that is relevant to all global communities and citizens. This year’s theme is “Transforming Food Systems: Youth Innovation for Human and Planetary Health”. According to the United Nations, this year’s theme highlights the crucial need for “inclusive support mechanisms that ensure youth innovators to amplify efforts collectively and individually to restore the planet and protect life while integrating biodiversity in the transformation of food systems.” Along with this, other challenges — climate change, healthcare, social inclusion, and conservation of biodiversity — will also be addressed.

Youths are the future
Youths are the future

On its website, the united nation also stated, “Through youth education, engagement, innovation, and entrepreneurial solutions, this year’s International Youth Day aims to provide a platform for young people to continue the momentum from the ECOSOC Youth Forum in the lead up to the high-level Food Systems Summit.”


UN Secretary-General’s message for International Youth’s day 2021

UN Secretary-General António Guterres said that youngsters were on the “frontlines of the struggle to build a better future for all”. In a video message, he said that the highlight of this year’s International Youth Day will be on “solutions developed by young innovators to address challenges to our food systems”. Mr. Guterres, however, added that “young people cannot do it on their own. They need allies to make sure they are engaged, included and understood.” Before ending his message, he urged everyone “to guarantee young people a seat at the table as we build a world based on inclusive, fair, and sustainable development for all”

International Youth day Message from António Guterres (UN Secretary-General):https://youtu.be/pOfsGjC21Fs (Watch the video here)

Further information about this year’s theme: “Transforming food systems: Youth innovation for human and planetary health.” 

Etiquette for public speaking

public speaking is commonly understood as face to face speaking between individual and an audience for the purpose of communication.

The following are the basis etiquette to be followed as a public speaker:

  1. Preparation

Know you stuff! The best thing is you can do is to be overwhelmingly, thoroughly and completely prepared and in mastery of your material.

2. Always thank the introducer and greet the audience

before beginning your speech, it is polite to thank the person who introduced you and to greet the audience making a special greetings to dignitaries, government officials and other special attendees. Remember your were invited and consider it us privilege.

3. Do not apologize for lack of preparation

there is no substitute for preparedness however there are time when preparation is not possible.

4. Eliminate distracting habits and verbal crutches

those uhs, and ums can be very distracting and annoying. Practice your speech and record it us to identify verbal crutches.

5. Every gesture, look, motion, and sounds should have purpose

although body movement can enhance a message, movement that is made fir the sole purpose of movement appears unnatural and awkward. Use hand and body movement to emphasize a pint or to help the audience visualize.

6. Do not lose eye contact

some talks are made to be read, others are not. Whether your notes are for reference only or meant to be read, poor eye contact is distracting.good eye contact is a learned skill practice

7. Do not thank audience

As children we were taught that it is polite to say thank you. Is still is but after speech it is erroneously used to fill in the space after the last word has been uttered.

“Not all men” – yes, all men.

– Sasthika Das

Women do know that, of course not all men are assaulters or sexual abusers. However, how are we supposed to know which ones aren’t? How are we supposed to know who is saying hello in a friendly manner, or who actually just needs directions as opposed to just wanting to harass us? Women mostly assume the worst since they have most of the times, assumed the best. A stranger asking for directions that made her stop and give them, ended up following her because he mistook her kindness for interest. That man she casually chatted with at the bar when she thought he was being nice, ended up forcing himself on her.

We are not talking about men as individuals, we are talking about structural issues- patriarchal society, institutions, systems. For example, imagine you got stung by a bee as a child which caused you to have a fear of bees. Whenever you saw a bee swarming towards you, you would flee as fast as you can or shriek in horror or even hide behind someone to shield yourself, regardless of the bee’s intention to sting you or not. This is the same for women all over the world. They grow up in a patriarchal world, being told what they are capable of or how they should behave, being exploited and oppressed, being abused. Just like being stung by bees, we are stung by men. Since, we do not know what their intentions are, we are afraid of every single man.

We must never forget that one benefits from privilege by being part of a group, not because of anything they have done to earn or deserve it. Just by being a man, you are more privileged in a society than a woman. Similarly, for example, by being white, one is more privileged than people of color. These are accidents of nature- you did nothing to earn or deserve such privilege. When we do not acknowledge this, we are part of the problem.

When you are removing yourself from the discussions about the oppression of women by using the “not all men” slogan, you are the problem. When you interrupt a discussion on misogyny/rape culture/sexism to let us know that you are not like these men, you silence women and men having these discussions and derail the conversion from its initial purpose.

Most women AND men are assaulted by men. The fact that you never assaulted or harassed a woman or man, doesn’t negate the fact that most perpetrators of assault are men. This isn’t about you or your ego. Not assaulting someone or harassing someone is the bare minimum required by humans.

The saying “not all men” is a part of systematic and internalized patriarchy. This is the sad reality and the gateway to finding a solution only starts with the realization of this predicament.

Book Review: Ponniyin Selvan, By Kalki Krishnamurthy.

Ponniyin Selvan (The Son of Ponni) is a historical novel by Kalki Krishnamurthy, written in Tamil. In five volumes, or about 2210 pages. The simplest explanation of this novel is that it’s historical fiction about the Chola dynasty, specifically, the royal succession from Rajendra Chola to his younger son Raja Raja Chola (but with a brief interlude of Raja Raja’s uncle Uthamar Chola’s rule). That’s also a grossly inadequate explanation. The best description of Ponniyin Selvan comes from another book, The Princess Bride, in which the narrator’s father explains that the book-within-book The Princess Bride is about: “Fencing. Fighting. Torture. Poison. True love. Hate. Revenge. Giants. Hunters. Bad men. Good men. Beautiful ladies. Snakes. Spiders. Beasts of all natures and descriptions. Pain. Death. Brave men. Coward men. Strongest men. Chases. Escapes. Lies. Truths. Passion. Miracles.” The book took more than three years to write. Kalki visited Sri Lanka three times to gather information for it.

 Ponniyin Selvan is widely considered by many to be the greatest novel ever written in Tamil literature. It was first published as a series in the Kalki, a Tamil language magazine, during the 1950s and was later integrated into a novel. The craze for the series which was published weekly was such that it elevated the magazine circulation to reach a staggering figure of 71,366 copies – no mean achievement in a newly independent India.

 Even today, the novel has a cult following and fan base among people of all generations. The book continues to be admired and garners critical acclaim for its tightly woven plot, vivid narration, the wit of the dialogue, and how the power struggle and intrigues of the Chola empire were depicted. This was originally published in Tamil, but thanks to the translation by C.V.Karthik Narayanan, non-Tamil reading people can enjoy this classic work. People who can read Tamil have certified that this translation is excellent. Though this book is quite lengtly, (6 books, each of about 300 pages), it is a page turner.

A film and a separate web series adaptation of the Novel is in production and is directed by the renowned Indian filmmaker Mani Ratna.

History behind the fiction

The magnum opus of Kalki, the Ponniyin Selvan however being imaginary the plot unfurls dependent on some notable realities and characters. Subsequently center around the set of experiences behind the fiction.

With the development of middle age Chozha realm established by Vijayalaya Chozha, the Chozha domain spreads over by catching the Pallavas and the Kongu realm. Later on, his replacements (Parantaka I, Aditakarikala pseudonym Aditya II and Rajarajachozha) do expound the tradition with the triumph over Banas, the Ganges, the Pandya, and the King of Ceylon. Toward the finish of the standard of Parantaka I, the Chozha realm sets about for destructions of elimination in view of Gandaraditya, who was a Shaivite not keen on administering the realm. Thus Gandaraditya reluctant to be a ruler, his siblings Rajathitha and Arinjaya both incapable to be delegated after him, Sundarachozha (Paranthaka II), Arinjaya’s child has been enthroned as a Chozha Emperor. Sundarachozha who was remarkably attractive has administered very well up until he turned out to be lethally sick and laid up because of loss of motion. Aditakarikala, Rajaraja and Kundavai are his kids.

Aditakarikala as the senior child and an obvious beneficiary of the Chozha Empire is delegated as ruler, however his life has finished in a strange passing by virtue of the bad form at the sambuvarayar maaligai in Kadambur. Uttama Chozha (Madurantaka) child of Gandaraditya and Sembian Mahadevi managed for a time of 12 years however he was reluctant to be delegated. Then, at that point Rajarajachozha enthroned after his demise and his rule is a brilliant time for the Chozha Empire as it was seen with the best flourishing, wonder and exceptional popularity.

The wellsprings of verifiable data for PS have experienced stone engravings, copper plates and a large group of books. A stone section in the Thanjavur Periya Koil, Tanjore with the accompanying engraving expressed as, “The respected senior sister of Rajarajachozha, the partner of Vandiyadevan Azwar Paranthakar Kundavaiyar” actually exists. A book named, ‘History of Later Chozhas’ has alluded about Vandiyathevan, who was a Bana sovereign showing that his was a genuine chronicled character as unfurled in the masterpiece of Kalki. A stone engraving has referenced the names of the backstabbers, for example, Ravidasan and engravings likewise was found giving data about different other rulers’ standard. The copper plates at Anbil and Thiruvalangadu have been noticed expressing, “The Chola public were sharp that after Sundarachozha, Arulmozhivarman ought to climb the seat and rule their nation.” But Arulmozhivarman surrendered his privileges to regard his uncle Uttama Chozha, the child of Gandaraditya and astutely made him to enthrone as a King of Chozha Empire.


It is obviously, somewhat imaginary. Still it is enlivening to have the plot about some firm dutiful connections that were esteemed and protected. It is truly gladdening to understand that the men in the Chozha tradition remained together and battled their shared adversaries. None of the Emperors appears to have had the greed and ache for throning at the penance or enduring of their own family. Most likely the rulers were yearning for extension of the realm however with ethical quality again as an uprightness. The epic explains ethics suchlike dedication, kinship and love. Intrinsically, the ladies people of Tamil culture praise to the sky statures for penance and virtuousness however some might be clearly unimportant.

The preeminent basic certain is to serve mankind in every conceivable mean. As and when the brain and the heart go together, resistance and love embraced, and moral obligation to serve the humankind remains maintained.

BLOGGING vs VLOGGING – Major Differences!

One of the hottest debates in the digital world is blogging vs vlogging, both blogging and vlogging can help businesses and individuals grow their brand and make money online. The good thing about the digital space is that anyone can start blogging or vlogging. The startup costs, so to speak, are minimal. However, you have to have a strategy in place to succeed, as there’s tons of competition.

As there is a rapid rise in online video content, vlogging is also becoming a good option to generate income. But is it better than blogging? Let’s learn in this detailed blogging vs vlogging comparison.

What is a Blog?

Originally called a weblog, Blogs can be standalone websites or part of another website. Blogs can feature other media, too, like pictures, videos, audio clips, in addition to text. Just how you read op-eds in the newspaper, blogs are spaces for people to express their opinion or share their knowledge. Blogs are often created and managed by individuals but are also popular on business websites. People who write blog posts are called bloggers. Blogs typically contain dynamic links to other online content and may also include interactive or community engagement components such as a comments section. Blogs started out primarily as text documents, but today’s far more sophisticated blogs often feature dynamic visuals and videos.

What is a Vlog?

A vlog, or video log, is the video equivalent of a blog. Like blogs, most vlogs target a niche audience that shares common interests and needs. While vlogs can and should be supported by text or metadata, the star of a vlog is the person or people talking on the video, everything that’s written in a blog presented in video format with vocals and visuals.

Interestingly, the term vlog came about the same time YouTube became popular, which is the early 2000s. It’s not surprising as YouTube basically gave rise to vlogging. Just like blogs, vlogs can be related to a business or an individual.

As for the video content, it can be anything. From scientific data to personal stories to tutorials, vlog encompasses anything and everything you could think of finding on the internet.

Key Differences between Blog and Vlog

The key differences between blogging and vlogging are the degree to which the content creator uses video as well as where the content is hosted. If you love talking to people and feel comfortable on camera—and don’t necessarily want to build a website—vlogging may be best for you. If you’re a person who excels at the written word and wants to create your own website, blogging may be right for you.

Many people are choosing to blog and vlog as they find that using both text-based and video-based content helps them reach the widest audience possible.


The most important thing in blogging vs vlogging comparison is which niche is more popular? Where is the traffic?

Video content is now certainly more popular than textual format. Video is slated to comprise a whopping 82% of the entire internet traffic. This is why video has become an extremely important marketing medium for all digital platforms.

In terms of popularity, vlogs may have a bigger potential audience just because of the nature of the media. For instance, YouTube has two billion users who watch one billion hours of videos every day.

With all those stats, video content has more outreach than a blog. That said, in certain scenarios, a blog may perform better than a vlog. Again, it depends on the niche and the audience as to what media they prefer.

Also, blogs now also feature videos regularly for this very reason. The richer the media, the more audience you can cater to. Many bloggers also make vlogs and use them in their blog posts. Others use videos from other creators to optimize their blogs and give it a visual feel.


Dollars stack close-up Stock Photo by ©svl861 21072415

Monetization isn’t that different for a blog or a vlog, but the level of monetization may vary. Most blogs and vlogs make money through advertisements. However, vlogs rely more on advertisements than blogs and perhaps make good money from it. You can also make money blogging by using affiliate links. You work with affiliate marketing programs, such as Amazon Associates Program, and earn commission every time someone purchases something with your affiliate link.

Vlogs can also employ affiliate links in their text descriptions, but it remains more popular for blogs.

Another method of monetization is sponsorship, which is more common for vlogs. You basically get a sponsor who pays you to mention their brand or product in the video to promote it.

A lot of vloggers make money through sponsorships, but that doesn’t kick in until you have a lot of subscribers or followers.


The evolution of Internet traffic - Maurizio NaldiMaurizio Naldi

The audience for both pretty much depends on the niche you’re pursuing. However, some demographics might be more inclined toward reading. Similarly, some people respond to visual data better.

For instance, if your audience is young, perhaps people under 20, vlogging may be a much more viable solution than blogging. Younger demographics usually prefer watching videos over reading articles.


There are pros and cons to both as we’ve covered in the differences. If there’s one thing that’s common for both blogs and vlogs is that both require a lot of hard work and give you some tough competition. However, you can easily stand out with original content that gives people what they are looking for.

Importance of Learning a New Language

It’s not easy but it is indeed very interesting to be able to speak a tongue totally different from your own, it is a completely euphoric feeling (at least for me). Learning any language is very tough it requires time and effort but above all what you need is patience; yes, patience. You cannot just cram a language, you need a deeper understanding, you need to feel the emotions underlying in the words that are spoken. When you learn any new language you become a little closer to the culture, traditions and the people of that tongue. If you start learning a language part-time along with other academic or work commitments it would get pretty difficult and sometimes you would feel like quitting just to have some time for yourself because language demands time.

But here are you few reasons why you absolutely should not quit:

Learn about new cultures: language learning opens up doors to learning about a whole new culture. Language is the first step in bridging the gap between cultures. If you are keen on learning about a countries cultural practices you should start by learning the local language as it brings you closer to the traditional practices and develop a better understanding of their culture.

Photo by David Dibert on Pexels.com

Connect with people: making friends (something I am not very good at, but I do try even if those people find me weird). People are more comfortable in speaking their own tongue; when someone tries to talk with me of course I will prefer Hindi because I am used to it and feel more connected to the person (if it were me I would write this blog in hinglish; but, anyways, I need to show my English skills()). This applies to all the people around the world, so what is the better way to connect with people other than speaking in their native tongue (plus it’s sure to make you popular, like ‘wow! They speak our language’; everyone wants a foreigner friend ¬‿¬).

Travelling: have a heart of wanderlust? Then this is kind of self-explanatory. When you visit a country, knowing their local language helps you in enjoying the things that regular foreigners cannot understand as you have absorbed their culture and understand their lifestyle better.

Photo by Casia Charlie on Pexels.com

Now let’s go back to business. We have talked about all the fun part, now let’s dive into the academic or working aspect of it.

Career advancement: as I mention in my ‘Five reasons why internships are so important’ employers look for more than just your academic achievements. They want something more outside of it. Then what is better than throw in a language into the CV of yours. (They themselves won’t know the language, but want you to know something extra. Why the world work this way, why are they not satisfied with your degree alone ¯\_༼ ಥ ‿ ಥ ༽_/¯. But you will certainly have a benefit; curse all you want and they won’t understand any of it ( ˘ ͜ʖ ˘)) .

Learning a language helps in improving your communication skills: it certainly has improved my communication skills as now I am able to easily (better than before) communicate with people around me without getting hesitant.

Improves listening skills: you need to be a good listener in order to learn any language. Language learning sharpens your ears as you become more accustomed to it. It certainly helped me, because I am always paying attention to my surroundings now and have become more observant.

Gaining confidence: who doesn’t feel proud of themselves if they know a language others don’t know. I certainly do, I even pat my back because of it ¬‿¬. But in all seriousness, we do gain confidence in ourselves whenever we do something new AND fruitful. (Don’t go around gaining confidence in stuff like ‘hey, I can control my poop for an hour! Can you?? ( ͝סּ ͜ʖ͡סּ)’. I don’t even know if this is humanly possible but IT IS something new BUT NOT fruitful. You’ll just hurt yourself in the end (╭☞⚆ᗜ⚆)╭☞).

Sorry for a shitty blog ┐(^▂ ^ ;)┌.


RBI appointed Neeraj chopra as…

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has started a public awareness campaign to warn people against digital banking frauds.
  • For the new campaign, RBI has roped in Olympic Gold medalist Neeraj Chopra.
  • The central bank has asked people to be a little cautious as doing so can protect them from a lot of troubles. A little caution takes care of a lot of trouble.
  • The campaign sees Chopra urging users to not divulge details like OTP, CVV number and ATM PIN in front of anyone.
  • So Reserve bank of india appointed NEERAJ CHOPRA for banking fraud awareness campaign.

Family background of NEERAJ CHOPRA.

Chopra was born to Satish Kumar and Saroj Devi on 24 December 1997, in Khandra village, Panipat district, Haryana. He has two sisters and his family is largely involved in agriculture. He graduated from Dayanand AngloVedic College in Chandigarh, and is currently pursuing a Bachelor of Arts from Lovely Professional University in Jalandhar, Punjab.

Who is Neeraj chopra ?

Neeraj Chopra (born 24 December 1997) is an Indian track and field athlete who competes in the javelin throw. A Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) in the Indian Army, Chopra is the first track and field athlete to win a gold medal for India at the Olympics. In his debut at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, Chopra won the gold medal on 7 August 2021 with a throw of 87.58m.

Chopra participated in the 2018 Commonwealth Games and the 2018 Asian Games, being the flag-bearer in the latter and winning gold medals in both. In his debut at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, Chopra won the gold medal on 7 August 2021 with a throw of 87.58m in his second attempt. As of 2021.

he is one of only two Indians to have won an individual Olympic gold medal (the other being Abhinav Bindra), as well as the youngest-ever Indian gold medalist in an individual event and the only one to have won gold in his Olympic debut.

Award and Recognition.

Arjuna Award – 2018

Vishisht Seva Medal (VSM) – 2020 Republic Day honours

Teacher’s Day

When and Why teacher’s Day is celebrated?

Teacher’s day is celebrated on 5th September every year, because of the Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, who was the former president of India and he was born on this day.So to honour the memory of India’s first President and to commemorate the importance of teachers in our lives this day is celebrated every year.

About Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan

He was born on 5th September 1888. He was a great person, having many qualities in him ,he was a philosopher, educationalist, humanist as well as a religious thinker. He also wrote some of the books and out of them many were written on religion and philosophy topics .He is remarked as one of the greatest thinkers of the 20th century ,and he is also remembered for introducing western philosophies into the Indian society,he was also appointed as a Spalding professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics at the University of Oxford which is a great achievement,not only this he was nominated 16 times for the Nobel Prize in Literature, and another 11 times for the Nobel Peace Prize.

Importance of teachers

“If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.” – Dr APJ Abdul Kalam.With this wonderfully written quote we can see that teachers hold the same position as our parents have. We learn many a things from teachers not only about studies but also moral values, social etiquettes and what not , they are the most important building block of our personality .In success of every person’s life teacher play a very important role.

How do children celebrate this day?

Children in schools organise numerous of activities on this day ,to thank their teacher for playing such an important role in their life effortlessly. They thank them by giving Thankyou cards, by organising music and dance competitions,also giving speeches in order to make teacher’s feel special .


Therefore ,the teachers day is celebrated to convey a message that every teacher is important, and without them we cannot attain anything in our life.So this day work as a realisation day for every student or person who neglect their teacher’s opinion or efforts to make them feel how relentlessly a teacher do his or her job.

Managerial decision making

Managers are constantly making decisions, and those decisions often have significant impacts and implications for both the organization and its stakeholders. Managerial decision-making is often characterized by complexity, incomplete information, and time constraints, and there is rarely one right answer.


Conflict management is the practice of being able to identify and handle conflicts sensibly, fairly, and efficiently. Since conflicts in a business are a natural part of the workplace, it is important that there are people who understand conflicts and know how to resolve them.

Decision making

Decision-making can be defined as the process of selecting a right and effective course of action from two or more alternatives for the purpose of achieving a desired result. Decision-making is the essence of management.


The previous article dealt in detail about innate immunity. This article is about another type of immunity known as the acquired immunity.

The acquired immunity, unlike the innate immunity, is not present from birth. As the name suggests, it is the immunity that we acquire throughout our lives. This immunity is acquired through experience and learning. In order to understand the previous statement, it is essential to know about primary and secondary infections.

The first encounter with the foreign agent is known as the primary infection. Since this pathogen is new to the immune system, it does not know what to do and hence it produces a generalized response through innate immunity. Once the pathogen is driven away from the body, certain information related to this encounter is stored in the memory of the immune system.

If the same or a similar pathogen enters into the body, the memory is triggered and a strong & quick response is generated which kicks away the pathogen faster than before. Hence the immune system has learned to defend from a new pathogen through learning. This is known to be a secondary infection.

These two combine together to form the natural active acquired immunity which is the immunity acquired as a result of diseases. In most of these cases, innate immunity fails and we get sick. During the recovery phase, the immunity is good and the activity is stored. Hence we may not get these diseases for a long period. The following diseases fall into this category:-

  • Polio
  • Chicken pox
  • Measles
  • Influenza
  • Common cold (not effective since there are several strains of viruses)

There are two characteristics in this which are:-

  • Latent period= time in which no response is seen (required for activation)
  • Negative response= time in which there is reduced response

The second type is the artificial active acquired immunity. This is similar to that of the first type with a slight change. In this case, we are artificially introducing pathogens into the body. But these pathogens have undergone a major modification. Their disease-causing ability has been genetically removed. Still, these are non-self for the immune system but they do not cause infections. Hence the immune system produces responses similar to that of natural active. These artificially induced pathogens are called vaccines. These help to induce immunity in our bodies. There are three types of vaccines:-

  1. Live
  2. Dead
  3. Products

I will be writing a separate article regarding vaccines.

The third type is natural passive acquired immunity. This is the immunity that we get from a natural source. You might have the answer. It is indeed the milk from the mother. Breast milk is rich in immunity cells especially immunoglobulins. A better idea will be in the article upon the immunity cells. This can provide immunity to the newborn up to 3 years but after three months it deteriorates since the child starts to develop immunity.

The last type is artificial passive acquired immunity. In this type, we get immunity (immunoglobulin) from an artificial source. These immune cells play a major role in identifying and binding to the pathogens and aid in phagocytosis. Don’t worry this process will be covered in the subsequent articles. There are three types in this namely

  • Hyperimmune sera- from animal or human source
  • Convalescent sera- from a recovering patient
  • Pooled human gamma globulin- from a healthy person

It is important to understand that the word active refers that the body is developing immunity and passive refers that we are providing immunity. The words artificial and natural refer to the source. There is one called combinational immunity (active+passive) in which the passive immunity provides protection until the active immunity activates (latent response).

Till now we have seen several types of immunity, the next article will be on the immune cells, the guys who are behind all these.


Survival of the innovative

Its easy to give birth but to make it grow into a complete institution is a whole different journey!

Innovation is a Necessity for Survival

Innovation is defined as an idea, method, process, product, or practical solution to meet a need. It implies research, analysis, creativity, learning, and continuous improvement.  In the modern era, innovation is associated with computers, digital tools, automation, and technology, but it doesn’t always have to involve any of these things. Innovation could simply be a new solution or approach to a problem that a business association or chambers have not utilized before. It could be a new perspective on how to look at a problem.

Some sectors, particularly related to healthcare, personal care and hygiene, certain food industry segments, cleaning supplies, information and communications technology, big data analytics, drones, health technology, education technology, e-commerce, delivery services, artificial intelligence, and financial technology are thriving during this pandemic crisis’ economy. Others are questioning their business models and value proposition to innovate, adapt, and survive. Informal sectors in many emerging markets are incentivized with amnesty programs to move to the legally registered and tax-paying formal sector to be able to take advantage of government economic protection measures.

Inclusive Private Sector Engagement is a Must and Part of Good Governance :

As governments manage the crisis, each in their own manner, they struggle to balance the preservation of life and integrity of their health systems with economic activity and productivity. Many countries are operating under a state of emergency, granting them unprecedented powers. Some are placing an emphasis on transparency, accountability, and collaboration. Others are seizing the opportunity to create state-run monopolies and/or curtail rights and freedoms.

Some countries are bullying the private sector, blackmailing them to contribute to national economic relief funds, threatening them covertly with nationalization, or, imposing tough measures to safeguard employees at businesses’ expense. Other countries are only protecting select sectors or large enterprises, forgetting that small and medium enterprises are the engines of most economic activity. Others are using quasi-government business institutions to rubber-stamp government decisions, allowing them to claim private sector engagement as they roll out economic relief and recovery efforts.

Inclusive and diverse private sector engagement in formulating economic relief and recovery plans is a key strategy in managing the crisis successfully by any government. Business associations and chambers have a responsibility towards their members and sectors to ensure this level of engagement.  They also have the responsibility to provide practical solutions, raise awareness, garner support, effectively advocate, in addition to raising red flags pointing out problems.

some essentials of innovation :

Discover :

Innovation also requires actionable and differentiated insights—the kind that excite customers and bring new categories and markets into being. How do companies develop them? Genius is always an appealing approach, if you have or can get it. Fortunately, innovation yields to other approaches besides exceptional creativity.

The rest of us can look for insights by methodically and systematically scrutinizing three areas: a valuable problem to solve, a technology that enables a solution, and a business model that generates money from it. You could argue that nearly every successful innovation occurs at the intersection of these three elements. Companies that effectively collect, synthesize, and “collide” them stand the highest probability of success. “If you get the sweet spot of what the customer is struggling with, and at the same time get a deeper knowledge of the new technologies coming along and find a mechanism for how these two things can come together, then you are going to get good returns,” says Alcoa chairman and chief executive Klaus Kleinfeld.

The insight-discovery process, which extends beyond a company’s boundaries to include insight-generating partnerships, is the lifeblood of innovation. We won’t belabor the matter here, though, because it’s already the subject of countless articles and books.2 One thing we can add is that discovery is iterative, and the active use of prototypes can help companies continue to learn as they develop, test, validate, and refine their innovations. Moreover, we firmly believe that without a fully developed innovation system encompassing the other elements described in this article, large organizations probably won’t innovate successfully, no matter how effective their insight-generation process is. 

Evolve :

Business-model innovations—which change the economics of the value chain, diversify profit streams, and/or modify delivery models—have always been a vital part of a strong innovation portfolio. As smartphones and mobile apps threaten to upend oldline industries, business-model innovation has become all the more urgent: established companies must reinvent their businesses before technology-driven upstarts do. Why, then, do most innovation systems so squarely emphasize new products? The reason, of course, is that most big companies are reluctant to risk tampering with their core business model until it’s visibly under threat. At that point, they can only hope it’s not too late.

Leading companies combat this troubling tendency in a number of ways. They up their game in market intelligence, the better to separate signal from noise. They establish funding vehicles for new businesses that don’t fit into the current structure. They constantly reevaluate their position in the value chain, carefully considering business models that might deliver value to priority groups of new customers. They sponsor pilot projects and experiments away from the core business to help combat narrow conceptions of what they are and do. And they stress-test newly emerging value propositions and operating models against countermoves by competitors.

Amazon does a particularly strong job extending itself into new business models by addressing the emerging needs of its customers and suppliers. In fact, it has included many of its suppliers in its customer base by offering them an increasingly wide range of services, from hosted computing to warehouse management. Another strong performer, the Financial Times, was already experimenting with its business model in response to the increasing digitalization of media when, in 2007, it launched an innovative subscription model, upending its relationship with advertisers and readers. “We went against the received wisdom of popular strategies at the time,” says Caspar de Bono, FT board member and managing director of B2B. “We were very deliberate in getting ahead of the emerging structural change, and the decisions turned out to be very successful.” In print’s heyday, 80 percent of the FT’s revenue came from print advertising. Now, more than half of it comes from content, and two-thirds of circulation comes from digital subscriptions.

Scale :

Some ideas, such as luxury goods and many smartphone apps, are destined for niche markets. Others, like social networks, work at global scale. Explicitly considering the appropriate magnitude and reach of a given idea is important to ensuring that the right resources and risks are involved in pursuing it. The seemingly safer option of scaling up over time can be a death sentence. Resources and capabilities must be marshaled to make sure a new product or service can be delivered quickly at the desired volume and quality. Manufacturing facilities, suppliers, distributors, and others must be prepared to execute a rapid and full rollout.

For example, when TomTom launched its first touch-screen navigational device, in 2004, the product flew off the shelves. By 2006, TomTom’s line of portable navigation devices reached sales of about 5 million units a year, and by 2008, yearly volume had jumped to more than 12 million. “That’s faster market penetration than mobile phones” had, says Harold Goddijn, TomTom’s CEO and cofounder. While TomTom’s initial accomplishment lay in combining a well-defined consumer problem with widely available technology components, rapid scaling was vital to the product’s continuing success. “We doubled down on managing our cash, our operations, maintaining quality, all the parts of the iceberg no one sees,” Goddijn adds. “We were hugely well organized.”

Mobilize :

How do leading companies stimulate, encourage, support, and reward innovative behavior and thinking among the right groups of people? The best companies find ways to embed innovation into the fibers of their culture, from the core to the periphery.

They start back where we began: with aspirations that forge tight connections among innovation, strategy, and performance. When a company sets financial targets for innovation and defines market spaces, minds become far more focused. As those aspirations come to life through individual projects across the company, innovation leaders clarify responsibilities using the appropriate incentives and rewards.

The Discovery Group, for example, is upending the medical and life-insurance industries in its native South Africa and also has operations in the United Kingdom, the United States, and China, among other locations. Innovation is a standard measure in the company’s semiannual divisional scorecards—a process that helps mobilize the organization and affects roughly 1,000 of the company’s business leaders. “They are all required to innovate every year,” Discovery founder and CEO Adrian Gore says of the company’s business leaders. “They have no choice.”

Organizational changes may be necessary, not because structural silver bullets exist—we’ve looked hard for them and don’t think they do—but rather to promote collaboration, learning, and experimentation. Companies must help people to share ideas and knowledge freely, perhaps by locating teams working on different types of innovation in the same place, reviewing the structure of project teams to make sure they always have new blood, ensuring that lessons learned from success and failure are captured and assimilated, and recognizing innovation efforts even when they fall short of success.

Internal collaboration and experimentation can take years to establish, particularly in large, mature companies with strong cultures and ways of working that, in other respects, may have served them well. Some companies set up “innovation garages” where small groups can work on important projects unconstrained by the normal working environment while building new ways of working that can be scaled up and absorbed into the larger organization. NASA, for example, has ten field centers. But the space agency relies on the Ames Research Center, in Silicon Valley, to maintain what its former director, Dr. Pete Worden, calls “the character of rebels” to function as “a laboratory that’s part of a much larger organization.”

Say hastily,” MBA Or PGDM “?

Are you able to say quickly what you choose after your graduation, MBA or PGDM?

I share some knowledge about these courses that I know from various research or Webinars.

So, let’s talk about the exams in more detail.

What is MBA?

We know that full form MBA is, “Master of Business Administration”. It is a post-graduate degree in management, offered by various institutes across India or abroad, also.

I am doing pharmacy so, let’s talk about what is the opportunities given by MBA if I choose this field.

After doing MBA there will be various openings in different sectors like,” Marketing, HR, International business, finance, Pharma marketing, healthcare management, supply chain management etc.”

From there, you can achieve various career options that help you a lot.

MBA is a 2 years course in which 1 year is plane MBA and in the next year, the training will be given to the learners.

What is PGDM?

PGDM means” Post Graduate Diploma in Management” , is a diploma course and not a degree. PGDM program is offered by the autonomous institute also i.e.they is not affiliated with any university and by another institute also.

After doing the PGDM program the fence of various sectors are open for us it may be in, ” Marketing, HR, International Business, Supply Chain Management etc.”

Now, let’s look at the top college in India which offer MBA and PGDM programs.

Top colleges of MBA:-

College location Course offered
Symbiosis Institute of business management Pune MBA
NMIMS School of Business Management Mumbai MBA
IIHMR University JaipurMBA
Jamia Hamdard university DelhiMBA
Ramchandra institute of management Pune MBA

Top Colleges For PGDM:-

College Location Course offered
Xavier School of Management JamshedpurPGDM
Management development institute GurgaonPGDM
S.P.Jain Institute of Management & ResearchMumbaiPGDM
T.A.Pai management institute (TAPMI)ManipalPGDM
IES Management College & Research Centre MumbaiPGDM
MITCOIN Institute of Management PunePGDM
SIES College of Management Studies MumbaiPGDM
D.Y. Patil College PunePGDM

Admission Process:-

1)Graduation Score

2)Entrance test

3)Group discussion or personal interview.

Now, let’s look at the various entrance exam for admission.

Entrance Test For Admission:-

CAT – Common Admission Test

MAT – Management Aptitude Test

SNAP – Symbiosis National Aptitude Test

MAH CET – Maharashtra Common Entrance Test

and various other tests are also present which taken by them individually, by various other institutes like XAT – Xavier Aptitude Test etc.

From above we know that what is MBA or PGDM is, various institutes, but the main thing is to understand is,” How to prepare for an entrance test?”,” what is the syllabus for those entrance tests?”

Now we simply look at how to prepare for an entrance test .

Preparation For Entrance Test:-

Common subjects In these exams 

Quantitative Ability

Data Interpretation

Logical Resoning

Verbal Ability

These 4 subjects are common in these entrance examinations.

Data interpretation – It includes data is given in the form of tables, charts or graphs. In this section, it is tested that how candidates can interpret the given data and answer the question based on it.

Logical Reasoning –Logical or deductive reasoning involves using a given set of facts or data to deduce other facts by resoning logically. It involves drawing specific conclusions based on-premises.

Verbal Ability – verbal ability can be defined as making use of the essential components of the English language in order to effectively communicate in both spoken and written forms.

Quantitative Ability – Quantitative Ability tests the ability of a candidate to handle numerical data and solve numerical problems. It is one of those sections in CAT Exam which can be scoring, if the aspirant possesses good mathematical skills and has a way with numbers.

We have talked about much more circumstances about the MBA and PGDM courses. Now let’s move towards the next topic.

I know some of the best books, for preparing for the entrance exam, let’s have a look at those books:-

For Quantitative Aptitude:– Arun Sharma’s How to prepare for Quantitative Aptitude for CAT, Sarvesh Verma’s Quantum CAT etc.

For Verbal Ability& Reading Comprehension:– Arihant publication book, R.S.Aggarwal’s Modern approach to verbal & Non – Verbal Reasoning etc.

For Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning:- Arun Sharma’s How to prepare for Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning for CAT, NCERT Books etc.

Now, we will talk about the most interesting topic for everyone. i.e. the top colleges for management abroad. We all have a dream to do our higher studies abroad.

So, if you have to go abroad for your higher studies, first have looked at the top International colleges for management.

Top International Colleges For Management

Sr.No.Colleges Location
1IMD Business School Lausanne, Switzerland
2College Of William & Mary – Mason School of Business Williamsburg, Virginia
3Vlerick Business School Gent, Belgium
4CEIBS China Europe International Business School Shanghai, China

From above all the information, you all understand the basic knowledge about these courses.

There are various other Institute also which provides these course but I shared some popular institutes name that I know.

I am also fresher, so I tried my best to explain basic knowledge about this course, which will be very useful for beginners.👍

Now, we can say quickly what we choose after our graduation.

If you have to gain more details about these courses, so you can do the research or read other content also.

!Thank You!

WORDS : Changing the world

Words have always been impacting the world in one or the other ways, be it in written form or spoken. Literature has shaped the present world from a confined mindset to a mindset which accepts everything easily and fight logically.

Positive impacts

  • Words have definitely played a great role in bringing the world to a stage of minimal illogical practices prevailing in the ancient world such as Sati Pratha, racism and many more.
  • Words of wisdoms has educated the world and helped it to reach the technically equipped world. Definitely the credit goes to the people who imagined the impossible and had courage to bring it true.
  • Words of courage has most us the fundamental rights. Countries like India, South Africa have gained their freedom by the courageous words of their freedom fighters.
  • Philosophical words have made their way in understanding human emotions and valuing it that now every company has a Human Resources Department and they are able to target their potential clients.
  • Even words have entertained the world and made their way to everyone’s heart and helped most to get different perspectives on a single matter. Works of the great writers are still remembered even after years and is even relevant in modern world.

Negative impacts

  • Once spoken, the words won’t return
  • The biggest problems of the words are that once they are said or written, it can’t come back. So, most of the times it eventually hurts the sentiments of the people. The current world being the digital era, trolling becomes the centric problem for the people online. Tolling is nothing but harass words said online to damage the identity of the individual or group of people. Since, the trollers are behind the account, it seems easy for them to generate hate. These hate words can damage the mental peace of an individual, can break through their confidence, can lead them to depression and worst steps can be taken by them.
  • Words have the greatest power to influence the people and most people use them to take their works from others. Bad influence is a major issued faced by the present-day younger generation as they are mostly online and online is only filled by the influencers. Good influencers exists but bad ones too. Insisted of thinking logically and rational, most of the younger kids blindly follows the words. This needs to be changed in the digital world to let the world grow into the better version.

Thus, words are creating impact on each one of us. So, watch out the words, process it before allowing it to impact your mind. Neglect the harmful words and hit like for the useful words.