Shree Krishna Janmashtami

Shree Krishna Janmashtami, mostly famous as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is a yearly festival of the Hindu, which is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

According to the Hindu Luni-Solar calendar, the dark day of Shravan or Bhadrapada (the dark side) is the eighth day (Ashtami) (depending on whether the calendar selects the new moon or full moon day as the last day), which overlaps with the August / September of the Gregorian calendar.

It is a famous festival for the Vaishnavism of Hinduism in particular. According to the Bhagavata Purana (such as Rasa-Lila of Krishna-Lila), Krishna’s dance-drama laws, devotional singing, fasting, night vigil (night Jagran) and a festival (Mahotsav) until the midnight of Shree Krishna’s birth are part of the Janmashtami celebrations.

This festival is celebrated in Mathura and Vrindavan, also with Major Vaishnava and sectarian groups found in other states of India. The festival of Nandotsav takes place after the birth of Krishna Janmashtami, a celebration of the birth of the Nanda Baba community.

Importance of Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna is the son of Devaki and Vasudeva, and Hindus celebrate his birthday as Janmashtami, most notably the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition as the supreme personality of his god.

According to the Hindu tradition in Mathura, Janmashtami is celebrated when it is believed that Krishna was born, which is the midnight of the eighth day of the Bhadrapada month (which overlaps with August and September 3 in the Gregorian calendar).Krishna was born in a confused region. It was a time when violence was rampant, denial of liberty, evil everywhere, and his life threatened by his uncle, King Kansa. Soon after his birth in Mathura, his father, Vasudeva, adopted Krishna as the father of the Yamuna and his parents in Gokul and named him Nanda and Yashoda.This myth is held fast by the people, singing devotional songs of love towards Lord Krishna and celebrating vigil at night. The devotees break their fast by sharing food and sweets. Women draw small footprints outside the door and kitchen of their home, walking towards their home, symbolising Krishna going into their homes. Celebration of Krishna JanmashtamiMaharashtra Janmashtami FestivalJanmashtami (popularly known as “Gokulashtami” in Maharashtra) is celebrated in cities like Mumbai, Latur, Nagpur, and Pune. Every August / September, the day after Shri Krishna’s birth, Janmashtami is celebrated as Dahi Handi. The word means “crockpot.”The festival derives its name from the legend of Baby Krishna. He would steal and steal dairy products such as yogurt and butter, and people would hide their supplies without making it available to the baby. Krishna tries all kinds of creative ideas, like making human pyramids with his friends to break these high hanging pots.

This story is the theme of many reliefs on Hindu temples across India, and a collection of literature and dance-drama, symbolising the joyful innocence of children, the manifestation of a god in love and life. 

In Maharashtra and other western states of India, this Krishna myth is practiced as a community tradition in Janmashtami, where yogurt pots are hung high, sometimes with tall pillars or ropes hanging from the second or third floor of a building.

According to an annual tradition, groups of young men and boys known as “Govindas” roam around these hanging pots; climb over each other to form a human pyramid and then break the pot.

The girls surrounded these boys, cheering and cheering them on while dancing and singing. Spilled things are considered Prasada (ceremony offering). It is welcomed as a public spectacle, enthusiastic, and social event. 

There are youth groups from Govinda Pathaks, which compete specifically for prize money on Janmashtami day. These groups are called mandalas, and they roam around the local area, trying to break as many pots as possible every August.

Social celebrities and media attend the celebrations, and corporations sponsor part of the event. Govinda teams are offering cash and gifts, and according to the Times of India, in Mumbai alone in 2014, there were over 4,000 handicap hangings, and many Govinda teams took part. 

Gujarat and Rajasthan Janmashtami Festival

The people of Dwarka in Gujarat – who are believed to have established their kingdom – celebrate the festival with a tradition similar to that of Dahi Handi, known as Makhan handi (pot with freshly boiled butter).

Others perform folk dances, sing bhajans, and visit Krishna temples such as the Dwarkadhish Temple. In the Kutch district, farmers decorate their bullock carts and play Krishna ions, with group singing and dancing.

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Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

June 7, 2020 by ReadingJunction

In this article, you will read Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children. This includes Its information, Importance, Celebration in India.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

Essay on Krishna Janmashtami Festival for Students and Children in 1000+ Words

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Shree Krishna Janmashtami, mostly famous as Janmashtami or Gokulashtami, is a yearly festival of the Hindu, which is celebrated as the birthday of Lord Krishna, the eighth incarnation of Vishnu.

According to the Hindu Luni-Solar calendar, the dark day of Shravan or Bhadrapada (the dark side) is the eighth day (Ashtami) (depending on whether the calendar selects the new moon or full moon day as the last day), which overlaps with the August / September of the Gregorian calendar.

It is a famous festival for the Vaishnavism of Hinduism in particular. According to the Bhagavata Purana (such as Rasa-Lila of Krishna-Lila), Krishna’s dance-drama laws, devotional singing, fasting, night vigil (night Jagran) and a festival (Mahotsav) until the midnight of Shree Krishna’s birth are part of the Janmashtami celebrations.

This festival is celebrated in Mathura and Vrindavan, also with Major Vaishnava and sectarian groups found in other states of India. The festival of Nandotsav takes place after the birth of Krishna Janmashtami, a celebration of the birth of the Nanda Baba community.

Importance of Krishna Janmashtami

Shri Krishna is the son of Devaki and Vasudeva, and Hindus celebrate his birthday as Janmashtami, most notably the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition as the supreme personality of his god.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

According to the Hindu tradition in Mathura, Janmashtami is celebrated when it is believed that Krishna was born, which is the midnight of the eighth day of the Bhadrapada month (which overlaps with August and September 3 in the Gregorian calendar).

Krishna was born in a confused region. It was a time when violence was rampant, denial of liberty, evil everywhere, and his life threatened by his uncle, King Kansa. Soon after his birth in Mathura, his father, Vasudeva, adopted Krishna as the father of the Yamuna and his parents in Gokul and named him Nanda and Yashoda.

This myth is held fast by the people, singing devotional songs of love towards Lord Krishna and celebrating vigil at night. The devotees break their fast by sharing food and sweets. Women draw small footprints outside the door and kitchen of their home, walking towards their home, symbolising Krishna going into their homes. 

Celebration of Krishna Janmashtami

Maharashtra Janmashtami Festival

Janmashtami (popularly known as “Gokulashtami” in Maharashtra) is celebrated in cities like Mumbai, Latur, Nagpur, and Pune. Every August / September, the day after Shri Krishna’s birth, Janmashtami is celebrated as Dahi Handi. The word means “crockpot.”

The festival derives its name from the legend of Baby Krishna. He would steal and steal dairy products such as yogurt and butter, and people would hide their supplies without making it available to the baby. Krishna tries all kinds of creative ideas, like making human pyramids with his friends to break these high hanging pots.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

This story is the theme of many reliefs on Hindu temples across India, and a collection of literature and dance-drama, symbolising the joyful innocence of children, the manifestation of a god in love and life. 

In Maharashtra and other western states of India, this Krishna myth is practiced as a community tradition in Janmashtami, where yogurt pots are hung high, sometimes with tall pillars or ropes hanging from the second or third floor of a building.

According to an annual tradition, groups of young men and boys known as “Govindas” roam around these hanging pots; climb over each other to form a human pyramid and then break the pot.

The girls surrounded these boys, cheering and cheering them on while dancing and singing. Spilled things are considered Prasada (ceremony offering). It is welcomed as a public spectacle, enthusiastic, and social event. 

There are youth groups from Govinda Pathaks, which compete specifically for prize money on Janmashtami day. These groups are called mandalas, and they roam around the local area, trying to break as many pots as possible every August.https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlhttps://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.htmlSocial celebrities and media attend the celebrations, and corporations sponsor part of the event. Govinda teams are offering cash and gifts, and according to the Times of India, in Mumbai alone in 2014, there were over 4,000 handicap hangings, and many Govinda teams took part. 

Gujarat and Rajasthan Janmashtami Festival

The people of Dwarka in Gujarat – who are believed to have established their kingdom – celebrate the festival with a tradition similar to that of Dahi Handi, known as Makhan handi (pot with freshly boiled butter).

Others perform folk dances, sing bhajans, and visit Krishna temples such as the Dwarkadhish Temple. In the Kutch district, farmers decorate their bullock carts and play Krishna ions, with group singing and dancing. https://296d94cf3baa706586fe813fdb2ee569.safeframe.googlesyndication.com/safeframe/1-0-38/html/container.html

The carnival-style and playful poems and writings of Dayaram, a scholar of Vaishnavism’s Puthiya Marg, became popular in Gujarat and Rajasthan. 

Celebration of Janmashtami festival in Northern India

Janmashtami is the biggest festival in the Braz region of northern India, in cities like Madura where Krishna was born, and in Vrindavan where he grew up. Janmashtami is celebrated in the northern areas of Uttar Pradesh along with the Vaishnavas and others in the state viz: Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, and the Himalayas. Krishna temples are decorated and lit. They attract many visitors during the day. Devotees of Krishna perform devotional ceremonies and watch the night. 

The festival usually comes as the rainy season in northern India is short, with time to play on crops and in rural areas. In the Northern states, this festival is celebrated with the tradition of Raslila, which means “happiness, essence (rasa) of play (Lila).”

It is expressed as a solo or group dance and drama event in Janmashtami, in which Shri Krishna compositions are sung, along with a musical performance, where actors and audiences share and celebrate the play.

Shri Krishna’s childhood pranks and Radha-Krishna’s love affairs are especially famous. As per the findings of Christian Roy and other scholars, the Radha-Krishna romances are Hindu symbolism of the desire and love of the human soul, which is called Brahman for Divine Principle and Reality. 

In Jammu, a part of the celebration of Krishna Janmashtami is flying kites from the rooftops. 

Odisha and West Bengal Janamashtami Festival

The festival is also known as Sri Krishna Jayanti or Sri Jayanthi in the eastern state of Odisha, especially around Puri and in Nabadwip in West Bengal. People celebrate birth by fasting and worshiping until midnight. People recite the Bhagavata Purana from the 10th chapter, devoting it to the life of Krishna.

The day after that is called “Nanda Utsav” as Krishna’s adoptive parents Nanda and Yashoda had a joyful celebration. Upon this day, people break their fast and serve different cooked sweets after midnight. 

South India Janmashtami Festival

In Tamil Nadu, people decorate the soil with kolam (decorative pattern drawn with rice batter). Gita Govindam and other devotional songs are sung in praise of Krishna. They then draw Krishna’s footprints from the entrance of the house to the pooja room, which depicts Krishna’s entry into the home.

Bhagavad Gita recitation is also a popular technique. The offerings to Krishna include fruits and butter. The delicacies that are considered being Krishna’s favourites are carefully prepared.

The most important of them are Varkadai, Sweet Seed, and Seedai. Janmashtami is celebrated in the evening as Krishna was born at midnight. Many people practice strict fasting this day and eat only after midnight pooja. Even the toddler dressed like Krishna. 

Andhra Pradesh

In Andhra Pradesh, recitation of devotional songs and hymns serve as the hallmarks of this festival. Apart from that, another unique feature of this festival is that young children dress like Shri Krishna, and they visit their neighbours and friends.

A variety of fruits and sweets are first served to Shree Krishna, and then they are distributed to the visitors. The people of Andhra Pradesh also fast. They prepare a variety of desserts to help Gokulnandan this day.

Milk and yogurt are edible and digestible for Krishna. Some temples of the state are celebrated with joy. The number of temples dedicated to Lord Krishna is minimal. The reason is that people have taken to worship him through images, not statues. 

The famous South Indian temples dedicated to Lord Krishna are devoted to the Rajagopalaswamy Temple in Mannargudi in Thiruvarur district, Pandavapura Temple in Kanchipuram, Sri Krishna Temple in Udupi and Krishna Temple in Guruvayur in memory of Lord Vishnu. It is believed that the idol of Sri Krishna erected in Guruvayur belongs to the Dwarka and is drowned in the sea. 

Social Media

The term Social Media refers to computer and mobile mediated technologies that are designed and developed to help people socialise and connect with one another. It is a platform which is used to share ideas, communicate about daily life, discuss work related topics and so on. Originally the term social media was coined to refer to a person getting socialised with his/her friends and relatives. However, seeing the vast popularity and effectiveness, it was incorporated by the business houses to create mass awareness about their company and products. 

Types of Social Media

The term social media is very huge. It can vary between two school friends to large broadcasting houses using to communicate with large public in general. So, I have tried to list down the basic types of social media generally seen – – –

  1. Social networks: this is the most widely used form of social media. The most commonly used platforms are Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp etc. these were used to send messages and upload pictures and videos. But in recent times, these sites are being used to actively promote businesses and din digital marketing.
  2. Blogs: these are articles and posts that cater to a particular idea/topic. Blogs can be in written form which describes about any topic or it may be in video form which tells us about any topic through the means of videos. Video blogs are called as vlogs.
  3. Forums: these are platforms where people come and brainstorm regarding any issue or trends. These forums are the active sites of social media which remains busy whenever there is any development regarding the socio-economic scenario of a country, or at times when people feel the need to discuss about a law passed.
  4. Enterprise social network: these are the platforms that cater to the image of a company in front of the public. This type of network is developed so that a customer may connect with the company and its products via internet. This type of network handles customer queries, pricing of items, any feedbacks and service complaints. 

Importance of Social Media

Social media plays a very vital role in the lives of current generation of people. Everyone from the old to the young can relate to this term. Let’s see how important it is – – –

  1. It serves as a source of great number of information and news. Its now possible to know about even the smallest of details in any nook and corner of the world thanks to the social media. It spreads like wildfire. It truly has made the world global village. 
  2. It helps to keep in touch with people and relatives who are far away from us. For officials it’s a great help as they can’t go to their homes every now and then and meet their parents or children. Thus, it helps to bring people closer.
  3. For companies it helps to create a brand name for themselves. They can use the platform to connect with the customers and make their marketing strategy even more profound. Attractive campaigns on social media tend to bring in a lot of people in the shopping outlets and can be seen as beneficial for the company.
  4. Many a times the government is seen using social media to create public awareness regarding sensitive issues prevalent in the society. It helps to find the target audience with much larger ease since there is at least one person from every family who uses social media in the 21st century.

Controversy in using social media

  1. Social media is the site for maximum number of fake news. Once spread, it’s impossible to stop it since everyone is now connected with each other. This fake news has resulted in serious consequences for the victim including death. Innocent people are seen being destroyed with just a stroke of a key in the media.
  2. Many young children have become the victim of cyber bullying. There have been reported cases of threats and kidnaps for the children of famous personalities. Also, many cases of body shaming take place on the internet. These incidents make the person down and makes him/her mentally unstable.
  3. Honey trapping and scandals are common in social media. People with high power and connections are usually targeted to gain an unfair advantage over them. Their competitors may then blackmail them and try to force undue advantages. Many a times girls are used in this business who in turn put the blame of assault and molestation on the victim if their demands are not fulfilled. 
  4. Hacking and fishing often takes place on the net. The bank details are stolen and the person is looted. This can be termed as digital robbery. Also, many people may hack the media accounts and upload vulgar/ obscene pictures and videos.
  5. However, the greatest problem of social media is the addiction. Young children are seen getting glued on their mobiles and computers most of the times. These kids forget the interaction with people physically and stop doing physical activities like playing, walking etc. this in turn creates health issues.

Conclusion

Like any scientific invention social media has both good as well as bad effects on the people who uses them. Its like the two sides of the same coins. However, the most important part is the awareness through which a person can utilise it for his/her benefits. Ultimately, it’s up to the social media user who can make or break his image on the platforms. Like I said before people from small areas are connecting towards the people from metro all thanks to the social media. In this way people no longer feel alienated or homesick even though they are far way. Social media has also given rise to many beautiful love stories across countries. So, make the most of it to develop as a much better person and let the world know.

HOW TO SET YOUR PRIORITIES: SACRIFICES, STRUGGLE AND SUCCESS

Scheduling priorities in life is a significant task to undertake. Setting priorities helps you to reserve time, carry out logical decisions, and improvise your way of living. 

It takes time for you to decide your priorities because it is a decision that is going to be continued for a span of time. Therefore, it is substantial to make an apt choice. You discover many of your interests that you might have left behind someday. It motivates you to have a clear picture of what you are supposed to do.

Way to set priorities in life :

  • Make a note of your top interests.
  • Decide on what is important to you.
  • Think whether the task you are undertaking is indeed worthy to do so. If not, then prioritize accordingly.
  • After doing so, decide how to approach and complete them.
  • Do have the ability to compromise. You evidently can’t handle all tasks you decide.
  • Set proper time and date so that the tasks you do are completed on time.
  • The most crucial point is to not distract yourself.

The 3’S- Sacrifice, Struggle, and Success make it our way while planning, performing, and achieving them. Let’s have a look at them.

  1. SACRIFICE:
  • Sacrificing our decision, or plans for something good isn’t bad at all.
  • If you do it with all love, you will surely be unhurt. Sacrificing for someone shows your love for them.
  • Sacrificing for one’s happiness shows your true personality. This can change one’s life, may it be a small sacrifice too.

Where are sacrifices done?

  • Family: Parents sacrifice their comfort, sleep so that their children can leave happily in the future without any problems.
  • Sleep: You let go of sleep when you have many works to do. If the work you are doing is going to yield you thumbs up and that really costs you your sleep, never step back.

Sacrifices are immeasurable. If your sacrifice is benefitting someone, support them by doing so.

2. STRUGGLE:

  • Life doesn’t always fall in the way you seek. There are frequent ups and down on your way to reaching your goal.
  • You work hard to achieve success. Sometimes you achieve and sometimes you don’t. That doesn’t mean you lose hope.
  • We encounter a lot of barriers that prevent us, distract us and examine our abilities.
  • Each person’s struggle is clearly different from others. Some of the struggles maybe- Career pressure, Financial crisis, Failure, Arguments.

How to overcome struggle?

  • Explore the world. Relax your mind and soul.
  • Don’t hide your difficulties. Share it with your peers so that you feel light.
  • Stop comparing yourself with others. Comparison lowers one’s self-confidence. You have your identity.
  • Stay focused on the work you are performing.
  •  Never force yourself to finish the work you aren’t able to. It will absolutely let you down if you can’t accomplish it.
  • Try being positive even at the worst time so that you’ll at least have a ray of hope in one corner.

3. SUCCESS:

The result of your actions that brings happiness to your face is SUCCESS. Gaining success isn’t that easy. You have to be extremely dedicated, punctual, and determined. When you build interest in the work you do, success is automatically activated to reach your goal.

How to achieve success?

  • Work hard: Achieving success isn’t easy always. You might feel you are having many works to do, but a dedicated person never thinks about it. So rather than investing time in thinking negatively, work hard.
  • Push your limits: Always try upgrading your interests. Don’t revolve around the same topics. Go out of your comfort zone and try new things.
  • Develop ideas: Invest your timing in bringing out the best ideas to implement in your work.
  • Save time: Don’t waste your time unnecessarily on silly things. Don’t dig up deep into the answers you don’t receive. Relax your mind, understand the topic clearly and then move forward.

Never try getting down your self-esteem. Try hard to achieve your goals. Prioritize your options and work accordingly. Success is always there in everyone. You achieve it when you make a way for it through your actions.

Divorce – Tragedy of life of a couple.

by Yogiraj Sadaphal

Divorce is the legal dissolution of a man and a woman’s marital union. Divorce is one of life’s most devastating events for any couple. Furthermore, if the divorce is disputed in India, it can be a complicated and expensive process. Even couples who agree to divorce must show that they have been separated for at least a year before the courts would hear their case.

Divorce by Mutual Consent.

The courts will consider a divorce with mutual consent if both the husband and woman agree to divorce. However, in order for the petition to be allowed, the couple must have been separated for at least a year or two years (depending on the relevant laws) and be able to demonstrate that they are unable to live together.

There are three factors where a husband and wife must strike a deal.

One is the issue of alimony or maintenance. According to the law, there is no minimum or maximum maintenance amount. It could be any number or none.

The second factor is the custody of the child. This must be worked out between the parties, as it is inevitably what takes the most time in a divorce where there is no mutual consent. In a mutual consent divorce, child custody might be shared, joint, or exclusive, depending on the spouses’ understanding.

The property is the third factor. The husband and wife must agree on who gets what portion of the property. This refers to both moveable and immovable assets.

What does the Section say?

According to Section 13 B of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and Section 28 of the Special Marriage Act, 1954, the couple must live separately for at least one year before divorce proceedings begin. It’s important to remember that living separately does not always mean living in different places; the couple only needs to prove that they haven’t been living together as husband and wife during this time.

Reason behind Divorce.

1. Adultery.

Adultery is defined as engaging in any type of sexual relationship, including intercourse outside of marriage. Adultery is considered a criminal conduct, and sufficient evidence is required to prove it. One act of adultery is enough for the petitioner to receive a divorce, according to a 1976 revision to the legislation.

2. Cruelty.

When a spouse is subjected to any type of mental or physical injury that puts his or her life, limb, or health in danger, he or she has the right to petition for divorce. The ephemeral acts of cruelty committed by mental torture are determined on a series of events rather than a single act. Certain situations, like as denial of food, chronic ill-treatment and abuses to obtain dowry, weird sexual acts, and so on, are included cruelty.

3. Desertion.

The abandoned spouse can launch a divorce action on the grounds of desertion if one of the spouses intentionally abandons his or her partner for at least two years.

4. Mental Disorder.

Mental disorder can be used as a basis for divorce if the petitioner’s spouse suffers from an incurable mental illness or insanity, making it impossible for the couple to stay together.

5. Leprosy.

The other spouse can bring a petition based on this reason if the other spouse has a ‘virulent and incurable’ form of leprosy.

6. Venereal Disease.

If one of the spouses has a serious disease that is easily transmissible, the other spouse can file for divorce. AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases are classified as venereal diseases.

7. Renunciation.

If one spouse joins a religious order and renounces all belongings, the other spouse is eligible to divorce.

8. Presumption of Death.

If the spouse has not been heard of as being alive for at least seven years by those who would have heard about him or her if he or she were alive, the spouse who is living can obtain a divorce decision from the court.

My Opinion

Marriage is a lifelong Commitment that is necessary for society’s establishment structure to function. When Children are involved in a divorce, the decision becomes much more difficult, which is why both couples must make restitution. Marriage is a major life decision that should be carefully considered. To make the relationship flourish, more efforts should be taken other than getting divorce.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Labanya Prabha Ghosh

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Labanya Prabha Ghosh

Not much is known about Ghosh’s early life, but available records do state that she was born in 1987 in Purulia district, West Bengal to Nibaran Chandra Dasgupta, a freedom fighter.

District government records show that she was elected as the representative of the District Congress Committee from Manbhum district in 1926. Purulia was then a part of the Manbhum district.

When Gandhi launched the salt satyagraha in March 1930, Ghosh helped organize similar marches locally, including a flag satyagraha in 1945 in Konapara in Purulia.

She was an active member of “Shilpashram”, an important center of freedom struggle movement of Manbhum region.

Between 1941 and 1947, Ghosh was arrested several times for her revolutionary work, including for organizing protests during the Quit India movement of 1942.

Post independence

Ghosh’s revolutionary work did not stop with India’s independence. She was also prominent in the Bhasha Andolan that emerged following partition and the creation of separate states.

Between 1949 and 1956, Ghosh participated in several protests, including the Tusu Satyagraha, and led marches from Puluria to Calcutta, for which she was arrested.

The protests became impossible for the government authorities to ignore and in November 1956, Puluria was broken away from Bihar and acceded to West Bengal.

Top 5 Best Writing Apps for Writers in 2020

Writing is a beautiful hobby one can ever have for which there are best writing apps for writers. It is not easy to find perfect words, perfect phrases that will express your feelings properly. And the one who can put his thoughts on paper most creatively and aptly possible can be considered as a good writer. Though we all will agree that paper and pen are the essential parts of a writer’s life, a modern-day writer will surely not ignore all the technological developments around him. Young and enthusiastic writers of the 21st century have started making effective use of modern technology in their passion for writing, and the technical experts are taking into consideration, the demands of writers.

Also, we must remember that writing includes everything – it includes writing a book, a short story, a novel, a project, or even a news article. And time and space constraints may not allow us to write anytime, anywhere, according to our comfort. To overcome this, there are several online applications, the ‘writing apps’ which provide a supporting hand to all those who want to write something according to their will. In this article, we will be talking about some of the best writing app for writers in 2020.

5. Evernote

Evernote is a quite simple, user-friendly application for taking notes. If you not a techno-savvy person, and prefer a simple, best writing app for your use, then Evernote can be a good choice for you. You can use it for making general notes, or to write something of your choice.

Evernote application is one of the best writing apps for windows, a best writing app for android, and for iOS as well. The cool thing about this app is that it provides more features in its free version in comparison with any other free versions – the free version of Evernote allows you to make separate notebooks, eBooks, or even simple notes. It is a comfortable application for simple writings, which makes it a best app for poetry, and other creative writings. It comes with the feature of ‘dictations to transcribe voice into text’, has an easy-sync across devices, and easily integrates with other supporting applications, which makes it easy to work in collaboration with your team.

Evernote is available in both free and paid versions – Paid version will cost you $ 3.99 per month, or $ 2.99 per month with yearly payment.

4. iA Writer

If you are searching for the best writing app for Mac, and also a best writing app for iPad or iPhone, then iA Writer is a distraction-free writing application that will fulfill your need. Its interesting feature is that it only highlights the text that you are working on/typing, and everything apart from that fades away. It is a simple, easy to use app which comes with a dark mode too, and allows us to focus and concentrate on only the content that we are working on.

The creative writers looking for some good application must give a try to iA writer’s free version, which is available for 14 days trial. It is quite an all-inclusive app that supports/functions on Mac, iOS, Windows, and a free trial is also available for android users – great, isn’t it?

iA Writer paid version for Mac will cost you $ 2.99, and the paid version for Windows comes with a much higher rate – $ 19.99.

3. MS Word

Does this one need an introduction? An all-inclusive software application for writers, considered as the best writing apps for windows. We have been using right from our school projects up to office presentations. It can be used by a beginner who has the most basic knowledge about writing apps, and also by a professional writer to write a whole book or novel using it. Every penny that you spend on the paid version of MS Word is worth it, taking into account the numerous features that this writer’s favorite application provides.

MS Word comes with many features that include text to speech input, voice typing, built-in templates for use, keyboard shortcuts, proofreading, word count, linked notes, spelling and grammar check, and much more. It’s suitable for writing for all age groups, and all types of writings, so if you have MS Word, there’s no need to look for an alternative. Though buying a complete set of MS Office may seem a costly matter, but it will be very useful and again, WORTH IT.

2. Reedsy Book Editor

It’s a free writing application which helps in editing and formatting of your book. It provides professional assistance for the writers who wish to write and publish a book, and are looking for proper guidance. It is probably one of the best writing apps for windows.

Reedsy Book Editor is very helpful for typesetting your work without any complex process. It helps in proper organization of detailed writings, thereby making them interesting and flawless. Its sleek interface and easy-to-navigate formatting options are very useful for the modern writers.

Reedsy also allows writers to export their writings in PDF format, or ePublishing. Also, it helps us in looking for the past edited versions of our document, a feature that is not found in most of the other writing apps. It helps in easy formatting of the front and back pages of your book, so it’s like an all-inclusive writing application for professionals. Buying a paid version will come with more such features and assistance, thus one must give it a try.

1. Google Docs

Google is everywhere – applications and services provide by Google are an inseparable part of our lives, so how is it possible that we will proceed without mentioning the Google Docs in the best writing apps?

Google Docs is available on android as well as Windows. It’s a perfect solution to all the queries of a writer looking for a best writing app for android. Google Docs is available for free, and it can be linked with your Gmail account. It comes with some of the amazing features, which are almost similar to those provided by MS Word.

Also, all the changes that we make in the document are saved automatically, so there’s no fear of losing your progress even if you forget to save the changes. Apart from professional writings, we can use it for creative writing as well, thus its definitely a best writing app for poetry, and a best writing app for writers of the modern world.

Google Docs comes with the option of sharing the document in Word, PDF, or link form. Also, as it is connected with your Gmail account, collaborative working and doing team tasks becomes easy. If you still haven’t tried Google Docs, you must go for it.

To conclude, it can be said that whatever a writer does, it has to come from his heart. His work has to be a wholehearted contribution, otherwise, it will not have any impact on the minds of the readers. The year of 2020 has begun with a difficult challenge for us. During this lockdown period, people have started realizing the need of acquiring technological literacy, and we have to start it from ourselves.

The aim of writing this article was to make writers aware of some of the best writing app for writers in 2020 that are available on the web. There creative thinking and writing can go on, through such application, and they should not stop making their contribution to the society.

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Experience Gypsy Lifestyle in 2020.

Ever wondered what it would be like if you had no permanent residence, no permanent job and you were simply a traveler? That is somewhat how being a Gypsy is. The gypsy lifestyle meaning can be two-fold – one – the Romani tribal people are known as Gypsies and two – in the broader scenario, a Gypsy is one who follows a very different way of living. You could be traveling with a caravan, or with your family to places doing odd jobs to make ends meet and you could be called a Gypsy. Being Gypsy does not mean being homeless, it means not following the idea of one home, one life, one job, one place.

The gypsy lifestyle meaning differs from regionally so the gypsy lifestyle in America would be significantly different from the Gypsy lifestyle in, say, Japan, or Europe. In this article we will share information about the gypsy lifestyle meaning, gypsy lifestyle in the USA, how different is the gypsy lifestyle in America to other places, and give brief insights on the gypsy lifestyle 2018, gypsy lifestyle 2020, gypsy lifestyle today. To understand how to lead a gypsy lifestyle, we must first understand the origins of that word and how those kinds of people – the Romani – lead their life.

Meaning of Gypsy Lifestyle

Let us first understand the gypsy lifestyle meaning. Google defines Gypsy as a nomadic, free-spirited person. ‘Gypsy’ is really a term for Romani individuals—an entirely distinctive culture. Nonetheless, in the event that you have a free soul that needs to investigate the world, meet new individuals, and carry on with an effortless life, a Gypsy way of life is the thing that you need. “Gypsy” as a word originated in the sixteenth century and implied Egyptian since Romanies were at first considered to be from Egypt. A  “Gypsy” is regularly viewed as unfavorable because of its use to mean unlawful conduct and a meandering way of life, rather than as an identifier for a specific race of individuals.

“Gyp,” which intends to cheat, is likewise hostile to Romanies on the grounds that the word likely gets from “vagabond” and generalizations each one of those ideas to be “rovers” as swindlers. So, yeah, in case you see a Romani and do not want them to get violent, don’t call them as “Oh, hey Gypsy, I read about you!” To clarify – this article refers to the definition of Gypsy as free-spirited, nomadic people who wish to lead a life on the road and be one with nature.

Gypsy Lifestyle in America

Coming to the gypsy lifestyle in the USA. There is an expected 1 million Roma (Gypsies) living in the United States, showing up to the country from various nations and communicating in various dialects. The U.S. has assumed a role of an oppressor against these people, as certain states have on their books made laws that restricted where Romanies could lease property, where they could work, and what merchandise they could sell. Be that as it may, exact insights about American Romanies are constrained due to:

  • The absence of studies surveying the financial real factors of American Romani
  • The nonappearance of Romani data on enumeration returns.
  • The pattern of some American Romanies to shroud their Romani legacy as a remnant mindset established in the separation their progenitors suffered in Europe.
  • The absence of mindfulness among certain Americans that the Romani are a real ethnic gathering, not “a Halloween ensemble” or” anecdotal characters with “wagons and ponies and tambourines”. 

With an end goal to cure the absence of insights on American Romanies, Harvard University has as of late propelled an investigation to survey the auxiliary, social, and financial status of the American Romani people group. So, if you’re an American, practicing the gypsy lifestyle in America is seen more as a downright inferior thing rather than a choice at leading a unique lifestyle.

How has it changed over the years?

There has been significant growth in the way of life that the gypsies have led in the past few years. The changes have been to an extent that you will find a major difference in the gypsy lifestyle 2018 and the gypsy lifestyle 2020. The gypsy lifestyle today is more about the modern means of earning, realizing the importance of education, etc. The best example of this is 40-year-old Roxy Freeman. She was one of 6 children to her Romani father and an American mother.

The first time she joined college was when she was 22…with no prior schooling. In her blog, she explains how she could cook for a family of 10, light a fire, and bake bread on an open fire by the age of 9. She could even forecast when it would rain by simply smelling the air. When she wrote the blog, she lived in an apartment in London with her boyfriend – and that was almost 11 years ago!

So you would be expected, if you desired to live a gypsy lifestyle today to be modern but mediocre, skillful but humble, and most importantly, minimal but content.

How are the Gypsy and Minimalistic Lifestyles related?

While the two terms may sound different, you must do one if you wish for the other. If you have understood the gypsy lifestyle meaning, you have understood it’s a way of living with no luxurious amenities or extras. You may use technology for working remotely – maybe use a laptop and internet for work from home job, but that does not mean you watching memes on Instagram is okay.

So, say bye to the hundred sets of shoes and satchels that you own! Figure out how to have a basic existence. This doesn’t mean you live in a cavern, wearing dry leaves, however, that you comprehend there’s a whole other world to life than materialistic attractions.

How can one follow the Gypsy Lifestyle?

Recall Esmerelda from Disney’s Hunchback of Notre Dame? Since we saw the excellent rover young lady, with a spiritualist and free soul, we’ve longed for being a tramp, as well. However, there’s much more to being a tramp, obviously. It’s not just about the voyaging, long, flowy garments, astounding gems, and so on. A bit of advice that would surely do you a world of good when you embrace this lifestyle is – find a partner. It’s bad for you to stay single, and not on the grounds that you’ll be forlorn. Unmarried grown-ups are regularly thought to be a little wobbly like possibly you have a few issues you have to work out. Try not to stress however, wedded life will be okay. Ladies are treated as equivalents with men, you simply have various tasks to carry out.

How to earn a buck as a Gypsy?

Begin doing some voice practices now since one way you’ll procure some cash for the family is by singing or recounting stories. In case you’re truly not one for the performing arts you may take up the job of entryway to-entryway sales rep. At last, there are the well-established crafts of fortune-telling and palm reading to acquire a buck or two. With regard to traditions, the Gypsies are extremely severe. To the extent that for your body, the upper portion of you is treated as pure. It’s free of impurities and overall allowable to be shown-off. Everything in the lower half — forget about it.

That half of you is unclean so make certain to keep it hidden, procured under full-worn clothes. You can even defile a male in the event that you let your skirt touch with him openly. In case you’re seen as impure, you may get kicked out of the community. Things you must learn before beginning are – cooking, eating raw food sometimes and adjusting in relation to living in trailers and natural hollows.

These steps aren’t as hard as they sound, and people who have embraced this way of life have been able to create a lot of memories they will cherish for life. So that was all about the gypsy lifestyle meaning, gypsy lifestyle in the USA, along with differences between traditional gypsy lifestyle or say the gypsy lifestyle 2018 compared to the gypsy lifestyle 2020 i.e. the gypsy lifestyle today. If you have new insights of facts to add about this unique way of life, let us know in the comments section down below! Oh, and if you ever plan to embrace this life, don’t forget to tell us your plans!

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Importance of Exercise

We have consistently heard the word ‘wellness’ and ‘wellbeing’. We use it ourselves when we say such expressions like ‘wellness is the key’ and ‘wellbeing is abundance’. The word wellbeing implies ‘being admirably’. At the point when an individual capacities well genuinely just as intellectually, we call that individual sound and fit.

A solid way of life requests ordinary exercise, and it is a fundamental piece of being fit. Many examinations has shown us the different advantages it can have. In addition to the fact that regular exercises assist you with lessening your danger of creating illnesses and deal with your weight, however it can likewise help forestall and treat psychological wellness issues. Exercise is an incredible method to loosen up from the anxieties of life and can support your prosperity and disposition. Regardless one’s age, everybody gets profited with standard exercise.

Exercise helps in the incitement muscles improvement, joints and bones, just as the lungs and heart. It assists youngsters with keeping a consistent sound weight. Day by day practice additionally gives kids the chance to make companions and cooperate with others. Exercise assists youthful with peopling oversee manifestations of wretchedness and nervousness.

To Read List – 2021

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“The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you’ll go.”

― Dr. Seuss, I Can Read With My Eyes Shut!

As it is rightly said, “Between the pages of a book, is a lovely place to be.” Books fit all the cliché surrounding them, they put dreams in your eyes and give wings to your dreams. Reading is an exercise like no other. It sweeps you into a magical universe and transmutes your mundane into a bewitching dream.

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There is such diverse content available in the literary spectrum today that leaves ones mind in a state of bafflement and awe.

Today we explore some of the genera of the great literary abyss.

1. Mystery

  • Murder on the Orient express – Agatha Christie
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  • Gone Girl Gillian Flynn
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  • The Girl on the Train – Paula Hawkins
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  • The Da Vinci CodeDan Brown
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  • The Murders in the Rue Morgue – Edgar Allan Poe
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2. Romance

  • Pride and Prejudice – Jane Austen
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  • Me before You – Jojo Moyes
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  • Beautiful Disaster – Jamie McGuire
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  • Red , White & Royal Blue – Casey McQuiston
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  • The Time Traveler’s Wife – Audrey Niffenegger
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3. Fantasy

  • A Wrinkle in Time – Madeleine L’Engle
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  • The Golden Compass – Phillip Pullman
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  • Six of Crows – Leigh Bardugo
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  • Or What You Will – Jo Walton
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  • Gardens of the Moon Steven Erikson
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4. Sci-Fi

  • The Time Machine – H.G Wells
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  • The Long Way to a Small, Angry Planet – Becky Chambers
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  • Nineteen Eighty- Four – George Orwell
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  • To Sleep In a Sea of Stars Christopher Paolini
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  • Children of Ruin – Adrian Tchaikovsky
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5. Non- fiction

  • The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck- Mark Manson
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  • A Room of One’s Own – Virginia Woolf
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  • Becoming – Michelle Obama
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  • We Should All Be Feminists – Chimamanda Ngozi Adichi
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  • Ghosts Of The Tsunami – Richard Lloyd Parry
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“Let’s be reasonable and add an eighth day to the week that is devoted exclusively to reading.”

– Lena Dunham

BOOK REVIEW: PHOTOBOOTH ( A GRAPHIC NOVEL)

Description

He wanted to change the past, but first he would have to alter the future…

A new deadly drug is about to flood the streets of New York City. The police have no leads on who is producing the drug, or where it is coming from. As far as Praveer Rajani, a reckless Interpol agent, is concerned the only way to prevent countless deaths lies in a handful of mysterious photographs.

Within the photographs, Praveer can see images of places he has never known, and people he has long forgotten. But what are the photographs leading him to? Is Praveer being told that his life is spiraling out of control, and he now has one chance to put things right?

Or are the photographs related to a murder that Praveer is desperate to solve? Perhaps they are showing the love that his brother, Jayendra, let slip away or even the family that his sister, Nisha, wants back?

The mystery will finally be solved in this exciting romantic thriller from Campfire.

Review

“This is a highly recommended comic-book thriller with a well-paced, well-produced, and well-characterised plot that keeps you guessing until the very end.
The artwork by Sachin Nagar is fantastic, and the book is well-made… Campfire is a new to me Indian-based publisher with a terrific selection of original graphic novels and classic adaptations.
If this is representative of their work, anyone looking to expand their graphic book library should look into them.”

Rahul Kumar (Rahul Kumar) (student)

“Campfire’s comics come highly recommended. They accomplish their goals and do it in a way that piques children’s interest in classic literature.”

Author Information

Lewis Helfand was born in Philadelphia on April 27, 1978. Lewis’ first comic book, Wasted Minute, was written with a political science degree and a passion for comic books. It told the storey of a world without crime where superheroes are forced to work regular jobs. Following the success of the first issue, he began collaborating with other artists and issued four further issues over the next few years. Lewis is still a freelance writer and reporter for several national print and internet magazines.

Setsubun

Setsubun has its origin in China, and it is said that it entered in Japan in the Heian period. It is a fun festival celebrated the day before the first day of spring. it is also known as the ‘bean-throwing festival’. Setsubun is a traditional ceremony that is performed by the Japanese people to banish demons, and is celebrated on 3rd or 4th of February. People scatter beans or the ‘mamemaki’ to drive demons away. This is one of the many rituals that are performed to dispel evil. One of the elder in the family dresses as a demon while children throw beans at them and the children also scatter the beans all around the house. Usually people start to scatter beans from the room that is the farthest from the entrance and then gradually come towards the entrance while scattering beans throughout the house. Windows are left open and beans are thrown out of the windows in order to throw out the demons along with it.

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On setsubun, beans; usually soybeans, are scattered everywhere around the house, be it outside or inside while chanting ‘oni wa soto, fuku wa uchi!’ i.e. out with demons, in with good luck! It also a custom for the members of the family to eat the same number of beans as their age, this is said to bring good health. People also eat Makisushi rolls in complete silence while facing the lucky direction of the which is determined by the zodiac of the year, and the makisushi roll is eaten as a whole without slicing it as it is considered that slicing it would mean slicing your good luck. People close their eyes and make a wish while eating the makisushi rolls.

Many people visit temples during the setsubun as nowadays, many shrines hold special events during setsubun.

SOFTWARE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES

SOFTWARE QUALITY:

Quality will always be a concern in all stages of planning and execution. Software quality is defined as the functionality of a product that satisfies the user or customer requirements. To achieve quality, check characteristics that define the quality of a product. For each characteristic of quality, set standards. Find out the reason that is affecting the software quality and rectify it.

IMPORTANCE OF SOFTWARE QUALITY:

INCREASING CRITICALITY OF SOFTWARE: The end-user of the software product will always have a concern about the quality of the software product. For example, in aircraft systems, the customers are concern about the quality of the product. Any software failure in this may lead to dangerous accidents.

ACCUMULATING ERRORS DURING SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT: A software product undergoes several stages to get it finished as a deliverable product. If the error in the initial stage is not identified, then it may get increased in the further stages causing disasters like the failure of the product. If the error is found at the later stages, then it will be more expensive to solve these errors. The debugging phases will be difficult since the numbers of errors are unknown.

REPUTATION: Some companies have a strong reputation among people because of their quality of production. A good, solid reputation is hard to earn but easy to lose. So the company with a good reputation will have a strong business. The loss of quality in their product will not only bury their reputation but also affects sales and marketing.

SOFTWARE QUALITY ATTRIBUTES:

Software quality is groped into three sets namely product operation qualities, product revision qualities, and project revision techniques.

PROJECT OPERATION TECHNIQUES

  • CORRECTNESS: It is the agreement of program code with specifications. The product should be independent of the actual application of the software system. It is the extent to which the software satisfies the user requirements and specifications.
  • RELIABILITY: Reliability of software is defined as the level of the system that fulfills the qualities under specific input trials in a specific period. The software will be seen as reliable if it has a low number of errors. The sub characteristics of reliability are maturity, fault tolerance, and recoverability.
  • EFFICIENCY: The ability of a product can perform its function with the best possible utilization of time and space. A product that works with high speed and low space and memory will be more efficient.
  • INTEGRITY: Software integrity is the process of maintaining the safety and security of the code. Analytics will be clear and accessible. It prevents the product from cyber threats.
  • USABILITY: It is the user’s experience of using the product. The product should attain the user’s satisfaction. The sub characteristics of usability are understandability, learnability, and operability.

PROJECT REVISION TECHNIQUES

  • MAINTAINABILITY: It is the suitability for debugging and modification of an application. Readability, extensibility, and testability are the qualities that maintainability relies on.
  • FLEXIBILITY: The ability of the software to be flexible to external environmental and user’s requirements.
  • TESTABILITY: The ability of software to undergo debugging. The software should have to meet the user’s conditions and produce the best product.

PROJECT TRANSITION TECHNIQUES

  • PORTABILITY: The ability of software to work in other environments than the place where it was originally designed. The portability of the software depends on the hardware independence, the language of implementation, and hardware properties.
  • REUSABILITY: It is the ability of software to be reused in different environments. It is achieved by software metric techniques.
  • INTEROPERABILITY: It is defined as the ability of different software that facilitates the effective exchange and process of information with one another. Interoperability testing methodology follows the PCDA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) Cycle.

Attraction

Ever thought why do we get attract to someone? Well everyone has different answer to it. For some it can be the way one look, smiled, walk or may be their was an unusual aura around that one.

What is attraction?

Attraction, especially in a romantic way, is a complex process that take place in our brains, and has had it’s roots since it’s beginning of the humankind. It’s our minds way of telling us who has the potential to be our partner, our friend, or even our soulmate, and is based on a complex blend of our interest, values, experience, and desire. Physical and romantic attraction, which are often focused on, are only small facets of a much larger equation.

Psychologist look at the ingredients of attraction is in a form of pyramid, split into 4 different sections.

The base of the pyramid is made up of health and status:-

  • Status – 1. internal (confidence, self set, beliefs) 2. External (person’s job, possession and appearance.
  • Health – Physical attributes, smell, basic level of intelligence.

If the potential partners passes these initial requirements then we move to the center of the pyramid, which are the emotional factors:- includes

  • trust comfort someone wants,
  • their emotions intelligence, and
  • unique characteristics.

The final portion of the pyramid is “Logic”.This is the part that differentiate us from other animals, and is the part where our brains seriously

  • considers whether we are totally compatible for that person.
  • It ensure that the other person is aligned with us in term of what they want – things such as marriage, children, even the city they want to live.

According to this model, the more alignment there is, the more attraction there is, but it doesn’t always have to follow from bottom to top – like online dating.

What makes someone Attractive?

The answer to this questions make come to our mind is physical traits. Due to the influence of media, we tend to favor women who is younger, and more feminine features, in men on the other side, qualities such as broad shoulders, a deep voice, and strong jawline are highly upon.

Scientists suggest that, these also have an evolutionary origin because these traits are associated with a higher chance of producing health offspring and passing of good genes. Also, values, culture, and the environment, that we grow in also plays an important role.

Hence, attractiveness is complex, there’s a number of different perspective to consider, and at the end of the day, there’s very little we can choosing who we are attracted to. As each person looks for unique set of traits and, while physical traits are often focused there are far more factors that come into play. A person’s upbringing, behavior and even lifestyle have major influence. The most important thing to remember is to be happy and make the most of it.

WORLD

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor and support life. About 29.2% of Earth’s surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is covered with water, mostly by oceans, seas, gulfs, and other salt-water bodies, but also by lakes, rivers, and other freshwater, which together constitute the hydrosphere. Much of Earth’s polar regions are covered in ice. Earth’s outer layer is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over many millions of years, while its interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates Earth’s magnetic field, and a convective mantle that drives plate tectonics

WORLD MAP

A world map is a map of most or all of the surface of Earth. World maps, because of their scale, must deal with the problem of projection. Maps rendered in two dimensions by necessity distort the display of the three-dimensional surface of the earth. Many techniques have been developed to present world maps that address diverse technical and aesthetic goals.[

Charting a world map requires global knowledge of the earth, its oceans, and its continents. From prehistory through the Middle ages, creating an accurate world map would have been impossible because less than half of Earth’s coastlines and only a small fraction of its continental interiors were known to any culture.

Maps of the world generally focus either on political features or on physical features. Political maps emphasize territorial boundaries and human settlement.

WORLD RELIGIONS

The world religions paradigm was developed in the United Kingdom in the 1960s, where it was pioneered by phenomenological scholars like Ninian Smart. It was designed to broaden the study of religion away from its heavy focus on Christianity by taking into account other large religious traditions around the world. The paradigm is often used by lecturers instructing undergraduate students in the study of religion and is also the framework used by school teachers in the UK and other countries.

Since the late twentieth century, the paradigm has faced critique by scholars of religion like Jonathan Z. Smith, some of whom have argued for its abandonment. Critics have argued that the world religions paradigm is inappropriate because it takes the Protestant variant of Christianity as the model for what constitutes religion; that it is tied up with discourses of modernity, including modern power relations; that it encourages an uncritical understanding of religion; and that it makes a value judgement as to what religions should be considered “major”. Others have argued that it remains useful in the classroom, so long as students are made aware that it is a socially constructed category.

WORLD LANGUAGES

In sociolinguistics, a world language is a language that is geographically widespread and makes it possible for members of different language communities to communicate. The term may also be used to refer to constructed international auxiliary languages such as Esperanto.

English is the foremost—and by some accounts only—world language. Beyond that, there is no academic consensus about which languages qualify; Arabic, French, Russian, and Spanish are other possible world languages. Some authors consider Latin to have formerly been a world language.

WORLD HISTORY

World history or global history as a field of historical study examines history from a global perspective. It emerged centuries ago; leading practitioners have included Voltaire (1694-1778), Hegel (1770-1831), (1818-1883) and Arnold J. Toynbee (1889-1975). The field became much more active (in terms of university teaching, text books, scholarly journals, and academic associations) in the late 20th century.

It is not to be confused with comparative history, which, like world history, deals with the history of multiple cultures and nations, but does not do so on a global scale. World history looks for common patterns that emerge across all cultures. World historians use a thematic approach, with two major focal points: integration (how processes of world history have drawn people of the world together) and difference (how patterns of world history reveal the diversity of the human experience).

Hatsumode

Hatsumode refers to the ‘first shrine or temple visit’. It marks a person’s first visit to the shinto shrine or a Buddhist temple during the new year. It used to be an absolute custom to visit a shrine or a temple during the new year that is located in the direction of one’s home; it was considered to be extremely auspicious and is said to bring prosperity in the next year. This practice used to be called ‘ehomairi’. But, nowadays, it has become a common practice to visit famous shrines and temples, not bothering about their locations. The visits to the shrine or temples begin at midnight on the new year’s eve, and are made by a large number of people.

during Hatsumode many people get their fortune predicted by drawing an ‘omikuji’ which is a paper that tells you about your luck in the upcoming year. many people buy various charms and amulets, along with talismans that are supposed to ward off evil and increase one’s luck in the upcoming year. These are kind of like lucky charms. many people even bring charms and amulets of the previous year and offer it to kami, to purify and incinerate them, in order to return it back to the heavens. Many people write their wishes on wooden wishing plaques and hang the in the shrines to get their wishes granted by the kami.

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The most popular shrines that are visited by people during the new year are Tokyo’s Meiji Shrine, Kamakura’s Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine and Kyoto’s Yasaka Shrine. These shines expect millions of visitors on the first three days of new year each year. It is the most auspicious to visit the shine on the 1st of January, but nowadays, people avoid going to the shires on day one as it gets very crowded.

Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda’s inspiring personality was well known both in India and in America during the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth. The unknown monk of India suddenly leapt into fame at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago in 1893, at which he represented Hinduism. His vast knowledge of Eastern and Western culture as well as his deep spiritual insight, fervid eloquence, brilliant conversation, broad human sympathy, colourful personality, and handsome figure made an irresistible appeal to the many types of Americans who came in contact with him. People who saw or heard Vivekananda even once still cherish his memory after a lapse of more than half a century.

The Swami’s mission was both national and international. A lover of mankind, he strove to promote peace and human brotherhood on the spiritual foundation of the Vedantic Oneness of existence. A mystic of the highest order, Vivekananda had a direct and intuitive experience of Reality. He derived his ideas from that unfailing source of wisdom and often presented them in the soulstirring language of poetry.

Quotes

Arise,awake and donot stop until the goal is reached.You cannot believe in God until you believe in yourself.You have to grow from the inside out. None can teach you, none can make you spiritual. There is no other teacher but your own soul.We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far.All the powers in the universe are already ours. It is we who have put our hands before our eyes and cry that it is dark.

Eyeshadows

Powder Eyeshadow

Powder eyeshadows are hands down the most common type of eyeshadow that you will come across. And if you are an beginner, this is the best eyeshadow for you. Pressed powder eyeshadows are the easiest to blend. 

Cream Eyeshadow

If bold, striking colours and an intensely pigmented colour payoff is what you are after, cream eyeshadow is the right one for you. Available in pots, tubes, and stick formats, creamy eyeshadows are pigmented yet super-blendable. The only downside of cream eyeshadows is that they tend to crease easily, so avoid wearing these eyeshadows in humid weather or if you have extremely oily eyelids.

Loose Glitter Eyeshadow

Loose glitter eyeshadow are finely milled eyeshadows that are highly pigmented and are the best eyeshadows for you if you want to go the extra mile and create dramatic and glam eye makeup looks. To work with loose eyeshadows, you need to first lay down an eye primer on your eyelids, so the glitter has a tacky base to adhere

Shogatsu: New year

New year is the most important and the most elaborate of all events that took place in Japan. Whilst, there are differences in the local customs on how new year is celebrated, at this time all the houses are thoroughly cleaned and decorated and the holidays are celebrated with family members, friends and many people visit shrines. officially, new is observed from 1st January to 3rd January, and during this period all the schools, colleges and offices are closed.

these preparations for the new year are undertaken to greet the toshigami; the god of the incoming year (the chinese zodiac gods, for eg. year 2021 is the year of the Ox). cleaning of the houses start early and then the houses are decorated traditionally; ‘shimenawa’ or the sacred rope made out of straw with white papers dangling on it known as the ‘shide’ is hung over at the front door as a mark of the toshigami’s temporary abode and in order to keep the evil spirits away. ‘Kadomatsu’ or an arrange ment of tree springs are also placed at the entrance of the house. The ‘toshidana’ or the special alter for the toshigami is placed and is filled with the ‘kagamimochi’ or the rice cakes along with ‘sake’, persimmons and other special food all to honor the toshigami, who is residing in the house temporarily.

Photo by Cats Coming on Pexels.com

The night before the new year is called the ‘omisoka’. A large number of people visit Buddhist temples to hear the bell ring 108 times at midnight that is believed to end all evil of the last year. People believe that eating the ‘toshikoshi soba’ or the year-crossing noodles will extend family fortune just like the long noodles.

Photo by carol wd on Pexels.com

The very first day of the new year known as the ‘ganjitsu’ is celebrated with family members. People also visit shrines and temples on this day. Early in the morning of 1st January the emperor performs the rite of ‘shihohai’ in the imperial palace and prays for the prosperity of the nation. On the 2nd of January, the public is allowed to visit the inner grounds of the palace. On the 2nd and 3rd January people meet with their friends and acquaintances and extend greetings for the new year.

Oshogatsu and Koshogatsu

Shogatsu means the first month of the year. ‘Oshogatsu’ or the’ big new year’ is calculated by the Gregorian calendar and ‘koshogatsu’ or the ‘small new year’ is calculated according to the lunar calendar.. Koshogatsu starts with the first full moon of the year, i.e. from 15th January.

Changes to be done in our Education System

A great majority of the engineers that are produced in the country today are unemployable. All of these cumulatively hint at the fact that there is indeed something that is wrong with the Indian education system. This article throws light at some of the ways in which we can bring about a change by improving the education system.

Education is not preparation for Life, its Life itself.

TIPS

1. Rote Learning

We have progressed with time; however, we still have not been able to move away from rote learning. The schools must be encouraged to introduce conceptual learning which avoids students to mug up what they are being taught. While this will help students to understand the concepts better, they will also be able to retain and apply them better.

2. Evaluation system

Marks still continue to play the most important card in deciding the future of children and this often comes down upon students as a burdening factor. The pressure of marks often makes students underperform.

Instead of focusing the evaluation on a three-hour exam, the focus of evaluation should be classroom participation by a student, projects, communication and leadership skills and extra-curricular activities.

Only then will the students give their best and be evaluated at their best.

3. Better training of educators

Teachers play the most important role in schools and hence, they should be given the best of class training. After all, they are shaping the future of the nation, the children. Teachers are often considered as second parents.

Thus, they should be imparted their training in a way that they can act as parents to the children away from their homes.

4. Technology

Students must be taught about technology right from the early years of their education so that it does not come like an alien thing in their later times.

Indian schools must embrace technology and education with an open heart and propagate the same to the students as it is there, where their future lies.

5. Equal respect to all the subjects

We continue to survive in the education system where science stream topples the stream hierarchy. Students are pushed to become a machine which only goes for high-profile subjects and subjects like languages, communications, arts are looked down and are not considered high-profile.

Students should rather be pushed to pursue the subject that they like instead of creating a differentiation between subjects.

Conclusion

The Indian education system must change for the better. It must give the students equal opportunities to shine better in the future. We need to let go of the old and traditional ways and enhance the teaching standards so our youth can get create a better world.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Bhikaji Cama

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Bhikaji Cama

Bhikaji Cama(1861-1936) was a strong-minded lady who played an important role in India’s early years of freedom struggle.

Born on September 24, 1861 in Mumbai(then Bombay) she always had a flair for diligence and languages.

She unfurled the first Indian tricolor on foreign land i.e., Germany. This flag was a modification of the ‘Calcutta flag’ designed by Madame Cama and Shyamji Krishna Varma. This flag became one of the models out of which the present Indian National Flag was designed.

While staying in London she became acquainted with Dadabhai Naoroji and joined the Indian National Congress.

Fearing deportation, she moved from London to Paris and helped revolutionary activities from there.

She helped publish the newspaper, Bande Mataram, copies of which were smuggled back to India.

She was finally allowed to return to India in 1935. And she died one year post returning her homeland.

Things to know about B.A English.

Bachelor of Arts (B.A) English. It is an undergraduate degree for three years. The course would focus on the main aspects of the language and it will help us develop creative and independent thinking. The course helps us to enhance our communication skills.

Why English Literature?

English Literature introduces us to a world of creativity. You would get a chance to discover poems, novels and plays. You get to read incredible novels as per your prescribed syllabus. You get the knowledge of the history of literature. You will be able to think without confinement. There are no particular reasons but;

  1. If you are drawn to literature.
  2. If you are interested in the language.
  3. If you love reading books.
  4. If you want to make a career based on this course
  5. If you would love to learn about the wide range of cultures.
  6. It will help you broaden your boundary.

The actual answer lies in your perspective and interest.

B.A English Literature Subjects

Literature students will have major, allied and core subjects. The subjects may differ in correspondence to where you are studying. The subjects are as interesting as it sounds. We will get the flavour of distinct eras. The subjects will pull out the self-reliant sense.

  • History of English Literature.
  • American Literature.
  • Victorian Literature.
  • Feminism.
  • Women’s Writing.
  • Linguistics.
  • Indian writing.
  • Poetry and
  • Literary Criticism.

Best College to Study Literature

  • Loyola College.
  • Stella Maris College.
  • Madras Christian College.
  • Ethiraj College for Women.
  • Meenakshi College for Women.
  • Women’s Christian College.
  • Patrician College of Arts and Science.

When it comes to college, we have a few things to consider. The accommodation, fees structure, reputation of the institution, etc. In that case, I have listed out colleges in Tamil Nadu, Chennai. The chrome will help you sort out colleges in your location.

Job Opportunities After B.A. English Literature.

  • Content writer.
  • Educator.
  • Editor.
  • Writer.
  • Journalist.
  • Public relations.
  • Blogging.
  • Creative writing.
  • Language translator.
  • Media and advertising, etc…

The career opportunities are impressive and you can be a freelancer too. Although, many prefer to do Masters in Literature. There are alternatives.

Books for Literature Students

The books may vary according to the syllabus prescribed. Classics to add to your never-ending reading list are;

  • Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen.
  • Jane Austen’s works.
  • Shakespeare’s works.
  • A Tale Of Two Cities by Charles Dickens.
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe.
  • Animal Farm by George Orwell.
  • Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë.
  • The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne, etc.

As literature students, we might have the self-expectation of reading a particular genre. You need not read only classics to be acknowledged as a literature student. Try to savour the stories.

To know the history of English literature, you can refer to;

1. An Outline History of English Literature by William Henry Hudson.

BUY NOW.

2. A Critical History of English Literature Vol 1 & 2 by David Daiches.

BUY NOW.

Side Hustles for Litreature Students

I’m no expert, but I do have few ideas. Book lovers know the pain of having N number of books on their wishlist and not being able to get them all. Well, with side hustles we will be able to squeeze in extra books while buying.

  • Content Writing.
  • Freelancing.
  • Book logging & Bookstagram.
  • Bootubing (although the channel will take some time to get monetized.)
  • Copywriting.
  • Proofreading.
  • Affiliate Marketing.
  • Social Media Marketing.

However, the above-stated side hustles won’t make you rich but will be more like pocket money. There are plenty of internships that will pay you with a certificate.

For clear ideas, consult your counsellor, teachers and mentors. Is Literature tough? No, it is neither easy nor difficult. Unlike the olden days, we have technology and the internet facility. Literature is a wonderful way to know history.

“When in doubt, go to the library.”

Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secrets, J.K. Rowling.
Source – Google.

FORGOTTEN LANGUAGES

Language is a very basic and important medium of communication . Different countries have a different and unique language which has its own rich heritage . But there are several languages have been forgotten about and nobody speaks it anymore , even though people still learn about it . Here are a few forgotten languages :

COPTIC – This was an Afro-Asiatic language which was spoken in Egypt from the 2nd century c.e . Coptic was used by Ptolemaic rulers after the spread of Greek culture . This language was divided into six dialects out of that, four were spoken in upper Egypt and two in lower Egypt . Coptic now exists in the liturgy of Coptic church in Egypt

SUMERIAN LANGUAGE – Sumerian is the language of ancient Sumer . Sumerians were well known for being the civilization to invent a system of writing . It was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia . As the Sumerian empire was on the brink of declining , citizens moved to north in search of fertile land and a better place to settle in . They merged with the Akkadians and so did their culture and language .

AKKADIAN – This language was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia from 3rd to the 1st millenium BCE .It was spoken in a vast area that stretched from the mediterranean sea to the Persian gulf This language could not stand the test of time either .

LATIN – Latin is an Indo-European language in the Italic group and is the most well known forgotten language . It is also the ancestor language of modern Roman languages . Latin was spoken by people living along the lower Tibet river . The Roman empire was the reason why the geographical areas that used Latin grew vast .Even though Latin is not spoken anymore , it sure has been assimilated in other languages like French , Spanish , Portuguese , Romanian and Italian .

Different shades of foundation

liquid foundation

Liquid foundation is one of the most popular options for foundation, liquid foundation, is just what it sounds like—foundation that has a liquid formula. In liquid foundations there’s are different skines shades like oily,dry etc

Cream foundation. 

This type of foundation has a creamier, thicker consistency. It’s also usually a great option for those with dry skin

 Powder foundation. 

If you have oily skin, you may find yourself turning to a powder formula. While you can layer on the powder formula, they generally offer lighter coverage

. Serum foundation

A trendy foundation type, serum foundation is a variation of your standard liquid foundation. Its formula contains a serum, making it a skin care and makeup hybrid.

Water-based foundation. 

Those with acne-prone skin may find themselves turning to a water-based foundation. Another liquid foundation option, this foundation includes water as its main ingredient and is generally free of oils.

How to build trust

Hey yah!!!!! People how are you all …I hope all are doing great.

So people today I am here with an amazing lesson of life about how to build trust and lead life

Once upon a time, A successful business man presented his son with a set of three small dolls as he above to handle the reins of his successful company to the young man. Confused, the son asked his father, “Am I a girl that you are giving me this dolls to play with?”  Calmly, the father replied, “This is the gift for a future business genius. Have a look at the dolls son, said the father. You’ll see a hole in each ear of each of the three dolls. Then the business man gave a string and asked him to pass it through the ear holes of each of the dolls .

Intrigued the young man picked up the first doll and put the string into the ear, it came out from the other ear. “This is one type of person,” said the father.

TYPE 1: Whatever is heard through ones ear comes out of the other. He cannot retain any thing.

When the man put the string into the ear hole of the second doll, it came out from the mouth. “And this is the second type of person,” said the businessman.

TYPE 2: Whatever is heard through the ears comes out of the mouth.

As the son picked up the third doll and repeated the process, the string just didn’t come out, “This is the third type of person,” said the father.

TYPE 3: Whatever is heard through the ears is locked up and never comes out. Amused the son asked his father, “Which one of the three is the best, dad?” As an answer to that question, the businessman handed him the fourth doll, When the young man put string into the ear hole of the doll, it came out from the other ear, Do it again, said the father.

This time, the string came out of the mouth. When he put the string in the third time, it did not come out at all. “This is the person you must look for as your confident,” said the business man.

  • To be trust worthy a man should know when not to listen, letting the information pass from one ear and out of the other.”
  • “He should always know when to speak up and when to remain silent and should also never share what’s gone in.”

Ladies and gentlemen, whether in our personal or professional dealings, if we can practice these three principles and also find those who do, “the level of trust goes up and interpersonal dealings, can be enhanced.”

Different shades of lipstick

Sheer lipstick

A sheer lipstick is a good choice if your lips are dry for some reason .sheer can moisturize your lips but also provide a lot of gloss and shine.

Satin lipstick

Satin lipstick is great for moisture and a high gloss look.One of the essential things to remember about satin lipstick is that it has a high oil content.

cream lipstick

The cream lipstick is a bit different than the first two options on our list.The cream is a much more subtle, low gloss look.Cream lipstick is not shiny, but it will look very nice and smooth as a covering on the lips.

Gloss lipstick

Gloss lipstick is going to stand out a bit more than a cream lipstick.When you add shine to your lips, you will make them look bigger than they are.For women who have very small lips, gloss lipstick can be a great fit.Some people will use cream lipstick and then put a gloss lipstick on top.

lipsticks stain

A lipstick stain can sound a bit scary to be putting on your face, but they are not.Another name for these could be lipstick paint.The lipstick stains are all about color, but they are not about shine or gloss.

pearl lipstick

pearl lipstick is designed to reflect light.Where the lipstick stain focuses on color, the pearl lipstick will be more about shine and light.Many of the pearl lipsticks will also sparkle.

Matte finish lipstick

Sometimes when you are looking for a modern look, you will want a matte finish lipstick.The matte is exactly like the name sounds, not shiny or glossy at all.You will have a very flat look with a matte lipstick, but they come in a variety of colors.Matte lipsticks give a very bold look even though they don’t shine.

GROW UP.

Hi cutie’s,

Today I gonna share a lovely story, which I read recently. And I do want you all to read this, for sure you gonna love this. This story is about 87yrs old lady.


The first day of school our professor introduced himself and challenged us to get to know someone we didn’t already know.

I stood up to look around when a gentle hand touched my shoulder. I turned around to find a wrinkled, little old lady beaming up at me
with a smile that lit up her entire being.

She said, “Hi handsome. My name is Rose. I’m eighty-seven years old. Can I give you a hug?”

I laughed and enthusiastically responded, “Of course you may!” and she gave me a giant squeeze.

“Why are you in college at such a young, innocent age?” I asked.

She jokingly replied, “I’m here to meet a rich husband, get married, and have a couple of kids…”

“No seriously,” I asked. I was curious what may have motivated her to be taking on this challenge at her age.

“I always dreamed of having a college education and now I’m getting one!” she told me.

After class we walked to the student union building and shared a chocolate milkshake. We became instant friends. Every day for the next three months, we would leave class together and talk nonstop. I was always mesmerized listening to this “time machine” as she shared her wisdom and experience with me.

Over the course of the year, Rose became a campus icon and she easily made friends wherever she went. She loved to dress up and she reveled in the attention bestowed upon her from the other students. She was living it up.

At the end of the semester we invited Rose to speak at our football banquet. I’ll never forget what she taught us. She was
introduced and stepped up to the podium.

As she began to deliver her prepared speech, she dropped her three by five cards on the floor. Frustrated and a little embarrassed she leaned into the microphone and simply said, “I’m sorry I’m so jittery. I gave up beer for Lent and this whiskey is killing me! I’ll never get my speech back in order so let me just tell
you what I know.”

As we laughed she cleared her throat and began, “We do not stop playing because we are old; we grow old because we stop playing. There are only four secrets to staying young, being happy, and achieving success. You have to laugh and find humor every day.

You’ve got to have a dream. When you lose your dreams, you die.
We have so many people walking around who are dead and don’t even know it! There is a huge difference between growing older and growing up.

If you are nineteen years old and lie in bed for one full year and don’t do one productive thing, you will turn twenty years old.

If I am eighty-seven years old and stay in bed for a year and never do anything I will turn eighty-eight.

Anybody can grow older. That doesn’t take any talent or ability. The idea is to grow up by always finding opportunity in change.
Have no regrets.

The elderly usually don’t have regrets for what we did, but rather for things we did not do. The only people who fear death are those
with regrets.”

She concluded her speech by courageously singing “The Rose.”

She challenged each of us to study the lyrics and live them out in our daily lives.

At the year’s end Rose finished the college degree she had begun all those years ago. One week after graduation Rose died peacefully in her sleep.

Over two thousand college students attended her funeral in tribute to the wonderful woman who taught by example that it’s
never too late to be all you can possibly be .When you finish reading this, please send this peaceful word of advice to your friends and family, they’ll really enjoy it!

These words have been passed along in loving memory of ROSE.

REMEMBER, GROWING OLDER IS MANDATORY. GROWING UP IS
OPTIONAL.

We make a Living by what we get, We make a Life by what we give..

When I read this story, I came to my sense and questioned myself.
Am I really growing up?
Or
Just growing older?
And I found my answer.

Now,it’s your turn to find out..

Best of luck!!!

And do share this to your lovely friends and family and help them to grow up.

Have a lovely day❣️

The link for the above: story:https://livelifehappy.com/live-life-happy-stories/

I am going to share about my pets

I am going to share my pets experience. It gives me immense happiness while with them.It’s a feeling can’t be expressed through words. Words won’t be enough to describe my feelings towards my dogs .It’s unique relationship between dog and dogs luvers. Only dog’s luvers can feel it. The dog luvers have their own world. I see it as a soul. I had lots conversation with my dogs . It never let me down in any situation . Dogs luvers have a unique conversation and relationship with dogs. I feel extreme level of happiness . A blissful day . Traveling with my dogs is one kind of delight . Travelling with loved one is a bliss . Travelling alone with my dogs is euphoria. It was with me even at the sad time . I shared a lot . I want to travel a lot with my dogs. A best partner ever I had . My secret keeper, crime partner and my closest soul forever

A Tale of two Armies: Why the Afghan Army proved no match for Taliban

Unexpected as it was, the US decision to completely pull out its troops from Afghanistan may not have been as surprising as the speed at which the Afghan armed forces that it created and trained have capitulated to the Taliban in one major city after another. More numerous and better equipped than the Taliban on paper, the Afghan national army is seen as suffering from grave systemic issues that have hollowed out its fighting capabilities.

An Afghan soldier in Kabul, Afghanistan

WHAT IS THE STRENGTH OF THE AFGHAN ARMY, AND THE TALIBAN?

The latest Quarterly Report of the US Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) dated July 30 says that there are more than 300,000 personnel who make up the Afghan National Security and Defence Forces (ANDSF), which includes the entire gamut of all armed and law and order staff on the Kabul government’s payroll.

However, the US Combating Terrorism Centre at West Point, a military training academy, said in January this year that a 2014 study had found that while combat forces made up around 60 per cent of the Afghan forces, “the number of soldiers showing up for duty each day is even lower”. It said that the Afghan army can count on an “estimated on-hand army fighting force of about 96,000 soldiers” and, including police forces, “the ANDSF are likely fielding a fighting force in the vicinity of 180,000 combat personnel each day”.

But SIGAR highlighted another problem: “ghost soldiers”. Pointing to the “corrosive effects of corruption within the ANDSF”, it cited the “existence of ghost soldiers and police”, which are nothing but “fake personnel records that corrupt actors used to pocket salaries”. Though it said that biometric systems have been introduced to weed out the non-existent soldiers, what it means is that there may be a big mismatch between the muster roll of soldiers and actual boots on the ground.

The Taliban, on the other hand, may have an estimated “60,000 core fighters, give or take 10-20 per cent”, the West Point report said, adding that a 2017 study had, however, “concluded that the group’s total manpower exceeds 200,000 individuals, which includes… another 90,000 members of local militias, and tens of thousands of facilitators and support elements”.

Taliban- Special forces (self declared)

HOW DO THE TWO SIDES MATCH UP IN FIREPOWER?

The Taliban are seen as being a “less technically sophisticated fighting force than the Afghan government — lacking an air force, heavy artillery, a fleet of armoured vehicles”. But its strength may lie in the fact that it is a leaner force than the ANDSF, which has relied majorly on foreign funding for military infrastructure and hardware.

Increasingly, bits of US military equipment are falling into Taliban hands. The SIGAR report says that where Afghan soldiers have fled Taliban attacks, they have often abandoned “their US-supplied equipment, which the Taliban then displayed on social media as propaganda to tout its victories”, including, recently, a US army a knocked out US army helicopter.

HOW DID TALIBAN SEIZE THE MOMENTUM?

Along with the “questionable accuracy of data on the actual strength of the force”, the SIGAR report also expresses concern over the lack of any means to gauge “the influence on combat readiness of intangible factors such as the will to fight”. Morale has been one key element where the Taliban is seen as being able to score decisively over the Afghan forces, especially as they go from strength to strength in overrunning the country.

While Afghan forces were seen as offering resistance in some districts, the SIGAR report said that “in others they surrendered or fled in disorder”, noting how in some cases, “local elders reportedly mediated truces that allowed the ANDSF defenders to leave”. The West Point report points to the Taliban’s “ability to recruit and deploy new fighters in recent years” which also underlines its “ability to withstand significant casualties — estimated to be in the range of thousands per year”.

Taliban fighters in Army Vehicles

For all the talk of theirs being a better funded and equipped fighting force, reports suggest that the Afghan forces actually may be suffering from a lack of cohesion and organisational support. A New York Times report said that Afghan forces have complained of an absence of logistical backing and even of food as they face an increasingly crippling onslaught from the Taliban.

SOURCES

https://www.news18.com/news/explainers

Iam going share about Online shopping

Now days online shopping is very useful to us . Easy to buy a product at low cost . online shopping is purpose of online shopping is to save time, save money. Through online shopping one can save his valuable time. One can watch and select things he wants to buy. Through online shopping we can save our money because prices are less than market prices and we receive our bought things at our home. There are many online shopping websites like Amazon, Flipkart, meesho, Myntra, etc. An online shopping aims at making shopping comfortable and enjoyable process.

Things You Should Know About Dengue Fever – Prevention And Control

With the onset of monsoon, like every year, spread of vector-borne diseases like malaria and dengue is on rise. Currently there is a rise increasing cases of dengue and malaria. Monsoon can cause a surge in dengue cases due to the increase in mosquito breeding surroundings. The monsoon season is here and so being the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. While talking about mosquito-borne diseases

Dengue:

Dengue fever is transmitted by the bite of an “Aedes” mosquito infected with a dengue virus. The mosquito becomes infected when it bites a person with dengue virus in their blood. It can’t be spread directly from one person to another person.

Symptoms of Dengue Fever:

Symptoms, which usually begin four to six days after infection and last for up to 10 days, may include

  • Sudden,  high fever.
  • Pain behind the eyes. 
  • Severe joint and muscle pain.
  • Fatigue.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Skin rash, which appears two to five days after the onset of fever.

Severe dengue:

A patient enters what is called the critical phase normally about 3-7 days after illness onset. It is at this time, when the fever is dropping (below 38°C/100°F) in the patient, that warning signs associated with severe dengue can manifest. Severe dengue is a potentially fatal complication, due to plasma leaking, fluid accumulation, respiratory distress, severe bleeding, or organ impairment.

Warning signs that doctors should look for include:

  • severe abdominal pain.
  • persistent vomiting.
  • rapid breathing.
  • bleeding gums.
  • fatigue.
  • blood in vomit. 
  • restlessness.

If patients manifest these symptoms during the critical phase, close observation for the next 24–48 hours is essential so that proper medical care can be provided, to avoid complications and risk of death.

If you think you have dengue:

  • Seek a healthcare provider if you develop a fever or have symptoms of dengue.
  • Rest:  Take rest as much as possible.
  • Take the medicines: paracetamol is usedto control fever and relieve pain. Do not take aspirin or ibuprofen
  • Drink plenty of fluids: To stay hydrated. Drink water or drinks with added electrolytes.

Treatment:

There is no specific treatment for dengue fever.

  • Fever reducers and pain killers can be taken to control the symptoms of muscle aches and pains, and fever.
  • The best options to treat these symptoms are acetaminophen or paracetamol.
  • NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), such as ibuprofen and aspirin should be avoided. These anti-inflammatory drugs act by thinning the blood, and in a disease with risk of hemorrhage, blood thinners may exacerbate the prognosis.

 Precautions and Control:

The proximity of mosquito vector breeding sites to human habitation is a significant risk factor for dengue as well as for other diseases that Aedes mosquito transmit. 

  • Covering, emptying and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis.
  • Applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers.
  • Wearing clothing that minimizes skin exposure to mosquitoes.
  • Using of personal household protection measures, such as window screens, repellents, insecticide treated materials, coils and vaporizers.
  • Drink boiled water.
  • Consume fresh homemade food.
  • Make sure your home is well-ventilated.
  • Wash hands before eating any food.
  • Avoid touching your nose and mouth without washing your hands.
  • Avoid going to crowded places to reduce risk of viral infections.
  • Disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats that can hold water.
  • Allow the sick child or family member to rest and sleep under a bed net or use insect repellant while feverish.
  • Eat well:  Consuming a healthy and balanced diet rich in essential nutrients can help boost immunity.
  • Educate yourself: Make yourself aware of the disease, its symptoms, and treatment to ensure reaching out for the appropriate treatment at the right time. Progression of the disease can be fatal.

ENTREPRENEUR

MEANING

A person who sets up a business or businesses,organises,manages and takes for granted on financial risks in the hope of profit is known as ‘entrepreneur’.

An entrepreneur is a rare person who can visualise and materialise water in the desert. His foresightedness, vision,motivation, persistent efforts the ability to presume the risks involved and their outcomes, and the thrust to achieve the desired goal, facilitate him to convert his ideas into reality. The water in the desert here refers to a scarce commodity, hence an entrepreneur visualises this need or the need arising in near future and grabs this opportunity or challenge, before others can think about it.

Definition

According to Richard Cantillon, “An entrepreneur is a person who buys factors services at certain prices with a view to selling its product at uncertain price”.

Characteristics of Entrepreneurs:

  • Determination to succeed
  • Independence
  • Risk-taking
  • Ability to control
  • Perseverance
  • Flexibility
  • Analytical ability of mind
  • Confronting uncertainty
  • Stress takers
  • Innovative and creative
  • Ability to mobilise resources
  • Leadership.

Functions of Entrepreneurs

  • Idea generation
  • Fund raising
  • Procurement of machinery
  • Determination of ownership
  • Determination of objectives
  • Procurement of raw materials
  • Market research
  • Recruitment of manpower.

  • In other words, an enterpreneur is one who discovers innovative ideas, advances them into products and services, and follows it’s feat persistently with untiring spirit. In this way, they taste the success and show the real meaning of the word ‘entrepreneur’. These entrepreneur having the initiating and action-taking ability, are responsible for the existence of different successful ventures. There is a misconception about entrepreneurs that they are opportunity-seekers and selfish people, but in reality they are highly driven people trying to find solutions to the “needs of the people”

Forms of Economic Analysis: Micro vs. Macro

Micro and Macro-economics

The subject matter of economics has been divided into two parts Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. These terms were first coined and used by Ragnar Frisch and have now been adopted by the economists all over the world. Nowadays one can hardly come across a text book on modern economic analysis which does not divide its analysis into two parts, one dealing with microeconomics and the other with macroeconomics.

The term microeconomics is derived from the Greek word mikros meaning “small” and the term macroeconomics is derived from the Greek word makros meaning “largo.” Thus, microeconomies deals with the analysis of small individual units of the economy such as individual firms and small aggregates or groups of individual units such as various industries and markets.

On the other hand, macroeconomics concerns itself with the analysis of the economy as a whole and its large aggregates such as total national output and income, total employment, total consumption, aggregate investment. Thus, according to K E Boulding, “Microeconomics is the study of particular fums, particular households, individual prices, wages, Incomes, individual industries, particular commodities.”

About macroeconomics he remarles, “Macroeconomics deals not with individual quantities as such but with aggregates of these quantities, not with individual incomes but with the national Income; not with individual prices but with the price level; not with individual outputs but with the national output “.

  • MICROECONOMICS

As stated above, microeconomics studies the economic actions and behaviour of individual units and small groups of individual units. In microeconomic theory we discuss how the various cells of economic organism, that is, the various units of the economy such as thousands of consumers, thousands of producers or firms, thousands of workers and resource suppliers in the economy do their economic activities and reach their equilibrium states. In other words, in microeconomics we make a microscope study of the economy.

But it should be remembered that microeconomics does not study the economy in Its totality. Instead, in microeconomics we discuss equilibrium of innumerable units of the economy piecemeal and their interrelationship to each other.

” For instance, in microeconomic analysis we study the demand of an individual consumer for a good and from there go on to derive the market demand for the good (that is, demand of a group of individuals consuming a particular group).

Examples of Microeconomic variables: Demand of a commodity, Supply of a commodity, Income of a consumer, Price of the commodity etc.

Examples of Microeconomic theories/study: Law of demand, Law of supply, Determination of consumer equilibrium, Determination of producer equilibrium etc.

-> Importance of Micro Economics

I. Price Determination:

Micro economics helps in elucidation how the prices of diverse commodities are determined.  It also explicates how the prices of various aspects of production such as rent for land, wages for labour, interest for capital and profits for entrepreneur are decided in the commodity and factor market.

II. Working of a Free Market Economy:

Free market economy is the economy where the economic pronouncements regarding production of goods such as ‘What to produce, How much to produce, How to produce etc.’ are taken by private individuals. These verdicts are based on the inclination of the consumer or demand for the product. Micro economics theory helps in grasping the working of the free market economy.

III. International Trade & Public Finance:

Micro economics helps to elucidate many international trade facets like impacts of tariff, determination of exchange rates, advantages from international trade etc. It is also beneficial in public finance to analyse both, the occurrences as well as effect of a specific tax.

IV. Utilization of Resources:

Micro economics helps in elucidating how the scarce resources can be effectually and efficiently utilized by the producers in order to achieve highest output.

V. Model Building:

Micro economics helps in grasping various complex economic situations with its modest models. It has made an imperative contribution to the science of economics by the development of numerous terms, concepts, terminologies, tools of economic evaluation etc.

VI. Helps in Taking Business Decisions:

Micro economic theories are beneficial to businessmen for taking decisive business decisions. These decisions comprise the cost of production, values, maximum output, consumer’s preferences, demand and supply of the product etc.

VII. Useful to Government:

Micro economics is that subdivision of economics which is related with the study of economic behaviour of individual economic units. It is beneficial in building economic policies such as taxation policy, public expenditure policy, price policy etc.  These policies aid the government to reach its goal of efficient distribution of resources and promoting economic wellbeing of the society.

VIII. Basis of Welfare Economics:

Micro economics endorses economic and social welfare by making finest utilization of the resources, thereby evading wastage.

  • MACROECONOMICS

Macroeconomics is a Study of Aggregates. We now turn to explain the approach and content of macroeconomics. ‘As said above, word macro is derived from the Greek word ‘makros’ meaning large and therefore macroeconomics is concerned with the economic activity in the large.

Macroeconomic analyses the behaviour of the whole economic system in totality or entirety. In other words, macroeconomic studies the behaviour of the large aggregates such as total employment, the national product or income, the general price level of the economy. Therefore, macroeconomics is also known as aggregative economics. Macroeconomics analyses and establishes the functional relationship between these large aggregates. Thus Professor Boulding says, “Macroeconomics deals not with individual quantities as such but with the aggregates of these quantities; not with individual incomes but with the national income, not with individual prices but with the price level; not with individual output but with the national output.

Macroeconomics, then, is that part of the subject which deals with large aggregates and averages of the system rather than with particular items in it and attempts to define these aggregates in a useful manner and to examine their relationships. ” Professor Gardner Ackley makes the distinction between the two types more clear and specific when he writes, macroeconomics concerns itself with such variables as the aggregate volume of output in an economy, with the extent to which its resources are employed, with the size of the national income, with the general price level”. Microeconomics, on the other hand, deals with the division of total output among industries, products and firms and the allocation of resources among competing uses. It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services.

Examples of Macroeconomic variables : Aggregate supply, Aggregate demand, National income, Total output etc.

Examples of Macroeconomic studies/theories : Determination of equilibrium level of income, Determination of foreign exchange rate, Determination of govt. budget etc.

-> Importance of macroeconomics

Macroeconomics is a vibrant concept that studies the whole nation and works for the welfare of the economy. It is beneficial for the timing of economic variations to prevent or be prepared for any financial crisis or any long – term adverse situations. The system of fiscal and monetary policies rest on entirely on the examination of the widely held macroeconomic situations in the nation. Macroeconomics mainly purposes to help the Government and the financial bodies to fix economic stability in the country. This course of economics gives a broader viewpoint of social or national issues. The ones who want to provide to the welfare of society need to study macroeconomics. It guarantees or keeps a check over the appropriate functioning of the country’s economy and real position. The analysis of macroeconomics concepts and issues helps the economists to understand the causes and possible explanations of such macro-level problems.  Dealing with numerous economic situations through the use of macro-economic data unlocks the door for development in the country.

Dotcom

A dotcom, or dot-com, is a company that conducts business primarily through a website. A dotcom company embraces the Internet as the key component in its business. The businesses are normally conducted through a website with the domain “.com” in the URL. Popular dotcom companies include Amazon.com, eBay.com, Priceline.com, coupons.com, and shuttelfly.com. The companies survived the burst of the dot-com bubble.

The Dotcom Bubble Burst

People started a dotcom or a website for almost everything, right from buying groceries from nearby grocers to buying pencils, but they did not figure out how much money they spent on making the website and buying space and designing it. They did not even access how much money they should make by selling their products to recover the cost because they had funds from others supporting them. Later, when the supporting people who funded their website started asking how they would recover money, the founders were clueless. So, the website was shut down. This happened all over the world. Then, the venture capitalists or the VCs (the people who fund other people to start a business) became careful about the money they were spending to avoid losses. This caused a lot of disappointment among people who wanted to start a venture. Hence, the dotcom bubble busted.

It was like bargaining for onions

Sabeer Bhatia – Hotmail founder

An eleven-year-old from Bangalore sold off his excess sandwiches, made by his mom to his friends; perhaps this was his first venture.

When he attended a lecture at Standford University, he learned about the history of founders like Steve Jobs or Scott McNealy. He thought to himself, “This is no big deal, I can do this.”

This is the story of none other than Indian – Sabeer Bhatia, the person who founded hotmail.com.

Working in Apple Computers, he hated it when others had access to his company email. He decided to form an email system that could be accessed only by the owner, and no matter where he was, he could check his inbox and receive emails for free.

He was rejected by 19 funding organizations. Finally, a company agreed because it felt introducing a free email service would revolutionize the Internet.

The day hotmail was launched; servers were flooded with people signing up. Thousands and thousands of people flocked to sign up every day.

By year-end, they were greeting their millionth customer. When Microsoft came knocking, 12 months later, they’d signed up nearly 10 million users. But what were 10 million subscribers worth?

Bhatia didn’t know how to sell a company. But he did know how to buy onions. “In India, you’ve got to negotiate for everything,” he says. “Even while buying vegetables, you’ve got to negotiate.” When the bargaining started, Bhatia felt right at home. “They came in low with $160 million, so I came in at $700 million! And when they said: that’s ridiculous! Are you out of your mind?” I knew it was just a ploy. Bhatia won’t budge and finally, they had to succumb.

Microsoft purchased hotmail.com for a whopping 400 million dollars.

There are plenty of options available to you if you wish to choose a career in a dotcom company. Here are a few of them : 

  • Venture Capitalist
  • Web Developer
  • Web Designer

Importance of education

The best definition of education?

Education is define as the ” Process of gaining knowledge. The process of training and developing the knowledge, skill, mind, character, etc by formal schooling, teaching, training.

True education means beyond earning degree it is more than bookish knowledge.

types of education:

Formal education: under that

  1. school/ institution involved
  2. Has hierarchical structure
  3. Uniform full time and proper
  4. Subject oriented
  5. Certificate/degree

Informal education:

  1. Practical adult learning
  2. Diversity in method and content
  3. Mobilize local resources
  4. Built on learned participation
  5. Real life example of learning

Non- formal education:

  1. Very long process
  2. Learning from experience
  3. Learning from home
  4. Learning from work
  5. Learning from environment.

Why education is the key to success?

Education lessens the challenge you will face in life. The more knowledge you gain the more opportunity will open up to allow individual to achieve better possibilities in career and personal growth.

Does education change a person:

Education can stimulate economic growth less directly, increasing innovation, productivity and human capital. And education also has a history of fostering positive social change by encouraging things like political participate, social equality, and environment sustainability.

Education important:

Education shows us the importance of hard work and at the same time help us grow and develop. It teaches us to live in harmony.

Six plans which PM Modi needs to arrive by any means, and need for a quantum hop in approach 2024

PM Narendra Modi’s push in his Independence Day discourse for “100% immersion” of government plans includes six key drives, which however have arrived at a huge populace up until now, need a quantum hop in the approach 2024 when Modi would look for a third term in office as PM.

As rattled off by the PM himself, these plans are Ayushman Bharat which offers free clinical protection, Ujjwala Yojana that offers free LPG associations, the twin extra security plans upheld by the public authority, Atal Pension plot, the PM Housing Scheme, and Har Ghar Jal Scheme for drinking water. Four of them carried out in Modi’s initial term and assumed a part in his 2019 success while ‘Ayushman Bharat’ and ‘Har Ghar Jal’ solely affect the ground in Modi’s second term up until now.

“Crores of individuals are getting the advantages of many plans began over the most recent seven years. Today the speed of government plans has expanded and they are accomplishing the ideal objectives. We have advanced a lot quicker than previously. However, it doesn’t end here. We need to accomplish immersion. We need to push forward with an outlook of penny percent accomplishment… for this, we don’t need to keep a far off cut off time. We need to make our goals work out inside a couple of years,” the Prime Minister said from the Red Fort.

Ayushman Bharat – Lot to be finished

Dispatched in late 2018 not long before the Lok Sabha surveys, Ayushman Bharat should give free clinical protection family front of Rs 5 lakh to almost 50 crore individuals in the country. While the plan has no objectives given the idea of the plan includes clinical help, around 10 crore recipients have cards so far to approve their qualification for the plan, suggesting that almost 40 crore recipients are still to get these cards from the Centre. Different states have likewise stretched out the plan to cover 15 crores more individuals and have offered cards to 6 crores of such individuals up until now.

The two greatest states with the most recipients, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, are slacking on this front of appropriating cards with 1.4 Cr and 70 lakh cards dispersed so far separately however both these states have almost 10 Cr recipients each. Two crore medical clinic confirmations have been accounted for under the plan to date with claims worth Rs 25,000 crore. In any case, UP and Bihar have revealed far less affirmations up until this point, at 7.7 lakh and 2.9 lakh separately, and more modest states have performed better, showing the plan’s mindfulness in UP and Bihar isn’t as wanted up until this point.

Ujjwala Yojana — Best Saturation

The free LPG association plan of Ujjwala was finished in front of the cut-off time in 2019 for eight crore recipients who didn’t have a gas association in the country. This was a distinct advantage conspire for the Modi government in the 2019 races. PM last week dispatched a second form of the plan in which one crore more recipients will get a free LPG association that is relied upon to convert into full LPG entrance in the country. Inside seven days of the dispatch, more than three lakhs of these associations have been given out and the public authority might accomplish its objective in 2021 itself.

Two Life Insurance Schemes — Need a Push

The two disaster protection plans dispatched in Modi’s initial term have seen unassuming improvement and have scope for more inclusion. They are wilful. PM Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY) has 23.6 crore recipients as of date between the age of 18-70 who pay only Rs 12 as an expense in a year to get inadvertent extra security of Rs 2 lakh. The take-up of the PM Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY) is lesser at just 10.5 crore recipients between the age of 18-50 who pay Rs 330 every year for a front of Rs 2 lakh if there should be an occurrence of death.

There are almost 55 crore individuals in the country in the age gathering of 18-50 years and around 65 crores in the age bunch 18-70 years.

Atal Pension Yojana — Big Scheme, Low Uptake

Just 3.13 crore individuals have selected themselves into the Atal Pension Yojana dispatched in PM Modi’s initial term as a feature of an aspiring point of a ‘general government backed retirement framework’. The plan is near the public authority’s heart as it offers a month-to-month annuity of Rs 1000 to Rs 5000 to any individual get-togethers age of 60 years relying upon how much premium he decides to pay, moves the annuity advantage to the companion of the recipient after their demise and moves the whole corpus of benefits abundance till the age of 60 years to the candidate after several passes away. The plan is available to anybody between 18-40 years old to join and this age bunch has more than 45 crore youngsters in the country.

PM Housing Scheme — 2022 point

This is one plan that is doing sensibly well against its aggressive objective of giving each vagrant a house before the finish of 2022. Against a new objective of conveying about 2.67 crore houses before the finish of 2022, 1.53 crore houses (60%) have been finished up until now and another 48 lakhs have been endorsed and are in different phases of development. The public authority is expecting to finish 2.01 crore houses consequently by March 2022 and the remainder of the objective (65 lakh houses) before the finish of 2022. Large states like Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu are anyway battling, covering under half and 40% generally speaking objective of theirs individually up until this point.

Har Ghar Jal — Game-Changer for 2024?

The funnelled drinking water for all plan dispatched in Modi government’s second term on Independence Day in 2019 could be the genuine distinct advantage for the BJP come 2024, as it has an objective for culmination around the same time. Just 17% of the nation’s families, about 3.2 crore, had faucet water associations when the plan started, and this has effectively ascended to 42% as of date with 4.7 crore associations given over the most recent two years. The Center has an aggressive point of going after the plan early in 2023, preceding the overall appointment of 2024. For that to occur, the greatest territory of Uttar Pradesh should beat as it actually has just 17% faucet water immersion with 32 lakhs out of 2.6 crore families covered up until this point. West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Chhattisgarh have under 15% inclusion. Rajasthan is at 20%.

Narendra Modi’s words from Red Fort are a message additionally to focal government divisions running these plans to propel themselves for 100% immersion. “The greatest benefit of this 100% achievement rate is that nobody stays denied of the advantages of the public authority plot. At the point when the public authority works with an objective to contact the individual in the last line, really at that time there is no separation and there is no degree for debasement,” the PM focused from the Red Fort on Sunday.

Women empowerment

Women empowerment is the process of empowering women. It may be defined in several ways, including accepting women’s viewpoint or making an effort to seek them, raising the status of women through education, awareness, literacy, and training.

How can I empower women and girls?

standing with and investing in women is an Important start. From workplace and school to home and committee, women

gender equality underpins all of the world Vision work and there are many great activities you can get involved in to support the rights of women in developing countries.

Why do we need women empowerment:

Women’s empowerment is really needed in the societies. It’s so important for women self-esteem and also for societies. Empowering women is to give women the right. Women can equal rights to participate in education, society, economy and politically.

Empowering feminist Quote from inspiring women:

I raise up my voice- not so that I can shout, but so that those without a voice can be heard.

if couse I am not worried about intimidating men.

how can I empower women and girls:

standing with and investing in women is an important start. From workplace and school to home and communities.

How world Vision is helping empower women?

we believe that healthy educated and empower women and girls are agents of change.

when women and girls are support they gain opportunity to speak up for their right and also to advocate for their communities.

they are also able to rise in social standing, and they can feel into future generations.

SEVEN INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SPACE

1.In 3.75 billion years, the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies will collide.

The Andromeda Galaxy is approaching the Milky Way- where our solar system is at a rate of around 110 kilometers per second (68 mi/s) and, the two will collide to form a giant elliptical galaxy.

Milky way
Milky way

2.Andromeda is probably the most massive galaxy in the Local Group.

There are around 1 trillion stars in the Andromeda galaxy, compared with the Milky Way, which has 200-400 billion.

Andromeda galaxy
Andromeda galaxy

3.If two pieces of the same type of metal touch in space, they will permanently bond.

This incredible fact is also known as cold welding, and it happens because the atoms of two pieces of metal have no way of knowing they are separate. It doesn’t happen on Earth because of the air and water found between the pieces.

Fusion of metal on space
Fusion of metal on space

4.The Moon was once a piece of Earth.

The theory is that when Earth was a relatively young planet, was struck by a giant object, and this collision broke a piece of the Earth away to create the moon. This piece then began to orbit the Earth as a result of its gravitational pull.

Earth and Moon
Earth and Moon

5.Space is completely silent.

Sound waves need a medium to travel through. Since there is no atmosphere in the vacuum of space, the realm between stars will always be eerily silent. Astronauts use radio waves to communicate.

Space
Space

6.The Apollo astronauts’ footprints on the moon will probably stay there for at least 100 million years.

Since the moon doesn’t have an atmosphere, there’s no wind or water to erode or wash away the Apollo astronauts’ mark on the moon. That means their footprints, overprints, spaceship prints, and discarded materials will stay preserved on the moon for a very long time. Erosion is still happening on the moon, just very slowly.

Astronaut in Moon
Astronaut in Moon

7.Some planets have no surface to land on.

There are four gas giants in our solar system — Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune — where it wouldn’t be possible to land on. Although different in composition, a gas giant is usually made out of hydrogen and helium and has a small rocky center.

Jupiter
Jupiter

Artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence refers to the intelligence of machines. This is in contrast to the
natural intelligence of humans and animals. With Artificial Intelligence, machines
perform functions such as learning, planning, reasoning and problem-solving. Most
noteworthy, Artificial Intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence by machines.
“Artificial intelligence would be the ultimate version of Google. The ultimate search
engine that would understand everything on the web. It would understand exactly what
you wanted, and it would give you the right thing. We’re nowhere near doing that now.
However, we can get incrementally closer to that, and that is basically what we work
on.”
Experts believe that AI in future will be able to make human life much easier by
providing a solution to almost all challenges. Humans will also be made aware of
potential threats from beforehand by Artificial Intelligence use. One of the fastest-
growing fields of technology and invention is that of AI. AI has established its position
in several marketing activities. And the automation of marketing processes has
increased the demand for AI implementation in the industry recently as well. AI has also
brought opportunities to marketers to expand their business and provided user
interface insight.
There are mainly two types of artificial intelligence. Type 1 includes
Narrow Artificial Intelligence – Can perform the single task example voice recognition,
General Artificial Intelligence – Having an ability to perform tasks like human beings. To
date, no such machine is developed, Super Artificial Intelligence – AI with the capability
to perform better than a human being itself. The research is still going on. Type 2
includes Reactive Machine – This machine responds quickly to a situation. It is not able to store any data for present or future use. It works according to the fed data, Limited Memory – This machine can store smaller amount of data for a limited period. Examples are self-driving cars and video games, Theory of Mind – These are the machines which would understand human emotions, there would be much smarter. But these types of machines have not yet developed. Therefore the concept totally speculative. Last but not the least Self Awareness – These types of machines attributes to a better working than that of human beings. To date, no such machine has been developed. Efforts are continuously made in the same direction. Artificial intelligence is enhancing the ability of machines to make it perform in the same way as human beings. The different emerging technologies are relatively helping in artificial intelligence to excel. The machine in form of computers, mobiles, and other devices is helping aids. The different set of data as the input given to the machine helps
it in performing any task. So in a better way, we can state that artificial learning comprises machines inbuilt with human intelligence by developing a set of data or algorithms.Technologies are advancing day by day. They are proving it to be a blessing for mankind. They make the work easier, further helping to resolve a problem in a human
way. Every technology has its both positive as well as negative impacts and so artificial intelligence too. It has its importance in different industries and research sectors but can be a curse if used up in the wrong way and can become a threat to mankind.

Japanese aesthetics

The Japanese aesthetics are a set of ideals followed since the olden days including Miyabi, yuugen, mono no aware, wabi and sabi. These ideas showcase was is considered to be beautiful in Japanese culture and aesthetic norms. The aesthetic norms in japan are considered to be an indispensable part of Japanese people everyday life.

Miyabi is one of the oldest Japanese aesthetic ideal. It is the norm to polish ones manners and to eradicate any kind of roughness and crudility in order to achieve the highest level of grace. The term miyabi can be translated as ‘elegance’. It requires the removal of any vulgar actions. It is also closely related to mono no aware.

Wabi and sabi entails that one should have a mindful approach in everyday life. According to this aesthetic ideal the true beauty of things lie in their impermanent and imperfect nature. It looks at the notion that the things that are in their full glory at the moment will eventually fade or decay. That beauty lies in the fact that things come and go and nothing stays permanently. In this way we can find beauty in the most simplest and ordinary things.

According to the zen philosophy there are 7 principles for achieving wabi and sabi.

Kanso or simplicity, yugen or grace, fukinsei or irregularity, shizen or natural, koko or basic, datsuzoku or to be free and seijaku or silence are the 7 principles of wabi sabi.

Each of these are found in nature and are the virtues of human character.

Photo by eberhard grossgasteiger on Pexels.com

Yuugen is one of the most important of the Japanese aesthetics.  Yugen implies to be having a deep awareness of the universe. It is one of the deep rooted idea in the Japanese Buddhism.

Yugen refers to looking at the world that we live in deeply and becoming aware of the virtues and the true beauty lying within.

The meaning of mono no aware has been complex and ever changing but the deep rooted meaning remains the same, it refers to the pathos of things deriving from their transcience.

In the classic anthology of Japanese poetry from the eighth century the feeling of aware is typically triggered by the plaintive calls of birds or other animals. It also played an important role in the world’s first novel, Murasaki Shikibu’s ‘The Tale of Genji’, in the early eleventh century clearly show impermanence as the basis for the feeling of mono no aware.

Nowadays mono no aware can be seen in the love of Japanese people for cherry blosoms. Huge crowds of people go to view cherry blossoms every year.

The blossoms of the Japanese cherry trees are more beautiful than those apple tree because of their transience, as they begin to fall within a week of their first appearing. It is precisely the evanescence of their beauty that evokes the wistful feeling of mono no aware in the viewer.

source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_aesthetics

Comprehension

Well, without proper comprehension skills, students lack the ability to understand what they read. The point of reading isn’t to make sounds in your brain or out loud, but rather, to understand important lessons, stories and arguments. Through the act of writing, our ancestors have recorded important knowledge that we can understand simply by reading. By understanding what we read, we pick up important information, understand scientific theories, past opinions and new frontiers.

Having excellent reading comprehension skills is crucial. It increases the enjoyment and effectiveness of reading and helps not only academically, but professionally, and in a person’s personal life. Imagine, for example, that your boss gives you a complicated document: you can read the words, but you cannot understand what the document is telling you. What then, is the point of being able to ‘read,’ if it can’t help you move forward?

Importance of comprehension

Comprehension is the goal of reading , however it can be considered as the most difficult skill to master, especially for English language learners. Reading comprehension can be defined as the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. An individual ‘s ability to comprehend text is influenced by their traits and skills, one of which is the ability to make inferences. If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read (Stanovich, 1986). There are a number of approaches to improve reading comprehension, including improving one ‘s vocabulary and reading strategies.

Building reading comprehension

Overwhelmed by the far-reaching implications of Reading Comprehension? Don’t be! Comprehension is actually quite simple to build. However, it will require daily, active involvement from a parent or guardian, where you guide your child through the thought processes that underly understanding any text.

Daily reading practice:

All children should spend at least half-hour daily, reading with a loved one. Not only does this foster a positive relationship with reading, but it also allows you to model the cognitive steps required to comprehend what is read.(Seriously, we can’t emphasize this enough. The research out there is endless — every child requires daily reading at home to succeed).

Make connections :

As you and your children read aloud, share experiences you have had that relate to the story and have them share theirs. Not only does this build an interest in reading, but it grounds them in the idea that there is something common and shared in the act of reading, and it invests them in the story.

Create a visual :

Sometimes children have a hard time visualizing what they just read. Help your children visualize by describing the scene, characters, and plot. You can even ask them what they are visualizing and have them draw in pencil, pen, markers, or colored pencils. They will be involved and creating their own story, which will help them get a clearer understanding of what is happening.

Check for understanding :

Whether you are reading, or your child is reading, ask key comprehension questions, periodically, while reading. Doing this not only helps you see if they are understanding what is being read, but it also teaches them what questions they should be asking themselves as they read.

Before Starting- Look at the Cover & Title! What do you think this book will be about?- Do you know anything about this topic?- What types of characters do you think will be in the story?

During Stop periodically (every paragraph or page) and ask:-. “Who?”- “What just happened?”- “Where?” At key points, you can also ask “How did it happen?” and “Why did it happen?

“As you progress through the story, make sure that your child is holding on to the story by asking “What has happened so far?

“Teach them to predict / imagine / hypothesize by asking “How do you think the character will handle the situation?

“Also, clear their doubts and give them a voice in your daily reading practice by asking “Is there anything you are wondering right now?”

After: Check to see if your child understood the text by asking- “What was the main message in the story/text?”- “Tell me the story in your own words” “What were the most important events in the story?”

Make inference and prediction :

Making inferences and predictions goes hand-and-hand with asking questions. Inferring is the ability to take clues and given knowledge from a text and conclude what will happen next. To help them infer, ask them to predict what might happen next in the story “What does the author want you to think about?” “Why do you think the character did ______?” “What do you think will happen next?” “If the story had a sequel, what do you think it would be about?”

Fix any type of confusion :

It is important to go back and re-read as soon as your child seems confused! Make sure you are tracking your child’s comprehension progress. The moment they can’t answer one of your questions, whether it’s at the first sentence or in the middle, or maybe even at the end, back up and re-read!

Remember, building Reading Comprehension will take time. Comprehension is built on phonetic awareness, reading fluency, vocabulary, and / or language arts. Stick to your daily reading practice (especially when you want to give up) and remind your child that it is important to understand every single word / sentence / paragraph / story they read.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT INDIA

 Indian Culture
Indian Culture
  • India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history.
  • When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
  • The name ‘India’ derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.
  • Chess- invented in India.
  • Algebra, Trigonometry, and Calculus are the studies, which originated in India.
  • The ‘Place Value System’ and the ‘Decimal System’, were developed in India in 100 B.C.
Brihadeswara Temple
Brihadeswara Temple
  • The World’s First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.
  • India has the largest democracy in the world, the 7th largest country in the world, and one of the most ancient civilizations.
  • The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th-century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called ‘Mokshapat’. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices, that is good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births.
  • The world’s highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built-in 1893 after leveling a hilltop, this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level.
  • India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world.
  • The largest employer in India is the Indian Railways, employing over a million people.
University of Nalanda
University of Nalanda
  • The world’s first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
  • Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.
  • India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India’s wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.
  • The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. 
  • Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.
  • The value of “pi” was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.
  • Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world(Source: Gemological Institute of America).
Baily Bridge
Baily Bridge
  • The Baily Bridge is the highest in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. 
  • Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over 2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataracts, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery, and brain surgeries.
  • The four religions born in India – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world’s population.
  • Jainism and Buddhism were founded in India in 600 B.C. and 500 B.C. respectively.
  • Islam is India’s and the world’s second-largest religion.
  • Jews and Christians have lived continuously in India since 200 B.C. and 52 A.D. respectively.
  • The largest religious building in the world is Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple in Cambodia built at the end of the 11th century.
  • Sikhism originated in the Holy city of Amritsar in Punjab. Famous for housing the Golden Temple, the city was founded in 1577.
Varanasi
Varanasi
  • Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called “the Ancient City” when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C. and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.
  • Martial Arts were first created in India and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.
  • Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.

For further more facts refer to:

https://knowindia.gov.in/my-india-my-pride/interesting-facts-about-india.php

Films – Which Will Change Your Perception Towards Life!

I have seen many motivational movies both in Bollywood and Hollywood. But Bollywood movies are very special as they contain emotional content and beautiful songs. There are many people who think Bollywood only produce entertaining movies which I don’t think is a fact. Cinema is the reflection of society and vice-versa. However, a society has its own deep rooted beliefs and perceptions which trickle down through the ages and become a reference point for generations to come. In such a scenario, is it possible for a piece of art to come and impact your perceptions in a way that you see something in a whole new light?

I have collected a list of Bollywood movies that I have watched and I suggest you to watch if you’re free this weekend..Here is the list!

Swades (2004)

11 Dialogues From Swades About India, Patriotism & Change

We all want to secure good marks in college, get a high-paying job, if possible settle abroad and live our lives comfortably ever after. However, how many of us can leave this settled life behind and devote it to the upliftment and betterment of the lives of our rural brethren. Swades is a story of self-less devotion to the country and bringing development at the grass-root level. A must-watch for all who want to contribute to their motherland in their own little way.

Taare Zameen Par (2007)

Taare Zameen Par Cast and Crew List | MetaReel.com

Have we ever wondered why a glass appears half empty to some of us while it looks half full to others? It’s just a matter of perception, we say. Taare Zameen Par breaks the stigma attached with the differently-abled children and leads us to give them a fair chance. Such movies leave a lasting impact on our psyche and help us immensely in bettering our judgement towards life. And in case, you forgot the message of the movie, repeat it with us, every child is special.

Luck By Chance (2009)

Luck by Chance: Some Thoughts | Close-Up

Luck by Chance brings the struggles and cynicism of the film industry to the fore like never before. Most of us are dreamy eyed about the glamour world and think of it as ‘the life’ to have. Here’s where Zoya Akhtar’s LBC comes in and takes you to a walk through the backstage of Bollywood. It introduces you to the personalities you never imagined existed and tells you the level of stakes involved in the business, through the eyes of an aspiring actor Vikram (Farhan Akhtar). Consider this your Bible if you see your future in the showbiz.

Rocket Singh (2009)

Rocket Singh - Salesman of the Year Movie - Video Songs, Movie Trailer,  Cast & Crew Details | YRF

Admit it! We have all given up on some life-changing idea at least once in our lives because we lacked the courage to make the actual plunge. No wonder we move on with a familiar remorse in our hearts. Rocket Singh teaches us an amazing lesson about self-worth which stresses on the fact that an organisation is only as good as its employees and that taking risks in life is not as bad as it seems initially.

Lakshya (2004)

Farhan Akhtar: 'Lakshya' Has Always Been More Than A Film

Being aimless in life and careless about career is a phase everyone goes through. Having a quarter-life crisis is not so bad either. However, the magic lies in waking up at the right time. Forget everyone else, the real deal is to surprise yourself with your own capabilities and to do something that you yourself never expected to do. After all, this is what Lakshya taught us. To leave one life and live the other!

Rang De Basanti (2006)

Fifty shades of cinema

Anyone who watches this movie will feel a connect, especially the youth. Aren’t our adrenaline levels always pumping and haven’t we all discussed the flaws of the system over a cup of steaming chai ? But what have we actually done to fix it? Nothing. Rang De Basanti tries to create an environment of increased activism on matters of public interest and throws open a debate: do we want to take matters into our hands or keep crying foul about the inefficiencies of the society?

Paan Singh Tomar (2010)

Paan Singh Tomar full hindi film hd | Irrfan khan - YouTube

While biopics of legendary people always inspire viewers, it takes a movie like Paan Singh Tomar to shake them up to the conditions and tragedies of these stalwarts post their prime. PST is the story of a real-life athlete Paan Singh Tomar, a gold medalist who went onto becoming a dacoit, after the world around him refused to acknowledge him for his accomplishments and kept pushing him down. The USP of the movie lies in the stirring tragedy of PST’s life which drives him to seek revenge from the system, for his lost career and life. This one is history in motion.

A Wednesday (2008)

A Wednesday Unknown Facts

In these times of increased violence and hatred towards each other, aren’t we all living an uncertain life which might just end today, at this very moment? But we, the common people, sit quietly like always while our safety becomes a game of ping-pong between terrorists and our government. This film stresses on the importance of a wake-up call to our government to act towards the safety of its citizens. A Wednesday is a stirring message to all common men like me and you to not play vulnerable all the time and come together and ask our system to be accountable to us.

Dil Chahta Hai (2001)

Is Movie 'Dil Chahta Hai 2001' streaming on Netflix?

There are times when you want the clock to stop. There are times when you don’t want to leave a place. There are times when everything just feels right about the company that you have. Such is the gravity of friendship in youth. You don’t want to grow old. But unfortunately, time waits for no one and one has to move on in life and live one’s own story. Dil Chahta Hai is a coming-of-age story which remains an essential part of everyone’s life, simply because it holds true no matter how many times we watch it.

Udaan (2010)

Movie Recommendation: Udaan (2010) | The Tanejamainhoon Page

Easily the most relatable, easily the most convincing. That’s why Udaan works and changes your deep rooted perceptions towards a very tender phase of a child’s life, teenage. The movie tracks the journey of Rohan, who returns to his home after 8 years of boarding school, only to be welcomed by a disciplinarian father and a half brother.  The beauty of Udaan lies in the way Rohan fights and aims for his dreams rather than being tied down by his father. The movie sends a strong message which says we can become whatever we want in life, all we need to do is give our dreams a little flight.

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 7- TYPES OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN

The previous article dealt in detail with immunoglobulin and how they help in phagocytosis. This article is about the types of immunoglobulins, their functions.

The types of immunoglobulins are based on the types of light and heavy chains. There are two types of light chains namely the kappa and the lambda. An immunoglobulin contains either kappa (K-K) or lambda (L-L) but does not have a mixture of both (K-L not possible). About 60% of the immunoglobulins in humans have kappa chains.

So, the classes of immunoglobulins are based on the heavy chain. So based on this condition, there are five classes of immunoglobulins namely:-

  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) – gamma
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) – mu
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) – alpha
  • Immunoglobulin D (IgD) – delta
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) – epsilon

These immunoglobulins have certain configurations and play different roles in the human body. The immunoglobulin G is present the most. It constitutes about 80% of the total immunoglobulin. These are mostly present in the blood, plasma, and other body fluids. This immunoglobulin has the lowest carbohydrate content when compared to the rest. This immunoglobulin has a half-life of 23 days which is the longest of all. Some of the unique features and functions of this immunoglobulin:-

  • This is the only immunoglobulin which can cross the placenta (this is a unique feature because this immunoglobulin provides immunity to the foetus inside the womb and also after birth for some months. Presence of others may indicate infection)
  • This helps in killing bacteria and viruses by opsonisation (the process of covering the pathogen with a protein coat such that the pathogens become more presentable to the immune cells)
  • Neutralize toxins
  • Activate complement by classical pathway (The complement system, also known as complement cascade, is a part of the immune system that enhances the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promote inflammation, and attack the pathogen’s cell membrane)
  • Unique catabolism (breaking down of molecules) based on concentration
  • There are four sub classes (G1, G2, G3 and G4) out of which 1,3 and 4 cross the placenta and offer immunity
  • Also involves in the Rh immunization (there are two types’ Rh+ve and Rh-ve based on the presence of Rh factor in blood). The mother being Rh+ve and child the opposite is not a problem in the first pregnancy but can be fatal in second, killing the foetus.

The immunoglobulin M constitutes about 5-10% of total proteins. This is a pentamer structure with a J chain. This weighs about 900000-1000000 and is the heaviest of all. They have 5 days of half-life. Some of its features-

  • Presence in newborn indicate congenital infection as they don’t cross placenta
  • Short lived, so their presence indicates recent infection
  • First Ig to participate in primary response
  • Opsonisation
  • classical pathway
  • bacteria agglutination
  • Play an important role in ABO blood grouping (discovered by Landsteiner). There are 8 types of blood groups based on antigen, antibody and Rh factor

Immunoglobulin A is also known as the secretory immunoglobulin and is mostly present in body secretions (tear, saliva, sebum, mucous, and milk) in which they are dimer and are monomer in blood. They constitute 10-15% of the proteins. They also have a J chain and secretory piece. Their half-life is 6-8 days.

  • The secretory piece protects the Ig from enzymes and juices
  • Complement activation by alternate pathway
  • Promote phagocytosis
  • Intracellular microorganism killing
  • First line of defense against some microbes

Immunoglobulin E is a dimer similar to IgG. This is present in low concentrations (about 0.3) and has the weight of about 1,90,000. These have a half-life of about 2 days and can become inactivated at 56 C.

  • Present extra-cellularly
  • Associated with allergic reactions like asthma, hay fever and anaphylactic shock
  • Bind with the Fc of mast cells and basophils resulting in degranulation and release histamine which causes allergy
  • Mediate the some immunity reactions
  • No complement activation
  • Provide immunity against helminthes

The last is immunoglobulin D.  It is present in low concentrations and on the surface of B lymphocytes. They constitute 0.2% of proteins. They have a half-life of 3 days. The IgM and IgD bind on the B lymphocyte to help in antigen identification.

Hence these were the different types of immunoglobulins and the mechanisms by which they help with immunity. The next article is about the process of inflammation.

HAPPY READING!!

IMMUNOLOGY SERIES- PART 6- IMMUNOGLOBULIN

The previous article was about the different types of immune cells. This article is about a special molecule in immunity known as immunoglobulin.

There might be a question that what is so special about this immunoglobulin. There is a reason for this. These molecules play an important and inevitable role in the phagocytosis of pathogens. To understand this, it is essential to know about immunoglobulins.

The immunoglobulin is a gamma globulin, a specialized group of proteins (glycoprotein) produced in response to pathogens. It is produced by the plasma cells (a globulin protein present in the plasma). These constitute 25-30% of the blood proteins.

There are two important terms that are more commonly known by the most, they are the antigen and the antibody. The antigen is the molecule present on the surface of the pathogen and can stimulate an immune response. There is a small part of the antigen called the epitope which interacts with the antibody.  The epitope is known as the antigen determinant site. An antigen can have unlimited epitopes.

On the contrary, the antibody is the molecule produced in response to the antigen in order to kick it away. The part of the antibody which interacts with the antigen is called a paratope. An antibody must have at least 2 paratopes. These antibodies belong to the immunoglobulins. All antibodies are immunoglobulins but not immunoglobulins are antibodies. To understand how the antibody helps in immunity, it is essential to understand the structure of an antibody/immunoglobulin. The image below shows the general structure of an immunoglobulin:-

There are two chains in an immunoglobulin namely the light chain and heavy chain. The light chain has 212 amino acids (the building block of protein) and the heavy chain has 450 amino acids. Each chain has two types namely the constant and variable. These regions are based on the amino acid sequences. Half of the light chain (1 out of 2) is constant and the rest is variable. A quarter of the heavy chain (1 out of 4) is variable and the rest is constant. These are linked by two types of sulfide bonds namely the intra (H-H AND L-L) and inter (H-L). These molecules contain carbohydrates (CHO) hence these are called as glycoproteins.

The tip of the variable regions of the heavy and light chain is hypervariable in nature and these constitute the antigen-binding site (Fab). These are hyper-variable because they have to produce amino acid sequences complementary to that of the antigen so that they can interact together. The other site is called a crystallizable region (Fc).

Having known all this, now it will be convenient to explain the process by which the antibody plays in the prevention of infections.

There are millions of substances that pass through the blood every day. So there must be a criterion/substance to identify them whether they are pathogenic. This is where antigen comes to play. These antigens present on the surface of the pathogens alert the immune system which then identifies this as a pathogen. So in response to the antigen, a suitable antibody is secreted and deployed to the target site. On reaching the antigen, the Fab region binds with the antigen.

The ultimate aim of the immune system is to abolish the pathogen and one way is by phagocytosing them. This is done by the macrophages. But it is essential for them to identify the substance before engulfing it. This is where the antibody comes to play. The Fc region of the antibody combines with the receptor of the macrophage. This facilitates the process of phagocytosis.

Hence the antibody acts like a bridge between the source (antigen) and the destination (macrophage) aiding in phagocytosis. This is essential because in most of the cases the macrophages, it is difficult to identify the non-self-objects and this is where antibody helps.

In the case of the new pathogen, the antigen is new, and therefore their might not be a suitable antibody. In that case, the macrophage cannot phagocytocise the pathogen and it reigns in the body causing infection and disease.

The next article is about the types of immunoglobulins.

HAPPY LEARNING!!

Korean Drama -A true meaning of Love

What is Korean drama?

Korean television series are made in South Korea. The first Korean series was published by Korean Broadcasting System in 1962. Korean drama divides into different categories such as historical dramas, school dramas, action dramas, legal dramas, or horror comedies. Most of the series focusing on romance, family values, friendship, and deeply emotional stories. But nowadays, this industry releases social issues based on Korean drama like gender inequality, suicide and corruption, and many more. 

Unique features of Korean drama

Its unique storylines make Korean drama the best in the world. Korean series is creative and full of twists, that maintain secrecy in the story. Modern series generally contain 12 to 24 episodes of 60 minutes each. But in the case of historical series, it rises to 200 episodes. All series are usually carried one season. Many Korean dramas are shot within a compact timetable. Its screenplays are changing frequently depending on the viewer’s feedback. A single director and a single screenwriter are involved in making a series that distinguish Korean drama from other television series. Korean drama is produced by television channels. The first four episodes were shot in advance and the rest episodes are shot one by one after the four-episode was released.

Broadcast Platforms

Its broadcast time is scheduled between 22:00 to 23:00. Most of the Korean drama aired on the Total Variety Network(TVN), Orion Cinema Network(OCN), Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation(MBC), Seoul Broadcasting System(SBS), Korean Broadcasting System(KBS). The evening slot is fixed for daily drama between 19:00 to 20:00. With the rise in popularity of Korean series internationally, many streaming platforms are run Korean drama like Amazon Prime, Asian Crush, Netflix, We TV, Hulu, VIU, Iflix, Kocowa, etc. 

Why Korean Drama is popular?

Eccentric Story

It is popular internationally day by day due to the scripts are well written. They use kissing scenes with so much importance. The Korean series characters are outstandingly realistic that every viewer feels the same emotion and vibe which the actors are portraying on the screen. Korean series has a limited number of episodes, so a viewer can never bore. The storylines make the viewer connected till the end. Rich guy poor girl romance and their parents are against that, these types of plots are very famous among the young generation nowadays. Korean drama is so well constructed and structured that every young generation expects Korean romance in real life. It is the impact of the best story, screenplay, and brilliant acting. Korean love stories are the best cute love story in the world. It is not like the other stories that are full of actions, it depicts the bonding with each other. 

Fresh Sound Track

Original Sound Track is specially made for each series. Those soundtracks are from EXO, TWICE, BLACKPINK, BTS, etc. 

Ethics

Korean drama shows the values in compared to other dramas like respecting elders, polite to everyone. Korean cultures are famous worldwide for their unique presence of characters on screen. Korean dramas are shot with the beautiful locations and sites of Korea.

Family Show

Korean series is family-friendly. You can never feel bad while watching with family members and elders. Its series is rarely adult content or using any abusive language.

Fashion and Beauty

Korean fashion is now a trend all over the world. Korean actors and actresses always look simple, stylish, and fashionable. Their outfits are distinguishing from others. Their dressing sense makes them more cute and classy. They counted as trendy people in the world. Korean actor’s and actresses’ beauty standards are very high and attractive.